WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal ph control

  1. Strategies for Enhancing Nonlinear Internal Model Control of pH Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiuping.; Rangaiah, G.P. [The National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-02-01

    Control of neutralization processes is very difficult due to nonlinear dynamics, different types of disturbances and modeling errors. The objective of the paper is to evaluate two strategies (augmented internal model control, AuIMC and adaptive internal model control, AdIMC) for enhancing pH control by nonlinear internal model control (NIMC). A NIMC controller is derived directly form input output linearization. The AuIMC is composed of NIMC and an additional loop through which the difference between the process and model outputs is fed back and added to the input of the controller. For the AdIMC, and adaptive law with two tuning parameters is proposed for estimating the unknown parameter. Both AuIMC and AdIMC are extensively tested via simulation for pH neutralization. The theoretical and simulation results show that both the proposed strategies can reduce the effect of modeling errors and disturbances, and thereby enhance the performance of NIMC for pH processes. (author)

  2. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The PhD, otherwise known as the doctor of philosophy or Dr. Phil., is an internationally recognized degree, indicating that the PhD graduate has received training in research under supervision. Traditionally, the PhD was the route to an academic career, with most successful PhD graduates receiving...... tenured university positions. However, over the past 20–30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the ‘knowledge society’, and thus...... increase the competitiveness of their countries in the future economies of the world. Thus, only a small fraction of PhD graduates now end up in academic research. Yet, the PhD remains a research degree, and indeed, institutions have become heavily dependent on PhD students for their research output...

  3. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  4. Iodine evolution and pH control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Lorenz, R.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The pH is the major factor in determining the extent of I 2 in solution. In containment where no pH-control chemicals are present, the acidity or basicity of the water pool will be determined by materials that are introduced into containment as a result of the accident itself. These materials may be fission products (i.e., cesium compounds), thermally produced products (i.e., core-concrete aerosols), or compounds produced by radiation (i.e., nitric acid). In situations where pH levels fall below ∼7, the formation of I 2 will occur in irradiated iodide solutions. A correlation between pH and iodine formation is needed so that the amounts I 2 in water pools can be assessed. This, in turn, determines the amount of I 2 in the atmosphere available for escape by containment leakage. A number of calculational routines based on more than 100 differential equations representing individual reactions can be found in the literature. In this work, it is shown that a simpler approach based on the steady-state decomposition of hydrogen peroxide should correctly describe iodine formation in severe accidents. Comparisons with test data show this approach to be valid. The most important acids in containment will be nitric acid (HNO 3 ), produced by irradiation of water and air, and hydrochloric acid (HCl), produced by irradiation or heating of electrical cable insulation. The most important bases in containment will be cesium hydroxide, cesium borate (or cesium carbonate), and in some plants pH additives, such as sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate

  5. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  6. Biomedical PhD education - an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvany, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    tenured university positions. However, over the past 20–30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the ‘knowledge society’, and thus...... during their PhD studies. The purpose of this article is to explore how this seeming paradox is being addressed in biomedicine and to show that far from being inconsistent that the two aspects are in fact complementary. The article is based on the author’s experience as Head of Aarhus Graduate School...... of Health Sciences 2002–2011 and his work with graduate schools across Europe and internationally through the organization ORPHEUS....

  7. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  8. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  9. Internal budget control

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-01-01

    Internal control is established by the Government to ensure effective and proper operations of ministries, institutions and generally of all public agencies, in compliance with the law, the goals and objectives stated by them, to provide protection against abuse and mismanagement or poor governance. The instrument of internal audit entails a series of mechanisms which aim at enabling budgetary policies compliance, such as: financial reporting; effective system of communication between mana...

  10. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at the lower Colorado River was inhibited with increasing pH.At the maximum achieved pH of 9.1, there was approximately 90% reduction compared to the maximum settlement observed in the controls.Since the settlement was almost as low in pH 8.9 as at pH 9.1, the inhibition in settlement may have been due to the presence of a precipitateformed under high pH conditions rather than the increase in background pH. No mortality of quagga mussel adults was observed in theexperimental pH levels at the lower Colorado River. At San Justo Reservoir, zebra mussel settlement decreased with increasing pH. Newsettlement was almost entirely absent at the highest pH tested (pH 9.6. The observed mortality of adult zebra mussels was low, but did tendto increase with increasing pH. We also tested the response of adult zebra mussels to short-term exposure to very high pH levels (i.e. pH 10,11, and 12. Adult mussels in poor physical condition experienced 90% mortality after 12 hours at pH 12. For unstressed adult zebra mussels,90% mortality was reached after 120 hours at pH 12. Significant mortalities were also observed both at pH 10 and pH 11. From this study,we conclude that pH elevation could be used both as a preventative treatment to eliminate settlement by dreissenid mussels and as an end ofseason treatment to eliminate adults. The high pH treatment would have to be tailored to the site water quality to prevent formation ofprecipitate during treatment and to minimize corrosive

  11. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  12. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Carbon Dioxide for pH Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagonner, R.C.

    2001-08-16

    Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

  14. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  15. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Evans; Sergey E. Mastitsky; Katherine L. Prescott; Thomas H. Prescott; Renata Claudi; Anna Carolina Taraborelli

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at ...

  16. International control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, Hannu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials are subject to both national and international safeguards control. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes care of the international safeguards control. The control activities, which are discussed in this article, are carried out according to the agreements between various countries and the IAEA

  17. Method for ph-controlled fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of biomass processing and bioenergy production and facilitates efficient biomass processing and an increased production of renewable energy from processing and anaerobic fermentation of a wide variety of organic materials. In order to control the pH value...

  18. Comparison Analysis of Model Predictive Controller with Classical PID Controller For pH Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available pH control plays a important role in any chemical plant and process industries. For the past four decades the classical PID controller has been occupied by the industries. Due to the faster computing   technology in the industry demands a tighter advanced control strategy. To fulfill the needs and requirements Model Predictive Control (MPC is the best among all the advanced control algorithms available in the present scenario. The study and analysis has been done for First Order plus Delay Time (FOPDT model controlled by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and MPC using the Matlab software. This paper explores the capability of the MPC strategy, analyze and compare the control effects with conventional control strategy in pH control. A comparison results between the PID and MPC is plotted using the software. The results clearly show that MPC provide better performance than the classical controller.

  19. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    When selecting a pH control strategy, plant design and operation characteristics have to be carefully considered. The strategy should be tailored to the plant-specific needs and requirements. Owing to the complexity of the interrelated variables, the best way is to perform a modeling with a suitable computer code. This work investigated the possibility of complementing the classic high pH all-volatile treatment (H-AVT) by addition of an organic amine at low concentrations complementarily to ammonia dosing to locally increase the pH in the water phase of the wet steam areas to counteract flow-assisted corrosion (FAC). Alternative conditioning scenarios were considered and calculated for comparative analysis using a computer code. The results obtained argue for the convenience of using ammonia as the main alkalizing agent whenever possible, avoiding multiple amine concepts and their associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  20. Performance and Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mifti, Sri; Lestariyo, Nugroho Budi; Kowanda, Anacostia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the influence of internal auditing on performance. Research object is Inspectorate General Department of Home Affairs staffs. As research instrument, questionnaire was developed and distributed to respondents. Closed type questionnaire was developed with five (5) choices to measure the two (2) research variables. Internal auditing is measured using six (6) dimensions, and performance is measured using three (3) dimensions. As the two variables are lat...

  1. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  2. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  3. PH-triggered micellar membrane for controlled release microchips

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    A pH-responsive membrane based on polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer was developed on a model glass microchip as a promising controlled polymer delivery system. The PS-b-P4VP copolymer assembles into spherical and/or worm-like micelles with styrene block cores and pyridine coronas in selective solvents. The self-assembled worm-like morphology exhibited pH-responsive behaviour due to the protonation of the P4VP block at low pH and it\\'s deprotonation at high pH and thus constituting a switchable "off/on" system. Doxorubicin (Dox) was used as cargo to test the PS-b-P4VP membrane. Luminescence experiments indicated that the membrane was able to store Dox molecules within its micellar structure at neutral pH and then release them as soon as the pH was raised to 8.0. The performance of the cast membrane was predictable and most importantly reproducible. The physiochemical and biological properties were also investigated carefully in terms of morphology, cell viability and cell uptake. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Yudenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation and technics of the account of expenses, efficiency, financial result should enter into the list of regular checks from service of internal control that demands corresponding vocational training of internal controlers which should own methods of an estimation of expediency of acquisition of long-term actives.

  5. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  6. Development of a microprocessor-controlled coulometric system for stable ph control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet; van der Schoot, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The coulometric pH control system utilizes a programmable coulostat for controlling the pH of a certain volume of unbuffered solution. Based on theoretical considerations, conditions are established which guarantee stable operation with maximum suppression of disturbances from the dissolution of

  7. Additives for pH control in PWR secondary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobble, J.W.; Turner, P.J.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this project is the development of methods for identifying the most promising materials for use as pH control agents in steam generator and auxiliary hot water systems. The methods developed in the first project year to select new pH control agents have been explored in more detail in an effort to assess and improve their reliability. In addition, some new classes of compounds which were not treatable before have been examined on the basis of new experimental results. Predictions of pH and volatility to 300 0 C have now been made for a total of 79 organic bases. Some of the newer classes of compounds studied present properties which may make them of interest either as secondary additives or as principal agents in the event of change in the approach to water treatment. While there have been no substantial changes in number of compounds which meet all EPRI criteria, there are other species which may meet the EPRI criteria after further research. 19 refs., 31 tabs

  8. The internal control of tax

    OpenAIRE

    E. B. Shuvalova; L. A. Butenko; Ju. A. Rudenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the theoretical and practical issues of internal fiscal control. Internal tax control system requires the development of methodological tools, its scientific basis and practical recommendations for the application. This difficult task is now solved only in organizations, which are the largest taxpayers. For small and medium-sized businesses in the organization of internal fiscal control may improve the quality of the accounting organization of the company. ...

  9. Secondary side water chemistry pH control strategy improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiguiere, Fernando-Mario; Fandrich, Joerg; Ramminger, Ute; Hoffmann-Wankerl, Stephan; Drexler, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Over the years the PWR plant operators were aware of the need of optimizing the pH control strategy in the water-steam cycle with the focus on improvement of steam generator performance with the main goal of reducing the corrosion product ingress into the steam generators and their consequences: SG fouling, SG tube corrosion beneath deposits. To achieve this goal, it becomes necessary to harmonize three requirements: a. High overall pH along the circuit for suppression of general corrosion, requiring a volatile amine to ensure a suitable distribution in steam areas and condenser, and b. High local pH at the water phase of two-phase flow areas, requiring an either rather low volatile amine to ensure high pH in the wet steam water film, or larger amounts of a volatile amine. c. Sufficient amount of hydrazine to ensure reducing conditions in the steam generators. The basic strategy of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly KWU), successfully applied in German nuclear power plants since the late seventies consisted on the achievement of the necessary pH by means of ammonia, as generated by thermal decomposition of hydrazine. By dosing of hydrazine at the necessary amounts to ensure reducing conditions, also sufficient ammonia is generated to achieve a high overall pH along the cycle, being the target pH (25 deg. C) ≥ 9.8 resulting in < 1 ppb Fe in final feed water. This treatment is known as H-AVT (High pH - All Volatile Treatment). Main prerequisite for its application is to have a copper-free system. Eventually, H-AVT started to be applied later at some other western nuclear power plants. In some units, the high condenser exhaust flow rate applied caused a considerable amount of ammonia being removed from the cycle, resulting in too low ammonia concentrations to maintain a sufficiently high pH, making the addition of ammonia necessary. AREVA NP GmbH together with plant operators investigated the possibility of complementing the applied classical H-AVT by addition of an advanced

  10. Expanding Internal Control Functionality Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola M. Vuitsiv

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of «western» concepts of the information needs of management process provisions on forming and developing the up-to-date model of Internal Control. An attempt has been made to develop the approach to solve urgent management tasks by applying the ideas of controlling and management accounting via the traditional national approach to the content of control. The place of control in the enterprise management information system has also been reviewed.

  11. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a novel terephthalic PH sensor based on internal charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinova, Polya M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence sensing derivative of 2-aminodimethylterephthalate configured as a “fluorophore-receptor” system was synthesized and investigated. Due to the internal charge transfer, the designed fluorophore was able to act as a pH-probe via an “off-on” fluorescence sensing mechanism. The sensor activity toward protons as cations and hydroxide as anions in DMF was studied by monitoring the changes of the fluorescence intensity. Keywords: 2-aminoterephthalic derivative, ICT (internal charge transfer), pH sensor.

  12. International Students' Motivation to Pursue and Complete a Ph.D. in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This study explores what motivates 19 international students to pursue a Ph.D. at a public research university in the U.S. and, more importantly, what motivates them to persist despite unsatisfying socialization. Based on value-expectancy achievement motivation theory, four motivations emerged: intrinsic interest in research, intrinsic interest in…

  13. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  14. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: part 1. pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; du Plessis, Johan; John, Swen M; Eloff, Fritz; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus F C; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin surface pH is known to influence the dissolution and partitioning of chemicals and may influence exposures that lead to skin diseases. Non-clinical environments (e.g. workplaces) are highly variable, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges that are not typically encountered in clinical settings. Hence, guidelines are needed for consistent measurement of skin surface pH in environments that are difficult to control. Methods An expert workshop was convened at the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals to review available data on factors that could influence the determination of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings with emphasis on the workplace as a worst case scenario. Results The key elements of the guidelines are: (i) minimize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous (anatomical position, skin health, time of day), exogenous (hand washing, barrier creams, soaps and detergents, occlusion), environmental (seasonality), and measurement (atmospheric conditions) factors; (ii) report pH measurements results as a difference or percent change (not absolute values) using a measure of central tendency and variability; and (iii) report notable deviations from these guidelines and other relevant factors that may influence measurements. Conclusion Guidelines on the measurement and reporting of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings should promote consistency in data reporting, facilitate inter-comparison of study results, and aid in understanding and preventing occupational skin diseases. PMID:23279097

  15. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  16. Biobased, Internally pH-Sensitive Materials: Immobilized Yellow Fluorescent Protein as an Optical Sensor for Spatiotemporal Mapping of pH Inside Porous Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolati, Tanja; Bolivar, Juan M; Petrasek, Zdenek; Berenguer, Jose; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Guisán, Jose M; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2018-02-28

    The pH is fundamental to biological function and its measurement therefore crucial across all biosciences. Unlike homogenous bulk solution, solids often feature internal pH gradients due to partition effects and confined biochemical reactions. Thus, a full spatiotemporal mapping for pH characterization in solid materials with biological systems embedded in them is essential. In here, therefore, a fully biocompatible methodology for real-time optical sensing of pH within porous materials is presented. A genetically encoded ratiometric pH sensor, the enhanced superfolder yellow fluorescent protein (sYFP), is used to functionalize the internal surface of different materials, including natural and synthetic organic polymers as well as silica frameworks. By using controlled, tailor-made immobilization, sYFP is homogenously distributed within these materials and so enables, via self-referenced imaging analysis, pH measurements in high accuracy and with useful spatiotemporal resolution. Evolution of internal pH is monitored in consequence of a proton-releasing enzymatic reaction, the hydrolysis of penicillin by a penicillin acylase, taking place in solution or confined to the solid surface of the porous matrix. Unlike optochemical pH sensors, which often interfere with biological function, labeling with sYFP enables pH sensing without altering the immobilized enzyme's properties in any of the materials used. Fast response of sYFP to pH change permits evaluation of biochemical kinetics within the solid materials. Thus, pH sensing based on immobilized sYFP represents a broadly applicable technique to the study of biology confined to the internally heterogeneous environment of solid matrices.

  17. Subtype-specific, bi-component inhibition of SK channels by low internal pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Torben; Jespersen, Thomas; Jorgensen, Nanna K

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low intracellular pH (pH(i) 6.4) on cloned small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel currents of all three subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) were investigated in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique. In 400 nM internal Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, all subtypes were inhibited by pH(i) 6...

  18. Control de ph para planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Fabián Amaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el problema de controlar el pH en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR, la cual recibe soluciones ácidas provenientes de la producción de jugos (pH 2-5 que se dosifica con la sustancia usada para aseo (soda cáustica 0.04% con valores oscilatorios de pH 9-11. Se desarrolló e implementó un controlador clásico PI en un PLC comercial y se automatiza la PTAR mostrando el resultado obtenido en simulación en MatLAB.

  19. Control de ph para planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Fabián Amaya; Óscar Alberto Cañón; Óscar F. Avilés

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el problema de controlar el pH en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR), la cual recibe soluciones ácidas provenientes de la producción de jugos (pH 2-5) que se dosifica con la sustancia usada para aseo (soda cáustica 0.04%) con valores oscilatorios de pH 9-11. Se desarrolló e implementó un controlador clásico PI en un PLC comercial y se automatiza la PTAR mostrando el resultado obtenido en simulación en MatLAB.

  20. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an internal...

  1. Factors Influencing the Degree Progress of International PhD Students from Africa: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoustapha Oumarou Soumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades some countries of the Middle East have offered facilities to attract international students to pursue their higher education within their higher education institutions. The purpose of this study is to understand the difficulties faced by these students while conducting their studies abroad, and in doing so, to broaden the awareness of the challenges they face to complete their research. The participants of this qualitative study are international PhD students studying at a Middle Eastern public university. The university has reported increasing enrollment of international students, particularly from Africa in the last few years. Data were collected using a set of semi-structured interviews that drew out information on critical incidents that characterized the kind of difficulties students had faced in their studies. The data collected was further analyzed using a qualitative software package, NVivo (QSR International, 11. Six main themes came out from the content analysis of the interviews, which are the role of the adviser, student features, funding issues, family engagement, research and psychological obstacles which provide a holistic picture of student perspectives on the factors that influence degree progress. While these students might have faced difficulties mentioned in existing literature, this study argues that the participants have indicated experiencing psychological obstacles that were not described in earlier studies, such as the state of mind they were in as a result of being worried for family members due to war or violence in their home countries, and drop in currency exchange rates and difficulties in acquiring money due to international sanctions imposed against their countries. This study provides important thoughts on the factors that impact the degree progress of international PhD students from Africa, while at the same time revealing a serious gap in the advisers’ role which can contribute to the

  2. Field-effect pH Control in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, R.B.H.; van der Wouden, E.J.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Kim, Tae Song; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Taek-Dong; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Kaph-Yang; Choo, Jaebum; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel capacitive method to change the pH in nanochannels. The device employs metal electrodes outside an insulating channel wall to change the electrical double layer potential by the field effect (‘voltage gating’). We demonstrate that this potential change is accompanied by a

  3. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  4. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX, have higher institutional ownership or attach greater importance to internal control. Our findings suggest that ICEs play an important role in the design and implementation of internal control systems. Our study should be of interest to both top managers who wish to improve corporate internal control quality and regulators who wish to understand the mechanisms of internal control monitoring.

  5. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liu; Bin Lin; Wei Shu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs) on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX), have higher institutional ow...

  6. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  7. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established by...

  8. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the...

  9. pH controls over methanogenesis and iron reduction along soil depth profile in Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Gu, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Graham, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing soil temperature in the Arctic is expected to accelerate rates of soil organic matter decomposition. However, the magnitude of this impact is uncertain due to the many physical, chemical, and biological processes that control the decomposition pathways. Varying soil redox conditions present a key control over pathways of organic matter decomposition by diverting the flow of reductants among different electron accepting processes and further driving acid-base reactions that alter soil pH. In this study we investigated the pH controls over anaerobic carbon mineralization, methanogenesis, Fe(III) reduction and the interplay between these processes across a range of pH and redox conditions. pH manipulation experiments were conducted by incubating soils representing organic, mineral, cryoturbated transitional layers and permafrost. In the experiments we sought to understand (1) if methanogenesis or Fe(III) reduction had similar pH optima; (2) if this pH response also occurs at `upstream' fermentation process; and (3) if pH alters organo-mineral association or organic matter sorption and desorption and its availability for microbial degradation. Our preliminary results suggest that the common bell-shaped pH response curve provides a good fit for both Fe(III) reduction and methanogenesis, with optimum pH at 6.0-7.0. Exceptions to this were found in transitional layer where methanogenesis rates positively correlated with increasing pH, with maximum rates measured at pH 8.5. It is likely that the transitional layer harbors distinct groups of methanogens that prefer a high pH. Variations in the optimum pH of Fe(III) reduction and methanogenesis may play a significant role in regulating organic matter decomposition pathways and thus greenhouse gas production in thawing soils. These results support biogeochemical modeling efforts to accurately simulate organic matter decomposition under changing redox and pH conditions.

  10. pH controlled diazo coupling of aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnoli, G.; Balestreri, E.; Nannicini, L.; Bellucci, A.; Bracaloni, M.

    1978-01-01

    pH conditions have been found which achieve selective reaction of diazotized p-amino benzoate with cysteine residues of rabbit muscle aldolase. The difference in reactivity of the two sulphydryl groups involved, (Cys-237 and Cys-287) permits one to form either four or eight diazothioethers on the tetrameric enzyme and obtain a homogeneous protein. In both cases the enzyme became slightly more active in the fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate cleavage, the K sub(M) value being retained. The results have been discussed with regard to chemically modifying an enzyme to change its physical, chemical and immunological properties, whilst leaving the catalytical activity unmodified. (author)

  11. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  12. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  13. Primary Coolant pH Control for Soluble Boron-Free PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Yang Ho; Lee, Nam Yeong; Park, Byeong Ho; Park, Seong Chan; Kim, Eun Kee

    2015-01-01

    These should be considered when evaluating and designing the operating pH program for nuclear power plants. This paper discusses the advanced water chemistry strategies to keep pace with the recent global trends related to pH control in the primary water system for soluble boron pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. Finally, the objective of this work is to study primary coolant pH control for soluble boron-free PWR plants. This paper reviewed the advanced water chemistry strategies to keep pace with the recent global trends related to pH control in the primary water chemistry system for soluble boron PWR plants. The new chemistry trend for the primary coolant is towards adaption of the constant and elevated chemistry. Finally, this work studied primary coolant pH control for soluble boron-free PWR plants. The ammonia-based water chemistry related to pH control for boron-free PWR plants was discussed. The ammonia-based water chemistry is not recommended to avoid fluctuation of the pH value by ammonia radiolysis and to reduce C-14 production in reactor coolant from reaction with dissolved nitrogen. Also, the potassium-based water chemistry related to pH control for boron-free PWR plants was discussed. KOH has a potential as an alternative pH control agent for soluble boron-free PWR plants. The potassium-based water chemistry related to pH control is recommended for boron-free operation as follows

  14. Internal quality control: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinns, Helen; Pitkin, Sarah; Housley, David; Freedman, Danielle B

    2013-12-01

    There is a wide variation in laboratory practice with regard to implementation and review of internal quality control (IQC). A poor approach can lead to a spectrum of scenarios from validation of incorrect patient results to over investigation of falsely rejected analytical runs. This article will provide a practical approach for the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory to introduce an efficient quality control system that will optimise error detection and reduce the rate of false rejection. Each stage of the IQC system is considered, from selection of IQC material to selection of IQC rules, and finally the appropriate action to follow when a rejection signal has been obtained. The main objective of IQC is to ensure day-to-day consistency of an analytical process and thus help to determine whether patient results are reliable enough to be released. The required quality and assay performance varies between analytes as does the definition of a clinically significant error. Unfortunately many laboratories currently decide what is clinically significant at the troubleshooting stage. Assay-specific IQC systems will reduce the number of inappropriate sample-run rejections compared with the blanket use of one IQC rule. In practice, only three or four different IQC rules are required for the whole of the routine biochemistry repertoire as assays are assigned into groups based on performance. The tools to categorise performance and assign IQC rules based on that performance are presented. Although significant investment of time and education is required prior to implementation, laboratories have shown that such systems achieve considerable reductions in cost and labour.

  15. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  16. Cost and Performance Report: Solar-Powered Remediation and pH Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    parallel, with two batteries in each series, providing a 24 V DC power supply. A solar charge controller regulated the charging of the batteries when...ER-201033) Solar -Powered Remediation and pH Control April 2017 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A...Technol. 32:1817-1824. CB&I Federal Services. 2017. Final Report. Solar Powered Remediation and pH Control . ESTCP Project ER-201033. April. Cheng, S

  17. Improvement of the Performance of an Electrocoagulation Process System Using Fuzzy Control of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Yavuz; Pekel, Lutfiye Canan; Altinten, Ayla; Alpbaz, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    The removal efficiencies of electrocoagulation (EC) systems are highly dependent on the initial value of pH. If an EC system has an acidic influent, the pH of the effluent increases during the treatment process; conversely, if such a system has an alkaline influent, the pH of the effluent decreases during the treatment process. Thus, changes in the pH of the wastewater affect the efficiency of the EC process. In this study, we investigated the dynamic effects of pH. To evaluate approaches for preventing increases in the pH of the system, the MATLAB/Simulink program was used to develop and evaluate an on-line computer-based system for pH control. The aim of this work was to study Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control and fuzzy control of the pH of a real textile wastewater purification process using EC. The performances and dynamic behaviors of these two control systems were evaluated based on determinations of COD, colour, and turbidity removal efficiencies.

  18. Computer model of hydroponics nutrient solution pH control using ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, M; Stutte, G

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of a hydroponics-based plant growth chamber using ammonium to control pH was constructed to determine the feasibility of such a system. In nitrate-based recirculating hydroponics systems, the pH will increase as plants release hydroxide ions into the nutrient solution to maintain plant charge balance. Ammonium is an attractive alternative to traditional pH controls in an ALSS, but requires careful monitoring and control to avoid overdosing the plants with ammonium. The primary advantage of using NH4+ for pH control is that it exploits the existing plant nutrient uptake charge balance mechanisms to maintain solution pH. The simulation models growth, nitrogen uptake, and pH of a l-m2 stand of wheat. Simulation results indicated that ammonium-based control of nutrient solution pH is feasible using a proportional integral controller. Use of a 1 mmol/L buffer (Ka = 1.6 x 10(-6)) in the nutrient solution is required.

  19. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors (part 1) and to investigate the possible synthesis and attachment of a pH regulated conformational switch to an α-cyclodextrin (part 2). Part 1: It is well...... demonstrated their ability to change conformation under different conditions. These conformational changes are connected to various intramolecular interactions and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create...... compounds that could release molecules at a specified change in pH conditions. To investigate this, four hexahydropyridazines were synthesized and investigated for their pH induced conformational change (Chapter 4). Out of the four compounds, one revealed to flip between two conformations depending on pH...

  20. Electrochemical Control of pH in Nanoliter Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Lamblin, Guillaume; Thomann, Jean Sebastien; Van Den Berg, Albert; Olthuis, Wouter; Pascual-García, César

    2018-01-01

    The electrochemical management of the proton concentration in miniaturized dimensions opens the way to control and parallelize multistep chemical reactions, but still it faces many challenges linked to the efficient proton generation and control of their diffusion. Here we present a device operated

  1. Performance Improvement for Quasi Periodical Disturbances in PH Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBEL, K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Proper operation of control systems is essential for achieving good economic results and reducing control effort. The paper is focused on presenting a new application of a well-known concept. The main scope of the paper is a practical presentation of obtaining a minimum process performance index by means of known statistical tools. This is achievable by appropriate selection of the correction value for set-point and the width of the time window of a statistical algorithm. The proposed novel algorithm was successfully implemented in the pilot neutralization process. On one hand, the proposed algorithm is a corrector of the statistical properties of the control error, and, on the other one, of a set point of the control system.

  2. Active Control of pH in the Bioculture System Through Carbon Dioxide Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monhollon, Luke; Pletcher, David; Hauss, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For successful cell research, the growth culture environment must be tightly controlled. Deviance from the optimal conditions will mask the desired variable being analyzed or lead to inconstancies in the results. In standard laboratories, technology and procedures are readily available for the reliable control of variables such as temperature, pH, nutrient loading, and dissolved gases. Due to the nature of spaceflight, and the inherent constraints to engineering designs, these same elements become a challenge to maintain at stable values by both automated and manual approaches. Launch mass, volume, and power usage create significant constraints to cell culture systems; nonetheless, innovative solutions for active environmental controls are available. The acidity of the growth media cannot be measured through standard probes due to the degradation of electrodes and reliance on indicators for chromatography. Alternatively, carbon dioxide sensors are capable of monitoring the pH by leveraging the relationship between the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid in solution across a membrane. In microgravity cell growth systems, the gas delivery system can be used to actively maintain the media at the proper acidity by maintaining a suitable gas mixture around permeable tubing. Through this method, launch mass and volume are significantly reduced through the efficient use of the limited gas supply in orbit.

  3. PH-triggered micellar membrane for controlled release microchips

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Moosa, Basem; Deng, Lin; Zhao, Lan; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2011-01-01

    A pH-responsive membrane based on polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer was developed on a model glass microchip as a promising controlled polymer delivery system. The PS-b-P4VP copolymer assembles into spherical and

  4. Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.

  5. Efficacy of internal control and controlling business risks

    OpenAIRE

    IONESCU, Luminiţa

    2010-01-01

    Companies can gain additional efficiency in designing and implementing or assessing internal control by focusing on only those financial reporting objectives directly applicable to the company’s activities and circumstances, taking a risk based approach to internal control. It is important for any organization to have reliable financial data for internal decision-making purpose. Financial information is often useful in many internal decisions such as product or service pricing. This is why th...

  6. Internal control reporting and accounting quality : Insight "comply-or-explain" internal control regime

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Thi Thanh, Huyen; Cheung, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there exist two reporting regimes, rules-based and principle-based (comply-or-explain). In the rules-based environment, researchers have studied the relationship between internal control quality and accounting quality. Prior studies have suggested that reports on internal control are an effective way for investors to evaluate the quality of the firm‟s internal control. By having a sound system of internal control, it creates reliance upon the firm‟s financial reporting. Therefore, t...

  7. Implementasi Fuzzy Logic Controller untuk Mengatur Ph Nutrisi pada Sistem Hidroponik Nutrient Film Technique (NFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pancawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One solution to solve limited agricultural land is applying hydroponics Nutrient Film Technique (NFT. The advantage of NFT is using water circulated as a growing medium in order to obtain water, nutrients and oxygen to accelerate the growth of plants with good results. The most important parameter is the pH of nutrients. This article discusses how to design an automatic nutritional pH control system by implementing the method of Fuzzy Logic Controller. The control system use Arduino Mega2560, Analog pH Meter Kit as input, and the solenoid valve as actuators. The best response of the implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller with the system which has 25 rules. The response shows that the system has in 1200 millisecond rise time and the steady state in 5530 milliseconds to increase the pH. While to decrease the pH system has response of rise time at 2000 milliseconds and steady state at the time of 3000 milliseconds. The system is able to maintain the pH at 5.5, with the result of the growth of lettuce as high as 20 cm and seven leaves for 54 days.

  8. Establishment of a gaseous pH control concept in microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Bin; Schäpper, Daniel; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    Existing methods for pH control in bench-scale bioreactor systems often cannot be directly adapted for microbioreactors. This is because microbioreactors are commonly designed to work with constant volumes, operate bubble-free and have no headspace, which technically rules out any possibility...... of adding acid/base solution for pH control in microbioreactors. This work reports on the establishment of a gaseous pH control concept in microbioreactors where pH control was achieved by dosing of ammonia (NH3, 20 000 ppm) and pure carbon dioxide (CO2) gases to respectively; increase and lower the pH...... of the reactor content. It encompasses the establishment of an optical pH measurement by means of a fluorescent sensor spot, realization of the necessary gas connections, mixing of gases, and gas-exchange via a thin semi-permeable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane. It was shown that addition of NH3 and CO2...

