Sample records for internal olefin drilling

  1. Synthesis of terminal alkenes from internal alkenes and ethylene via olefin metathesis (United States)

    Schrodi, Yann [Agoura Hills, CA


    This invention relates generally to olefin metathesis, and more particularly relates to the synthesis of terminal alkenes from internal alkenes using a cross-metathesis reaction catalyzed by a selected olefin metathesis catalyst