  9. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  10. Limitations in the use of low pH extraction to distinguish internalized from cell surface-bound radiolabeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Gaik Lin; Mattes, M. Jules

    2000-01-01

    Internalization by cells of radiolabeled protein ligands bound to the cell surface is frequently analyzed by extraction of the cells with low pH buffers. This treatment supposedly strips the ligands from the cell surface, and remaining molecules are considered to be internalized. However, we show herein that: (1) low molecular weight catabolic products that are trapped within lysosomes (residualizing radiolabels) are efficiently extracted by low pH buffers, under the same conditions used to remove cell surface-bound material, and (2) low pH treatment lyses the majority of the cells, as shown with both a nonadherent and an adherent cell line, with the release of most of a 51 Cr label. Still, low pH extraction was effective at demonstrating Ab internalization, as has been demonstrated many times. These effects of low pH treatment may be attributed to the fixative properties of these buffers. Regardless of the mechanism, these data must be taken into consideration in interpreting the results of such experiments

  11. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  12. Temperature and pH Responsive Microfibers for Controllable and Variable Ibuprofen Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun microfibers (MFs composed of pH and temperature responsive polymers can be used for controllable and variable delivery of ibuprofen. First, electrospinning technique was employed to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid (pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs containing ibuprofen. It was found that drug release rates from PCL MFs cannot be significantly varied by either temperature (22–40°C or pH values (1.7–7.4. In contrast, the ibuprofen (IP diffusion rates from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs were very sensitive to changes in both temperature and pH. The IP release from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs was highly linear and controllable when the temperature was above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of pNIPAM-co-MAA (33°C and the pH was lower than the pKa of carboxylic acids (pH 2. At room temperature, however, the release rate was dramatically increased by nearly ten times compared to that at higher temperature and lower pH. Such a unique and controllable drug delivery system could be naturally envisioned to find many practical applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as programmable transdermal drug delivery.

  13. pH controls spermatozoa motility in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrina Boulais

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the roles of chemical factors stimulating and inhibiting sperm motility is required to understand the mechanisms of spermatozoa movement. In this study, we described the composition of the seminal fluid (osmotic pressure, pH, and ions and investigated the roles of these factors and salinity in initiating spermatozoa movement in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The acidic pH of the gonad (5.82±0.22 maintained sperm in the quiescent stage and initiation of flagellar movement was triggered by a sudden increase of spermatozoa external pH (pHe when released in seawater (SW. At pH 6.4, percentage of motile spermatozoa was three times higher when they were activated in SW containing 30 mM NH4Cl, which alkalinizes internal pH (pHi of spermatozoa, compared to NH4Cl-free SW, revealing the role of pHi in triggering sperm movement. Percentage of motile spermatozoa activated in Na+-free artificial seawater (ASW was highly reduced compared to ASW, suggesting that change of pHi triggering sperm motility was mediated by a Na+/H+ exchanger. Motility and swimming speed were highest in salinities between 33.8 and 42.7‰ (within a range of 0 to 50 ‰, and pH values above 7.5 (within a range of 4.5 to 9.5.

  14. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  15. Control of pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Ramrav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After landfilling of wastes is completed, the stabilization of landfilled ground requires much time and cost. Therefore, this study aimed to control the pH of retained water in the coastal waste disposal sites during landfilling process, by conducting field surveys and laboratory experiments. In field surveys, we investigated the changes of retained water quality such as pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. The results show the pH of retained water has risen to about 10 when the volume of landfilled wastes reached about 25% of landfill capacity. In lowing the pH, we considered a low-cost method by pumping seawater from the adjacent sea into the landfill. The mechanism in this method is that, H+ dissociated from HCO3- in the fresh seawater react with OH- eluted from wastes would result in pH decrease. The laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the effect on pH change by adding fresh seawater to alkalized seawater. As a result, the effect of injecting fresh seawater into alkalized seawater with pH higher than 9 was confirmed. Therefore, this treatment method is suggested to enable the disposal sites to be used promptly after landfilling is completed, by adding fresh seawater to purify the retained water and waste at low cost during landfilling process.

  16. Searching for "A Third Space": A Creative Pathway towards International PhD Students' Academic Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely Lazarte; Baumfield, Vivienne; Reid, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Undertaking a PhD is a challenging endeavour. Pursuing a doctoral education in a "foreign" context tends to increase the demands of this intellectual venture. The nature of research-based PhD programmes, often characterised by a lack of formal curricula where academic supervision lasts several years, may add another layer of complexity.…

  17. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  18. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  19. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.

  20. Evolution of pH in a radwaste repository: internal reactions between concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Everitt, N.M.; Guppy, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The pH is an important characteristic of the chemical conditions within a radioactive waste repository. A high pH is particularly beneficial from a variety of points of view and this can be assured by the use of cementitious materials within the repository. Reactions between repository components which have an influence on pH have been studied in accelerated laboratory experiments. The reactions studied were those occurring in modified cements (specifically 90% pulverized fly ash/10% ordinary Portland cement and 90% blast furnace slag/10% OPC) and between aqueous calcium hydroxide and both crystalline and amorphous SiO 2 . The experiments indicate that extensive use of fuel ash leads to uncertainty in long term pH which could be as low as 9 to 10 in such cases. Experiments with crystalline calcium silicon hydrate (CSH) minerals suggest that crystallization of amorphous CSH could also lead to pH being lower than the optimum. (author)

  1. A synthetic multifunctional mammalian pH sensor and CO2 transgene-control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, David; Ausländer, Simon; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Müller, Marius; Frey, Olivier; Hierlemann, Andreas; Stelling, Jörg; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-07

    All metabolic activities operate within a narrow pH range that is controlled by the CO2-bicarbonate buffering system. We hypothesized that pH could serve as surrogate signal to monitor and respond to the physiological state. By functionally rewiring the human proton-activated cell-surface receptor TDAG8 to chimeric promoters, we created a synthetic signaling cascade that precisely monitors extracellular pH within the physiological range. The synthetic pH sensor could be adjusted by organic acids as well as gaseous CO2 that shifts the CO2-bicarbonate balance toward hydrogen ions. This enabled the design of gas-programmable logic gates, provided remote control of cellular behavior inside microfluidic devices, and allowed for CO2-triggered production of biopharmaceuticals in standard bioreactors. When implanting cells containing the synthetic pH sensor linked to production of insulin into type 1 diabetic mice developing diabetic ketoacidosis, the prosthetic network automatically scored acidic pH and coordinated an insulin expression response that corrected ketoacidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  3. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-01-01

    The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...

  4. The Road to Become a Legitimate Scholar: A Case Study of International PhD Students in Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Bøgelund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.

  5. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  6. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  7. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  8. Oxidation mode of pyranose 2-oxidase is controlled by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prongjit, Methinee; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Palfey, Bruce A; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-02-26

    Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) from Trametes multicolor is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of d-glucose and other aldopyranose sugars at the C2 position by using O₂ as an electron acceptor to form the corresponding 2-keto-sugars and H₂O₂. In this study, the effects of pH on the oxidative half-reaction of P2O were investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The results showed that flavin oxidation occurred via different pathways depending on the pH of the environment. At pH values lower than 8.0, reduced P2O reacts with O₂ to form a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, leading to elimination of H₂O₂. At pH 8.0 and higher, the majority of the reduced P2O reacts with O₂ via a pathway that does not allow detection of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin, and flavin oxidation occurs with decreased rate constants upon the rise in pH. The switching between the two modes of P2O oxidation is controlled by protonation of a group which has a pK(a) of 7.6 ± 0.1. Oxidation reactions of reduced P2O under rapid pH change as performed by stopped-flow mixing were different from the same reactions performed with enzyme pre-equilibrated at the same specified pH values, implying that the protonation of the group which controls the mode of flavin oxidation cannot be rapidly equilibrated with outside solvent. Using a double-mixing stopped-flow experiment, a rate constant for proton dissociation from the reaction site was determined to be 21.0 ± 0.4 s⁻¹.

  9. The oxidation mode of pyranose 2-oxidase is controlled by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prongjit, Methinee; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Palfey, Bruce A.; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-01-01

    Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) from Trametes multicolor is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose and other aldopyranose sugars at the C2 position by using O2 as an electron acceptor to form the corresponding 2-keto-sugars and H2O2. In this study, the effects of pH on the oxidative half-reaction of P2O were investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The results showed that flavin oxidation occurred via different pathways depending on the pH of the environment. At pH values lower than 8.0, reduced P2O reacts with O2 to form a C4a-hydroperoxy-flavin intermediate, leading to elimination of H2O2. At pH 8.0 and higher, the majority of the reduced P2O reacts with O2 via a pathway which does not allow detection of the C4a-hydroperoxy-flavin, and flavin oxidation occurs with decreased rate constants upon the rise in pH. The switching between the two modes of P2O oxidation is controlled by protonation of a group which has a pKa of 7.6 ± 0.1. Oxidation reactions of reduced P2O under rapid pH change as performed by stopped-flow mixing were different from the same reactions performed with enzyme pre-equilibrated at the same specified pH values, implying that the protonation of the group which controls the mode of flavin oxidation cannot be rapidly equilibrated with outside solvent. Using a double-mixing stopped-flow experiment, a rate constant for proton dissociation from the reaction site was determined to be 21.0 ± 0.4 s-1. PMID:23356577

  10. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  11. Size control of Au NPs supported by pH operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, Masumi; Akiba, Hiroko; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2017-07-01

    Au NPs are expected to become useful functional particles, as particle gun used for plant gene transfer and also catalysts. We have studied PSD (particle size distribution) control of Au NPs by reduction crystallization. Previous study found out importance of seeds policy and also feeding profile. In this paper, effect of pH in the reduction crystallization was investigated to clarify the possibility of Au NPs PSD control by pH operation and also their growth process. Au NPs of size range 10-600 nm were obtained in single-jet system using ascorbic acid (AsA) as a reducing agent with adjusting pH of AsA. Au NPs are found to grow in the process of nucleation, agglomeration, agglomeration growth and surface growth. Au NPs tend to grow by agglomeration and become larger size in lower pH regions, and to grow only by surface growth and become smaller size in higher pH regions.

  12. The pH-static enzyme sensor: design of the pH control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; van der Schoot, Bart H.; Voorthuijzen, Hans; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1990-01-01

    The pH-static enzyme sensor offers a solution to the buffer dependency of ISFET-based enzyme sensors. A continuous coulometric titration of the reaction products keeps the pH in the enzymatic membrane at a constant level. This paper presents an automatic system to control the compensating current

  13. Design of Multiregional Supervisory Fuzzy PID Control of pH Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebel AlSabbah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns designing multiregional supervisory fuzzy PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative control for pH reactors. The proposed work focuses, mainly, on two themes. The first one is to propose a multiregional supervisory fuzzy-based cascade control structure. It would enable modifying dynamics and enhance system’s stability. The fuzzy system (master loop has been chosen as a tuner for PID controller (slave loop. It takes into consideration parameters uncertainties and reference tracking. The second theme concerns designing a hybrid neural network-based pH estimator. The proposed estimator would overcome the industrial drawbacks, that is, cost and size, found with conventional methods for pH measurement. The final end-user-interface (EUI front panel and the results that evaluate the performance of the supervisory fuzzy PID-based control system and hybrid NN-based estimator have been presented using the compatibility found between LabView and MatLab. They lead to conclude that the proposed algorithms are appropriate to systems nonlinearities encountered with pH reactors.

  14. Measurement of the internal pH of mast cell granules using microvolumetric fluorescence and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intragranular pH of isolated mast cell granules was measured. Because of the minute amounts of isolated granules available, two techniques were developed by modifying aminoacridine fluorescence and [ 14 C]methylamine accumulation techniques to permit measurements with microliter sample volumes. Granule purity was demonstrated by electron microscopy, ruthenium red exclusion, and biochemical (histamine, mast cell granule protease) analysis. The internal pH was determined to be 5.55 +/- 0.06, indicating that the pH environment within mast cell granules is not significantly different from that of previously studied granule types (i.e., chromaffin, platelet, pancreatic islet, and pituitary granules). Collapse of the pH gradient by NH+4 was demonstrated with both techniques. No evidence of Cl-/OH- or specific cation/H+ transport was found, and major chloride permeability could not be unequivocably demonstrated. Ca 2+ and Cl- at concentrations normally present extracellularly destabilized granules in the presence of NH+4, but this phenomenon does not necessarily indicate a role for these ions in the exocytotic release of granule contents from intact cells. The pH measurement techniques developed for investigating the properties of granules in mast cells may be useful for studying other granules that can be obtained only in limited quantities

  15. Modelling and L1 Adaptive Control of pH in Bioethanol Enzymatic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    for pH level regulation: one is a classical PI controller; the other an L1 adaptive output feedback controller. Model-based feed-forward terms are added to the controllers to enhance their performances. A new tuning method of the L1 adaptive controller is also proposed. Further, a new performance...... function is formulated and tailored to this type of processes and is used to monitor the performances of the process in closed loop. The L1 design is found to outperform the PI controller in all tests....

  16. PERFORMANCE IN INTERNAL CONTROL AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    JELER (POPA) IOANA; FOCŞAN ELEONORA IONELA; CORICI MARIAN CĂTĂLIN

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of internal control and risk management. In practice, economic entities meet a variety of risks that have the origins from the internal environment or the external one. Although there are different of views on addressing the concept of risk - threats or opportunities, event or action, accordingly uncertain, proposed by specialists in risk management in this article we try to present these issues and identify techniques to ...

  17. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  18. Internal Control Good Cooperative Governance And Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Arifian Rachman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of internal control and good cooperative governance partially and simultaneously to the performance of cooperatives in West Java Province. The research method used in this research is descriptive and verification. The sample in this research is 22 boards as manager of cooperative in West Java Province. The data used in the research is the primary data through questionnaire collection. Validity and reliability testing is performed before hypothesis testing. This research uses multiple regression analysis technique. Based on hypothesis testing obtained 1 internal control has no significant effect on performance 2 good cooperative governance has a significant effect on performance and 3 internal control and good cooperative governance have a significant effect on performance.

  19. Low corrosive chemical decontamination method using pH control. 1. Basic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Ishida, Kazushige; Uetake, Naohito; Anazawa, Kazumi; Nakamura, Fumito; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Tamagawa, Tadashi; Furukawa, Kiyoharu

    2001-01-01

    A new low corrosive decontamination method was developed which uses both oxalic acid and hydrazine as the reducing agent and potassium permanganate as the oxidizing agent. Less corrosion of structural materials during the decontamination is realized by pH control of the reducing agent. The pH of 2.5, attained by adding hydrazine to oxalic acid, was the optimum pH for maintaining a high decontamination effect and lowering the corrosion at the same time. As this reducing agent can be decomposed into carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water by using a catalyst column with hydrogen peroxide, the amount of secondary radioactive waste is small. These good features were demonstrated through actual plant decontamination tasks. (author)

  20. Efficacy of internal control and controlling business risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies can gain additional efficiency in designing and implementing or assessing internal control by focusing on only those financial reporting objectives directly applicable to the company’s activities and circumstances, taking a risk based approach to internal control. It is important for any organization to have reliable financial data for internal decision-making purpose. Financial information is often useful in many internal decisions such as product or service pricing. This is why the most important function of the controller is to create and maintain the corporate financial control system. Today’s corporation operates in an increasingly complex environment and the controller’s role is to advice the management of current or future problems of the business environment or to prevent the fraud.

  1. Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Felipe Marciano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marciano A.F., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Camargo M.G., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A., Quinelato S., Freitas M.C., Angelo I.C., Nogueira M.R.S. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P. [Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.] Metarhizium anisopliae: influência do pH na atividade enzimática e no controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:85-90, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the major agents causing substantial losses to livestock worldwide. In the search for alternative control strategies, both in vitro and in vivo use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promising results against this ectoparasite. During host colonization, protease production by M. anisopliae is considered one important virulence factor once it is directly related to the active penetration process carried by the fungus on the full host cuticle. Nevertheless, limitations as environmental pH may modulate the proteases production and/or activity, as well as, the fungal virulence. The current study aimed evaluate the virulence and total protease activity of M. anisopliae CG 148 sensu lato (s.l.. Fungal aqueous suspensions or 5% mineral oil formulations were used in different pH ranges (5, 7, or 9. Suspensions and formulations were prepared using a pH meter and adjusted to 108 spores mL-1. In the bioassay, four groups were formed for each pH range: the aqueous fungal suspension, the oil-based fungal formulation and their respective controls (aqueous and oil-based, totaling 12 groups. Engorged females were immersed for 3 minutes and maintained under optimal conditions for evaluation of biological parameters. Total protease activity of the artificial medium (after

  2. The experience of international nursing students studying for a PhD in the U.K: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith

    2011-06-13

    Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17) planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had developed key professional and personal skills. Doctoral

  3. The experience of international nursing students studying for a PhD in the U.K: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Keith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17 planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Results Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had

  4. Control of electron transfer in the cytochrome system of mitochondria by pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential. The cytochromes b-c segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Lorusso, M; Izzo, G; Capuano, F

    1981-02-15

    component of the aerobic delta microH+ (the sum of the proton chemical and electrical activities) exerts a pH-dependent constraint on forward electron flow from cytochrome b566 to cytochrome b562. This effect is explained as a consequence of anisotropic location of cytochromes b566 and b562 in the membrane and the pH-dependence of the redox function of these cytochromes. Transmembrane delta pH, on the other hand, exerts control on electron flow from cytochrome b562 to c cytochromes.

  5. Control of lead solubility in soil contaminated with lead shot: Effect of soil pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, Corinne P.; McLaren, Ronald G.; Condron, Leo M.

    2007-01-01

    An incubation experiment was carried out to assess the rate of oxidation of Pb shot and subsequent transfer of Pb to the soil under a range of soil pH conditions. Lead shot corrosion was rapid, so that soil solution and fine earth ( 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ), developed in crusts surrounding individual Pb pellets. However, irrespective of pH, Pb 2+ activities in the soil solutions, modelled using WHAM 6, were much lower than would be the case if they were controlled by the solubility of the dominant Pb compounds present in the Pb shot crust material. In contrast, modelling of soil solid-solution phase distribution of Pb, again using WHAM 6, suggested that, at least during the 24 months of the study, soil solution Pb concentrations were more likely to be controlled by sorption of Pb by the soil solid phase. - Sorption processes control Pb 2+ ion activity in soils contaminated with Pb shot

  6. Argue internal audit on how to promote the nuclear power enterprise internal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen and standardize enterprise internal control, improve the management level and risk prevention ability, five departments jointly established the basic rules of internal control in enterprises, large and medium-sized enterprises as the national power enterprise, the enterprise internal audit executive power in strengthening and perfecting internal control, and in the enterprise internal control of play an active role. (author)

  7. Nuclear reactor internals with control elements guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, J.; Chevereau, G.

    1991-01-01

    The internals have a lower plate, a superior plate, support columns and guide tubes for the control rods displacements. The lower section of the control rod guide tube have a base that fits into a bevelled seat in the lower plate. The guide tube is held into the seat by a spring, compressed between the base of the upper section of the tube and the lower plate

  8. Climatic changes, the international control stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, S.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a juridical and economic analysis of the control mechanism called ''observance'' of the Kyoto protocol. This political and juridical innovation in the domain of the international agreements on the environment deals with the national sovereignty and the economical development mode. (A.L.B.)

  9. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  10. Effect of pH Upper Control Limit on Nutrient Solution Component and Water Spinach Growth under Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Xuzhang Xue; Yinkun Li; Feng Li; Fang Zhang; Wenzhong Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, experiment with four levels of nutrient solution pH control upper limit was conducted to explore the optimal nutrient solution pH management scheme under hydroponics by evaluating the nutrient solution characters i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), nitrate, soluble phosphorus (soluble-P), water spinach growth and quality. The results showed that the nutrient solution pH was 8.2 and unsuitable for water spinach growth under the treatment with no pH regulation during the experi...

  11. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  12. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Cadre, Edith Le; Hinsinger, Philippe; Jaillard, Benoit; Gerard, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic P is the least mobile major nutrient in most soils and is frequently the prime limiting factor for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the extraction of soil inorganic P with CaCl 2 (P-CaCl 2 ) and geochemical modelling were combined in order to unravel the processes controlling the environmentally available P (EAP) of a soil over a range of pH values (pH ∼ 4-10). Mechanistic descriptions of the adsorption of cations and anions by the soil constituents were used (1-pK Triple Plane, ion-exchange and NICA-Donnan models). These models are implemented into the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ. An additive approach was used for their application to the surface horizon of a Cambisol. The geochemical code accurately reproduced the concentration of extracted P at the different soil pH values (R 2 = 0.9, RMSE = 0.03 mg kg -1 ). Model parameters were either directly found in the literature or estimated by fitting published experimental results in single mineral systems. The strong agreement between measurements and modelling results demonstrated that adsorption processes exerted a major control on the EAP of the soil over a large range of pH values. An influence of the precipitation of P-containing mineral is discounted based on thermodynamic calculations. Modelling results indicated that the variations in P-CaCl 2 with soil pH were controlled by the deprotonation/protonation of the surface hydroxyl groups, the distribution of P surface complexes, and the adsorption of Ca and Cl from the electrolyte background. Iron-oxides and gibbsite were found to be the major P-adsorbing soil constituents at acidic and alkaline pHs, whereas P was mainly adsorbed by clay minerals at intermediate pH values. This study demonstrates the efficacy of geochemical modelling to understand soil processes, and the applicability of mechanistic adsorption models to a 'real' soil, with its mineralogical complexity and the additional contribution of soil organic matter.

  13. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devau, Nicolas [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Cadre, Edith Le [Supagro, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Hinsinger, Philippe; Jaillard, Benoit [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Gerard, Frederic, E-mail: gerard@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-15

    Inorganic P is the least mobile major nutrient in most soils and is frequently the prime limiting factor for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the extraction of soil inorganic P with CaCl{sub 2} (P-CaCl{sub 2}) and geochemical modelling were combined in order to unravel the processes controlling the environmentally available P (EAP) of a soil over a range of pH values (pH {approx} 4-10). Mechanistic descriptions of the adsorption of cations and anions by the soil constituents were used (1-pK Triple Plane, ion-exchange and NICA-Donnan models). These models are implemented into the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ. An additive approach was used for their application to the surface horizon of a Cambisol. The geochemical code accurately reproduced the concentration of extracted P at the different soil pH values (R{sup 2} = 0.9, RMSE = 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}). Model parameters were either directly found in the literature or estimated by fitting published experimental results in single mineral systems. The strong agreement between measurements and modelling results demonstrated that adsorption processes exerted a major control on the EAP of the soil over a large range of pH values. An influence of the precipitation of P-containing mineral is discounted based on thermodynamic calculations. Modelling results indicated that the variations in P-CaCl{sub 2} with soil pH were controlled by the deprotonation/protonation of the surface hydroxyl groups, the distribution of P surface complexes, and the adsorption of Ca and Cl from the electrolyte background. Iron-oxides and gibbsite were found to be the major P-adsorbing soil constituents at acidic and alkaline pHs, whereas P was mainly adsorbed by clay minerals at intermediate pH values. This study demonstrates the efficacy of geochemical modelling to understand soil processes, and the applicability of mechanistic adsorption models to a 'real' soil, with its mineralogical complexity and the additional

  14. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  15. Acid dissociation constants of uridine-5 Prime -diphosphate compounds determined by {sup 31}phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and internal pH referencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancan, Igor [Louisiana State University, Department of Chemistry, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Macnaughtan, Megan A., E-mail: macnau@lsu.edu [Louisiana State University, Department of Chemistry, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first reported phosphate and imide pK{sub a} values of UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-S-GlcNAc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New role for the monosaccharide in the imide pK{sub a} of uridine-5 Prime -phosphate compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDP-S-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNAc have the same phosphate pK{sub a}, unlike thioyl analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {sup 31}P chemical shift of inorganic phosphate is a viable internal pH reference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stability of the external {sup 31}P chemical shift reference is essential. - Abstract: The acid dissociation constant (pK{sub a}) of small, biological molecules is an important physical property used for investigating enzyme mechanisms and inhibitor design. For phosphorus-containing molecules, the {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift is sensitive to the local chemical environment, particularly to changes in the electronic state of the molecule. Taking advantage of this property, we present a {sup 31}P NMR approach that uses inorganic phosphate buffer as an internal pH reference to determine the pK{sub a} values of the imide and second diphosphate of uridine-5 Prime -diphosphate compounds, including the first reported values for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-S-GlcNAc. New methods for using inorganic phosphate buffer as an internal pH reference, involving mathematical correction factors and careful control of the chemical shift reference sample, are illustrated. A comparison of the newly determined imide and diphosphate pK{sub a} values of UDP, UDP-GlcNAc, and UDP-S-GlcNAc with other nucleotide phosphate and thio-analogs reveals the significance of the monosaccharide and sulfur position on the pK{sub a} values.

  16. Study on Chitosan-Polyvinyl Alcohol Inter polymeric ph-Responsive Hydrogels for Controlled Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Bary, E.M.; El-Sherbiny, I.M.; Abdelaal, M.Y.; Abdel-Razik, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two series of ph-responsive biodegradable interpenetrating polymeric (IPN) hydrogels composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared for controlled drug release investigations. The first series was chemically crosslinked with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde as a crosslinked and the second series was crosslinked by gamma-radiation. Degree of crosslinking has been controlled by the concentration of crosslinked as well as by gamma irradiation dose. The equilibrium swelling -reflecting the degree of crosslinks - were carried out for the gels at 37 degree C in buffer solutions of ph 2.1 and 7.4 (simulated gastric and intestinal fluids respectively). 5-fluorouracil (5- FU) was entrapped, as a model therapeutic agent, in the hydrogels and equilibrium-swelling studies were carried out for the drug-entrapped gels at 37 degree C. The in-vitro release profiles of the drug were established at 37 degree C in ph 2.1 and 7.4. FT-IR was employed to investigate the structural changes of the gels with different degrees of crosslinking

  17. Biodesulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates and pH control of bioleaching solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Sheng-cai; Liu, Yan-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Hua-jun

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were desulfurized with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ( A. ferrooxidans). The sulfur content of the concentrates was reduced from 0.69wt% to 0.14wt% after bioleaching for 15 d with a 10% pulp density at 30°C. Maintaining a stable pH value during biodesulfurization was critical because of high acid consumption, resulting from a combination of nonoxidative and oxidative dissolution of pyrrhotite in acid solution. It is discovered that the citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 2.0 can control the solution pH value smoothly in the optimal range of 2.0-3.0 for A. ferrooxidans growth. Using the buffer in the volume fraction range of 5.0%-15.0% stimulates A. ferrooxidans growth and improves the biodesulfurization efficiency. Compared with the buffer-free control case, the maximum increase of biodesulfurization rate is 29.7% using a 10.0vol% buffer. Bioleaching provides an alternative process for desulfurization of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ores.

  18. Ethanolamine properties and use for feedwater pH control: A pressurized water reactor case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.L.; Polidoroff, C.T.; Cortese, S.; Cushner, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Ethanolamine (ETA) as a feedwater pH control additive has been recently used to minimize corrosion of secondary water components in the nuclear power industry pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The use of ETA is compared with ammonia. Relative volatility effects on various parts of the system are analyzed and chemistry changes are presented. Materials of construction and the use of existing plant equipment for ETA service are discussed. Properties of ETA as well as safety, storage and handling issues are compared with ammonia. Health d aquatic toxicity are reviewed. warnings, safety, handling guidelines, biodegradability an Diablo Canyon Power Plant used ammonia for pH control from 1985 until a change over to ETA in 1993/1994. Full flow condensate polishers that are required to protect the plant from saltwater cooling incursions limit the amount of pH additive. Iron levels in the secondary water systems are compared before and after changing to ETA and replacement of corrosion-susceptible piping. Iron reduction benefits are assessed along with other effects on the feedwater nozzles, low pressure turbine, polisher resin capacity and polisher regeneration system

  19. Internal control in an EDI environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Dal Hyeoung

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) is the electronic transmission of standard business documents in machine-readable format between parent companies and respective trading partners. As the use of EDI has grown, there have been the associated risks due to an uncontrolled environment. Accordingly, the necessity for effective internal controls in an EDI environment is on the rise. This thesis evaluates and analyzes the feasi...

  20. Elevated-constant pH control assessment at TXU's Comanche peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellers, B.; Perkins, D.; Bosma, J.; Deshon, J.

    2002-01-01

    Industry experience with axial offset anomaly (AOA) has raised the importance of crud management strategies. Elevated-constant pH control is recognized as one potential solution. Additionally, minimizing radiation fields remains a high industry goal which is supported by this strategy. An investigation of industry experience and experimental data has supported a strategy of constant at-temperature pH of 7.4, requiring as much as 6-ppm lithium at the beginning-of-cycle (BOC). This approach, in a modern high temperature plant with high boron requirements, necessitated a careful assessment of potential risk for increased susceptibility to corrosion for both fuel cladding and RCS structural materials. This paper presents results of the assessment for Comanche peak steam electric station (CPSES) and plans for a demonstration of this practice. (author)

  1. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  2. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  3. INTERMARS: User-controlled international management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    Existing international space law as well as the best interest of all nations are consistent with the establishment of a user-based international organization, herein called INTERMARS. INTERMARS would provide access to facilities and services at a Martian base which would be of high functional potential, quality, safety, and reliability. These opportunities would be available on an open and nondiscriminatory basis to all peaceful users and investors. INTERMARS is a model organization concept tailored to provide cooperative international management of a Martian base for the benefit of its members, users, and investors. Most importantly, INTERMARS would provide such management through a sharing of both sovereignty and opportunity rather then unilateral control by any one nation or set of competing nations. Through an Assembly of Parties, a Board of Governors, a Board of Users and Investors, and a Director General, INTERMARS would meet its primary goal as it would be in the self-interest of all members, users, and investors to do so. The internal structure and philosophy of INTERMARS would provide not only for all participants to have representation in decisions affecting its activities, but also would insure effective and responsive management. Surely this is the precedent wished for, to establish for mankind at the now not-so-distant shores of the new ocean of space.

  4. pH control in the midgut of Aedesaegypti under different nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Denise Barguil; Santos, Vânia Cristina; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2017-09-15

    Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors in the world. Because their gut is the first site of interaction with pathogens, it is important to understand A. aegypti gut physiology. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of pH control in the midgut of A. aegypti females under different nutritional conditions. We found that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH ∼6). The midgut of unfed insects is actively maintained at pH 6 regardless of the ingestion of either alkaline or acidic buffered solutions. V-ATPases are responsible for acidification after ingestion of alkaline solutions. In blood-fed females, the abdominal midgut becomes alkaline (pH 7.54), and the luminal pH decreases slightly throughout blood digestion. Only ingested proteins were able to trigger this abrupt increase in abdominal pH. The ingestion of amino acids, even at high concentrations, did not induce alkalinisation. During blood digestion, the thoracic midgut remains acidic, becoming a suitable compartment for carbohydrate digestion, which is in accordance with the higher alpha-glucolytic activity detected in this compartment. Ingestion of blood releases alkalising hormones in the haemolymph, which induce alkalinisation in ex vivo preparations. This study shows that adult A. aegypti females have a very similar gut physiology to that previously described for Lutzomyia longipalpis It is likely that all haematophagous Nematocera exhibit the same type of physiological behaviour. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Herbal mouthwash based on Libidibia ferrea: microbiological control, sensory characteristics, sedimentation, pH and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Naura Venâncio

    Full Text Available Introduction Phytotherapy is the study of herbal medicines and their applicability to cure diseases in general, being a therapeutic method which can be used for the prevention and treatment of mouth diseases. Among the herbal studied, the Libidibia ferrea, known as jucá or ironwood, is widely used in folk medicine by presenting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antipyretic therapeutic properties. Objective To evaluate in vitro pharmacological stability of the Libidibia ferrea extract’s mouthwash (INPA - 228 022. Material and method It was held the mouthwash microbiological control by determining the total number of microorganisms and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus; stability characteristics (color, odor, brightness and consistency, sedimentation test (centrifuge, the pH measurement (pH meter and density evaluation (pycnometer were analyzed. Result The mouthwash showed to be absent from microorganisms and no changes were observed in the organoleptics and sedimentation characteristics. The average pH values were 6.21, 6.15 and 5.85 at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively, and 1.029, 1.033 and 1.035 g/ mL density values, respectively, without interfering with the final characteristic of the formulation. Conclusion The mouthwash presented pharmacological stability and quality conditions.

  6. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  7. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times...

  8. PERFORMANCE IN INTERNAL CONTROL AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELER (POPA IOANA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of internal control and risk management. In practice, economic entities meet a variety of risks that have the origins from the internal environment or the external one. Although there are different of views on addressing the concept of risk - threats or opportunities, event or action, accordingly uncertain, proposed by specialists in risk management in this article we try to present these issues and identify techniques to counter risks occurrence. In this article we present also means managing risk and why needs to be implemented at institutional level a risk management. The paper concludes by highlight the role of efficient risk management in the company’s management and company's activities.

  9. Importance of Internal Audit and Internal Control in an organization - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bubilek, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive case study of a company. It presents concepts of the internal audit and internal control based on an example of a Finnish company. The research examines the role and importance that internal audit and internal controls have in an organization. The main research question is “What is the role and importance of internal audit and internal control in an organization” Additional sub-questions relating to the case company that will allow for better understanding of...

  10. Determinants of oesophageal 'alkaline' pH environment in controls and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S; Bradley, L A; Richter, J E

    1993-01-01

    The determinants of the oesophageal alkaline pH environment are poorly understood. Saliva (pH 6.4-7.8) may be a major contributor, although some argue the importance of refluxed alkaline duodenal contents. Acid and alkaline reflux parameters were studied over 2 days in 30 subjects (control, oesophagitis and Barrett's patients; 10 each) using glass pH electrodes. In phase 1, one pH electrode was placed 1 cm below the upper oesophageal sphincter to assess the influence of saliva and the other 5...

  11. PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

    2008-03-31

    There is an increasing opportunity to recover bypassed oil from depleted, mature oilfields in the US. The recovery factor in many reservoirs is low due to inefficient displacement of the oil by injected fluids (typically water). The use of chemical flooding methods to increase recovery efficiencies is severely constrained by the inability of the injected chemicals to contact the bypassed oil. Low sweep efficiencies are the primary cause of low oil recoveries observed in the field in chemical flooding operations even when lab studies indicate high oil recovery efficiency. Any technology that increases the ability of chemical flooding agents to better contact the remaining oil and reduce the amount of water produced in conjunction with the produced oil will have a significant impact on the cost of producing oil domestically in the US. This translates directly into additional economically recoverable reserves, which extends the economic lives of marginal and mature wells. The objective of this research project was to develop a low-cost, pH-triggered polymer for use in IOR processes to improve reservoir sweep efficiency and reservoir conformance in chemical flooding. Rheological measurements made on the polymer solution, clearly show that it has a low viscosity at low pH and exhibits a sudden increase in viscosity (by 2 orders of magnitude or more) at a pH of 3.5 to 4. This implies that the polymer would preferentially flow into zones containing water since the effective permeability to water is highest in these zones. As the pH of the zone increases due to the buffering capacity of the reservoir rock, the polymer solution undergoes a liquid to gel transition causing a sharp increase in the viscosity of the polymer solution in these zones. This allows operationally robust, in-depth conformance treatment of such water bearing zones and better mobility control. The rheological properties of HPAM solutions were measured. These include: steady-shear viscosity and

  12. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole on urinary pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Rasmussen, L; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary pH is related to urinary calculus formation as well as urinary infection. Omeprazole is an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion through inhibition of the parietal cell H+K+ATPase. In this study we have evaluated a possible effect of omeprazole on urine acidification. Ten healthy...... male subjects took placebo and omeprazole, 40 mg o.m., for 10 days in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Morning fasting urinary pH was measured on day 10 of each treatment course using a pH meter. No effect of omeprazole on urinary pH could be demonstrated. It is thus unlikely...... that it is necessary to take omeprazole treatment into consideration in stone screening. As omeprazole did not affect urinary pH, no urological side effects related to changes in urinary pH can be expected....

  13. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  14. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  16. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  17. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  18. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  19. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  20. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  2. Internal quality control: planning and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O

    2003-11-01

    The first essential in setting up internal quality control (IQC) of a test procedure in the clinical laboratory is to select the proper IQC procedure to implement, i.e. choosing the statistical criteria or control rules, and the number of control measurements, according to the quality required for the test and the observed performance of the method. Then the right IQC procedure must be properly implemented. This review focuses on strategies for planning and implementing IQC procedures in order to improve the quality of the IQC. A quantitative planning process is described that can be implemented with graphical tools such as power function or critical-error graphs and charts of operating specifications. Finally, a total QC strategy is formulated to minimize cost and maximize quality. A general strategy for IQC implementation is recommended that employs a three-stage design in which the first stage provides high error detection, the second stage low false rejection and the third stage prescribes the length of the analytical run, making use of an algorithm involving the average of normal patients' data.

  3. Nuclear power proliferation. Problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B [International Inst. for Environment and Development, London (UK)

    1977-09-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power.

  4. Nuclear power proliferation: problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B

    1977-09-01

    Some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power are reviewed and appraised. The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical, and ethical aspects are blended. Nuclear hardware costs have increased faster than inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in program completion arising from reactor and fuel-cycle safety problems. Meanwhile, there is a widespread and growing doubt, partly as a result of this cost escalation, as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity-generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall--but particularly nuclear--energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels that could reassure the concerned public and the energy industries.

  5. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program. These...

  6. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls and...

  7. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any reason...

  8. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  9. International Symposium: “Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Traditions and Innovations” and International ISCAR Summer University for PhD Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baykovskaya N.A.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a brief report on the work of the International Symposium: «Scientific School of L.S. Vygotsky: Traditions and Innovations» and VI th International ISCAR Summer University for PhD Students and young scholars, that were held in Moscow State University of Psychology & Education on June, 28 — July, 3 in 2016 in commemoration of the 120th anniversary of the great Russian psychologist L.S. Vygotsky. The main goals of the events organised by MSUPE include: analysis of the basic principles and the system of concepts of L.S. Vygotsky’s scientific school, discussion of the current state and the prospect for the development of the cultural-historical theory in Russia and abroad, integration of the ideas of the cultural-historical psychology and activity approach in various kinds of social and educational practices, as well as conducting research in the international scientific space. Symposium gathered the world’s leading experts and young scholars in the field of cultural-historical theory and activity approach from 19 countries, including United Kingdom, Australia, Switzerland, Greece, Brasil and USA.

  10. Enzymatic pH Control for Biomimetic Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.; Reza Nejadnik, M.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; te Riet, J.; Habibovic, Pamela; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Yubao, L.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study has focused on enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of Calcium Phospate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  11. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic depostion of calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Riet, te J.; Habibovic, P.; Birgani, Z.T.; Li, Y.B.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phospate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  12. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Riet, J. te; Habibovic, P.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Z.; Li, Y.; Bomans, P.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  13. Novel pH control strategy for glutathione overproduction in batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of pH values on cell growth and glutathione (GSH) production were studied in batch cultivation of Candida utilis. According to the fact that lower pH value favors cells growth but retards GSH production and higher pH value promotes GSH production while inhibits cells growth, a pH-shift strategy, optimized via ...

  14. Enhancement of hydrogen production during waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation by carbohydrate substrate addition and pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinguang; Xiao, Naidong; Zhao, Yuxiao; Mu, Hui

    2012-06-01

    The effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio (CH/Pr) and pH on hydrogen production from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. Firstly, the optimal pH value for hydrogen production was influenced by the CH/Pr ratio, which was pH 10, 9, 8, 8, 8 and 6 at the CH/Pr ratio (COD based) of 0.2 (sole sludge), 1, 2.4, 3.8, 5 and 6.6, respectively. The maximal hydrogen production (100.6 mL/g-COD) was achieved at CH/Pr of 5 and pH 8, which was due to the synergistic effect of carbohydrate addition on hydrogen production, the enhancement of sludge protein degradation and protease and amylase activities, and the suitable fermentation pathway for hydrogen production. As hydrogen consumption was observed at pH 8, in order to further increase hydrogen production a two-step pH control strategy (pH 8+pH 10) was developed and the hydrogen production was further improved by 17.6%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Controllable synthesis of green and blue fluorescent carbon nanodots for pH and Cu(2+) sensing in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Bo; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2016-03-15

    We report a controllable strategy for fabrication of green and blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for pH and Cu(2+) sensing in living cells. Green and blue fluorescent CDs have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and pyrolysis of leeks, respectively, providing an easy way for the production of CDs without the request of tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. Green fluorescent CDs (G-CDs) exhibit high tolerance to pH values and external cations. Blue fluorescent CDs (B-CDs) can be applied to pH and Cu(2+) sensing. The linear range of Cu(2+) detection is 0.01-10.00 μM and the detection limit is 0.05 μM. For pH detection, there is a good linearity in the pH range of 3.5-10.0. The linear and rapid response of B-CDs to Cu(2+) and pH is valuable for Cu(2+) and pH sensing in living cells. Confocal fluorescent imaging of human cervical carcinoma cells indicates that B-CDs could visualize Cu(2+) and pH fluctuations in living cells with negligible autofluorescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. International pollution control: Cooperative versus noncooperative strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, E.J.; Van Long, N.

    1993-01-01

    International pollution control involving two neighboring countries is modeled as a simple two-player dynamic game. Each country produces a good that is consumed by domestic households. Production of each consumption good results in emissions of pollutants. Households in each country derive utility from the consumption of the domestically produced good but incur costs through the total stock of pollution (stock externality). In this setting we characterize cooperative as well as noncooperative pollution control strategies of the governments of the two countries that maximize the discounted stream of net benefits of a representative consumer. It turns out that when the governments are restricted to use linear strategies noncooperative behavior results in overall losses for both countries. If, on the contrary, governments use nonlinear Markov-perfect strategies and the discount rate is small enough a Pareto-efficient steady-state pollution stock can be supported as a differentiable subgame-perfect equilibrium. Thus, the emergence of first-best solutions (cooperative outcomes) does not require any institutional arrangements (threats, retaliation, etc.) but can be brought about through the use of nonlinear Markov-perfect equilibrium strategies. 20 refs., 1 tab

  17. Improvement of internal book-keeping control at company "Balttranslaine"

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodinska, Aļona

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis "Internal Accounting Control Improvement in Ltd."Balttranslaine"" is designed to determine the potential and directions for improving accounting controls Ltd. "Balttranslaine". The paper assesses Ltd. "Balttranslaine" internal accounting control system and develops proposals for its improvement, based on research on accounting control nature and its place in the overall company's internal control system, as well as the Latvian laws and regulations for construction and maint...

  18. Effect of Consuming Tea with Stevia on Salivary pH - An In Vivo Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallepati, Akhil; Yavagal, Puja; Veeresh, D J

    To assess the effect of consuming tea with stevia on salivary pH. This randomised controlled trial employed a Latin square design. Twenty-four male students aged 20-23 years were randomly allocated to 4 different groups, 3 experimental with tea sweetened by sucrose, jaggery or stevia, and one unsweetened control. Salivary pH assessments were performed at baseline and 1 min, 20 and 60 min after consumption of the respective tea. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc tests were employed to analyse the data. One minute after tea consumption, the salivary pH of the sucrose group significantly decreased compared to the stevia group (p = 0.01). There was a significant difference between baseline mean salivary pH and post-interventional mean salivary pH values at all time intervals in the tea + sucrose, tea + jaggery, and plain tea groups (p stevia and plain tea groups, but it remained lower in the sucrose and jaggery groups. The results of the present study, in which the salivary pH values returned to baseline pH 1 h after drinking stevia-sweetened tea, suggest stevia's potential as a non-cariogenic sweetener.

  19. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clare; Barry, D.A.; McCarty, Perry L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kouznetsova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  20. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: clare.robinson@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Barry, D.A., E-mail: andrew.barry@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McCarty, Perry L., E-mail: pmccarty@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Gerhard, Jason I., E-mail: j.gerhard@ed.ac.uk [Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Kouznetsova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kouznetsova@ed.ac.uk [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  1. Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks. ... (21) chief internal auditors of selected recapitalized banks currently operating in Port Harcourt. ... can be carried out, high level ethical standards should be enshrined in Nigerian banks to make internal control more effective. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  3. Direction of glucose fermentation towards hydrogen or ethanol production through on-line pH control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Dogan; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    The present study investigated the production of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ethanol from glucose in an Anaerobic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (ACSTR). Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the preference of producing H{sub 2} and/or ethanol and other soluble metabolic products in an open anaerobic enriched culture were studied. Production rates of H{sub 2} and ethanol increased with the increase of biomass concentration. Open anaerobic fermentation was directed and managed through on-line pH control for the production of H{sub 2} or ethanol. Hydrogen was produced by ethanol and acetate-butyrate type fermentations. pH has strong effect on the H{sub 2} or ethanol production by changing fermentation pathways. ACSTR produced mainly ethanol at over pH 5.5 whereas highest H{sub 2} production was obtained at pH 5.0. pH 4.9 favored the lactate production and accumulation of lactate inhibited the biomass concentration in the reactor and the production of H{sub 2} and ethanol. The microbial community structure quickly responded to pH changes and the Clostridia dominated in ACSTR during the study. H{sub 2} production was maintained mainly by Clostridium butyricum whereas in the presence of Bacillus coagulans glucose oxidation was directed to lactate production. (author)

  4. Habit-associated salivary pH changes in oral submucous fibrosis-A controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Mandana; Basandi, Praveen S; Adarsh, H; Madhushankari, G S; Selvamani, M; Nayak, Prachi

    2015-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a multi-causal inflammatory reaction to the chemical or mechanical trauma caused due to exposure to arecanut containing products with or without tobacco (ANCP/T). Arecanut and additional components such as lime and chewing tobacco render ANCP/T highly alkaline. Fibrosing repair is a common reaction to an alkaline exposure in the skin. OSF may be related to the alkaline exposure by ANCP/T in a similar manner. The study was aimed at establishing the relationship of habit-associated salivary pH changes and OSF. The study design was controlled cross-sectional. Base line salivary pH (BLS pH), salivary pH after chewing the habitual ANCP/T substance, post chew salivary pH (PCSpH) for 2 min and salivary pH recovery time (SpHRT) were compared in 30 OSF patients and 30 sex-matched individuals with ANCP/T habits and apparently healthy oral mucosa. The group's mean BLSpH values were similar and within normal range and representative of the population level values. The average PCSpH was significantly higher (P ˂ 0.0001) than the average BLSpH in both groups. There was no significant difference (P = 0.09) between PCSpH of OSF patients and controls. OSF patients had a significantly longer (P = 0.0076) SpHRT than controls. Factors such as age, daily exposure, cumulative habit years, BLSpH and PCSpH, had varying effects on the groups. Chewing ANCP/T causes a significant rise in salivary pH of all individuals. SpHRT has a significant association with OSF. The effect of salivary changes in OSF patients differs with those in healthy controls.

  5. Intracellular pH is a tightly controlled signal in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orij, R.; Brul, S.; Smits, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nearly all processes in living cells are pH dependent, which is why intracellular pH (pHi) is a tightly regulated physiological parameter in all cellular systems. However, in microbes such as yeast, pHi responds to extracellular conditions such as the availability of nutrients. This

  6. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling the pH of acid cheese whey in a two-stage anaerobic digester with sodium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaly, A.E.; Ramkumar, D.R.

    1999-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey offers a two-fold benefit: pollution potential reduction and biogas production. The biogas, as an energy source, could be used to reduce the consumption of traditional fuels in the cheese plant. However, as a result of little or no buffering capacity of whey, the pH of the anaerobic digester drops drastically and the process is inhibited. In this study, the effect of controlling the pH of the second chamber of a two-stage, 150 L anaerobic digester operating on cheese whey on the quality and quantity of biogas and the pollution potential reduction, was investigated using sodium hydroxide. The digester was operated at a temperature of 35 C and a hydraulic retention time of 15 days for three runs (no pH control, pH control with no reseeding, and pH control with reseeding) each lasting 50 days. The results indicated that operating the digester without pH control resulted in a low pH (3.3) which inhibited the methanogenic bacteria. The inhibition was irreversible and the digester did not recover (no methane production) when the pH was restored to 7.0 without reseeding, as the observed increased gas production was a false indication of recovery because the gas was mainly carbon dioxide. The addition of base resulted in a total alkalinity of 12,000 mg L as CaCO{sub 3}. When the system was reseeded and the pH controlled, the total volatile acid concentration was 15,100 mg L (as acetic acid), with acetic (28 %), propionic (21%), butyric (25%), valeric (8%), and caproic (15%) acids as the major constituents. The biogas production was 62.6 L d (0.84m{sup 3}m{sup 3} d) and the methane content was 60.7%. Reductions of 27.3, 30.4 and 23.3 % in the total solids, chemical oxygen demand and total Kjeldahl nitrogen were obtained, respectively. The ammonium nitrogen content increased significantly (140%). (author)

  8. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  9. AND logic-like pH- and light-dual controlled drug delivery by surface modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junwei; He, Zhaoshuai; Li, Biao; Cheng, Tanyu, E-mail: tycheng@shnu.edu.cn; Liu, Guohua

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the controlled drug delivery system has become a potential platform for biomedical application. Herein, we developed a pH and light-dual controlled cargo release system exhibiting AND logic based on MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which was surface modified using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with imine bond and azobenzene derivative. The complex of β-CD and azobenzene derivative effectively blocked the cargo delivery in pH = 7.0 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution without 365 nm UV light irradiation. The cargo was fully released when both factors of acidic environment (pH = 5.0 PBS) and 365 nm UV light irradiation were satisfied, meanwhile only very little cargo was delivered if one factor was satisfied. The result also demonstrates that the opening/closing of the gate and the release of the cargo in small portions can be controlled. - Highlights: • A pH and light-dual controlled cargo release system exhibiting AND logic is developed. • The delivery system can release the cargo in small potions by controlling the opening/closing of the gate. • The delivery system realizes the controlled release in zebrafish.

  10. Real-time control of oxic phase using pH (mV)-time profile in swine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga, C.H.; Ra, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time control of the oxic phase using the pH (mV)-time profile in a sequencing batch reactor for swine wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the characteristics of the novel real-time control strategies were analyzed in two different concentrated wastewaters. The nitrogen break point (NBP) on the moving slope change (MSC) of the pH (mV) was designated as a real-time control point, and a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (18 m 3 ) was designed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Successful real-time control using the developed control strategy was achieved despite the large variations in the influent strength and the loading rate per cycle. Indeed, complete and consistent removal of NH 4 -N (100% removal) was achieved. There was a strong positive correlation (r 2 = 0.9789) between the loading rate and soluble total organic carbon (TOCs) removal, and a loading rate of 100 g/m 3 /cycle was found to be optimum for TOCs removal. Experimental data showed that the real-time control strategy using the MSC of the pH (mV)-time profile could be utilized successfully for the removal of nitrogen from swine wastewater. Furthermore, the pH (mV) was a more reliable real-time control parameter than the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) for the control of the oxic phase. However, the nitrate knee point (NKP) appeared more consistently upon the completion of denitrification on the ORP-time profile than on the pH (mV)-time profile.

  11. Methodologically controlled variations in laboratory and field pH measurements in waterlogged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    artefacts is critical. But the study includes agricultural and forest soils for comparison. At a waterlogged site, Laboratory results were compared with three different field methods: calomel pH probes inserted in the soil from pits, pH measurements of soil solution extracted from the soil, and pH profiles...... using a solid-state pH electrode pushed into the soil from the surface. Comparisons between in situ and laboratory methods revealed differences of more than 1 pH unit. The content of dissolved ions in soil solution and field observations of O2 and CO2 concentrations were used in the speciation model...... PHREEQE in order to predict gas exchange processes. Changes in pH in soil solution following equilibrium in the laboratory could be explained mainly by CO2 degassing. Only soil pH measured in situ using either calomel or solid-state probes inserted directly into the soil was not affected by gas exchange...

  12. Towards control of aggregational behaviour of alpha-lactalbumin at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jane B; Fojan, Peter; Sorensen, John; Petersen, Steffen B

    2006-07-01

    alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La) undergoes considerable structural changes upon loss of bound Ca2+ at acidic pH, leaving alpha-La in a molten globule structure. Using fluorescence the present work provides more insight into the structural transition of alpha-La at acidic pH leading to protein aggregation, most likely caused by a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The rate of aggregation is determined by the protein concentration and temperature applied. Availability of Ca2+ stabilises the protein, and thus prevent aggregation at pH values as low as pH 2.9. In contrast, presence of Cu2+ induces a destabilisation of the protein, which can be explained by a binding to the Zn2+ binding site in alpha-La, possibly resulting in structural alterations of the protein. In general, presence of anions destabilize alpha-La at pH values below pI, with SO4(2-) exhibiting the strongest effect on the protein stability, thus correlating well with the Hofmeister series. At more acidic pH values far from pI, alpha-La becomes more stable towards ion induced aggregation, since higher ion activity is required to efficiently screen the charges on the protein surface. The results presented in this paper provide detailed knowledge on the external parameters leading to aggregation of alpha-La at acidic pH, thus permitting rational design of the aggregation process.

  13. Internal control in the management system of meat processing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is described the theoretical basis of internal control and its practical aspects in the work of meat processing enterprises (a case in the meat processing industry in Ukraine. The purpose of the research is to establish the theoretical foundations of the internal control and its improvement in the activity of meat processing plants of various forms of management. It is proposed to use precisely internal control among other names of domestic control. Definition of internal control, its subject and purpose are improved. The subjects and objects of internal control are determined; the principles of its implementation are supplemented. Specific control tasks in meat processing plants according to the needs of this industry are outlined. Specific examples of control subjects are presented and the role of the revision commission is emphasized. The state of internal control in meat processing plants in Ukraine is investigated and it is established that it has a bad condition and unfounded approach to its implementation by managers of meat processing enterprises. To improve the situation we recommend that each meat processing enterprise have in its staff a revision commission or an apposer (auditor. It is established that internal control is more effective in joint-stock companies than in limited liability companies. The necessity of internal control as an important element in the enterprise management system is accented.

  14. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Continued warfare, destmction of the economic infrastmcture and absence of a recognized central government with administrative control over the entire country remain obstacles to effective dmg control...

  15. Effect of Probiotic Curd on Salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans: A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivangi; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumari, Minti; Mohd, Shafaat

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products like curd seem to be the most natural way to ingest probiotics which can reduce Streptococcus mutans level and also increase salivary pH thereby reducing the dental caries risk. To estimate the role of probiotic curd on salivary pH and Streptococcus mutans count, over a period of 7 days. This double blind parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted at the institution with 60 caries free volunteers belonging to the age group of 20-25 years who were randomly allocated into two groups. Test Group consisted of 30 subjects who consumed 100ml of probiotic curd daily for seven days while an equal numbered Control Group were given 100ml of regular curd for seven days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, after ½ hour 1 hour and 7 days of intervention period using pH meter and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to estimate salivary pH and S. mutans count. Data was statistically analysed using Paired and Unpaired t-test. The study revealed a reduction in salivary pH after ½ hour and 1 hour in both the groups. However after 7 days, normal curd showed a statistically significant (psalivary pH while probiotic curd showed a statistically significant (psalivary pH. Similarly with regard to S. mutans colony counts probiotic curd showed statistically significant reduction (psalivary pH elevation and reduction of salivary S. mutans counts and thus can be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization as a long-term remedy keeping in mind its cost effectiveness.

  16. Variations of internal pH in typical Italian sourdough yeasts during co-fermentation with lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valmorri, Sara; Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic acids (lactic and acetic) and extracellular pH (pHex) on the intracellular pH (pHi) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida milleri during co-fermentation with lactobacilli were investigated by using Fluorescence-Ratio-Imaging-Microscopy (FRIM). Yeasts were grown in a syste...

  17. Use of cation selective membrane and acid addition for PH control in two-dimensional electrokinetic remediation of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, M.S.M.; Lynch, R.J. [Cambridge Univ., Engineering Dept. (United Kingdom); Ilett, D.J. [AEA Technology, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of using a combination of a cation selective membrane and acid addition for pH control in electrokinetic remediation to toxic and heavy metals from low-permeability soil has been investigated. The high pH generated during the remediation process, as a result of surplus OH{sup -} ions, may cause metal ions to precipitate as hydroxides at or near the cathodes. This region of high pH is known to be associated with high electrical resistance, which limits the remediation efficiency by inhibiting current flow through the soil. One way to control pH is by adding acid to neutralize the OH{sup -} ions. However, preliminary work showed that addition of acid to the cathodic region was not effective in preventing the spread of the alkaline zone from cathodes toward anodes. Precipitates were formed before metal ions reached the cathodic region. Therefore, another method of pH control was investigated, using a cation selective membrane to enhance the electrokinetic process. The membrane was placed in front of the cathodes to contain the OH{sup -} ions generated, and confine the precipitates of metal hydroxide to a small cathodic region. The clean-up of a contaminated site was modelled in a rectangular tank, using silt as the low permeability soul and copper to simulate the contamination. The objective was to redistribute the contaminant so as to concentrate it into a small area. Three experiments were performed with the following methods of pH control: (1) acid addition, (2) use of a cation selective membrane and (3) a combination of acid addition and a cation selective membrane. Using the combined approach, it was found that 75% of the target clean-up section (bounded by the cation selective membrane and the anodes) had more than 40% of the initial copper removed. The general efficiency of remediation increased in the following order. (orig.)

  18. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  19. Application of bipolar electrodialysis to E.coli fermentation for simultaneous acetate removal and pH control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, M.; Woodley, John; Lye, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of bipolar electrodialysis (BPED) for the simultaneous removal of inhibitory acetate and pH control during E. coli fermentation was investigated. A two cell pair electrodialysis module, consisting of cation exchange, anion exchange and bipolar membranes with working area of 100 cm2...

  20. The Nuclotron internal target control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isupov, A.Yu., E-mail: isupov@moonhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Krasnov, V.A.; Ladygin, V.P.; Piyadin, S.M.; Reznikov, S.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-11

    The new control system of the Nuclotron (JINR, Dubna) internal target is described in both hardware and software aspects. The CAMAC hardware is based on the use of the standard CAMAC modules developed and manufactured at JINR. The internal target control and data acquisition (IntTarg CDAQ) system software is implemented using the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system (OS) FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the online data collected from internal target and accompanying detectors, as well as the internal target remote control.

  1. Modelling and controlling infectious diseases | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team is exploring the potential of mathematical modelling to ... to China's health system and improvements to its medical research capacity. ... and on the scientific board of the Gates Foundation's Global Health program. ... He has published more than 400 research papers in national and international journals.

  2. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  3. Internal control in the company in order to financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explores the definition of financial monitoring, financial analysis and internal control in aspect to their correlation to fight money laundering and terrorism financing. Internal control is analyzed from the point of view of law, economics and management. The author pays much attention in the article to the work of systems of financial monitoring in organizations.

  4. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G D

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  5. Fuzzy control of dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature of bubble column bioreactor for Candida utilis biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Arteaga Miñano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An automatic control system by dissolved oxygen (DO fuzzy logic, pH and temperature in a bubble column bioreactor (BCB for Candida utilis CECT 10704 biomass production was implemented. Their performance was compared with the classical proportional control. A data acquisition card for the control was designed, built and programmed, using the 4.14 Eagle software for the design and the 3.0 Microcode Studio Plus for programming. A program in 6.0 Visual Basic, which linked up with 7.0 MatLab for fuzzy control was developed; using Mandani inference, membership functions of input and output trapezoidal and triangular; 4 rules for the DO, 3 for pH and 3 for temperature, with connector and type and for defuzzifying the centroid method. Evaluation of biomass production was performed by determining dry weight and growth kinetics with the Gompertz model.The fuzzy control performance of DO, pH and temperature showed superiority in proportional control, characterized by a very close control to set point and a low standard deviation. DO Fuzzy control at 6 ppm, pH of 6 and 30°C, allowed to have the greatest dry weight of 7.65±0.02 g/L and the highest maximum growth of 1.51±0.2, the lowest adaptation phase of 0.27±0.01 h and the greatest specific speed of Candida utilis growth rate of 0.7±0.01 h-1.

  6. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  7. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mata, A D S P; da Silva Marques, D N; Silveira, J M L; Marques, J R O F; de Melo Campos Felino, E T; Guilherme, N F R P M

    2009-04-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS). Portuguese Dental Faculty Clinic. Double blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty volunteers were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample sized was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new gustatory stimulant of secretory secretion containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 5.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented a risk reduction of 80 +/- 10.6% (95% CI) when compared with the traditional one. Gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion with fluoride, xylitol and lower acid content maintain similar salivary stimulation capacity while reducing significantly the dental erosion predictive potential.

  8. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  9. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  10. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  11. AUTOMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control system base d on the principles of standardi zation of all phases of laboratory testing and analysis of internal laboratory quality control and external quality assessment. For the detection accuracy of the results of laboratory tests, carried out internally between the laboratory and laboratory quality control. Under internal laboratory quality control we understand measurement results of each analysis in each anal ytical series rendered directly in the lab every day. The purpose of internal laboratory control - identifying and eliminating unacceptable deviations from standard perfor mance test in the laboratory, i.e. identifying and eliminating harmful analytical errors. The solutions to these problems by implementing automated systems - software that allows you to optimize analytical laboratory research stage of the procedure by automatically creating process control charts was shown.

  12. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  13. pH control structure design for a periodically operated membrane separation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2012-01-01

    A bioreactor integrated with an electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis – REED) is under investigation as potential technology for intensifying lactic acid bioproduction. In this contribution the pH regulation issue in the periodically operated REED module...

  14. pH controlled dispersion and slip casting of Si3N4 in aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The optimum dispersion was found to be in the pH region 9–11 wherein the slurry dis- played minimum .... presence of high levels of agglomeration of fine particles since the ... to the difference in surface chemistry of the powders. The Si3N4 ...

  15. Internal Controlling of a Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, W; Busch, H P

    2015-11-01

    Caused by legal reform initiatives there is a continuous need to increase effectiveness and efficiency in hospitals and surgeries, and thus to improve processes.Consequently the successful management of radiological departments and surgeries requires suitable structures and optimization processes to make optimization in the fields of medical quality, service quality and efficiency possible.In future in the DRG System it is necessary that the organisation of processes must focus on the whole clinical treatment of the patients (Clinical Pathways). Therefore the functions of controlling must be more established and adjusted. On the basis of select Controlling instruments like budgeting, performance indicators, process optimization, staff controlling and benchmarking the target-based and efficient control of radiological surgeries and departments is shown. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  17. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  18. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  19. Influence Implementation Internal Control To Quality Audit Internal Education Consultant In Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research focus to quality audit internal with accountancy Inspection. Hameed 1995 found that the most important factors that affect auditing quality are auditors experience honesty and the knowledge in accounting and auditing standards. Research into this express an inspection of Intern Accountancy amp attributed to Monetary inspection an consultant education with quality. Audit quality is obtained by a process of identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives . Since an entityamp8223s internal control is under the purview of its audit committee Krishnan 2005 the relation between audit committee quality and internal control weaknesses is a subject to be investigated. The methodology used is a quantitative analysis by examining the relationship between variables conceptually. While some study its accounting activity. In self-supporting internal control. Internal control is defined as a process affected by an entitys board of directors management and other personnel designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 1998 its bearing by reporting level an environment and reduction conduct in reporting result of mistake. What finally involvement by Audit Intern can be of benefit. In addition to researching into proposing Audit Intern can improve the target of consultant education going concern.

  20. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  1. International lighting in controlled environments workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research. There are a number of established guidelines for lighting in human and animal environments. Development of new lighting guidelines is necessary for three reasons: (1) recent scientific discoveries show that in addition to supporting the sensation of vision, light has profound nonvisual biological and behavioral effects in both animals and humans; (2) federal regulations (EPACT 1992) are requiring all indoor environments to become more energy efficient with a specific emphasis on energy conservation in lighting; (3) lighting engineers and manufacturers have developed a wealth of new light sources and lighting products that can be applied in animal and human environments. The workshop was aimed at bringing together plant scientists and physical scientists to interact in the discussions. It involved participation of biological scientists involved in studying mechanisms of light reactions and those involved in utilizing lighting for production of plants and maintenance of animals in controlled environments. It included participation of physical scientists from universities and government involved in research as well as those from industry involved in producing lamps and in construction of controlled growth facilities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Evaluation of the Addition of Wood Ash to Control the pH of Substrates in Municipal Biowaste Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo-Ocaña Edgar Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the addition of wood ashes (WA for controlling the pH of substrates in municipal biowaste (MBW composting. Three combinations in wet weight percent (w/w of MBW and WA were tested: i BC1: 2% WA and 98% MBW; ii BC2: 4% WA and 96% MBW; and iii BC3: 8% WA and 92% MBW. Each combination was compared with a control (100% MBW called B1, B2 and B3 respectively. The experiment was conducted to pilot scale, with piles of 510 kg. The results indicate that the addition of WA improved the pH level and nutrients for the composting process; however, it had not substantial benefit in the process (start of the thermophilic phase and the behavior of the substrate degradation rate. Furthermore, a higher presence of salts and phytotoxic compounds in the product was observed. This could limit the product use for agricultural activities.

  3. pH control and rapid mixing in spinning NMR samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P.; Sunberg, Richard J.; Benedict, James J.

    An apparatus is described which permits the acquisition of NMR spectra from spinning 20-mm sample tubes while: (1) constantly monitoring the pH; (2) adding reagents to maintain constant pH (pH-statting); (3) efficiently mixing the added reagent. The apparatus was built to study the spontaneous precipitation of calcium phosphates from supersaturated solutions using 31P NMR. Other applications include the rapid determination of NMR titration curves, and the minimization of temperature gradients in large sample tubes. The apparatus was used to measure the 31P chemical shift titration of dilute phosphoric acid, which yielded accurate shifts for the three species of protonated orthophosphate ion. The bulk magnetic susceptibility of 85% H 3PO 4 relative to a dilute aqueous sample was also measured, and is shown to contribute significantly to chemical shift measurements.

  4. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    high ionic strength (TDS = 348 g/L) and the dominance of the divalent cation, Mg2+. Other natural hyper-saline brines with high concentration of divalent cations such as Kunteyi Lake in China and Don-Juan Pond in Antarctica follow the same general pattern. In contrast, the high pH of soda lakes results not only from their high TA but also by the dominance of the monovalent cation, Na+. Our study emphasizes the strong control of brine composition on pKB‧ and pH. These factors should be taken into consideration when reconstructing past and present environmental evaporitic environments.

  5. Chapter 10. Multinational and international controls. Paper 18. Nuclear proliferation: arrangements for international control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the context of nuclear proliferation, the role of Third World countries is crucial since they constitute the great majority of nations, but only a few of them have as yet decided on their future energy programmes. Both the IAEA and the nuclear energy industries are urging them to opt for nuclear power. This is undesirable, because nuclear energy is an unsuitable energy source for most of these countries; it would create a new economic dependence on industrialized countries and would greatly increase the dangers of a nuclear war. To counteract this, measures are needed (a) to encourage Third World countries to meet their energy need from sources other than nuclear ones; (b) to reduce pressures on countries to acquire nuclear reactors; and (c) to eliminate the threat of new hegemonies to countries that already have nuclear power. To achieve this, it is proposed that two new international organizations be set up. One, a World Energy Organization (WEO), would be a specialized agency of the United Nations, with functions similar to those of WHO or FAO but with sufficient funds to make loans to individual countries which accept WEO's advice about their energy programmes. The second, an International Nuclear Fuel Agency (INFA), would be the sole authority to operate enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal plants. Organizationally, it could be part of the IAEA, but the latter would have to separate its promotional and safeguarding activities. An amendment to the NPT would be needed to oblige all countries both nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states, equally to accept INFA controls. (author)

  6. Dual-lifetime referencing (DLR: a powerful method for on-line measurement of internal pH in carrier-bound immobilized biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniello Caterina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Industrial-scale biocatalytic synthesis of fine chemicals occurs preferentially as continuous processes employing immobilized enzymes on insoluble porous carriers. Diffusional effects in these systems often create substrate and product concentration gradients between bulk liquid and the carrier. Moreover, some widely-used biotransformation processes induce changes in proton concentration. Unlike the bulk pH, which is usually controlled at a suitable value, the intraparticle pH of immobilized enzymes may deviate significantly from its activity and stability optima. The magnitude of the resulting pH gradient depends on the ratio of characteristic times for enzymatic reaction and on mass transfer (the latter is strongly influenced by geometrical features of the porous carrier. Design and selection of optimally performing enzyme immobilizates would therefore benefit largely from experimental studies of the intraparticle pH environment. Here, a simple and non-invasive method based on dual-lifetime referencing (DLR for pH determination in immobilized enzymes is introduced. The technique is applicable to other systems in which particles are kept in suspension by agitation. Results The DLR method employs fluorescein as pH-sensitive luminophore and Ru(II tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline, abbreviated Ru(dpp, as the reference luminophore. Luminescence intensities of the two luminophores are converted into an overall phase shift suitable for pH determination in the range 5.0-8.0. Sepabeads EC-EP were labeled by physically incorporating lipophilic variants of the two luminophores into their polymeric matrix. These beads were employed as carriers for immobilization of cephalosporin C amidase (a model enzyme of industrial relevance. The luminophores did not interfere with the enzyme immobilization characteristics. Analytical intraparticle pH determination was optimized for sensitivity, reproducibility and signal stability under

  7. Proximal and distal control by pH of denitrification rate in a pasture soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuhel, Jiří; Šimek, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 141, 1-2 (2011), s. 230-233 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660605; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) GAJU 142/2010/P Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : denitrification * pH * nitrous oxide Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2011

  8. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  9. Optical Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Grant; Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Gordon, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We apply quantum control schemes previously reserved for atoms and small molecules to more complex polyatomic molecules. Pyrazine was chosen as a model polyatomic molecule for its well-studied conical intersection seam between the S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces (PESs). Using shaped ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate optical control of the excited state dynamics of this molecule under collisionless conditions. This was achieved in a pump-probe experiment by employing a genetic algorithm programmed to suppress ionization of the pyrazine molecules at a preselected time. Our findings indicate that the optimized pulses localize the wave packet for times up to 1.5 ps at a location on the coupled S1/S2 PESs where ionization is energetically forbidden. Our approach is general and does not require knowledge of the molecular Hamiltonian. Funding provided by National Science Foundation grant no. CHE-0848198.

  10. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  11. Developments in the monitoring and control of Eh and pH conditions in hydrothermal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.; Brozdowski, R.; Danielson, M.J.; Koski, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    In the design of a high-level nuclear waste repository it is essential to obtain accurate groundwater Eh-pH data. Design considerations such as the choice of matrix for the waste form, type and dimensions of canister material, use of buffers, and type and amount of backfill would all benefit from an exact knowledge of oxidation potentials (Eh) and acidity levels (pH) of the groundwater. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has initiated a research effort to develop sensors which can be mounted in autoclaves to provide constant monitoring of the Eh-pH conditions that exist during waste form/barrier material/groundwater hydrothermal interaction tests. Sensors must withstand temperatures up to 300 0 C and pressures up to 300 bars. This report considers Teflon hydrogen diffusion membranes and zirconia pH sensors. The development of these sensors represents a significant advance in the environmental monitoring of Eh and pH conditions at elevated temperatures and pressures

  12. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  13. Potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control to optimize glycosyl hydrolase production in shake flasks using filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The optimization of culture medium with statistical methods is widely used in filamentous fungi glycosyl hydrolase production. The implementation of such methodology in bioreactors is very expensive as it requires several pH-controlled systems operating in parallel in order to test a large number of culture media components. The objective of this study was to evaluate potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control, which allows the optimization studies to be performed in shake flasks.The results have shown that buffering the culture medium with 0.1 M potassium biphthalate allowed pH control, resulting in a decrease of the standard deviation of triplicates for pH and activities of glycosyl hydrolase measurements. The use of this buffer allowed shake flask culture media optimization of enzyme production by Trichoderma harzianum, increasing the cellulase activity by more than 2 times compared to standard unbuffered culture medium. The same buffer can be used for culture media optimization of other fungi, such as Penicillium echinulatum.

  14. Monitoring of internal pH gradients within multi-layer tablets by optical methods and EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenächer, Friederike; Schädlich, Andreas; Mäder, Karsten

    2011-09-30

    The high variability of gastrointestinal pH is a general challenge regarding constant release from oral drug delivery systems, especially for ionisable drugs. These drugs often show a pH-dependent solubility and therewith associated intra- and inter-individual variability of emerging drug plasma levels. Several strategies have been investigated with the intention to influence the microenvironmental pH (pH(M)) within solid formulations and therefore achieve pH-independent release profiles. Because of the heterogeneity of solid systems, a precise prediction of the occurring pH(M) is rather difficult. It is therefore important to monitor the pH(M) within the formulations to achieve requested release as well as to minimise pH-dependent degradation processes of the active compound. The purpose of the current study was the analysis of pH(M) gradients within 2- and 3-layer tablets during hydration using 3 different techniques for comparison intensions, in particular a pH indicator dye, fluorescence imaging and EPR imaging. The influence of the presence or absence of pH modifying substances and of an additional lipophilic inter layer on the pH(M) was investigated as well as the variation of matrix forming excipient and buffer pH. The influence of the pH(M) on drug release was analysed as well. In addition, benchtop MRI was accomplished to gain a deeper insight on the hydration and erosion behaviour of 2- and 3-layer tablets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real-time RT-PCR analysis during tomato flower abscission. Song Gao, Tao Xu, Mingfang Qi, Yufeng Liu, Hong Li, Shuangshuang Lv, Jinhong Li, Tianlai Li ...

  16. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  17. Construction of an internal amplification control for Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... million and 10 bacteria and the most suitable internal control concentration for the mix was ... But the risk of contamination is unavoidable in normal ..... Contamination Management: Implication for Broad-Range Ribosomal.

  18. Notification: FY 2018 CSB Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    December 26, 2017. The OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2018 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  19. Internal Capital Market Controls and Financial Performance in Multidivisional Firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Charles W L

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that, within the population of M-form firms, the control systems necessary to realize economic benefits from interrelationships between subunits o f a firm are incompatible with the systems necessary to realize benef its from an M-form type internal capital market. This hypothesis is t ested on 156 large U.K. firms. Questionnaire data are used to classif y the firms according to their internal control characteristics. The findings provide tentative support for the hypothesis. C...

  20. An Analysis of Internal Controls and Procurement Fraud Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    might keep the organization from achieving its objectives and analyze risks , including fraud risk , so as to decide how the risk should be managed ( COSO ...internal control to adequately manage the risk ( COSO , 2013). Risk management involves developing the effective internal control targeted at a...structure and management . While the risk of fraud cannot be eliminated entirely, it can be greatly reduced with an appropriate procurement fraud prevention

  1. Internal controls and credit risk relationship among banks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study purport to investigate the effectiveness of internal control mechanisms, investigate whether evidence of agency problem is found among banks in Europe and determine how internal controls affect credit risk. Design/methodology/approach: Panel data from 91 banks from 23 European Union countries were studied from 2008-2014. Hausman’s specification test suggest the use of fixed effects estimation technique of GLS. Quantitatively modelled data on 15 variables covering elements of internal controls, objectives of internal controls, agency problem, bank and country specific variables were used. Findings: There is still high credit risk in spite of measures being implemented by the European Central Bank. Banks have individual entity factors that increase or decrease credit risk. The study finds effective internal control systems because objectives of internal controls are achieved and significantly determine credit risk. Agency problem is confirmed due to significant positive relation with credit risk. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk with specific variables as risk assessment, return on average risk weighted assets, institutional ownership, bank size, inflation, interest rate and GDP. Research limitations/implications: Missing data prevented the use of strongly balanced panel. The lack of flexibility with using quantitative approach did not allow further scrutiny of the nature of variables. However, statistical tests were acceptable for the model used. The study has implications for management and owners of banks to be warry of agency problem because that provides incentive for reckless high risk transactions that may benefit the agent than the principal. Management must engage in actions that profile the company better and enhances value maximization. Rising default risk has tendency to impair corporate image leading to loss of reputational capital. Originality/value: The study provides the use of

  2. Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist; Laurent L. Jacque

    1995-01-01

    What determines a service firm's organizational choice between equity-based control and franchising? This question, which has elicited some theoretical answers and a few empirical tests in a domestic setting, has never been addressed in an international context before. This study explains the mode of control chosen in terms of a theoretical framework which borrows from agency theory and transaction cost analysis. The propensity to franchise internationally was found to be directly related to ...

  3. Nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Abbott, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy Order (DOE) 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials, includes several requirements for development and implementation of an internal audit program. Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc., manages five sites in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge and has a Central Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability (NMC and A) Manager with matrixed responsibility for the NMC and A program at the five sites. The Energy Systems Central NMC and A Manager has developed an NMC and A Internal Audit Handbook which defines the functional responsibilities, performance criteria, and reporting and documentation requirements for the Energy Systems NMC and A Internal Audit Program. The initial work to develop and implement these standards was tested at the K-25 Site when the site hired an internal auditor to meet the DOE requirements for an NMC and A Internal Audit program

  4. 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems.

  5. Internal laboratory control in residue analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The thesis contains a chapter on gaschromatographic system in which gas current, temperatures, separation system, detector system, recorder, dosing system and integrator are described. The chapter on reagents deals with standards and solvents, absorbents and other reagents. The chapter on laboratory equipment deals with general recommendations for apparatus, purification and total numerical result of blank test. The chapter ''Methods'' contains general references, aptitude for a special problem, common investigations and control by standard reference materials. The chapter on the work up of samples treats extraction, purification, concentrating the solution, internal standard, multiple determination and control samples. The chapter on measurement presents calibration, internal standard, multiple determination, securing the result and control samples. The chapter on evaluation consists of qualitative and quantitave evaluation, decision criteria and communication of the result. The chapter of documentation described routine investigations, tests and controls of internal laboratory control, preliminary works, maintenance and service works.

  6. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand.

  7. Facile synthesis of concentrated gold nanoparticles with low size-distribution in water: temperature and pH controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Li, Dongxiang; Wan, Gangqiang; Xu, Jie; Hou, Wanguo

    2011-07-01

    The citrate reduction method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has known advantages but usually provides the products with low nanoparticle concentration and limits its application. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize GNPs from concentrated chloroauric acid (2.5 mM) via adding sodium hydroxide and controlling the temperature. It was found that adding a proper amount of sodium hydroxide can produce uniform concentrated GNPs with low size distribution; otherwise, the largely distributed nanoparticles or instable colloids were obtained. The low reaction temperature is helpful to control the nanoparticle formation rate, and uniform GNPs can be obtained in presence of optimized NaOH concentrations. The pH values of the obtained uniform GNPs were found to be very near to neutral, and the pH influence on the particle size distribution may reveal the different formation mechanism of GNPs at high or low pH condition. Moreover, this modified synthesis method can save more than 90% energy in the heating step. Such environmental-friendly synthesis method for gold nanoparticles may have a great potential in large-scale manufacturing for commercial and industrial demand.

  8. Control of red cell volume and pH in trout: Effects of isoproterenol, transport inhibitors, and extracellular pH in bicarbonate/carbon dioxide-buffered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIKINMAA, M; STEFFENSEN, JF; TUFTS, BL

    1987-01-01

    The effects of extracellular pH and beta-adrenergic stimula-tion on the volume and pH of rainbow. trout red cells were studied in HCO3-/ CO2 butfered media. A decrease in extracellular pH caused an increase in red cell volume and a decrease in intracellular pH. The pH-induced changes in cell volume......, and that the Na+/H+ exchanger is not activated by changes in intracellular pH alone. The adrenergic drug, isoproterenol, promoted cell swelling and proton extrusion even in the presence of 10 mM HCO3-, showing that the adrenergic response plays a significant role in the control of cytoplasmic pH. These responses...... were enhanced by a decrease in extracellular pH, showing that the adrenergic response is of benefit to stressed animals. DIDS markedly enhanced the effect of isoproterenol on the pHi, but abolished the increase in red cell volume. The effects of furosemide were similar to those of DIDS, suggesting...

  9. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuany Pérez González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of t he company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In t wo house of cultivation of tomato 540 m 2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2 of floor. After the crop was incorporate to the floor a treatment of on experimental formulated of Trichoderma (Trichobiol 34 PH with the fatirriego system to reason of 5x1012 conidios/ha. With the objective of evaluate the levels of affe ctation for nematodes. The use of Trichoderma solid and blended with worm humus and the addition of a prepara tion of commercial powdered Trichobiol (34 PH reduce the contamination degree of nematodes 2, to degree 1 in a period of 13 days in the treated house and they statued at that level until the crop

  10. Importance of bicarbonate transport in pH control during amelogenesis - need for functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, G; DenBesten, P; Rácz, R; Zsembery, Á

    2017-08-18

    Dental enamel, the hardest mammalian tissue, is produced by ameloblasts. Ameloblasts show many similarities to other transporting epithelia although their secretory product, the enamel matrix, is quite different. Ameloblasts direct the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals, which liberate large quantities of protons that then need to be buffered to allow mineralization to proceed. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. Many investigations have used immunohistochemical and knockout studies to determine the effects of these genes on enamel formation, but up till recently very little functional data were available for mineral ion transport. To address this, we developed a novel 2D in vitro model using HAT-7 ameloblast cells. HAT-7 cells can be polarized and develop functional tight junctions. Furthermore, they are able to accumulate bicarbonate ions from the basolateral to the apical fluid spaces. We propose that in the future, the HAT-7 2D system along with similar cellular models will be useful to functionally model ion transport processes during amelogenesis. Additionally, we also suggest that similar approaches will allow a better understanding of the regulation of the cycling process in maturation-stage ameloblasts, and the pH sensory mechanisms, which are required to develop sound, healthy enamel. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous control of pH value and chloride concentration in a water coolant of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Krasnoperov, V.M.; Fokina, K.G.; Vilkov, N.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    Potentiometry method with the use of flowing cells with two identical electrodes is the simplest and most safe for continuous pH value and chloride control in nuclear reactor circulating circuits. The constant potential on the comparison electrode may be provided by supplying the analyzed solution to it through the ion resin filter of mixed operation. The pos--sibility of a continuous pH value monitoring in a flowing cell with two glass electrodes in parallel is considered. To monitor clorides a cell with two porous chlorine-silver electrodes positioned in series is used. The cells of the design described are shown to be workable in water simulating coolants for water-cooled reactors

  12. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogar Cristian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s internal control systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of costs for implementing labor market related services. But supporting costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for best value for money in real and legal operations. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding internal control system implementation in services. This study was realized in April 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises existence for a future improvement of the existing internal control system model. 100 members of this community: managers, accountants, auditors financial responsible and other team members answered anonymously, revealing a real concern for internal control, providing as well a different side image for this. Analyzing all stakeholder answers, we may consider that our hypothesis is correct and there is a real need for internal control environment improvements. This study is a part of a larger research “New models of the accounting and internal control systems of ESF financed interventions in Romania”, addressing a qualitative

  13. Fermentation pH influences the physiological-state dynamics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 during pH-controlled culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Aline; Bouix, Marielle; Béal, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    This study aims at better understanding the effects of fermentation pH and harvesting time on Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 cellular state in order to improve knowledge of the dynamics of the physiological state and to better manage starter production. The Cinac system and multiparametric flow cytometry were used to characterize and compare the progress of the physiological events that occurred during pH 6 and pH 5 controlled cultures. Acidification activity, membrane damage, enzymatic activity, cellular depolarization, intracellular pH, and pH gradient were determined and compared during growing conditions. Strong differences in the time course of viability, membrane integrity, and acidification activity were displayed between pH 6 and pH 5 cultures. As a main result, the pH 5 control during fermentation allowed the cells to maintain a more robust physiological state, with high viability and stable acidification activity throughout growth, in opposition to a viability decrease and fluctuation of activity at pH 6. This result was mainly explained by differences in lactate concentration in the culture medium and in pH gradient value. The elevated content of the ionic lactate form at high pH values damaged membrane integrity that led to a viability decrease. In contrast, the high pH gradient observed throughout pH 5 cultures was associated with an increased energetic level that helped the cells maintain their physiological state. Such results may benefit industrial starter producers and fermented-product manufacturers by allowing them to better control the quality of their starters, before freezing or before using them for food fermentation.

  14. Issues of internal control during the reform period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Gresova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and methodological problems of organization and financial control activities, the main problems and reasons causing the need for a unified system of internal financial control in the State Administration of Railway Transport of Ukraine at the stage of the reform.

  15. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  16. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  17. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hélène Perreten

    2014-09-18

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  18. Investigation of pH response and photo-control of wettability on spiropyran-derivatized surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choong-Do

    2009-12-01

    One promising method to control a liquid drop on a surface for microfluidic devices is to use the surface tension gradient on a photo-responsive surface by light irradiation. A photo-switchable spiropyran monolayer was prepared on smooth glass or silicon wafers via 3-aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane linkages. The pH response of the surface-bound spiropyran was investigated by measuring contact angle as a function of pH, since the pH value of the liquids applied to a microfluidic system can vary widely. Based on the contact angle titration and UV-Vis spectroscopic data, a protonation and deprotonation mechanism of the surface-bound spiropyran was proposed. The advancing contact angles under UV and under visible light irradiation at high pH values were about 100 smaller than those at low pH values. The decrease in contact angle under UV light with decreasing pH value was assigned to the protonation of open merocyanine (MC) to MC-OH+. Meanwhile, the decrease in contact angle under visible light was attributed to the protonation of the closed spiropryan (SP), generating a mixed state of MC-OH+ in equilibrium with N-protonated SP-NH+. In order to examine the possibility of light-induced liquid drop motion on the spiropyran-derivatized smooth surfaces, the light-induced surface tension change between SP and MC was estimated using the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and the Lifshitz---van der Waals/Acid-Base (LWAB) approaches based on the contact angle data. The average light-induced surface energy change between the two isomers under UV and visible light exposure was 1.4 mJ/m 2, implying that the small change in surface tension is not sufficient to move a liquid droplet on the surface. Liquid drop motion requires that the light-induced switching angle be greater than the contact angle hysteresis. However, the light-induced switching angle of the spiropyran-derivatized surface was significantly smaller than the hysteresis. Thus, in order to achieve liquid drop motion on the

  19. Enhanced α-ketoglutaric acid production and recovery in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast by effective pH controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Samoilenko, Vladimir A

    2013-10-01

    The replacement of chemical synthesis by environmentally friendly energy-efficient technologies for production of valuable metabolites is a principal strategy of developing biotechnological industry all over the world. In the present study, we develop a method for α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) production from rapeseed oil with the use of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Sixty strains of Y. lipolytica yeasts were tested for their ability to produce KGA, and the strain Y. lipolytica 212 (Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2412) was selected as a promising KGA producer. Using a three-stage pH controlling, in which pH was 4.5 in the growth phase, then since 72 to 144 h, pH was maintained at 3.5 and in the later phase of acid production, the titration by KOH was switch off, selected strain produced 106.5 g l(-1) of KGA with mass yield of 0.95 g g(-1). KGA in the form of monopotassium salt was isolated from the culture broth and purified. The isolation procedure involved separation of biomass, extraction of residual triglycerides, filtrate bleaching, and acidification with mineral acid (to pH 2.8-3.4), concentration, precipitation of mineral salts, and crystallization of the product. The purity of KGA isolated from the culture filtrate reached 99.1 %.

  20. The V-ATPase membrane domain is a sensor of granular pH that controls the exocytotic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Ammar, Mohamed Raafet; Erard, Marie; Amar, Muriel; Moreau, Alexandre W; Fossier, Philippe; Gleize, Vincent; Vitale, Nicolas; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-10-28

    Several studies have suggested that the V0 domain of the vacuolar-type H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) is directly implicated in secretory vesicle exocytosis through a role in membrane fusion. We report in this paper that there was a rapid decrease in neurotransmitter release after acute photoinactivation of the V0 a1-I subunit in neuronal pairs. Likewise, inactivation of the V0 a1-I subunit in chromaffin cells resulted in a decreased frequency and prolonged kinetics of amperometric spikes induced by depolarization, with shortening of the fusion pore open time. Dissipation of the granular pH gradient was associated with an inhibition of exocytosis and correlated with the V1-V0 association status in secretory granules. We thus conclude that V0 serves as a sensor of intragranular pH that controls exocytosis and synaptic transmission via the reversible dissociation of V1 at acidic pH. Hence, the V-ATPase membrane domain would allow the exocytotic machinery to discriminate fully loaded and acidified vesicles from vesicles undergoing neurotransmitter reloading.

  1. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  2. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  3. Internal quality control of RIA with Tonks error calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaodong

    1996-01-01

    According to the methodology feature of RIA, an internal quality control chart with Tonks error calculation method which is suitable for RIA is designed. The quality control chart defines the value of the allowance error with normal reference range. The method has the simplicity of its performance and directly perceived through the senses. Taking the example of determining T 3 and T 4 , the calculation of allowance error, drawing of quality control chart and the analysis of result are introduced

  4. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matviychuk, Oksana G. [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620990, Russia and Ural Federal University, 19 Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  5. PH og modernismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus.......Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus....

  6. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i...... because of positive reagent blanks (controls (Control of data handling revealed 0.1% reading mistakes and 0.5% entry mistakes. Based on our experiences, we propose an internal quality control programme......, electrophoresis (analytical factors), result reading and entry into a database (post-analytical factors). Furthermore, we evaluated a procedure for result confirmation. Isolated DNA was of good quality (42 micrograms/ml blood, A260/A280 ratio > 1.75, negative DNAsis tests). Occasionally, results were reanalysed...

  7. An Adaptive Fuzzy Control Scheme for Dyebath pH in Exhaust Dyeing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    parameters such as temperature, salt concentration, the quality of the dyed fabric, .... where the natural angular frequency, n = 0.337 rad. ... (6). Dosing pumps and dye bath. The control signal generated by the fuzzy controller, u(kT), determines ...

  8. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  9. A feedback linearization approach to spacecraft control using momentum exchange devices. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzielski, John Edward

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of nonlinear control theory have shown how coordiante changes in the state and input spaces can be used with nonlinear feedback to transform certain nonlinear ordinary differential equations into equivalent linear equations. These feedback linearization techniques are applied to resolve two problems arising in the control of spacecraft equipped with control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). The first application involves the computation of rate commands for the gimbals that rotate the individual gyroscopes to produce commanded torques on the spacecraft. The second application is to the long-term management of stored momentum in the system of control moment gyroscopes using environmental torques acting on the vehicle. An approach to distributing control effort among a group of redundant actuators is described that uses feedback linearization techniques to parameterize sets of controls which influence a specified subsystem in a desired way. The approach is adapted for use in spacecraft control with double-gimballed gyroscopes to produce an algorithm that avoids problematic gimbal configurations by approximating sets of gimbal rates that drive CMG rotors into desirable configurations. The momentum management problem is stated as a trajectory optimization problem with a nonlinear dynamical constraint. Feedback linearization and collocation are used to transform this problem into an unconstrainted nonlinear program. The approach to trajectory optimization is fast and robust. A number of examples are presented showing applications to the proposed NASA space station.

  10. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  11. Oxidation potential (E/sub h/) and pH control during experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose of this statement is to introduce the subject of oxidation potential, E/sub h/, and to discuss its control in experiments. After the concept of E/sub h/ is reviewed, the range of oxidation potentials expected to be associated with a repository for high level nuclear waste will be addressed. Finally, three laboratory methods of controlling E/sub h/ will be described, along with some perspective that has been derived from experience given for each method

  12. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  13. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H+ pump activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace α-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (∼6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H + pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H + ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H + -ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H + pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H + -pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm

  14. Exhaled breath condensate pH does not discriminate asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or the response to lansoprazole treatment in children with poorly controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Holbrook, Janet T; Wei, Christine Y; Brown, Meredith S; Wise, Robert A; Teague, W Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Although exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH has been identified as an "emerging" biomarker of interest for asthma clinical trials, the clinical determinants of EBC pH remain poorly understood. Other studies have associated acid reflux-induced respiratory symptoms, for example, cough, with transient acidification of EBC. We sought to determine the clinical and physiologic correlates of EBC acidification in a highly characterized sample of children with poorly controlled asthma. We hypothesized that (1) children with asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux determined by 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring would have a lower EBC pH than children without gastroesophageal reflux, (2) treatment with lansoprazole would alter EBC pH in those children, and (3) EBC acidification would be associated with increased asthma symptoms, poorer asthma control and quality of life, and increased formation of breath nitrogen oxides (NOx). A total of 110 children, age range 6 to 17 years, with poor asthma control and esophageal pH data enrolled in the Study of Acid Reflux in Children with Asthma (NCT00442013) were included. Children submitted EBC samples for pH and NOx measurement at randomization and at study weeks 8, 16, and 24. Serial EBC pH measurements failed to distinguish asymptomatic gastroesophageal reflux and was not associated with breath NOx formation. EBC pH also did not discriminate asthma characteristics such as medication and health care utilization, pulmonary function, and asthma control and quality of life both at baseline and across the study period. Despite the relative ease of EBC collection, EBC pH as a biomarker does not provide useful information of children with asthma who were enrolled in asthma clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016. It includes research findings from leading experts in the fields connected with INDUSTRY 4.0 and its implementation, especially: intelligent systems, advanced control, information technologies, industrial automation, robotics, intelligent sensors, metrology and new materials. Each chapter offers an analysis of a specific technical problem followed by a numerical analysis and simulation as well as the implementation for the solution of a real-world problem.

  16. Internal cost control on the ecological quality of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Syroid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the environmental quality of products due attention should be paid to control the processes related to environmental quality input of the product. The results of the study help to state the purpose and objectives of the control, also to define objects for internal control of operations cost of environmental quality. So, we believe that the main purpose of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products is the establishment of the correctness and legality of business operations, prevention of violations and abuses in the expenditure of natural, labour, material and financial resources to ensure the minimization of negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment. The basic objectives of internal control of expenditure are brought forward, but it should be noted that they can vary and depend on the size, structure, spheres and types of economic activity of the enterprise, the requirements of management personnel. In the process of identifying the objects of control of environmental quality it should be noted that this list is not exhaustive, but it is most relevant to highlight objects such as genetically modified organisms and waste production. Also the subjects of cost control to environmental quality, their functions and the information base for monitoring are determined. Proper organization of the process of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products would benefit from a clear documentation of transactions, timely and complete registration of accounting data in the registers, the true reflection of information in managerial financial reporting and ensure reduction of the negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment.

  17. Vibration control of large linear quadratic symmetric systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique properties on a class of the second order lambda matrices were found and applied to determine a damping matrix of the decoupled subsystem in such a way that the damped system would have preassigned eigenvalues without disturbing the stiffness matrix. The resulting system was realized as a time invariant velocity only feedback control system with desired poles. Another approach using optimal control theory was also applied to the decoupled system in such a way that the mode spillover problem could be eliminated. The procedures were tested successfully by numerical examples.

  18. 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of instrument electrical and automatic control system, the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control (CEEAC) was established at the crossroads of information technology and control technology, and seeks to effectively apply information technology to a sweeping trend that views control as the core of intelligent manufacturing and life. This book takes a look forward into advanced manufacturing development, an area shaped by intelligent manufacturing. It highlights the application and promotion of process control represented by traditional industries, such as the steel industry and petrochemical industry; the technical equipment and system cooperative control represented by robot technology and multi-axis CNC; and the control and support of emerging process technologies represented by laser melting and stacking, as well as the emerging industry represented by sustainable and intelligent life. The book places particular emphasis on the micro-segments field, such as...

  19. Pleiotropic function of DLX3 in amelogenesis: from regulating pH and keratin expression to controlling enamel rod decussation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2018-12-01

    DLX3 is essential for tooth enamel development and is so far the only transcription factor known to be mutated in a syndromic form of amelogenesis imperfecta. Through conditional deletion of Dlx3 in the dental epithelium in mouse, we have previously established the involvement of DLX3 in enamel pH regulation, as well as in controlling the expression of sets of keratins that contribute to enamel rod sheath formation. Here, we show that the decussation pattern of enamel rods was lost in conditional knockout animals, suggesting that DLX3 controls the coordinated migration of ameloblasts during enamel secretion. We further demonstrate that DLX3 regulates the expression of some components of myosin II complexes potentially involved in driving the movement of ameloblasts that leads to enamel rod decussation.

  20. Dose control for internal radiation; Kawalan dos untuk sinaran dalam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: aerosol physics, relationship of surface contamination and internal contamination for workers, surface contamination control and the it`s procedures i.e. protective personnel cloth, waste management in active area, storage of radioactive materials etc.

  1. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  2. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official business. Each railroad shall amend its Internal Control Plan, as necessary, to reflect any..., incident, injury or illness will not be permitted or tolerated and will result in some stated disciplinary... paragraph (a)(1). Each railroad shall have procedures to process complaints from any person about the policy...

  3. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  4. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  5. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent and...

  6. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  7. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  8. ENHANCING ASSETS' PROTECTION THROUGH AN ADEQUATE MONITORING OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM BY INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Eugen Cosmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The assets are established into a company as very important and strategic resources that are contributing at the creation of the needed premises to conduct the daily-basis activity and also to reach present and future planned objectives. Recent studies like COSO's Fraudulent Financial Reporting 1998-2007 have highlighted an increasing fraudulent activity against assets therefore the efforts of fighting against fraud must be supplemented in order to preserve the existence and value of those resources. Internal controls are processes implemented in order to give a reasonable assurance that the company will not become a fraud victim. Even so, a lot of internal controls are paying a heavy tribute to their lack of efficiency and update. Thus, for a correct functioning, internal controls must be monitored and assessed permanently in order to preserve their strength and ability to fulfill their mission. This approach will deliver more added value because rather than being corrected after they have already occurred, the frauds related with the assets will be prevented, detected and reported at a timely moment, thereby the incidence and value of those criminal activities will decrease significantly. Furthermore, because not only the process of monitoring is important but even the entity conducting this activity we believe that internal audit is the most appropriate to undertake this responsibility. Thus, through this material we opened a discussion about how important permanent monitored and updated internal controls are in order to assure a proper assets protection and why internal audit, rather than the management, should be the most eligible to undertake this responsibility. Also we provided some suggestions regarding the main activities that must be taken into consideration by an internal audit professional when is being involved in a monitoring process of internal control system. We do believe that this paper will be the starting point for new

  9. Application of Contraction Mappings to the Control of Nonlinear Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, W. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The theoretical and applied aspects of successive approximation techniques are considered for the determination of controls for nonlinear dynamical systems. Particular emphasis is placed upon the methods of contraction mappings and modified contraction mappings. It is shown that application of the Pontryagin principle to the optimal nonlinear regulator problem results in necessary conditions for optimality in the form of a two point boundary value problem (TPBVP). The TPBVP is represented by an operator equation and functional analytic results on the iterative solution of operator equations are applied. The general convergence theorems are translated and applied to those operators arising from the optimal regulation of nonlinear systems. It is shown that simply structured matrices and similarity transformations may be used to facilitate the calculation of the matrix Green functions and the evaluation of the convergence criteria. A controllability theory based on the integral representation of TPBVP's, the implicit function theorem, and contraction mappings is developed for nonlinear dynamical systems. Contraction mappings are theoretically and practically applied to a nonlinear control problem with bounded input control and the Lipschitz norm is used to prove convergence for the nondifferentiable operator. A dynamic model representing community drug usage is developed and the contraction mappings method is used to study the optimal regulation of the nonlinear system.

  10. Theory and applications of a novel ion exchange chromatographic technology using controlled pH gradients for separating proteins on anionic and cationic stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Latchezar I; Hirsh, Allen G

    2008-07-25

    pISep is a major new advance in low ionic strength ion exchange chromatography. It enables the formation of externally controlled pH gradients over the very broad pH range from 2 to 12. The gradients can be generated on either cationic or anionic exchangers over arbitrary pH ranges wherein the stationary phases remain totally charged. Associated pISep software makes possible the calculation of either linear, nonlinear or combined, multi-step, multi-slope pH gradients. These highly reproducible pH gradients, while separating proteins and glycoproteins in the order of their electrophoretic pIs, provide superior chromatographic resolution compared to salt. This paper also presents a statistical mechanical model for protein binding to ion exchange stationary phases enhancing the electrostatic interaction theory for the general dependence of retention factor k, on both salt and pH simultaneously. It is shown that the retention factors computed from short time isocratic salt elution data of a model protein can be used to accurately predict its salt elution concentration in varying slope salt elution gradients formed at varying isocratic pH as well as the pH at which it will be eluted from an anionic exchange column by a pISep pH gradient in the absence of salt.

  11. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  12. Sulphate partitioning into calcite: Experimental verification of pH control and application to seasonality in speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Borsato, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy; Frisia, Silvia; Baldini, James U. L.

    2018-04-01

    Carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS) is a useful carrier of palaeoenvironmental information throughout the geologic record, particularly through its stable isotope composition. However, a paucity of experimental data restricts quantitative understanding of sulphate incorporation into carbonates, and consequently CAS concentrations and their diagenetic modifications are rarely interpreted. However, in the case of calcite speleothems, the remarkably high-resolution CAS records which are obtainable via modern microanalytical techniques represent a potentially invaluable source of palaeoenvironmental information. Here, we describe the results of controlled experiments of sulphate co-precipitation with calcite in freshwater solutions where pH, saturation state, and sulphate concentration were varied independently of each other. Solution pH is confirmed as the principal control on sulphate incorporation into calcite. The relative efficiency of incorporation was calculated as a partition coefficient DSO4 = (mSO4/mCO3)solid/(mSO4/mCO3)solution. High crystal growth rates (driven by either pH or saturation state) encouraged higher values of DSO4 because of an increasing concentration of defect sites on crystal surfaces. At low growth rates, DSO4 was reduced due to an inferred competition between sulphate and bicarbonate at the calcite surface. These experimental results are applied to understand the incorporation of sulphate into speleothem calcite. The experimentally determined pH-dependence suggests that strong seasonal variations in cave air PCO2 could account for annual cycles in sulphate concentration observed in stalagmites. Our new experimentally determined values of DSO4 were compared with DSO4 values calculated from speleothem-drip water monitoring from two caves within the Austrian and Italian Alps. At Obir cave, Austria, DSO4 (×105) varies between 11.1 (winter) and 9.0 (summer) and the corresponding figures for Ernesto cave, Italy, are 15.4 (winter) and 14

  13. Simulation study of burning control with internal transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, S.I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-02-01

    Dynamics of burning plasma with internal transport barrier is studied by use of a one dimensional transport simulation code. Two possible mechanisms are modeled for internal transport barrier collapse. One is the collapse, which occurs above the critical pressure gradient, the impact of which is modeled by the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The other is the collapse, which occurs due to the sawtooth trigger. The extended Kadomtsev type reconnection model with multiple resonant surfaces is introduced. Both models are examined for the analysis of long time sustainment of burning. A test of profile control to mitigate the collapse is investigated. The additional circulating power to suppress thermal quench (collapse) is evaluated. (author)

  14. A mathematical model for the generation and control of a pH gradient in an immobilized enzyme system involving acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Fournier, R L; Varanasi, S

    1998-02-20

    An optimal pH control technique has been developed for multistep enzymatic synthesis reactions where the optimal pH differs by several units for each step. This technique separates an acidic environment from a basic environment by the hydrolysis of urea within a thin layer of immobilized urease. With this technique, a two-step enzymatic reaction can take place simultaneously, in proximity to each other, and at their respective optimal pH. Because a reaction system involving an acid generation represents a more challenging test of this pH control technique, a number of factors that affect the generation of such a pH gradient are considered in this study. The mathematical model proposed is based on several simplifying assumptions and represents a first attempt to provide an analysis of this complex problem. The results show that, by choosing appropriate parameters, the pH control technique still can generate the desired pH gradient even if there is an acid-generating reaction in the system. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Disturbance Observer based internal Model Controller Design: Applications to Tracking Control of Optical Disk Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Taek; Suh, Il Hong [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    A digital tracking controller is proposed for a precise positioning control under a large repetitive and/or non repetitive disturbances. The proposed controller consists of the internal model controller and the disturbance observer to eliminate the modeling uncertainty. A sufficient condition is given for robust stability of the proposed control system. Numerical Examples are illustrated for a precise head positioning of optical disk drives regardless of a torque disturbance and/or output disturbance. (author). 8 refs., 19 figs.

  16. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  17. The stages of the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the history of the international drug control system of the League of Nations/United Nations can be divided into three cumulative stages. The first stage, the supply stage, dates back to early part of the 20th century, and aimed to reduce the supply of drugs through careful monitoring and trade regulations. This has remained the dominant control strategy. In the middle of the century, demand control, in the form of treatment and criminalization of the individual user, began to appear. This was the least successful stage. Finally, in the 1980s, the dangers of the drug traffic assumed an important place on the international agenda and measures to reduce drug-related organized crime were enacted. To date, this has been a process of proliferation of regulatory strategies. Recently, new challenges to the international drug control system have emerged, including well-funded non-governmental organizations critical of the war on drugs, and the adoption of harm reduction measures in national policies around the world.

  18. Corruption and internal control weaknesses. Case study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption represents one of the major causes of poverty all over the world and European Union is fighting against it. In the last few years, the corruption phenomenon registered a high level in some European countries and became one of the most problematic factors for doing business, due to the evolution of the perceived top five global risks: interstate conflict and regional consequences, extreme weather events, failure of national governance, state collapse or crises, high structural unemployment or underemployment              (WEF-Global Risk Report 2015, p. 14. One of the modalities in combating corruption is implementing the internal control and most of the governments and organizations adopted strong control techniques. Most of the control weaknesses are related to the financial procedures and the number of controllers. Some of the controllers do not have enough financial expertise or do not understand the importance of informatics systems.

  19. Study of the buffering capacity, pH and salivary flow rate in type 2 well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Maria José; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Kehrig, Ruth; Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Nicolau, José

    2007-01-01

    This study measured the flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva from well- and poorly metabolically controlled Type 2 diabetic patients in three cities of the southern part of Brazil, compared with healthy individuals from the same cities. Whole saliva was collected by mechanical stimulation and buffering capacity and glucose level were measured. Blood was collected after 12 hours fasting and glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations were determined. The data were analysed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (alpha= 0.05). The flow rate was lower in the Type 2 diabetic patients, regardless of whether they were well or poorly metabolically controlled, compared with healthy individuals (p Salivary glucose concentration was higher in both diabetic patient groups, i.e. well and poorly metabolically controlled, than in the control (p salivary flow rate or the salivary glucose concentration.

  20. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  1. Comparison of Salivary pH in Diabetic Patients Referring to Diabetes Center of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences with Non-Diabetic Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Owlia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has extensive oral consequences which could be referred to changes of saliva properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the pH of un-stimulated whole saliva between diabetic patients that referred to diabetes center of Yazd Shahid Sadoughi university and non- diabetic persons. Methods: In this Case- control study, the population consisted of 60 persons in 2 groups: Thirty diabetic patients(type 2 and 30 non-diabetic persons. Two patients of case group were excluded from study due to inconsistency of their salivary pH and pH paper. Sampling from saliva was performed after 2 hours of abstinence from eating and smoking. Then pH of samples was measured by the pH paper that was scored from 5.5 to 8. After that blood sample was taken for measuring FBS. Data from 2 groups was analyzed using t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation by SPSS software(ver. 12. Results: Mean pH in case and control groups was 6.11 ±0.57 and 6.66±0.64, respectively. The results showed that pH of un-stimulated whole saliva in diabetic patients was significantly lower than control group(P=0.001. Conclusion: pH of un-stimulated whole saliva in diabetic patients was lower than non-diabetic persons and pH of un-stimulated whole saliva had a reverse relationship with FBS(P=0.031.

  2. PH sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Artero, C.; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a marine instrument for the measurement of pH in seawater. The measurement system consists of a pH electrode connected to the underwater observatory OBSEA. The extracted data are useful for scientists researching ocean acidification. Peer Reviewed

  3. Strengthening the regulatory control of consumer goods through international harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yus Rusdian Akhmad

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently working on a recommendation in the form of guidelines for regulating consumer goods. Preparation of this document has a significant dimension of international issues, especially in terms of the application of the principles of justification and application of the concept of exemption. International harmonization among regulators ranging from the regional to the global level is a central issue and considering the complex issues that arise in addition to covering the scientific aspects also involve consideration of the legal aspects or values espoused by any State which may differ from one another. PERKA BAPETEN on consumer goods is still in the preparation stage so that the discussion of the material will be useful for improving the quality of the regulation in time. There is a significant gap of understanding to the related materials by the parties concerned (between local and international parties were among the local party). This paper intends to propose the understanding and views on radiation protection and regulatory control for consumer goods and hopely could contributed significantly to strengthening its regulatory control which is primarily through a reduction in the gap of understanding to the related concept that potentially multi perceptions and encourage stronger cooperation among regulatory bodies. (author)

  4. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  5. Effects of Two-stage Controlled pH and Temperature vs. One-step Process for Hemicellulase Biosynthesis and Feruloyl Oligosaccharide Fermentation using Aureobasidium pullulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage, pH- and temperature-controlled wheat bran fermentation method using Aureobasidium pullulans was investigated for feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs production and the activities of xylanase, xylosidase, and ferulic acid esterase (FAE. A. pullulans secreted xylanase, xylosidase, and FAE at high levels in the initial pH of 4.0 to 5.0 and a fermentation liquid temperature of 31 °C to 33 °C. FOs production via two-stage fermentation (FOs 2 reached 1123 nmol/L after fermentation for 96 h, by controlling the initial pH at 4.0 and the initial temperature at 33 °C, and then changing the pH to 6.0 and the temperature to 29 °C at the same time at 36 h. This process was 12 h shorter and 219 nmol/L higher than a one-stage fermentation for producing FOs 1. Xylanase, xylosidase, and FAE activities were highly correlated with controlled pH and temperature and FOs biosynthesis rate. Thus, the combination of two-stage controlled pH and temperature could support mass production of FOs.

  6. Problems is applying new internal dose coefficients to radiation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi [Oarai Laboratory, Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The author discussed problems concerning the conceivable influence in the radiation control and those newly developing when the new internal dose coefficients are applied in the law in the future. For the conceivable influence, the occupational and public exposure was discussed: In the former, the effective dose equivalent limit (at present, 50 mSv/y) was thought to be reduced and in the latter, the limit to be obscure although it might be more greatly influenced by the new coefficients. For newly developing problems, since the new biological model which is more realistic was introduced for calculation of the internal dose and made the calculation more complicated, use of computer is requisite. The effective dose of the internal exposure in the individual monitoring should be conveniently calculated as done at present even after application of the new coefficients. For calculation of the effective dose of the internal exposure, there are such problems as correction of the inhaled particle size and of the individual personal parameter. A model calculation of residual rate in the chest where the respiratory tract alone participated was presented as an example but for the whole body, more complicated functions were pointed out necessary. The concept was concluded to be incorporated in the law in a convenient and easy manner and a software for calculation of internal dose using the new coefficients was wanted. (K.H.)

  7. Internal Interdecadal Variability in CMIP5 Control Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, A. H.; Mann, M. E.; Frankcombe, L. M.; England, M. H.; Steinman, B. A.; Miller, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Here we make use of control simulations from the CMIP5 models to quantify the amplitude of the interdecadal internal variability component in Atlantic, Pacific, and Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature. We compare against estimates derived from observations using a semi-empirical approach wherein the forced component as estimated using CMIP5 historical simulations is removed to yield an estimate of the residual, internal variability. While the observational estimates are largely consistent with those derived from the control simulations for both basins and the Northern Hemisphere, they lie in the upper range of the model distributions, suggesting the possibility of differences between the amplitudes of observed and modeled variability. We comment on some possible reasons for the disparity.

  8. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  9. Ligation of internal iliac arteries for control of pelvic haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanwar Y

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of the internal iliac ligations (IAL done over a period of 3 years. Both gynaecological and obstetric cases were considered. A total of 46 ligations were performed. The additional treatment required was hysterectomy to control haemorrhage. Intra-and post-operative complications were noted. A comparative review of the effectiveness of IAL in different situations is done and alternative modalities of treatment are considered.

  10. A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

    An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

  11. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the multitude of definitions, internal control is found in the centre of managerial concerns worldwide. This amplification of interest towards internal control has its origin in a series of events, of which two can be mentioned: the growing business complexity and dispersal activity centres, which led to the growth and development of the delegation of competence, the only way which enables the responsible to exercise powers from a distance and entirely, bringing together the components needed by its delegates. Regulatory domain, which has not ceased to expand: laws, regulations, rules, professional constraints, budgetary and social – all these have increasingly limited the decision makers, through a network of rules that must be respected. Consequently, what can be done to be safe from any punishment and to ensure constant watch over the essentials? To answer these questions, and many others, experts in the field have taken initiatives that have enabled them to define with precision the specific internal control and to set goals, creating the famous models: COSO and CoCo.

  12. Internal quality control of neutron activation analysis laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Mun, J. H.; BaeK, S. Y.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The importance for quality assurance and control in analytical laboratories has been emphasized, day by day. Internal quality control using certified reference materials(CRMs) can be one of effective methods for this purpose. In this study, 10 kinds of CRMs consisting of soil, sediment and biological matrix were analyzed. To evaluate the confidence of analytical results and the validation of testing method and procedure, the accuracy and the precision of the measured elements were treated statistically and the reproducibility was compared with those values produced before 2003.

  13. Government Internal Control System Maturity: The Role of Internal Guidance and External Control of Local Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Government Internal Control System (SPIP. The purpose of this study is to obtain empirical evidence of influence of guidance, external control, and the characteristics of Local Governments on Internal Control (SPIP maturity of local governments in Indonesia. The samples used in this study are 188 local governments in 2014. The variables used include the dependent variable, i.e. the SPIP maturity of local government; Independent variables, i.e. guidance frequency, the number of internal control findings, total assets, total expenditure and the number of local government units. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP and the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK. This study uses multiple regression analysis and the results show that the guidace frequency and total expenditure have a positive influence on maturity of SPIP, SPI finding has a negative influence, and the total assets and the number of units do not have significant influence on the maturity of SPIP.

  14. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  15. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. THE COMMUNICATION OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM WEAKNESSES - NECESSITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, NEDELCU (BUNEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its mission, the control is an inherent part of management, being a specifically human activity, especially useful serving both the management, business partners, public institutions and public. Especially in the last period, amid the economic and financial crisis manifested in recent years, the control has evolved and evolving both by the improvement of organization and management systems and by the response to continuous development of the environment in which it operates. The control activities are an integral part of the management process by which the entity aims to achieve their objectives. The research methodology consists essentially in a literature review and recent regulations in the analyzed field.The objective of this study is to highlight the way in which shall be communicated the deficiencies of internal control systems, to the persons responsible for their governance, inclusively in the banking system.

  17. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  18. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  19. Polyamide–thallium selenide composite materials via temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanauskas, Remigijus; Samardokas, Linas [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu str. 19, Kaunas LT-50254 (Lithuania); Mikolajunas, Marius; Virzonis, Darius [Department of Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Panevezys Faculty, Daukanto 12, 35212 Panevezys (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Single phase polyamide–thallium selenide hybrid functional materials were synthesized for solar energy conversion. - Highlights: • Thallium selenide–polyamide composite materials surfaces synthesized. • Mixed phase composition confirmed by XRD. • Increased temperature resulted in a denser surface packing. • Urbach energies correlated with AFM showing decreased structural disorder. • Annealing in N{sub 2} at 100 °C yielded a single TlSe phase. - Abstract: Composite materials based on III–VI elements are promising in designing efficient photoelectronic devices, such as thin film organic–inorganic solar cells. In this work, TlSe composite materials were synthesized on a model polymer polyamide using temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method via (a) selenization followed by (b) the exposure to the group III metal (Tl) salt solution and their surface morphological, chemical and crystalline phase information was determined with particular focus on their corresponding structure–optical property relationship. XRD analysis yielded a complex crystalline phase distribution which correlated well with the optical and surface morphological properties measured. pH 11.3 and 80 °C yielded well defined, low structural disorder composite material surface. After annealing in N{sub 2} at 100 °C, polycrystalline PA-Tl{sub x}Se{sub y} composite materials yielded a single TlSe phase due to the enhanced diffusion and reaction of thallium ions into the polymer. The method described here can be used to synthesize variety of binary III–VI compounds diffused into the polymer at relatively low temperatures and low overall cost, thus providing for a flexible synthesis route for novel composite solar energy harvesting materials.

  20. Tuning interionic interaction by rationally controlling solution pH for highly selective colorimetric sensing of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Hao, Jie; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-04-01

    Direct selective sensing of arginine in central nervous systems remains very essential to understanding of the molecular basis of some physiological events. This study presents the first demonstration on a simple yet effective method for arginine sensing with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. The rationale for the method is based on the pH-dependent feature of the interionic interaction between cysteine and arginine. At pH 6.0, cysteine can only interact with arginine through the ion-pair interaction and such interaction can lead to the changes in both the solution color and UV-vis spectrum of the cysteine-protected Au-NPs upon the addition of arginine. These changes are further developed into an analytical strategy for effective sensing of arginine by rationally controlling the pH values of Au-NP dispersions with the ratio of the absorbance at 650 nm (A 650) to that at 520 nm (A 520) (A 650/A 520) as a parameter for analysis. The method is responsive to arginine without the interference from other species in the cerebral system; under the optimized conditions, the A 650/A 520 values are linear with the concentration of arginine within a concentration range from 0.80 to 64 μM, yet remain unchanged with the addition of other kinds of amino acids or the species in the central nervous system into the Au-NPs dispersion containing cysteine. The method demonstrated here is reliable and robust and could thus be used for detection of the increase of arginine in central nervous systems.

  1. pH triggered controlled drug delivery from contact lenses: Addressing the challenges of drug leaching during sterilization and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Choksi, Harsh H; Desai, Ankita R; Patel, Akanksha S; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-09-01

    In the present work a novel cyclosporine-loaded Eudragit S100 (pH-sensitive) nanoparticles-laden contact lenses were designed to provide sustained release of cyclosporine at therapeutic rates, without leaching of drug during sterilization and storage period (shelf life). The nanoparticles were prepared by Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique using different weight ratios of cyclosporine to Eudragit S100. The contact lenses with direct drug entrapment were also fabricated (DL-50) for comparison. The percentage swelling and optical transparency of nanoparticles-laden contact lenses were improved in comparison to DL-50 lenses. The nanoparticles-laden contact lenses showed sustained drug release profiles, with inverse relationship to the amount of nanoparticles loaded in the contact lenses. It was interesting to note that nanoparticles form nanochannels/cavities after dissolution of Eudragit S 100 in tear fluid pH=7.4 (in vitro release study). This followed the precipitation of drug in hydrogel matrix of contact lenses. As the amount of nanoparticles loading increased, more number of cavities were formed, which caused the formation of large cavities in contact lens matrix. This in turn precipitated the drug. The nanoparticles-laden contact lenses with 1:1 (drug: Eudragit) weight ratio showed the most promising results of sustaining the drug release up to 156h, without affecting optical and physical properties of contact lenses. Packaging study confirmed that the drug was not leached in packaging solution (buffer, pH=6.5) from nanoparticles-laden lenses during shelf life period. In-vivo study in rabbit tear fluid showed sustained release up to 14days. The study revealed the application of pH-sensitive nanoparticles-laden contact lenses for controlled release of cyclosporine without altering the optical and physical properties of lens material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyamide–thallium selenide composite materials via temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanauskas, Remigijus; Samardokas, Linas; Mikolajunas, Marius; Virzonis, Darius; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Single phase polyamide–thallium selenide hybrid functional materials were synthesized for solar energy conversion. - Highlights: • Thallium selenide–polyamide composite materials surfaces synthesized. • Mixed phase composition confirmed by XRD. • Increased temperature resulted in a denser surface packing. • Urbach energies correlated with AFM showing decreased structural disorder. • Annealing in N 2 at 100 °C yielded a single TlSe phase. - Abstract: Composite materials based on III–VI elements are promising in designing efficient photoelectronic devices, such as thin film organic–inorganic solar cells. In this work, TlSe composite materials were synthesized on a model polymer polyamide using temperature and pH controlled adsorption–diffusion method via (a) selenization followed by (b) the exposure to the group III metal (Tl) salt solution and their surface morphological, chemical and crystalline phase information was determined with particular focus on their corresponding structure–optical property relationship. XRD analysis yielded a complex crystalline phase distribution which correlated well with the optical and surface morphological properties measured. pH 11.3 and 80 °C yielded well defined, low structural disorder composite material surface. After annealing in N 2 at 100 °C, polycrystalline PA-Tl x Se y composite materials yielded a single TlSe phase due to the enhanced diffusion and reaction of thallium ions into the polymer. The method described here can be used to synthesize variety of binary III–VI compounds diffused into the polymer at relatively low temperatures and low overall cost, thus providing for a flexible synthesis route for novel composite solar energy harvesting materials

  3. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of international controlled material in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: area of material delivery; fluctuation of stock; batch; real stock, effective value; fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for permission of the uses of international controlled material shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency by the processor, the establisher of reactor, the reprocessor or the user for each works or enterprise, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the works or the enterprise where such material is used, kind and quantity of the material and expected period of the uses. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works or enterprise on specified matters, including especially delivery, stock and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. Provisions on control of measurement, method of analysis and information processing business are stipulated. Reports shall be submitted to the Director in the forms attached on delivery, control and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. (Okada, K.)

  4. The potential value of dynamic materials control in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.; Lovett, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The difficulties inherent in conventional materials accountancy based on semi-annual or annual shutdown cleanout physical inventories have been recognized for many years. The increasing importance of international nuclear materials safeguards, coupled with the availability of advanced non-destructive measurement technology which could be installed on or near process lines, has led to the development of the concept of advanced or dynamic materials control. The potential benefits of dynamic materials control in terms of significantly improved detection capabilities (ranging from a few kilograms of plutonium down to perhaps a few hundred grams, even for large-scale bulk processing facilities), and even more dramatically improved detection timeliness (typically a few days, and potentially only a few hours, in advanced facilities), are reviewed. At least twelve major dynamic material control systems already in existence or in the process of being installed are noted, and some of the essential characteristics are discussed. Some currently unresolved questions are explored, and future prospects for the concept of dynamic material control in international safeguards are reviewed. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  6. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  7. Real-time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, D.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    We present the results of recent experiments related to real-time control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in JET. Using a simple criterion to characterize the ITB existence, location and strength, we have successfully controlled for the first time the radial electron temperature profile within the ITB. The dimensionless variable used in the real-time algorithm - ratio of the ion gyro-radius to the local gradient scale length of the electron temperature - is a measure of the normalized electron temperature gradient and characterizes satisfactorily the main ITB features with a relatively low computational cost. We show several examples of control of this variable in various experimental conditions of toroidal field and plasma current, using different heating systems as control actuators. We also present a double-loop feedback scheme where both the global neutron rate from D-D reactions and the ITB strength are controlled simultaneously. In this case the ITB is sustained in a fully non-inductive current drive regime during several seconds. With the proposed control method, disruptions are avoided by holding the plasma performance at a prescribed target and this opens the route towards stationary operation of tokamak plasmas with ITBs. Initial results suggest that the additional control of the current profile is an important issue for achieving steady-state operation, in particular in the triggering and the sustainment of the ITB. (author)

  8. 2011 International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set contains the very latest, cutting-edge material in electrics, communication and automatic control. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covers include micro-electronics and integrated circuit control, signal processing technology, next-generation network infrastructure, wireless communication and scientific instruments. The aim of the International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control, held in Chongqing, China, in June 2011 was to provide a valuable inclusive platform for researchers, engineers, academicians and industrial professionals from all over the world to share their research results with fellow scientists in the sector. The call for papers netted well over 600 submissions, of which 224 were selected for presentation. This fully peer-reviewed collection of papers from the conference can be viewed as a single-source compendium of the latest trends and techniques in t...

  9. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  10. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  11. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  12. Effects of Internal Control Training on the Locus of Control of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of internal control training on the locus of control of selected school going adolescents in Benin City. A sample size of 60 was drawn from two of the 27 co-educational schools in Oredo Local government area of Benin City. A table of random number technique was used to select subjects for ...

  13. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  14. The Investigation of pH Variation of Water in Spray Tank on Glyphosate and Nicosulfuron Performance on Barnyardgrass and Velvetleaf Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors affect the absorption, transport and performance of herbicides, include; physical factors (such as the orientation, shape, size, cuticle thickness, and its amount downy of the plant leaves, physiological factors (such as the growth stage and its succulence, environmental factors (like rainfall after spraying, relative humidity, wind, and temperature, as well as water quality in spray tank (32. The quality of natural water resources is very important, because the water passes through soil and rocks and dissolve natural salts and transfer them to groundwater reserves (12. pH is a chemical scale for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+ in the water (21. When pH of solution is less than herbicides pKa (ionic dissociation constant, increasing pH can increase the solubility of herbicides, especially when the absorption limitation of herbicide is because of its solubility (14. To investigate the effect of water pH in herbicide spray tank, testing the effectiveness of weed control is appropriate method. The different species of weeds may have different amounts of ions in the tissue that showed different responses to herbicide solution (14. Accordingly, these basic experiment conducted to study the pH variation of water in spray tank on glyphosate (Roundup® and nicosulfuron (Cruse® performance on barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus. control in the greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: Two separate experiments were performed as factorial arrangement of treatments 2×7 based on completely randomized design with six replications at Research Greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010. Factors included were: pH at 7 levels (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 obtained by using buffer prepared solutions (+3 control pots for each pH level, and two weeds (barnyardgrass and velvetleaf. Glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides were applied post emergent

  15. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  16. Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Zoë J; Borrill, Alexandra J; Newland, Jonathan C; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-05

    The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater.

  17. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  18. Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Lino; Onder, Christopher H. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to be applied. This book offers an introduction to cost-effective model-based control-system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for selected feedforward and feedback control-problems are presented. The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of ICE in automotive applications constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published. Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases exceedingly spurred the interest of both the industry and academia in further improvements. The most important changes and additions included in this second edition are: - restructured and slightly extended section on superchargers; - short subsection on rotational oscillations and their treatment on engine test-benches; - complete section on modeling, detection, and control of engine knock; - improved physical and chemical model for the three-way catalytic converter; - new methodology for the design of an air-to-fuel ratio controller; - short introduction to thermodynamic engine-cycle calculation and corresponding control-oriented aspects. (orig.)

  19. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  20. Control of the microstructure and surface chemistry of graphene aerogels via pH and time manipulation by a hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bordejé, E; Víctor-Román, S; Sanahuja-Parejo, O; Benito, A M; Maser, W K

    2018-02-15

    Three-dimensional graphene aerogels of controlled pore size have emerged as an important platform for several applications such as energy storage or oil-water separation. The aerogels of reduced graphene oxide are mouldable and light weight, with a porosity up to 99.9%, consisting mainly of macropores. Graphene aerogel preparation by self-assembly in the liquid phase is a promising strategy due to its tunability and sustainability. For graphene aerogels prepared by a hydrothermal method, it is known that the pH value has an impact on their properties but it is unclear how pH affects the auto-assembly process leading to the final properties. We have monitored the time evolution of the chemical and morphological properties of aerogels as a function of the initial pH value. In the hydrothermal treatment process, the hydrogel is precipitated earlier and with lower oxygen content for basic pH values (∼13 wt% O) than for acidic pH values (∼20 wt% O). Moreover, ∼7 wt% of nitrogen is incorporated on the graphene nanosheets at basic pH generated by NH 3 addition. To our knowledge, there is no precedent showing that the pH value affects the microstructure of graphene nanosheets, which become more twisted and bent for the more intensive deoxygenation occurring at basic pH. The bent nanosheets attained at pH = 11 reduce the stacking by the basal planes and they connect via the borders, hence leading eventually to higher pore volumes. In contrast, the flatter graphene nanosheets attained under acidic pH entail more stacking and higher oxygen content after a long hydrothermal treatment. The gravimetric absorption capacity of non-polar solvents scales directly with the pore volume. The aerogels have proved to be highly selective, recyclable and robust for the absorption of nonpolar solvents in water. The control of the porous structure and surface chemistry by manipulation of pH and time will also pave the way for other applications such as supercapacitors or batteries.

  1. Trajectory-tracking control of underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals using Time Delay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon-Young; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.

  2. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 2 includes best papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into six sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Mathematical Modeling, Analysis and Computation, Control Engineering, Reliable Networks Design, Vehicular Communications and Networking, Automation and Mechatronics.

  3. Internal combustion engines - Modelling, estimation and control issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, C.W.

    2001-12-01

    Alternative power-trains have become buzz words in the automotive industry in the recent past. New technologies like Lithium-Ion batteries or fuel cells combined with high efficient electrical motors show promising results. However both technologies are extremely expensive and important questions like 'How are we going to supply fuel-cells with hydrogen in an environmentally friendly way?', 'How are we going to improve the range - and recharging speed - of electrical vehicles?' and 'How will our existing infrastructure cope with such changes?' are still left unanswered. Hence, the internal combustion engine with all its shortcomings is to stay with us for the next many years. What the future will really bring in this area is uncertain, but one thing can be said for sure; the time of the pipe in - pipe out engine concept is over. Modem engines, Diesel or gasoline, have in the recent past been provided with many new technologies to improve both performance and handling and to cope with the tightening emission legislations. However, as new devices are included, the number of control inputs is also gradually increased. Hence, the control matrix dimension has grown to a considerably size, and the typical table and regression based engine calibration procedures currently in use today contain both challenging and time-consuming tasks. One way to improve understanding of engines and provide a more comprehensive picture of the control problem is by use of simplified physical modelling - one of the main thrusts of this dissertation. The application of simplified physical modelling as a foundation for engine estimation and control design is first motivated by two control applications. The control problem concerns Air/Fuel ratio control of Spark Ignition engines. Two different ways of control are presented; one based on. a model based Extended Kalman Filter updated predictor, and one based on robust H {infinity} techniques. Both controllers are

  4. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for... utilized, alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by...

  5. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  6. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  7. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  8. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  9. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    OpenAIRE

    O.М. Bunda; E.М. Guzenko

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institu...

  10. pH responsive alginate polymeric rafts for controlled drug release by using box behnken response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Mahtab Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present work was to develop alginate raft forming tablets for controlled release pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS). Box behnken design was used to optimize 15 formulations with three independent and three dependent variables. Physical tests of all formulations were within pharmacopoeial limits. Raft was characterized by their strength, thickness, resilience, acid neutralizing capacity, floating lag time and total floating time. Raft strength, thickness and resilience of optimized formulation AR9 were 7.43 ± 0.019 g, 5.8 ± 0.245 cm and greater than 480 min, respectively. Buffering and neutralizing capacity were 11.2 ± 1.01 and 6.5 ± 0.56 meq, respectively. Dissolution studies were performed by using simulated gastric fluid pH 1.2 and cumulative percentage release of optimized formulation AR9 was found 98%. First order release kinetics were followed and non-fickian diffusion was observed as value of n was greater than 0.45 in korsmeyer-peppas model. PSS, polymers, tablets and rafts were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectra of PSS, polymers and raft of optimized formulation AR9 showed peaks at 3223.09, 1688.17, 1586.67, 1302.64 and 1027.74 cm -1 due to -OH stretching, ester carbonyl group (C=O) stretching, existence of water and carboxylic group in raft, C-N stretching and -OH bending vibration showed no interaction between them. XRD showed diffraction lines indicates crystalline nature of PSS. DSC thermogram showed endothermic peaks at 250 °C for PSS. The developed raft was suitable for controlled release delivery of PSS.

  11. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  12. Startle stimuli reduce the internal model control in discrete movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Zachary A; Rogers, Mark W; MacKinnon, Colum D; Patton, James L

    2009-01-01

    A well known and major component of movement control is the feedforward component, also known as the internal model. This model predicts and compensates for expected forces seen during a movement, based on recent experience, so that a well-learned task such as reaching to a target can be executed in a smooth straight manner. It has recently been shown that the state of preparation of planned movements can be tested using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS). SAS, presented 500, 250 or 0 ms before the expected "go" cue resulted in the early release of the movement trajectory associated with the after-effects of the force field training (i.e. the internal model). In a typical motor adaptation experiment with a robot-applied force field, we tested if a SAS stimulus influences the size of after-effects that are typically seen. We found that in all subjects the after-effect magnitudes were significantly reduced when movements were released by SAS, although this effect was not further modulated by the timing of SAS. Reduced after-effects reveal at least partial existence of learned preparatory control, and identify startle effects that could influence performance in tasks such as piloting, teleoperation, and sports.

  13. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  14. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface

    OpenAIRE

    Szundi, I.; Stoeckenius, W.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lowe...

  15. Internal audit: the expert in providing comfort to the audit committee. The case of risk management and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    G. SARENS; I. DE BEELDE

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent audit committees feel uncomfortable about risk management and internal control, and focuses on how internal audit can be the expert in providing comfort in these areas, building upon the sociology of professions literature. Four case studies reveal that audit committees need comfort with respect to the control environment. Thanks to their internal position, their familiarity with the company, and their position close to people across the company, interna...

  16. pH Control Enables Simultaneous Enhancement of Nitrogen Retention and N2O Reduction in Shewanella loihica Strain PV-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayeon Kim

    2017-09-01

    feasible through pH modulation, but only in environments where C:N or NO2–:NO3– ratio does not exhibit overarching control over the NO3–/NO2– reduction pathways.

  17. pH : a key control of the nature and distribution of dissolved organic matter and associated trace metals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.; Davranche, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter is ubiquitous at the Earth's surface and plays a prominent role in controlling metal speciation and mobility from soils to hydrosystems. Humic substances (HS) are usually considered to be the most reactive fraction of organic matter. Humic substances are relatively small and formed by chemically diverse organic molecules, bearing different functional groups that act as binding sites for cations and mineral surfaces. Among the different environmental physicochemical parameters controlling the metal speciation, pH is likely to be the most important one. Indeed, pH affect the dissociation of functional groups, and thus can influence the HS structure, their ability to complex metals, their solubility degree allowing the formation of aggregates at the mineral surface. In this context, soil/water interactions conducted through batch system experiments, were carried out with a wetland organic-rich soil to investigate the effect of pH on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated trace elements. The pH was regulated between 4 and 7.5 using an automatic pH stat titrator. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to separate the dissolved organic pool following decreasing pore sizes (30 kDa, 5 kDa and 2 kDa with 1 Da = 1 g.mol-1). The pH increase induced a significant DOC release, especially in heavy organic molecules (size >5 kDa) with a high aromaticity (>30 %). These were probably humic acids (HA). This HA release influenced (i) directly the trace element concentrations in soil solution since HA were enriched in several trace elements such as Th, REE, Y, U, Cr and Cu; and (ii) indirectly by the breaking of clay-humic complexes releasing Fe- and Al-rich nanoparticles associated with V, Pb and Ti. By contrast, at acid pH, most HS were complexed onto mineral surfaces. They also sequestered iron nanoparticles. Therefore, at low pH, most part of DOC molecules had a size pH and ionic strength .The molecular size and shape of HS is

  18. Reversibly extracellular pH controlled cellular uptake and photothermal therapy by PEGylated mixed-charge gold nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouju; Teng, Zhaogang; Huang, Peng; Liu, Dingbin; Liu, Ying; Tian, Ying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yanjun; Ju, Huangxian; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Guangming

    2015-04-17

    Shielding nanoparticles from nonspecific interactions with normal cells/tissues before they reach and after they leave tumors is crucial for the selective delivery of NPs into tumor cells. By utilizing the reversible protonation of weak electrolytic groups to pH changes, long-chain amine/carboxyl-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) decorated gold nanostars (GNSs) are designed, exhibiting reversible, significant, and sensitive response in cell affinity and therapeutic efficacy to the extracellular pH (pHe) gradient between normal tissues and tumors. This smart nanosystem shows good dispersity and unimpaired photothermal efficacy in complex bioenvironment at pH 6.4 and 7.4 even when their surface charge is neutral. One PEGylated mixed-charge GNSs with certain surface composition, GNS-N/C 4, exhibits high cell affinity and therapeutic efficacy at pH 6.4, and low affinity and almost "zero" damage to cells at pH 7.4. Remarkably, this significant and sensitive response in cell affinity and therapeutic efficacy is reversible as local pH alternated. In vivo, GNS-N/C 4 shows higher accumulation in tumors and improved photothermal therapeutic efficacy than pH-insensitive GNSs. This newly developed smart nanosystem, whose cell affinity reversibly transforms in response to pHe gradient with unimpaired biostability, provides a novel effective means of tumor-selective therapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein.

  20. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  1. Production Test IP-601-D: Evaluation of crud-forming characteristics of KER loop coolant containing NH{sub 4}OH for pH control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidner, R.

    1963-08-06

    The objective of production test detailed in this report was to characterize the effects of NH{sub 4}OH as a pH control agent in a recirculating, high temperature and pressure water system having NPR characteristics. Of particular interest is the crud forming and decomposition characteristics of NH{sub 4}OH at potential NPR conditions.

  2. Effect of internal controls on credit risk among listed Spanish banks

    OpenAIRE

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi; Moreno Gené, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used...

  3. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  4. Dimensional control and check of field machining parts for reactor internals installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caifang

    2010-01-01

    Some key issues of dimensional control for reactor internals installation are analyzed, and important technical requirements of crucial quality control elements on the measurement, machining, and checking of reactor internals filed machining parts are discussed. Moreover, provisions on quality control and risk prevention of reactor internals filed machining parts are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures for...

  6. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  7. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each...

  8. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B... B to Part 327—Internal Management Control Review Checklist (a) Task: Personnel and/or Organization... See footnote 2 to this Appendix B. (1) I attest that the above listed internal controls provide...

  10. Enhanced fed-batch production of pyrroloquinoline quinine in Methylobacillus sp. CCTCC M2016079 with a two-stage pH control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhenjun; Machaku, David; Wei, Peilian; Huang, Lei; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan

    2017-06-01

    The effects of pH control strategy and fermentative operation modes on the biosynthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) were investigated systematically with Methylobacillus sp. CCTCC M2016079 in the present work. Firstly, the shake-flask cultivations and benchtop fermentations at various pH values ranging from 5.3 to 7.8 were studied. Following a kinetic analysis of specific cell growth rate (μ x ) and specific PQQ formation rate (μ p ), the discrepancy in optimal pH values between cell growth and PQQ biosynthesis was observed, which stimulated us to develop a novel two-stage pH control strategy. During this pH-shifted process, the pH in the broth was controlled at 6.8 to promote the cell growth for the first 48 h and then shifted to 5.8 to enhance the PQQ synthesis until the end of fermentation. By applying this pH-shifted control strategy, the maximum PQQ production was improved to 158.61 mg/L in the benchtop fermenter, about 44.9% higher than that under the most suitable constant pH fermentation. Further fed-batch study showed that PQQ production could be improved from 183.38 to 272.21 mg/L by feeding of methanol at the rate of 11.5 mL/h in this two-stage pH process. Meanwhile, the productivity was also increased from 2.02 to 2.84 mg/L/h. In order to support cell growth during the shifted pH stage, the combined feeding of methanol and yeast extract was carried out, which brought about the highest concentration (353.28 mg/L) and productivity (3.27 mg/L/h) of PQQ. This work has revealed the potential of our developed simple and economical strategy for the large-scale production of PQQ.

  11. Supported Nanosized α-FeOOH Improves Efficiency of Photoelectro-Fenton Process with Reaction-Controlled pH Adjustment for Sustainable Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall photoelectro-Fenton (PE-Fenton process for water treatment with neutral initial pH includes three steps of pH reduction, PE-Fenton reaction, and pH elevation. Reaction-controlled pH adjustment (RCpA, which utilizes the intrinsic electrochemical reactions instead of chemical addition, has been employed to lower the pH, maintain the lowered pH for the Fenton reaction, and recover the pH for final effluent discharge. This study demonstrated that the overall efficiency of this sustainable PE-Fenton process was improved by rapidly recycling the iron substance. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared and employed to ensure such rapid recycling. SEM and XRD results showed that the as-prepared iron oxide was α-FeOOH with 20 nm in size. The experimental results of dimethyl phthalate (DMP degradation showed that diatomite-supported α-FeOOH (N-α-FeOOH/diatomite could efficiently reduce the DMP concentration and total organic carbon. Furthermore, compared with Fe3+, the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite saved 160 min for iron settlement at 20 mg L−1 DMP concentration. Also, with the increment in the initial DMP concentration, extra energy consumed by the individual step of PE-Fenton reaction using the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite became negligible compared with that using free iron ions with the increment in the initial DMP concentration. This development is expected to be a major step of the PE-Fenton process with RCpA towards actual water treatment.

  12. Control of internal transport barriers on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, C.L.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Hubbard, A.E.; Greenwald, M.J.; Lynn, A.; Marmar, E.S.; Phillips, P.; Redi, M.H.; Rice, J.E.; Wolfe, S.M.; Wukitch, S.J.; Zhurovich, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of internal transport and double transport barrier regimes in the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] have explored the limits for forming, maintaining, and controlling these plasmas. The C-Mod provides a unique platform for studying such discharges: the ions and electrons are tightly coupled by collisions and the plasma has no internal particle or momentum sources. The double-barrier mode comprised of an edge barrier with an internal transport barrier (ITB) can be induced at will using off-axis ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) injection on either the low or high field side of the plasma with either of the available ICRF frequencies (70 or 80 MHz). When an enhanced D α high confinement mode (EDA H-mode) is accessed in Ohmic plasmas, the double barrier ITB forms spontaneously if the H-mode is sustained for ∼2 energy confinement times. The ITBs formed in both Ohmic and ICRF heated plasmas are quite similar regardless of the trigger method. They are characterized by strong central peaking of the electron density, and a reduction of the core particle and energy transport. The control of impurity influx and heating of the core plasma in the presence of the ITB have been achieved with the addition of central ICRF power in both the Ohmic H-mode and ICRF induced ITBs. The radial location of the particle transport barrier is dependent on the toroidal magnetic field but not on the location of the ICRF resonance. A narrow region of decreased electron thermal transport, as determined by sawtooth heat pulse analysis, is found in these plasmas as well. Transport analysis indicates that a reduction of the particle diffusivity in the barrier region allows the neoclassical pinch to drive the density and impurity accumulation in the plasma center. An examination of the gyrokinetic stability at the trigger time for the ITB suggests that the density and temperature profiles are inherently stable to ion temperature gradient and

  13. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    emissions is poorly studied for agricultural systems. The overall N2O dynamics during flooding of an agricultural soil and the effect of pH and NO3− concentration has been investigated based on a combination of the use of microsensors, stable isotope techniques, KCl extractions and modelling. This study...... within the soil. The magnitude of the emissions are, not surprisingly, positively correlated with the soil NO3− concentration but also negatively correlated with liming (neutral pH). The redox potential of the soil is found to influence N2O accumulation as the production and consumption of N2O occurs...... in narrow redox windows where the redox range levels are negatively correlated with the pH. This study highlights the potential importance of N2O bursts associated with flooding and infers that annual N2O emission estimates for tilled agricultural soils that are temporarily flooded will be underestimated...

  14. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The {rho}{sub T}{sup *} (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength.

  15. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G

    2004-01-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The ρ T * (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength

  16. Meta-Strategies of the Internal Control Development within the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Voronko

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the influence of external and internal environment of the organization on the structure of the internal control system. A critical analysis is made on existing scientific researches and practice of setting internal control within the organizations. Determined the cause-and-effect relationship between the stages of development of the industry and business, on the one hand, and the development of the internal control structure on the other hand. It made it p...

  17. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Robert J., E-mail: rjgordon@uic.edu; Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680-7061 (United States); Hu, Zhan [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Seideman, Tamar [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Sukharev, Maxim [Science and Mathematics Faculty, College of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  18. A Comparative Study of Applying Active-Set and Interior Point Methods in MPC for Controlling Nonlinear pH Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Syafiie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of Model Predictive Control (MPC using active-set method and interior point methods is proposed as a control technique for highly non-linear pH process. The process is a strong acid-strong base system. A strong acid of hydrochloric acid (HCl and a strong base of sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the presence of buffer solution sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 are used in a neutralization process flowing into reactor. The non-linear pH neutralization model governed in this process is presented by multi-linear models. Performance of both controllers is studied by evaluating its ability of set-point tracking and disturbance-rejection. Besides, the optimization time is compared between these two methods; both MPC shows the similar performance with no overshoot, offset, and oscillation. However, the conventional active-set method gives a shorter control action time for small scale optimization problem compared to MPC using IPM method for pH control.

  19. Fuzzy Logic Based Set-Point Weighting Controller Tuning for an Internal Model Control Based PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthai Suresh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Controller tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of the selected controller to achieve optimum response for the controlled process. For many of the control problems, a satisfactory performance is obtained by using PID controllers. One of the main problems with mathematical models of physical systems is that the parameters used in the models cannot be determined with absolute accuracy. The values of the parameters may change with time or various effects. In these cases, conventional controller tuning methods suffer when trying a lot to produce optimum response. In order to overcome these difficulties a fuzzy logic based Set- Point weighting controller tuning method is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed through computer simulation using SIMULINK software and the results are presented. The fuzzy logic based simulation results are compared with Cohen-Coon (CC, Ziegler- Nichols (ZN, Ziegler – Nichols with Set- Point weighting (ZN-SPW, Internal Model Control (IMC and Internal model based PID controller responses (IMC-PID. The effects of process modeling errors and the importance of controller tuning have been brought out using the proposed control scheme.

  20. Have the auditors closed the expectation gap concerning evaluation of internal control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Peter; Holm, Claus

    internal controls intended for management directors, it provides a framework which explicitly deals with the interests of all parties involved (including auditors, board of directors and regulating bodies). The auditors took this into account by updating the particular auditing standard on internal control....... Realized discrepancies are identified and related to the necessary features of an integrated framework. The necessary features include (1) the definition of internal controls, (2) the components of internal control, (3) the criteria for evaluating internal control as stated by the auditors (4) the criteria...... for evaluating internal controls as stated by management, and (5) the integration of internal control evaluations from management and auditors. The paper provides evidence from an in-depth contents analysis comparing SAS No. 55 from 1988 with the COSO-report from 1992 and SAS No. 78 from 1995. The analysis...

  1. pH dependent fluorescence switching in salicylideneaniline: ‘off–on–off’ operation controlled by surfactant micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Diganta Kumar, E-mail: digkdas@yahoo.com; Dutta, Kaku

    2014-01-15

    Salaniline, a condensation product of salicylaldehyde and aniline, shows “off–on” fluorescent behaviour with pH in 1:1 (v/v) CH{sub 3}CN:H{sub 2}O and when 3% (w/v) anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) surfactant is present. The fluorescent switch behaviour of salaniline is forced to “off–on–off” type by 3% (w/v) neutral triton X-100 (TX-100) and 3% (w/v) cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. The fluorescent “on” window is observed in the pH range 8.0–12.5 for TX-100 and 7.0–11.0 for CTAB. Different charge nature of the surfactants affects the protonation/deprotonation behaviour of salaniline differently, hence the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes and the fluorescent switch behaviour. -- Highlights: • Salicylideneaniline act as pH dependent “off–on” fluorescent switch in 1:1 (v/v) CH{sub 3}CN:H{sub 2}O. • In surfactant micelles TX-100 (neutral) and CTAB (positive) make the fluorescent switch “off–on–off” type while in. • In surfactant micelle SDS (negative) the pH dependent fluorescent switch is “off–on” type.

  2. Effects of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion on salivary pH and flow in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Patto, José Maria Vaz; Barcelos, Filipe Alexandre Duarte; de Almeida Rato Amaral, João Pedro; de Oliveira, Miguel Constantino Mendes; Ferreira, Cristina Gutierrez Castanheira

    2011-11-01

    To compare salivary pH changes and stimulation efficacy of two different gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Portuguese Institute for Rheumatological Diseases. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty patients were randomized to two intervention groups. Sample size was calculated using an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta of 0.20. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a new GSSS containing a weaker malic acid, fluoride and xylitol or a traditionally citric acid-based one. Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The salivary pH of the samples was determined with a pH meter and a microelectrode. Salivary pH variations and counts of subjects with pH below 4.5 for over 1 min and stimulated salivary flow were the main outcome measures. Both GSSS significantly stimulated salivary output without significant differences between the two groups. The new gustatory stimulant of salivary secretion presented an absolute risk reduction of 52.78% [33.42-72.13 (95% CI)] when compared with the traditional one. In Xerostomic Primary Sjögren syndrome patients, gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion based on acid mail only with fluoride and xylitol present similar salivary stimulation capacity when compared to citric acid-based ones, besides significantly reducing the number of salivary pH drops below 4.5. This could be related to a diminished risk for dental erosion and should be confirmed with further studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe internal...

  4. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... on the Green Book Advisory Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government.... SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal...

  5. 17 CFR 229.308T - (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... over financial reporting. 229.308T Section 229.308T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 229.308T (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting. Note to Item 308T: This is a special... internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's internal...

  6. 17 CFR 229.308 - (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... over financial reporting. 229.308 Section 229.308 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 229.308 (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting. (a) Management's annual report on internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's internal...

  7. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  8. Shared internal models for feedforward and feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark J; Smith, Maurice A

    2008-10-15

    A child often learns to ride a bicycle in the driveway, free of unforeseen obstacles. Yet when she first rides in the street, we hope that if a car suddenly pulls out in front of her, she will combine her innate goal of avoiding an accident with her learned knowledge of the bicycle, and steer away or brake. In general, when we train to perform a new motor task, our learning is most robust if it updates the rules of online error correction to reflect the rules and goals of the new task. Here we provide direct evidence that, after a new feedforward motor adaptation, motor feedback responses to unanticipated errors become precisely task appropriate, even when such errors were never experienced during training. To study this ability, we asked how, if at all, do online responses to occasional, unanticipated force pulses during reaching arm movements change after adapting to altered arm dynamics? Specifically, do they change in a task-appropriate manner? In our task, subjects learned novel velocity-dependent dynamics. However, occasional force-pulse perturbations produced unanticipated changes in velocity. Therefore, after adaptation, task-appropriate responses to unanticipated pulses should compensate corresponding changes in velocity-dependent dynamics. We found that after adaptation, pulse responses precisely compensated these changes, although they were never trained to do so. These results provide evidence for a smart feedback controller which automatically produces responses specific to the learned dynamics of the current task. To accomplish this, the neural processes underlying feedback control must (1) be capable of accurate real-time state prediction for velocity via a forward model and (2) have access to recently learned changes in internal models of limb dynamics.

  9. An Autophagic Flux Probe that Releases an Internal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizuka, Takeshi; Morishita, Hideaki; Hama, Yutaro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Matsui, Takahide; Toyota, Yuichiro; Kodama, Akihiko; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Mizushima, Noboru

    2016-11-17

    Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system that utilizes the autophagosome to deliver cytoplasmic components to the lysosome. Measuring autophagic activity is critically important but remains complicated and challenging. Here, we have developed GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3ΔG, a fluorescent probe to evaluate autophagic flux. This probe is cleaved by endogenous ATG4 proteases into equimolar amounts of GFP-LC3 and RFP-LC3ΔG. GFP-LC3 is degraded by autophagy, while RFP-LC3ΔG remains in the cytosol, serving as an internal control. Thus, autophagic flux can be estimated by calculating the GFP/RFP signal ratio. Using this probe, we re-evaluated previously reported autophagy-modulating compounds, performed a high-throughput screen of an approved drug library, and identified autophagy modulators. Furthermore, we succeeded in measuring both induced and basal autophagic flux in embryos and tissues of zebrafish and mice. The GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3ΔG probe is a simple and quantitative method to evaluate autophagic flux in cultured cells and whole organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal quality control program for individual monitoring service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Moura Junior, Jose; Patrao, Karla C.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br; moura@ird.gov.br; karla@ird.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    With a focus on continuous improvement, since 2002, a special internal procedure for following and checking the performance of our individual monitoring services has been implemented. A fictitious installation, named 'Fantasma' has been created, initially, with 4 film badges and 7 thermoluminescent dosimetric ring users. Since 2005, this quality control program includes also the albedo neutron individual monitoring service. Monthly, the 'Fantasma' test monitors are irradiated by traceable Cs-137 and Am-Be sources. The calibration quantities are: the photon dose equivalent (H{sub x}) for the photographic individual monitor, the maximum dose equivalent (MADE) for the albedo neutron individual monitor and the personal dose equivalent at 0.07 mm depth (H{sub p}(0.07)) for ring monitor. Up to now, all results show compliance with the specific trumpet curves acceptance limits. Once, a small sub-evaluation tendency has been noted and this information was used to improve the film system. For the photographic film system, the evaluated value to reference dose ratios range from 0.71 to 1.12, with a mean value of 0.91 {+-} 0.12. For the ring system, the ratio ranges from 0.69 to 1.40, with a mean value of 1.02 {+-} 0.07. For the neutron system, which presents intrinsic larger uncertainties, the ratio ranged from 0.67 to 1.88, with mean value of 1.16 {+-} 0.27. (author)

  11. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  12. Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-07-15

    Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.

  13. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  14. Multidentate-Protected Colloidal Gold Nanocrystals: pH Control of Cooperative Precipitation and Surface Layer Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.; Nie, Shuming

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gold nanocrystals with broad size tunability and unusual pH-sensitive properties have been synthesized by using multidentate polymer ligands. Containing both carboxylic functional groups and sterically hindered aliphatic chains, the multidentate ligands are able to both reduce gold precursors and to stabilize gold nanoclusters during nucleation and growth. The “as-synthesized” nanocrystals are protected by an inner coordinating layer and an outer polymer layer, and are soluble in water and polar solvents. When the solution pH is lowered by just 0.6 units (from pH 4.85 to 4.25), the particles undergo a dramatic cooperative transition from being soluble to insoluble, allowing rapid isolation, purification, and redispersion of the multidentate-protected nanocrystals. A surprise finding is that when a portion of the surface carboxylate groups is neutralized by protonation, the particles irreversibly shed their outer polymer layer and become soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Further, the multidentate polymer coatings are permeable to small organic molecules, in contrast to tightly packed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold. These insights are important towards the design of “smart” imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles that are activated by small pH changes in the tumor interstitial space or endocytic organelles. PMID:21510704

  15. Disarmament verification and its contribution to the theory of international control: A legal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed Anwar Abou Ali.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Deputy Director of the Department of International Organizations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egypt, discusses the legal aspects related to the international control for verification of disarmament

  16. Efficient production of α-ketoglutarate in the gdh deleted Corynebacterium glutamicum by novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Sun, Lanchao; Feng, Jia; Wu, Ruifang; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Chen, Ning; Xie, Xixian

    2016-06-01

    Production of L-glutamate using a biotin-deficient strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long history. The process is achieved by controlling biotin at suboptimal dose in the initial fermentation medium, meanwhile feeding NH4OH to adjust pH so that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) can be converted to L-glutamate. In this study, we deleted glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1 and gdh2) of C. glutamicum GKG-047, an L-glutamate overproducing strain, to produce α-KG that is the direct precursor of L-glutamate. Based on the method of L-glutamate fermentation, we developed a novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy for α-KG production. Specifically, NH4OH was added to adjust the pH at the bacterial growth stage and NaOH was used when the cells began to produce acid; besides adding an appropriate amount of biotin in the initial medium, certain amount of additional biotin was supplemented at the middle stage of fermentation to maintain a high cell viability and promote the carbon fixation to the flux of α-KG production. Under this control strategy, 45.6 g/L α-KG accumulated after 30-h fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor and the productivity and yield achieved were 1.52 g/L/h and 0.42 g/g, respectively.

  17. Threshold Switchable Particles (TSPs) To Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    will not significantly activate the intrinsic pathway. Furthermore, iron oxide can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) technology to...on 2 1/ 09 /2 01 6 21 :4 0: 57 . View Article Online cryopreservation of cells and as solvent for pharmaceuticals in clinical applications. The... pharmaceuticals and foreign substances,28 tightly regulates serum pH,29 and robustly and competitively binds to metal cations,30−35 most notably Ca2

  18. International regulatory control of the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the IAEA regulations on the transport of radioactive materials and the background for the adoption of these regulations by the various international organizations responsible for regulating the different modes of international transport of hazardous materials is briefly discussed

  19. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  20. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  1. Preparation of novel cotton fabric composites with pH controlled switchable wettability for efficient water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Wang, Yixi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-06-01

    The wetting materials with the ability of controllable oil/water separation have drawn more and more public attention. In this article, the novel cotton fabric (CF) with pH controlled wettability transition was designed by a simple, environmentally friendly coating copolymer/SiO2 nanoparticles, poly(heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate- co-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate- co-2-vinilpiridine) (PHDFDMA- co-PTMSPMA- co-P2VP). Furthermore, the structures and morphologies of coated CF were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), NMR, GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The coated CF exhibits switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity via adjusting pH value. When the coated CF is placed in the neutral aqueous (pH = 7.0), it is superhydrophobic in the air and superoleophilic. It allows oil to go through but blocking water. However, in acidic aqueous environment (pH = 3.0), it turns superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic, which allows water to penetrate but blocking oil. Therefore, the coated CF could be applied to separate oil/water mixtures, ternary oil/water/water mixtures continuously and different surfactant stabilized emulsions (oil-in-water, water-in-oil) and displays the superior separation capacity for oil-water mixtures with a high efficiency of 99.8%. Moreover, the cycling tests demonstrate that the coated CF possesses excellent recyclability and durability. Such an eminent, controllable water/oil permeation feature makes coated CF could be selected as an ideal candidate for oil/water separation.

  2. pH responsive controlled release of anti-cancer hydrophobic drugs from sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite bi-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatunga, Danushika C; de Silva, Rohini M; de Silva, K M Nalin; de Silva, Nuwan; Bhandari, Shiva; Yap, Yoke Khin; Costha, N Pabakara

    2017-08-01

    Developing a drug carrier system which could perform targeted and controlled release over a period of time is utmost concern in the pharmaceutical industry. This is more relevant when designing drug carriers for poorly water soluble drug molecules such as curcumin and 6-gingerol. Development of a drug carrier system which could overcome these limitations and perform controlled and targeted drug delivery is beneficial. This study describes a promising approach for the design of novel pH sensitive sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite bilayer coated iron oxide nanoparticle composite (IONP/HAp-NaAlg) via the co-precipitation approach. This system consists of a magnetic core for targeting and a NaAlg/HAp coating on the surface to accommodate the drug molecules. The nanocomposite was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The loading efficiency and loading capacity of curcumin and 6-gingerol were examined. In vitro drug releasing behavior of curcumin and 6-gingerol was studied at pH 7.4 and pH 5.3 over a period of seven days at 37°C. The mechanism of drug release from the nanocomposite of each situation was studied using kinetic models and the results implied that, the release is typically via diffusion and a higher release was observed at pH 5.3. This bilayer coated system can be recognized as a potential drug delivery system for the purpose of curcumin and 6-gingerol release in targeted and controlled manner to treat diseases such as cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Requirements § 108.506 Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to... document describing your control procedures. ...

  4. 12 CFR 630.5 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control over financial reporting. 630.5 Section 630.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... assessment of internal control over financial reporting. (1) Annual reports must include a report by the... disclose any material change(s) in the internal control over financial reporting occurring during the...

  5. Pengaruh Proporsi Komisaris Independen dan Komposisi Komite Audit terhadap Internal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhdalena Makhdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounting manipulation that occurred in recent years makes accounting experts to focus on internal control issues. The experts agree that internal control is an important issue through a substance that can be given by the internal control. Internal control can be effective if supported by the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition are adequate. Based on that idea, the researchers interested in conducting research that aims to find out: the influence of the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition of the internal control eithersimultaneously or partially. Research conducted by the survey in 48 listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange manufacturing drawn at random from the population. Data used in this study are primary data from the questionnaire and secondary data from the annual report. Data were analyzed using path analysis. The results showed that: the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition has a significant influence on the internal control eithersimultaneously or partially.

  6. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A., E-mail: Fasilat17@gmail.com; Hassan, Haslinda, E-mail: lynn@uum.edu.my [School of Accountancy, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  7. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery

  8. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  9. Redox and pH dual-responsive PEG and chitosan-conjugated hollow mesoporous silica for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Jian; Li, Xian; Zhang, Sha; Liu, Jie; Di, Donghua [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhang, Ying [School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, PR China. (China); Zhao, Qinfu, E-mail: zqf021110505@163.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Wang, Siling, E-mail: silingwang@syphu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) was used as the drug vehicle to develop the redox and pH dual stimuli-responsive delivery system, in which the chitosan (CS), a biodegradable cationic polymer, was grafted on the surface of HMSN via the cleavable disulfide bonds. CS was chosen as the gatekeeper mainly due to its appropriate molecular weight as well as possessing abundant amino groups which could be protonated in the acidic condition to achieve pH-responsive drug release. In addition, the PEG was further grafted on the surface of CS to increase the stability and biocompatibility under physiological conditions. The DOX loaded DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG had a relatively high drug loading efficiency up to 32.8%. In vitro release results indicated that DOX was dramatically blocked within the mesopores of HMSN-SS-CS@PEG in pH 7.4 PBS without addition of GSH. However, the release rate of DOX was markedly increased after the addition of 10 mM GSH or in pH 5.0 release medium. Moreover, the release of DOX was further improved in pH 5.0 PBS with 10 mM GSH. The HMSN-SS-CS@PEG could markedly decrease the hemolysis percent and protein adsorption, and increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMSN compared with the HMSN-SS-CS and bare HMSN. This work suggested an exploration about HMSN based stimuli-responsive drug delivery and these results demonstrated that HMSN-SS-CS@PEG exhibited dual-responsive drug release property and could be used as a promising carrier for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) were used as a drug carrier. • Chitosan (CS) and PEG were grafted on the surface of HMSN via disulfide bonds. • The DOX loaded DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG had a high drug loading efficiency up to 32.8%. • DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG showed redox/pH dual-responsive drug release property in vitro. • The grafted PEG could increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMSN.

  10. Redox and pH dual-responsive PEG and chitosan-conjugated hollow mesoporous silica for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Jian; Li, Xian; Zhang, Sha; Liu, Jie; Di, Donghua; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Siling

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) was used as the drug vehicle to develop the redox and pH dual stimuli-responsive delivery system, in which the chitosan (CS), a biodegradable cationic polymer, was grafted on the surface of HMSN via the cleavable disulfide bonds. CS was chosen as the gatekeeper mainly due to its appropriate molecular weight as well as possessing abundant amino groups which could be protonated in the acidic condition to achieve pH-responsive drug release. In addition, the PEG was further grafted on the surface of CS to increase the stability and biocompatibility under physiological conditions. The DOX loaded DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG had a relatively high drug loading efficiency up to 32.8%. In vitro release results indicated that DOX was dramatically blocked within the mesopores of HMSN-SS-CS@PEG in pH 7.4 PBS without addition of GSH. However, the release rate of DOX was markedly increased after the addition of 10 mM GSH or in pH 5.0 release medium. Moreover, the release of DOX was further improved in pH 5.0 PBS with 10 mM GSH. The HMSN-SS-CS@PEG could markedly decrease the hemolysis percent and protein adsorption, and increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMSN compared with the HMSN-SS-CS and bare HMSN. This work suggested an exploration about HMSN based stimuli-responsive drug delivery and these results demonstrated that HMSN-SS-CS@PEG exhibited dual-responsive drug release property and could be used as a promising carrier for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) were used as a drug carrier. • Chitosan (CS) and PEG were grafted on the surface of HMSN via disulfide bonds. • The DOX loaded DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG had a high drug loading efficiency up to 32.8%. • DOX/HMSN-SS-CS@PEG showed redox/pH dual-responsive drug release property in vitro. • The grafted PEG could increase the biocompatibility and stability of HMSN.

  11. Measures for the capitalization of internal control activity performed on the entity's financial and accounting activities

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Maria Tilea; Dragos Zaharia

    2013-01-01

    In the organization of internal control flexibility is required because if a rule is too rigid or no longer current it can leads to inefficiency. Current organizational complexity involving the private sector to organize a system of internal control to fold on this, which can cover a territory so expanded and a wide variety of activities. Thus, the Company's internal controls is exercised at the level of each structure and because of the importance and implications of the financial ones are h...

  12. ROMANIAâ€(tm)S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu Tatiana; Dogar Cristian

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiaryâ€(tm)s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiar...

  13. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dogar Cristian; Dãnescu Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiaryâ€...

  14. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  15. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Weaknesses in the branch's internal controls, including inadequate segregation of duties in trading and electronic funds transfer activities, had enabled an employee to trade illegally and to hide...

  16. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  17. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  18. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  19. Lighting fires for tobacco control | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... Moreover, internal tobacco industry documents point to a deliberate strategy on the part ... advocacy, as well as a lack of a tradition of corporate philanthropy in the region. .... Exploring eco-health in China and Southeast Asia.

  20. Simultaneous water desalination and electricity generation in a microbial desalination cell with electrolyte recirculation for pH control

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng

    2012-02-01

    A recirculation microbial desalination cell (rMDC) was designed and operated to allow recirculation of solutions between the anode and cathode chambers. This recirculation avoided pH imbalances that could inhibit bacterial metabolism. The maximum power density was 931±29mW/m 2 with a 50mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and 776±30mW/m 2 with 25mM PBS. These power densities were higher than those obtained without recirculation of 698±10mW/m 2 (50mM PBS) and 508±11mW/m 2 (25mM PBS). The salt solution (20g/L NaCl) was reduced in salinity by 34±1% (50mM) and 37±2% (25mM) with recirculation (rMDC), and by 39±1% (50mM) and 25±3% (25mM) without recirculation (MDC). These results show that electrolyte recirculation using an rMDC is an effective method to increase power and achieve efficient desalination by eliminating pH imbalances. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  2. Effect of internal controls on credit risk among listed Spanish banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used. Generalized Least Squares (random effect econometric estimation technique was used for the model. Findings: We find that internal control systems are in place but their effectiveness cannot be guaranteed. This exposes Spanish listed banks to serious default situations. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk especially the control environment, risk management, control activities and monitoring. The non-disclosure of material internal control weakness is a contributory factor to the ineffective internal control systems. There is however a perceived board ineffectiveness which does not augur well for effective internal control systems. Board characteristics for Spanish banks confirm the agency theory. Research Limitations and Implications: Data unavailability for certain years, variables and many inactive banks did not permit a larger sample size than expected. The use of quantitative variables lacks flexibility. Practical Implications: Bank management will find the work useful to ensure strict enforcement of internal control mechanisms and see it as both credit risk and operational risk issues. Central bank should hurry to compel banks to disclose material internal control weakness as provided in the reviewed COSO framework. Social Implications: Ineffective internal controls lead to credit risks, bank closure and loss of investments. Society suffers a lot from such losses and contagion. Disclosure of material internal control

  3. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  5. Influência de sais e do pH da água na eficiência de imazethapyr + imazapic no controle de arroz-vermelho Influence of salts and water pH on the efficiency of imazethapyr + imazapic for red rice control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Sanchotene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na safra agrícola de 2004/2005, em Santa Maria/RS, foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de sais e do pH da água de diferentes fontes de abastecimento de pulverizadores (água de fonte mineral, água de açude e água de poço artesiano sobre a eficiência de imazethapyr (75 g L-1 + imazapic (25 g L-1 no controle de arroz-vermelho (Oryza sativa. No preparo da calda para pulverização do herbicida, foi utilizada água na sua condição original e água acidificada com ácido cítrico até pH 4,5. Foi verificado que os tratamentos com água de pH 4,5 proporcionaram maior eficiência da mistura (imazethapyr + imazapic no controle do arroz-vermelho do que com águas alcalinas (pH 9,4 e 8,7. Todos os tratamentos herbicidas causaram intoxicação às plantas do arroz cultivado. Entretanto, nos tratamentos em que se utilizou água alcalina, foi observada recuperação mais rápida das plantas de arroz, cultivar IRGA 422 CL.This research was carried out in Santa Maria/RS during the 2004/2005 crop season to evaluate the influence of salts and water pH on different sources of spray suppliers (mineral water, dam water and artesian well water on imazethapyr (75 g L-1 + imazapic (25 g L-1 efficiency in red rice control. Thus, water under original condition and acidified water with citric acid to pH 4,5 have been used to prepare the herbicide solutions. It has been verified that the treated plots with water at pH 4,5 showed better action of imazethapyr (75 g L-1 + imazapic (25 g L-1 in the red rice control than alkaline water with pH 9,4 and 8,7. All the treatments with herbicide presented intoxication in the rice. Nevertheless, the treatments with alkaline water showed a fast recuperation in rice plants (IRGA 422CL.

  6. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control; Evaluacion energetica de turbinas por control dimensional de internos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, F. [Tecnatom. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  7. Audit Oversight: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Office of Internal Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The Government Auditing Standards (GAS) require that an audit organization performing Government audits have an appropriate internal quality control system and undergo an external quality control review every 3 years by an organization...

  8. Biotic Control of Surface pH and Evidence of Light-Induced H+ Pumping and Ca2+-H+ Exchange in a Tropical Crustose Coralline Alga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie C Hofmann

    Full Text Available Presently, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of tropical reef macroalgae photosynthesis and calcification restricts predictions of how these important autotrophs will respond to global change. Therefore, we investigated the mechanistic link between inorganic carbon uptake pathways, photosynthesis and calcification in a tropical crustose coralline alga (CCA using microsensors. We measured pH, oxygen (O2, and calcium (Ca2+ dynamics and fluxes at the thallus surface under ambient (8.1 and low (7.8 seawater pH (pHSW and across a range of irradiances. Acetazolamide (AZ was used to inhibit extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAext, which mediates hydrolysis of HCO3-, and 4,4' diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS that blocks direct HCO3- uptake by anion exchange transport. Both inhibited photosynthesis, suggesting both diffusive uptake of CO2 via HCO3- hydrolysis to CO2 and direct HCO3- ion transport are important in this CCA. Surface pH was raised approximately 0.3 units at saturating irradiance, but less when CAext was inhibited. Surface pH was lower at pHSW 7.8 than pHSW 8.1 in the dark, but not in the light. The Ca2+ fluxes were large, complex and temporally variable, but revealed net Ca2+ uptake under all conditions. The temporal variability in Ca2+ dynamics was potentially related to localized dissolution during epithallial cell sloughing, a strategy of CCA to remove epiphytes. Simultaneous Ca2+ and pH dynamics suggest the presence of Ca2+/H+ exchange. Rapid light-induced H+ surface dynamics that continued after inhibition of photosynthesis revealed the presence of a light-mediated, but photosynthesis-independent, proton pump. Thus, the study indicates metabolic control of surface pH can occur in CCA through photosynthesis and light-inducible H+ pumps. Our results suggest that complex light-induced ion pumps play an important role in biological processes related to inorganic carbon uptake and calcification in CCA.

  9. Biotic Control of Surface pH and Evidence of Light-Induced H+ Pumping and Ca2+-H+ Exchange in a Tropical Crustose Coralline Alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Koch, Marguerite; de Beer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Presently, an incomplete mechanistic understanding of tropical reef macroalgae photosynthesis and calcification restricts predictions of how these important autotrophs will respond to global change. Therefore, we investigated the mechanistic link between inorganic carbon uptake pathways, photosynthesis and calcification in a tropical crustose coralline alga (CCA) using microsensors. We measured pH, oxygen (O2), and calcium (Ca2+) dynamics and fluxes at the thallus surface under ambient (8.1) and low (7.8) seawater pH (pHSW) and across a range of irradiances. Acetazolamide (AZ) was used to inhibit extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAext), which mediates hydrolysis of HCO3-, and 4,4' diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS) that blocks direct HCO3- uptake by anion exchange transport. Both inhibited photosynthesis, suggesting both diffusive uptake of CO2 via HCO3- hydrolysis to CO2 and direct HCO3- ion transport are important in this CCA. Surface pH was raised approximately 0.3 units at saturating irradiance, but less when CAext was inhibited. Surface pH was lower at pHSW 7.8 than pHSW 8.1 in the dark, but not in the light. The Ca2+ fluxes were large, complex and temporally variable, but revealed net Ca2+ uptake under all conditions. The temporal variability in Ca2+ dynamics was potentially related to localized dissolution during epithallial cell sloughing, a strategy of CCA to remove epiphytes. Simultaneous Ca2+ and pH dynamics suggest the presence of Ca2+/H+ exchange. Rapid light-induced H+ surface dynamics that continued after inhibition of photosynthesis revealed the presence of a light-mediated, but photosynthesis-independent, proton pump. Thus, the study indicates metabolic control of surface pH can occur in CCA through photosynthesis and light-inducible H+ pumps. Our results suggest that complex light-induced ion pumps play an important role in biological processes related to inorganic carbon uptake and calcification in CCA.

  10. Review of Air Traffic Controller Selection: An International Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    1997-01-01

    ...) in Hamburg is reviewed. Job analysis, test battery development, and validation research for the controller occupation in the United Kingdom is presented next, followed by a description of the Swedish "MRU Project" on controller...

  11. La mise en oeuvre des codes d'éthique par le control interne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The real value of the internal control system lies in the animation of the ethical values in the organization. The integration of ethical risks in the internal control process enables the moving notions of ethical behaviour and accommodate the training and inducement programs of all employees

  12. New software of the control and data acquisition system for the Nuclotron internal target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The control and data acquisition system for the Internal Target Station (ITS) of the Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) is implemented. The new software is based on the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the on-line data collected from ITS, as well as the internal target remote control

  13. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to

  14. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and....46 Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. Grantee financial... required by the grantee's financial management system. The Secretary or his/her designee may review the...

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  16. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  17. The impact of inclusive business on ethical values & internal control quality: an accounting perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of inclusive business on the internal ethical values and the internal control quality while conceiving the accounting perspective. I construct the hypothesis for this paper based on the potential impact on the organizations’ awareness to be directed to the inclusive business approach that will significantly impact the culture of the organizations then the ethical values and the internal control quality. I use the approach of the expected va...

  18. The mechanism of electron gating in proton pumping cytochrome c oxidase: the effect of pH and temperature on internal electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, P; Malmström, B G

    1987-10-29

    Electron-transfer reactions following flash photolysis of the mixed-valence cytochrome oxidase-CO complex have been measured at 445, 598 and 830 nm between pH 5.2 and 9.0 in the temperature range of 0-25 degrees C. There is a rapid electron transfer from the cytochrome a3-CuB pair to CuA (time constant: 14200 s-1), which is followed by a slower electron transfer to cytochrome a. Both the rate and the amplitude of the rapid phase are independent of pH, and the rate in the direction from CuA to cytochrome a3-CuB is practically independent of temperature. The second phase depends strongly on pH due to the titration of an acid-base group with pKa = 7.6. The equilibrium at pH 7.4 corresponds to reduction potentials of 225 and 345 mV for cytochrome a and a3, respectively, from which it is concluded that the enzyme is in a different conformation compared to the fully oxidized form. The results have been used to suggest a series of reaction steps in a cycle of the oxidase as a proton pump. Application of the electron-transfer theory to the temperature-dependence data suggests a mechanism for electron gating in the pump. Reduction of both cytochrome a and CuA leads to a conformational change, which changes the structure of cytochrome a3-CuB in such a way that the reorganizational barrier for electron transfer is removed and the driving force is increased.

  19. Novel Polyfermentor intestinal model (PolyFermS for controlled ecological studies: validation and effect of pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Zihler Berner

    Full Text Available In vitro gut fermentation modeling offers a useful platform for ecological studies of the intestinal microbiota. In this study we describe a novel Polyfermentor Intestinal Model (PolyFermS designed to compare the effects of different treatments on the same complex gut microbiota. The model operated in conditions of the proximal colon is composed of a first reactor containing fecal microbiota immobilized in gel beads, and used to continuously inoculate a set of parallel second-stage reactors. The PolyFermS model was validated with three independent intestinal fermentations conducted for 38 days with immobilized human fecal microbiota obtained from three child donors. The microbial diversity of reactor effluents was compared to donor feces using the HITChip, a high-density phylogenetic microarray targeting small subunit rRNA sequences of over 1100 phylotypes of the human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the metabolic response to a decrease of pH from 5.7 to 5.5, applied to balance the high fermentative activity in inoculum reactors, was studied. We observed a reproducible development of stable intestinal communities representing major taxonomic bacterial groups at ratios similar to these in feces of healthy donors, a high similarity of microbiota composition produced in second-stage reactors within a model, and a high time stability of microbiota composition and metabolic activity over 38 day culture. For all tested models, the pH-drop of 0.2 units in inoculum reactors enhanced butyrate production at the expense of acetate, but was accompanied by a donor-specific reorganization of the reactor community, suggesting a concerted metabolic adaptation and trigger of community-specific lactate or acetate cross-feeding pathways in response to varying pH. Our data showed that the PolyFermS model allows the stable cultivation of complex intestinal microbiota akin to the fecal donor and can be developed for the direct comparison of different

  20. National surveys on internal quality control for blood gas analysis and related electrolytes in clinical laboratories of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; Zhang, Chuanbao; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-05-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is essential for precision evaluation and continuous quality improvement. This study aims to investigate the IQC status of blood gas analysis (BGA) in clinical laboratories of China from 2014 to 2017. IQC information on BGA (including pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-) was submitted by external quality assessment (EQA) participant laboratories and collected through Clinet-EQA reporting system in March from 2014 to 2017. First, current CVs were compared among different years and measurement systems. Then, percentages of laboratories meeting five allowable imprecision specifications for each analyte were calculated, respectively. Finally, laboratories were divided into different groups based on control rules and frequency to compare their variation trend. The current CVs of BGA were significantly decreasing from 2014 to 2017. pH and pCO2 got the highest pass rates when compared with the minimum imprecision specification, whereas pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- got the highest pass rates when 1/3 TEa imprecision specification applied. The pass rates of pH, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- were significantly increasing during the 4 years. The comparisons of current CVs among different measurement systems showed that the precision performance of different analytes among different measurement systems had no regular distribution from 2014 to 2017. The analysis of IQC practice indicated great progress and improvement among different years. The imprecision performance of BGA has improved from 2014 to 2017, but the status of imprecision performance in China remains unsatisfying. Therefore, further investigation and continuous improvement measures should be taken.

  1. Electrolytic extraction drives volatile fatty acid chain elongation through lactic acid and replaces chemical pH control in thin stillage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen J; Candry, Pieter; Basadre, Thais; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are building blocks for the chemical industry. Sustainable, biological production is constrained by production and recovery costs, including the need for intensive pH correction. Membrane electrolysis has been developed as an in situ extraction technology tailored to the direct recovery of VFA from fermentation while stabilizing acidogenesis without caustic addition. A current applied across an anion exchange membrane reduces the fermentation broth (catholyte, water reduction: H2O + e(-) → ½ H2 + OH(-)) and drives carboxylate ions into a clean, concentrated VFA stream (anolyte, water oxidation: H2O → 2e(-) + 2 H(+) + O2). In this study, we fermented thin stillage to generate a mixed VFA extract without chemical pH control. Membrane electrolysis (0.1 A, 3.22 ± 0.60 V) extracted 28 ± 6 % of carboxylates generated per day (on a carbon basis) and completely replaced caustic control of pH, with no impact on the total carboxylate production amount or rate. Hydrogen generated from the applied current shifted the fermentation outcome from predominantly C2 and C3 VFA (64 ± 3 % of the total VFA present in the control) to majority of C4 to C6 (70 ± 12 % in the experiment), with identical proportions in the VFA acid extract. A strain related to Megasphaera elsdenii (maximum abundance of 57 %), a bacteria capable of producing mid-chain VFA at a high rate, was enriched by the applied current, alongside a stable community of Lactobacillus spp. (10 %), enabling chain elongation of VFA through lactic acid. A conversion of 30 ± 5 % VFA produced per sCOD fed (60 ± 10 % of the reactive fraction) was achieved, with a 50 ± 6 % reduction in suspended solids likely by electro-coagulation. VFA can be extracted directly from a fermentation broth by membrane electrolysis. The electrolytic water reduction products are utilized in the fermentation: OH(-) is used for pH control without added chemicals, and H2 is

  2. Control of Modular Multilevel Converter with reduced internal data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    for such an application, several key parameters have to be considered such as high speed data transfer with low propagation delay, data integrity, and ability for accurate synchronization. In order to minimize the data flow in the MMC a hierarchical control is proposed where a CCU calculates an identical reference......Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are penetrating due to their superior performances. Due to the modular structure of the converter, communication platform has to be established between the Sub-Modules (SM) and a Central Controller Unit (CCU). When the communication platform is designed...... for all the SMs while the modulation and capacitor voltage balancing is performed in the controller from the SM. Thus, at each sampling instance only four bytes references are sent by the central controller to the controllers from the SM, while one or two bytes are received from SMs. Further, the control...

  3. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  4. Internal Diffusion-Controlled Enzyme Reaction: The Acetylcholinesterase Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyoub

    2012-02-14

    Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme with a very high turnover rate; it quenches the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at the synapse. We have investigated the kinetics of the enzyme reaction by calculating the diffusion rate of the substrate molecule along an active site channel inside the enzyme from atomic-level molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast to the previous works, we have found that the internal substrate diffusion is the determinant of the acetylcholinesterase kinetics in the low substrate concentration limit. Our estimate of the overall bimolecular reaction rate constant for the enzyme is in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the present calculation provides a reasonable explanation for the effects of the ionic strength of solution and the mutation of surface residues of the enzyme. The study suggests that internal diffusion of the substrate could be a key factor in understanding the kinetics of enzymes of similar characteristics.

  5. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  6. Internal Administrative Control: Its Applicability to the Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    activities and units, or ly regulatory and sulervisozy agencies. Ziautz contends that "internal auditing is a very effective source oil mcnitcring in many...to ccapare the perfcrmance cf a functional area with the standards set forth in the SOE, it should be determined if the SCP is 100 currezt and complies...SC 2990’ COMCABWEST El Toro CA 92709 CG Fourth MAW New Orleans LA 70146 CG MCB Camp Lejeune NC 28542 CG MCAGCC Twentynine Palms CA 92278 125

  7. Partial Internal Control Recovery on 1-D Klein-Gordon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Pranoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this exposition, a technique to recover internal control on a distributed parameter system is reported. The system is described by 1-D Klein-Gordon partial differential equation with a time-varying parameter. We would like to recover the internal control applied to the system if we know some limited information about the output. We use a method called sentinel method to recover the internal control. It involves some construction of a linear functional, and we show that this construction relates closely to the exact controllability problem.

  8. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  9. OPTICAL CONTROL OF THE INTERNAL CAVITIES OF CAST ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and means of visual control of the hard-to-reach channels of castings and moulds on the basis of light-guiding systems of the optical pictures visualization are analyzed. The constructions and technical characteristics of hard and flexible endoscopes for control of basic profilecomposite parts are given.

  10. Strengthening Tobacco Control in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of the pH controlled inclusion of doxycycline and oxytetracycline antibiotics in cationic micelles and their magnesium driven release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Alessio; Carlotti, Benedetta; Gentili, Pier Luigi; Clementi, Catia; Germani, Raimondo; Elisei, Fausto

    2014-07-24

    This work presents a steady-state and time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopic investigation of two antibiotics belonging to the family of tetracyclines (doxycycline and oxytetracycline) in the micellar medium provided by p-dodecyloxybenzyltrimethylammonium bromide (pDoTABr). The spectroscopic analysis has been performed in absorption and emission with femtosecond time resolution, and at pH 5.0 and 8.7 where doxycycline and oxytetracycline are present in their neutral-zwitterionic and monoanionic forms, respectively. The experimental data have been processed by sophisticated data mining methods such as global/target analysis and the maximum entropy method. The results unambiguously indicate that, when doxycycline and oxytetracycline are in their zwitterionic form, they are entrapped within the micelle, while when they are in their monoanionic form, they preferentially show a strong one-to-one interaction with the positively charged surfactant heads. Thus, the pH of the solution controls the inclusion of the investigated drugs into the micelle. When the drugs are entrapped inside the micelles, their spectroscopic and dynamical properties after photoexcitation change appreciably. Interestingly, the entrapped drugs are still able to strongly bind Mg(2+) cations, crucial in determining the biological functioning of tetracyclines. The femtosecond resolved measurements reveal that the drugs are efficiently pulled out of the micelles by Mg(2+). In fact, magnesium-tetracycline complexes are detected in the aqueous phase. The present study suggests the potential promising use of ammonium surfactant micelles embedding doxycycline and oxytetracycline as "smart" drug delivery systems allowing their pH controlled inclusion and Mg(2+) induced release.

  12. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  13. Precipitation of aluminum and magnesium secondary minerals from uranium mill raffinate (pH 1.0–10.5) and their controls on aqueous contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Jared; Hendry, M. Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, J.; Chen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Models of geochemical controls on elements of concern (EOCs; e.g., As, Se, Mo, Ni) in U tailings are dominated by ferrihydrite. However, the evolution of aqueous concentrations of Al and Mg through the Key Lake (KL) U mill bulk neutralization process indicates that secondary Al and Mg minerals comprise a large portion of the tailings solids. X-ray diffraction, Al K-edge XAS, and TEM elemental mapping of solid samples collected from a pilot-scale continuous-flow synthetic raffinate neutralization system of the KL mill indicate the secondary Al–Mg minerals present include Mg–Al hydrotalcite, amorphous Al(OH)_3, and an amorphous hydrobasaluminite-type phase. The ferrihydrite present contains Al and may be more accurately described as Al–Fe(OH)_3. In the final combined tailings sample (pH 10.5) collected from the model experiments using raffinate with Al, Mg, and Fe, solid phase EOCs were associated with Al–Fe(OH)_3 and Mg–Al hydrotalcite. In model experiments using raffinate devoid of Fe, aqueous EOC concentrations decreased greatly at pH 4.0 (i.e., where ferrihydrite would precipitate) and largely remained in the solid phase when increased to the terminal pH of 10.5; this suggests Al–Mg minerals can control aqueous concentrations of EOCs in the raffinate in the absence of Fe. Maximum adsorption capacities for individual and mixtures of adsorbates by Mg–Al hydrotalcite were determined. A revised model of the geochemical controls in U mill tailings is presented in which Al and Mg minerals co-exist with Fe minerals to control EOC concentrations. - Highlights: • Simulated a U mill neutralization process to identify Al–Mg secondary mineralogy. • Identified AlOHSO_4, Al–Fe(OH)_3, Al(OH)_3, and Mg–Al hydrotalcite as precipitates. • Aqueous As, Ni, Mo, and Se concentrations controlled by Al–Mg minerals. • Experimental hydrotalcite uptake of As, Mo, and Se was comparable to ferrihydrite. • Updates the current model of aqueous contaminant

  14. A computerized traffic control algorithm to determine optimal traffic signal settings. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to optimally control the traffic signals at each intersection using a discrete time traffic model applicable to heavy or peak traffic. Off line optimization procedures were applied to compute the cycle splits required to minimize the lengths of the vehicle queues and delay at each intersection. The method was applied to an extensive traffic network in Toledo, Ohio. Results obtained with the derived optimal settings are compared with the control settings presently in use.

  15. Internal quality control of blood products: An experience from a tertiary care hospital blood bank from Southern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sadia; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas; Waheed, Usman; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Rehan, Asma; Irfan, Syed Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is the backbone of quality assurance program. In blood banking, the quality control of blood products ensures the timely availability of a blood component of high quality with maximum efficacy and minimal risk to potential recipients. The main objective of this study is to analyze the IQC of blood products as an indicator of our blood bank performance. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the blood bank of Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, from January 2014 to December 2015. A total of 100 units of each blood components were arbitrarily chosen during the study. Packed red cell units were evaluated for hematocrit (HCT); random platelet concentrates were evaluated for pH, yield, and culture; fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate (CP) were evaluated for unit volume, factor VIII, and fibrinogen concentrations. A total of 400 units were tested for IQC. The mean HCT of packed red cells was 69.5 ± 7.24, and in 98% units, it met the standard (<80% of HCT). The mean platelet yield was 8.8 ± 3.40 × 10 9 /L and pH was ≥6.2 in 98% bags; cultures were negative in 97% of units tested. Mean factor VIII and fibrinogen levels were found to be 84.24 ± 15.01 and 247.17 ± 49.69 for FFP, respectively. For CP, mean factor VIII and fibrinogen level were found to be 178.75 ± 86.30 and 420.7 ± 75.32, respectively. The IQC of blood products at our blood bank is in overall compliance and met recommended international standards. Implementation of standard operating procedures, accomplishment of standard guidelines, proper documentation with regular audit, and staff competencies can improve the quality performance of the transfusion services.

  16. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  17. Employing the Management Internal Control Toolset (MICT) Across the Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-16

    He announced: We would like the wing to inspect units according to the Exemplary Conduct Law, Title 10 U.S. Code 8583 , that requires all commanders...to day operations. 4.50 4.50 5.00 0.55 0.00 Wing PM Before 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.41 N/A Wing PM After we also created a  ISO  9000 based internal auditing

  18. International intercalibration as a method for control of radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, A.; Totseva, R.; Karaivanova, R.; Dandulova, Z.; Botsova, L.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of the Radioecology Section at the National Centre for Radiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) in the International Interlaboratory Comparison of radiochemical analyses organized by WHO is reported. The method of evaluating accuracy of the results from inter calibrations concerning radionuclide determination of environmental samples is outlined. The data from analysis of cesium 137, strontium 90 and radium 226 in milk, sediments, soil and seaweed made by 21 laboratories are presented. They show a good accuracy values of the results from NCRRP. 1 tab. 2 figs., 6 refs

  19. Performance of International Space Station Alpha Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis presented herein was conducted during the early transitional period between the Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station programs as part of an effort to evaluate key design specifications and standards used by the United States and Russia. The analysis was originally documented under NASA cover letter ED62(36-94) dated August 16, 1994. The analysis was revised and rereleased under NASA cover letter ED62(51-94) dated November 14, 1994. These cover letters are provided here to guide programmatic context for the reader.

  20. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    . The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we implement on a humanoid robot a model of gaze stabilization...... based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...

  1. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  2. 5th International Conference on Optimization and Control with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teo, Kok; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents advances in state-of-the-art solution methods and their applications to real life practical problems in optimization, control and operations research. Contributions from world-class experts in the field are collated here in two parts, dealing first with optimization and control theory and then with techniques and applications. Topics covered in the first part include control theory on infinite dimensional Banach spaces, history-dependent inclusion and linear programming complexity theory. Chapters also explore the use of approximations of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman inequality for solving periodic optimization problems and look at multi-objective semi-infinite optimization problems, and production planning problems.  In the second part, the authors address techniques and applications of optimization and control in a variety of disciplines, such as chaos synchronization, facial expression recognition and dynamic input-output economic models. Other applications considered here include image retr...

  3. Time-domain finite elements in optimal control with application to launch-vehicle guidance. PhD. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    A time-domain finite element method is developed for optimal control problems. The theory derived is general enough to handle a large class of problems including optimal control problems that are continuous in the states and controls, problems with discontinuities in the states and/or system equations, problems with control inequality constraints, problems with state inequality constraints, or problems involving any combination of the above. The theory is developed in such a way that no numerical quadrature is necessary regardless of the degree of nonlinearity in the equations. Also, the same shape functions may be employed for every problem because all strong boundary conditions are transformed into natural or weak boundary conditions. In addition, the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are very sparse. Use of sparse matrix solvers allows for the rapid and accurate solution of very difficult optimization problems. The formulation is applied to launch-vehicle trajectory optimization problems, and results show that real-time optimal guidance is realizable with this method. Finally, a general problem solving environment is created for solving a large class of optimal control problems. The algorithm uses both FORTRAN and a symbolic computation program to solve problems with a minimum of user interaction. The use of symbolic computation eliminates the need for user-written subroutines which greatly reduces the setup time for solving problems.

  4. Use of controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices to control reproduction in goats: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Singh-Knights, Doolarie

    2016-09-01

    High reproductive rates are necessary in order to increase the productivity of goat operations. Progesterone and its analogues are widely used in other species to control the reproductive system to facilitate synchronized births, induce fertile estrus or to facilitate the use of assisted reproductive techniques with the goal of increasing productivity of livestock. Progesterone impregnated controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices are approved for delivery of the natural hormone progesterone to synchronize and induce fertile estrus in sheep. A few studies have reported a high estrous response and pregnancy rates when CIDRs are used to induce estrus in goats. However, significant variation exists in the duration of treatment (5-16 days) and in the use of exogenous gonadotropins as part of the treatment protocol. As gonadotropins are not currently approved for commercial use in small ruminants in the USA, studies are needed to determine the necessity for exogenous gonadotropins and whether they can be replaced by enhancing endogenous secretion through photoperiodic manipulation of the doe and \\ or increase stimulation through the 'buck-effect'. Future studies must not only evaluate efficacy, but should consider the economic feasibility of using CIDRs in commercial production systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  6. Microstructural characterization of stainless steel 17-4 PH used in the control element of PWR-Type reactors submitted to different heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Douglas F.A.; Rezende, Renato P.; Turcarelli, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    The Control Element is a set of mechanical components of pressurized water cooled nuclear reactors (PWR), with the function of modifying the reactivity of the nucleus by insertion and withdrawal of neutron absorptive rod, in order to change the flow of neutrons (power) to the necessary and desired levels. The control element also has a safety function when there is a need to have negative reactivity available to shut down the reactor in normal operating or accident situations. In this situation, the control element descends instantly and inserts the rods with absorptive material into the fuel element thus shutting down the reactor. The control element consists of control rods, which carry the neutron absorption material and is supported by the spider, pin, spring and spring retainer assembly. The control element has some components that need to have high resistance to impacts when the safety function is activated, so the material of this component must have high mechanical strength and toughness. One of the materials in which can be specified for this application is martensitic stainless steel 17- 4PH (UNS 17400). This steel, when subjected to the aging heat treatment, has its mechanical properties altered due to the precipitation of dispersed intermetallic compounds in the matrix. In all heat treatments performed the predominant microstructure is lath martensite. The heat treatment of the 620 °C / 4 h presented lower hardness when compared to the other treatments and when increase time and temperature the material presents Nb precipitates that increase the hardness. (author)

  7. Microstructural characterization of stainless steel 17-4 PH used in the control element of PWR-Type reactors submitted to different heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Douglas F.A.; Rezende, Renato P.; Turcarelli, Tiago, E-mail: ferreira@marinha.mil.br, E-mail: renato.rezende@marinha.mil.br, E-mail: tiago.turcarelli@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (DDNM/CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Desenvolvimento Nuclear da Marinha

    2017-07-01

    The Control Element is a set of mechanical components of pressurized water cooled nuclear reactors (PWR), with the function of modifying the reactivity of the nucleus by insertion and withdrawal of neutron absorptive rod, in order to change the flow of neutrons (power) to the necessary and desired levels. The control element also has a safety function when there is a need to have negative reactivity available to shut down the reactor in normal operating or accident situations. In this situation, the control element descends instantly and inserts the rods with absorptive material into the fuel element thus shutting down the reactor. The control element consists of control rods, which carry the neutron absorption material and is supported by the spider, pin, spring and spring retainer assembly. The control element has some components that need to have high resistance to impacts when the safety function is activated, so the material of this component must have high mechanical strength and toughness. One of the materials in which can be specified for this application is martensitic stainless steel 17- 4PH (UNS 17400). This steel, when subjected to the aging heat treatment, has its mechanical properties altered due to the precipitation of dispersed intermetallic compounds in the matrix. In all heat treatments performed the predominant microstructure is lath martensite. The heat treatment of the 620 °C / 4 h presented lower hardness when compared to the other treatments and when increase time and temperature the material presents Nb precipitates that increase the hardness. (author)

  8. Women's perceived internal control of future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Azam; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2013-03-01

    With regards to the importance of women's beliefs in improving pregnancy outcomes, this study was performed to determine the perceived internal control on future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors in women who participated in pre-marital counseling. In a cross-sectional study, women's perceived internal control was investigated. The study population comprised the women in reproductive age of whom 400 were selected by random sampling. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of demographic, pre-conceptional care, and internal control questions. Two categories of favorite and not favorite levels of internal control were defined based on the total score. The validity of the questionnaire was determined via content validity method by use of experts' opinion and its reliability was evaluated through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.76. Data were analyzed through frequency tables, correlation coefficient, and Chi-square test at the confidence level of 0.95. Two hundred sixty-five (65%) women had a good perceived internal control and it was significantly associated with the age, educational level, and hearing about pre-conceptional care. The internal control score also showed a positive and significant correlation with both age and the subject knowledge about folic acid (r = 0.19 and r = 0.15, respectively). The majority of women had a favorite perceived internal control. Since age and educational level were the affecting factors on the perceived internal control of women, promoting the level of internal control in young women and those with low education in pre-marital counseling classes seems necessary.

  9. Nuclear reactor internals and control rod handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, G.N.; Etzel, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing, in an essentially continuous operation, the control rods and the upper guide structure from a nuclear reactor vessel during refueling. The apparatus includes a rigid frame which is secured to the upper guide structure after the vessel head is removed. A platform is vertically reciprocable within the frame and is adapted to engage and lift simultaneously all control rod drive shafts to a maximum elevation within the frame. A mechanical interface between the platform and the frame is provided so that continuation of the lifting force on the platform transfers the lift force to the frame whereby the upper guide structure is lifted out of the vessel. Automatically operated stop means are provided to lock the platform and rods in the maximum elevation within the frame in order to prevent accidental dropping of the rods during transfer of the upper guide structure and control rods to a temporary storage area

  10. SIMULATION OF CONTROL STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Korzh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to develop a general model of integrated management of marketing activities from an international perspective, given the relationship of its parts to each other and the external environment and the cyclical nature of the process, and the construction of a general model for evaluating the performance of international marketing system. Results: In modern conditions high-quality products are necessity-term, but not sufficient to achieve the successful operation of the market. To optimize the above goal should be to work out issues such as the definition of the requirements of potential customers, the timing, location and conditions of the transaction, that is, the seller must offer the buyer at a particular moment only the product that the best way to satisfy existing need for the latter. This may explain the reason for the proposed buyers of high-quality goods are distributed in the market of one country and cannot find it in another. Discussion: The information presented in this article marketing management model allows you to organize all marketing activities and events, and do them not by chance, but in the complex, taking into account their relationship and interaction. As well as the opportunity to working with mesh product and market development to identify new attraction activities and evaluate them in terms of compliance with the overall objectives and company resources. In addition, the proposed method of assessing the effectiveness of a marketing system is universal, and it allows you to analyze the effectiveness of the functioning of the marketing of individual enterprises, regardless of scope, given the impact of all factors.

  11. Constitution of a centralised data base for the internal quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fau, P.; Rodrigues, C.; Ruchaud, R.; Bravetti, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project was to implement a centralised data base of internal quality control in radiotherapy according to the criteria of the decree of A.f.s.s.a.p.s. (French agency of sanitary safety of health products on 27 july 2007, about the internal quality control of external radiotherapy facilities. The software on one year meets the objectives: compliance by comparison with A.f.s.s.a.p.s. criteria but particularly optimization of the centralisation and analysis of the internal quality controls. (N.C.)

  12. Modelling and Internal Fuzzy Model Power Control of a Francis Water Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Nagode

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic modelling of a Francis turbine with a surge tank and the control of a hydro power plant (HPP. Non-linear and linear models include technical parameters and show high similarity to measurement data. Turbine power control with an internal model control (IMC is proposed, based on a turbine fuzzy model. Considering appropriate control responses in the entire area of turbine power, the model parameters of the process are determined from a fuzzy model, which are further included in the internal model controller. The results are compared to a proportional-integral (PI controller tuned with an integral absolute error (IAE objective function, and show an improved response of internal model control.

  13. Defense Procurement: An Analysis of Contract Management Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-22

    management to discuss what could go wrong within the organization and how to best mitigate any potential risks , including fraud risks ( COSO , 2013...knowledge management system supporting its governance of processes and practices (Power, 1996, p. 289). Organizations’ increased concern for risk ...meeting the organizational goals set by management ( COSO , 2013). If any controls need to be updated, changed, removed, or added, management can

  14. Regulatory control of radioactive sources: an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1998-01-01

    Within its Regular Programme and its Technical Co-operation Programme, the IAEA undertakes a number of activities in support of national efforts aimed at strengthening national infrastructures for the control of radiation sources. The framework of these activities is described. (author)

  15. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  16. 10 CFR 74.43 - Internal controls, inventory, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., inventory, and recordkeeping capabilities required in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. (b...) Provides current knowledge of SNM items with respect to identity, element and isotope content, and stored... measurements for the licensee. (c) Inventory control and physical inventories. The licensee shall: (1) Provide...

  17. The JET PCU project: An international plasma control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, F.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Toigo, V.; Hay, J.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Shaw, S.R.; Luchetta, A.; Sousa, J.; Portone, A.; Bonicelli, T.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bigi, M.; Card, P.; Cavinato, M.; De Tommasi, G.; Gaio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the new JET enhancement project 'Plasma Control Upgrade' (PCU). Initially aimed at an overhaul of JET plasma control capabilities it was eventually focused on improving the vertical stabilisation (VS) system ability to recover from large ELM (edge localised mode) perturbations. The paper describes the results of the first two years where the activity was aimed principally at researching a solution that could be implemented within the timing and budget constraints. A very important task was that of improving the modelling of JET plasma, iron core and passive structures. Using dedicated experiments, the models were progressively refined until it was possible not just to explain the experimental data but predict the VS system behaviour. At the same time the project team studied the best options for power supply (PS) and control system upgrades and evaluated whether a change of turns in the stabilisation coil was desirable and possible. A new fast radial field power supply is now being ordered and the VS control system is being upgraded

  18. First international conference on vibration control in optics and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 27 selections. Some of the titles are: Use of optics for vibration analysis of automotive components; Use of pulsed lasers for vibration analysis in the nuclear power industry; Vibration analysis of photocopiers; Control of ground vibrations; Design of low-vibration buildings: two case histories; and Continuous pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

  19. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  20. Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, G; Murray, K; Jacques, T Y; Koenig, A L; Vandegeest, K A

    1996-04-01

    We examined inhibitory control as a quality of temperament that contributes to internalization. Children were assessed twice, at 26-41 months (N = 103) and at 43-56 months (N = 99), on repeated occasions, in multiple observational contexts and using parental reports. Comprehensive behavioral batteries incorporating multiple tasks were designed to measure inhibitory control at toddler and preschool age. They had good internal consistencies, corresponded with maternal ratings, and were developmentally sensitive. Individual children's performance was significantly correlated across both assessments, indicating stable individual differences. Girls surpassed boys at both ages. Children's internalization was observed while they were alone with prohibited objects, with a mundane chore, playing games that occasioned cheating, being induced to violate standards of conduct, and assessed using maternal reports. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with internalization, both contemporaneously and as a predictor in the longitudinal sense. The implications for considering children's temperament as a significant, yet often neglected contributor to developing internalization are discussed.

  1. The impact of inclusive business on ethical values & internal control quality: an accounting perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of inclusive business on the internal ethical values and the internal control quality while conceiving the accounting perspective. I construct the hypothesis for this paper based on the potential impact on the organizations’ awareness to be directed to the inclusive business approach that will significantly impact the culture of the organizations then the ethical values and the internal control quality. I use the approach of the expected value and variance of random variable test in order to analyze the potential impact of inclusive business. I support the examination by discrete probability distribution and continuous probability distribution. I find a probability of 85.5% to have a significant potential impact of the inclusive business by 100% score on internal ethical values and internal control quality. And to help contribute to sustainability growth, reduce poverty and improve organizational culture and learning.

  2. Evaluating the Level of Internal Control System in the Management of Financial Security of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidvysotska Lyudmyla J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization and technology of evaluation process of the internal control system of bank in order to ensure financial security management of its activities. The work of the internal audit service on monitoring and evaluating the performance of the bank’s internal control system was analyzed. It has been found that improving the level of financial security of commercial banks is conditional upon improvements in the quality of audits and the provision of sound and objective conclusions. The interrelation of the tasks of internal audit service and the tasks of bank’s financial security management has been determined. Methodological recommendations on evaluation of the bank’s internal control system on the basis of results of audit have been proposed.

  3. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  4. Randomized controlled trial of internal and external targeted temperature management methods in post- cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Xinqi; Li, Huihua; Ng, Mingwei; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Pothiawala, Sohil; Tan, Kenneth Boon Kiat; Sewa, Duu Wen; Shahidah, Nur; Pek, Pin Pin; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2018-01-01

    Targeted temperature management post-cardiac arrest is currently implemented using various methods, broadly categorized as internal and external. This study aimed to evaluate survival-to-hospital discharge and neurological outcomes (Glasgow-Pittsburgh Score) of post-cardiac arrest patients undergoing internal cooling verses external cooling. A randomized controlled trial of post-resuscitation cardiac arrest patients was conducted from October 2008-September 2014. Patients were randomized to either internal or external cooling methods. Historical controls were selected matched by age and gender. Analysis using SPSS version 21.0 presented descriptive statistics and frequencies while univariate logistic regression was done using R 3.1.3. 23 patients were randomized to internal cooling and 22 patients to external cooling and 42 matched controls were selected. No significant difference was seen between internal and external cooling in terms of survival, neurological outcomes and complications. However in the internal cooling arm, there was lower risk of developing overcooling (p=0.01) and rebound hyperthermia (p=0.02). Compared to normothermia, internal cooling had higher survival (OR=3.36, 95% CI=(1.130, 10.412), and lower risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias (OR=0.18, 95% CI=(0.04, 0.63)). Subgroup analysis showed those with cardiac cause of arrest (OR=4.29, 95% CI=(1.26, 15.80)) and sustained ROSC (OR=5.50, 95% CI=(1.64, 20.39)) had better survival with internal cooling compared to normothermia. Cooling curves showed tighter temperature control for internal compared to external cooling. Internal cooling showed tighter temperature control compared to external cooling. Internal cooling can potentially provide better survival-to-hospital discharge outcomes and reduce cardiac arrhythmia complications in carefully selected patients as compared to normothermia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Internal and external force-based impedance control for cooperative manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Kostic, D.; Denasi, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    An asymptotically stable cascaded control algorithm is proposed for cooperative manipulation of a common object. This algorithm controls motion and internal forces of the object, as well as the contact forces between the object and environment. The motion of each manipulator is controlled using an

  6. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, optimal closed-loop test design for control is studied. Simple design formulas are derived based on the asymptotic theory of Ljung. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The

  7. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower... Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division to be considered leased workers...

  8. 12 CFR 620.3 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control over financial reporting. 620.3 Section 620.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... control over financial reporting. (a) Prohibition against incomplete, inaccurate, or misleading... assessment of internal control over financial reporting. Annual reports of those institutions with over $1...

  9. Financial statement analysis, internal controls, and audit readiness: Bestpractices for Pakistan army financial management officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    RESEARCH ...............................................106  APPENDIX A. IFRS APPROVAL STATUS IN PAKISTAN .................................109  APPENDIX...Appendix A presents a list of all IFRS indicating whether each has been approved for use in Pakistan (ICAP, 2015). Appendix B shows examples of a...following sections. a. Control Environment According to COSO (2013), the control environment has a great impact in implementing internal controls

  10. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  11. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    entails the tone at the top. Management’s integrity and ethical behavior sets the tone for the organization (COSO, 2013). A weak control environment can...the collusion category of fraud schemes are kickbacks, bribery , and deliberate split purchases. Kickbacks involve government officials receiving...something of value such as money from a contractor for personal gain in exchange for providing a favor such as submitting false invoices. Bribery

  12. 10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

  13. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua M Epstein; D Michael Goedecke; Feng Yu; Robert J Morris; Diane K Wagener; Georgiy V Bobashev

    2007-01-01

    Background Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. Methods and Findings A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects ...

  14. International conference on Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Huang, Xu; Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing

    2012-01-01

    In the lightning-fast world of intelligent control and cutting-edge computing, it is vitally important to stay abreast of developments that seem to follow each other without pause. This publication features the very latest and some of the very best current research in the field, with 32 revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers in the field. Culled from contributions to the key 2011 conference Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing, held in Hong Kong, the articles deal with a wealth of relevant topics, from the most recent work in artificial intelligence and decision-supporting systems, to automated planning, modelling and simulation, signal processing, and industrial applications. Not only does this work communicate the current state of the art in intelligent control and innovative computing, it is also an illuminating guide to up-to-date topics for researchers and graduate students in the field. The quality of the contents is absolutely assured by the high pro...

  15. The yeast protein kinase Sch9 adjusts V-ATPase assembly/disassembly to control pH homeostasis and longevity in response to glucose availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wilms

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conserved protein kinase Sch9 is a central player in the nutrient-induced signaling network in yeast, although only few of its direct substrates are known. We now provide evidence that Sch9 controls the vacuolar proton pump (V-ATPase to maintain cellular pH homeostasis and ageing. A synthetic sick phenotype arises when deletion of SCH9 is combined with a dysfunctional V-ATPase, and the lack of Sch9 has a significant impact on cytosolic pH (pHc homeostasis. Sch9 physically interacts with, and influences glucose-dependent assembly/disassembly of the V-ATPase, thereby integrating input from TORC1. Moreover, we show that the role of Sch9 in regulating ageing is tightly connected with V-ATPase activity and vacuolar acidity. As both Sch9 and the V-ATPase are highly conserved in higher eukaryotes, it will be interesting to further clarify their cooperative action on the cellular processes that influence growth and ageing.

  16. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  17. Work stress and emotional exhaustion in nurses: the mediating role of internal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlak Günüşen, Neslihan; Ustün, Besti; Erdem, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a major problem for nursing. There is a strong relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion. Although studies report a negative correlation between the internal locus of control and emotional exhaustion and work stress, the number of studies available on the subject is limited. This study intends to examine the extent to which the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion is mediated by nurses' internal locus of control. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The study sample consisted of 347 nurses who worked in a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey and who agreed to participate in the study. The Work-Related Strain Inventory was used to evaluate the nurses' work stress level, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate their emotional exhaustion levels, and the Locus of Control Scale was used to evaluate the internal locus of control. The variables of the study were based on the Neuman Systems Model. Work stress was positively related to internal locus of control (β3 = .21, p 0.1). Internal locus of control was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β = -.14, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p work stress was mediated, the impact of internal locus of control was limited. It is recommended that different variables be included in future studies so that they can mediate the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion.

  18. Digitally controlled measurement of sonic elastic moduli and internal friction by phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.H.; Hunter, O. Jr.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Skank, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    An automated system is described for measuring internal friction and elastic moduli using sonic resonance techniques. This mirocomputer-controlled device does phase angle analysis in addition to traditional decay and peak-width internal friction measurement. The apparatus may be programmed to make measurements at any sequence of temperatures between room temperature and 1600 0 C

  19. A multistage pH-control strategy in printing paper production; Monivaiheinen Ph:n saeaetoestrategia painopaperin valmistuksessa - MPKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylen, J P; Jutila, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The UPM-Kymmene paper mill in Kaipola (Finland) uses recycled paper material, deinked pulp and thermomechanical pulp in the production of different paper grades. The quality changes in the recycled pulp, and especially the varying calcium content, cause problems for those paper machines, which use a mixture of different pulps as raw material. The calcium content and the prevailing pH-value have great influence on the stability of e.g. the resin colloid material of the pulp, and that is why they are important factors in the smooth operation of the machine. The first task in this study was the construction of a reliable method for the pH-measurement of the thick deinked pulp and the development of a satisfactory control based on this measurement. This task was realised using a specific measuring line for the pH-measurement and a linear feedforward-feedback control algorithm. The second task was to create a static three phase pH-simulator, that was verified using real pulps and distribution analysis. Unit operation dynamic flow models were also developed and this part of the study is going on presently. (orig.)

  20. A multistage pH-control strategy in printing paper production; Monivaiheinen Ph:n saeaetoestrategia painopaperin valmistuksessa - MPKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylen, J.P.; Jutila, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The UPM-Kymmene paper mill in Kaipola (Finland) uses recycled paper material, deinked pulp and thermomechanical pulp in the production of different paper grades. The quality changes in the recycled pulp, and especially the varying calcium content, cause problems for those paper machines, which use a mixture of different pulps as raw material. The calcium content and the prevailing pH-value have great influence on the stability of e.g. the resin colloid material of the pulp, and that is why they are important factors in the smooth operation of the machine. The first task in this study was the construction of a reliable method for the pH-measurement of the thick deinked pulp and the development of a satisfactory control based on this measurement. This task was realised using a specific measuring line for the pH-measurement and a linear feedforward-feedback control algorithm. The second task was to create a static three phase pH-simulator, that was verified using real pulps and distribution analysis. Unit operation dynamic flow models were also developed and this part of the study is going on presently. (orig.)

  1. Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Skaife (Hollis); D. Veenman (David); D. Wangerin (Daniel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses

  2. Contributions to the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains three papers presented in the 7th International Conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices held in Princeton (USA) 5-9 May 1986, all referred to the FT Tokamak

  3. Report: Follow-Up Audit - EPA Needs to Strengthen Internal Controls Over Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0407, September 26, 2017. Additional actions are needed to strengthen internal controls over monitoring and to effectively resolve the cause of the prior audit findings. We question $1,605 of irregular payments.

  4. Financial Management: Poor Internal Controls Expose Department of Education to Improper Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    On July 24, 2001, we testified before your subcommittee on our ongoing review of the Department of Education's payment processes and how the existing internal control weaknesses we have noted thus far...

  5. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This documented briefing is intended to provide options for U.S. policy that will enhance China's participation in the control of international transfers of destabilizing military or dual use technology...

  6. Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM under internal and external unbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Kontos, E.; Parikh, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a complete control scheme for the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) in a STATCOM application. The focus is laid on the internal balancing of the converter and its reliable operation under internal mismatches as well as under external unbalanced conditions. The leg energy...... and the simulation results verified the capability to provide maximum reactive power to the AC grid while maintaining internal balance through the individual control of each arm energy level....... controller ensures that the sum of the capacitor voltages of each phase are equal. An intuitive arm energy controller is also implemented which allows the decoupled control of the energy levels of every arm. The control performance of the STATCOM was evaluated under asymmetrical grid faults...

  7. Threshold-Switchable Particles (TSPs) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    μg/ml near sites of trauma. Control experiments were performed with bare polyP NPs and 10 μg/ml sPLA2 from bee venom (bvsPLA2) to identify any... journals : (1) Hebbard CF, Wang Y, Baker CJ, and Morrissey JH. Synthesis and evaluation of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates for high-throughput...Biomac © 2014 American Chemical Society 3190 dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm500872g | Biomacromolecules 2014, 15, 3190−3196 Open Access on 07/07/2015 phatase

  8. Review of selected dynamic material control functions for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, L.L.

    1980-09-01

    With the development of Dynamic Special Nuclear Material Accounting and Control systems used in nuclear manufacturing and reprocessing plants, there arises the question as to how these systems affect the IAEA inspection capabilities. The systems in being and under development provide information and control for a variety of purposes important to the plant operator, the safeguards purpose being one of them. This report attempts to judge the usefulness of these dynamic systems to the IAEA and have defined 12 functions that provide essential information to it. If the information acquired by these dynamic systems is to be useful to the IAEA, the inspectors must be able to independently verify it. Some suggestions are made as to how this might be done. But, even if it should not be possible to verify all the data, the availability to the IAEA of detailed, simultaneous, and plant-wide information would tend to inhibit a plant operator from attempting to generate a floating or fictitious inventory. Suggestions are made that might be helpful in the design of future software systems, an area which has proved to be fatally deficient in some systems and difficult in all

  9. Systematic review on international practices in controlling waterpipe tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Hairi, Noran N; Nordin, Fauziah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chan, Ying Ying; Kaur, Gurpreet; Veerasingam, Pathma Devi; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence. A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating. Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification. Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.

  10. Risk-oriented internal control: The essence, management methods at small enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Piskunov, V. A.; Manyayeva, V. A.; Tatarovskaya, T. E.; Bychkova, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The research topic relevance is inspired by necessity to develop theoretical and methodical provisions on the internal control system, risk-based management at small enterprises and to prove application feasibility, using economic-mathematical methods its implementation. The purpose of this research is to develop theoretical and methodical approaches to internal control system formation in small businesses, generating reliable and relevant information on the commercial organization activities...

  11. Control authorities of internal affairs bodies in the sphere of drug trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. М. Шевчук

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with control authorities of internal Affairs bodies in the sphere of turnover of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and precursors. Established the concept of the legal status of the Management of the fight against illegal circulation of drugs of the Ministry of interior of Ukraine and describes its features. The classification of control authorities of internal Affairs bodies in the sphere of turnover of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and precursors and analyzed for their content.

  12. An Analysis of Viable Financial Negotiations Processes and Related Internal Controls for Procurement in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations are in accordance with UNCITRAL Model Law and are based on principles of “ accountability , transparency, fairness, efficiency and value for... account certain factors about the firm(s) for pre-qualification. These factors include past performance and experience; financial health; managerial...internal control components, along with associated principles , were discussed in detail to develop a suitable internal control system for the financial

  13. The role of a company’s internal control system in fraud prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Dimitrijevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and company performance is improved through implementation of preventive methods by internal controls, and to indicate that a developed system of internal control represents a protective barrier against various kinds of data manipulation and fraud inside the companies. Special attention was paid to fraud in financial statements since it can cause the most serious damage leading to instability of the economic-financial environment.

  14. EFFECT OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ON FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BARINGO COUNTY GOVERNMENT, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Lagat, Cornelius; Okelo, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    This study intended to establish the effect of internal control systems on financial management in Baringo County government in Kenya. Internal control systems are integral components of the management processes of a public sector institution which should be established in order to provide reasonable assurance that the financial operations are carried out transparently and accountably. The study adopted the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Tread way Commission (COSO) theoretical f...

  15. Corporate internal control system in the process of transformations: formation, development, problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kanapickienė, Rasa

    2009-01-01

    In the market environment every company is seeking to obtain and maintain the best market share. One of the mechanisms in achieving this goal is an effective internal control of the company. With growing competition, fast development and introduction of new technologies, progressing complexity of business projects, and enlarging business diversity, company management is becoming increasingly more complicated. Consequently, company internal control is becoming a more and more complicated task....

  16. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorgvin Vilbergsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique and the end (desired function or outcome is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means and produce outputs (ends. The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques for multiple treatment functions.

  17. Cutting-in control of the variable speed constant frequency wind power generator based on internal model controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua; Zhao Dongli [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The no-impact-current cutting-in-network control is the key of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power control system. Based on the stator flux linkage oriented control theory of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the field-oriented vector control technique and the internal model controller (IMC) are transplanted into the voltage control of DFIG and a novel cutting-in control strategy is obtained. The strategy does not need the exact inductor generator model, and has perfect performance without overshoot. The structure of the controller is simple, and the only parameter to be adjusted is directly related to system performance, so the strategy is easy to realize. Finally the strategy is studied by simulation using Matlab, the results of the simulation show that the control strategy can effectively control the stator voltage. (orig.)

  18. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  19. ICG: a wiki-driven knowledgebase of internal control genes for RT-qPCR normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jian; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Man; Cao, Jiabao; Niu, Guangyi; Xia, Lin; Zou, Dong; Wang, Fan; Xu, Xingjian; Han, Xiaojiao; Fan, Jinqi; Yang, Ye; Zuo, Wanzhu; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Wenming; Bao, Yiming; Xiao, Jingfa; Hu, Songnian; Hao, Lili; Zhang, Zhang

    2018-01-04

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used method for accurate expression profiling of targeted mRNA and ncRNA. Selection of appropriate internal control genes for RT-qPCR normalization is an elementary prerequisite for reliable expression measurement. Here, we present ICG (http://icg.big.ac.cn), a wiki-driven knowledgebase for community curation of experimentally validated internal control genes as well as their associated experimental conditions. Unlike extant related databases that focus on qPCR primers in model organisms (mainly human and mouse), ICG features harnessing collective intelligence in community integration of internal control genes for a variety of species. Specifically, it integrates a comprehensive collection of more than 750 internal control genes for 73 animals, 115 plants, 12 fungi and 9 bacteria, and incorporates detailed information on recommended application scenarios corresponding to specific experimental conditions, which, collectively, are of great help for researchers to adopt appropriate internal control genes for their own experiments. Taken together, ICG serves as a publicly editable and open-content encyclopaedia of internal control genes and accordingly bears broad utility for reliable RT-qPCR normalization and gene expression characterization in both model and non-model organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.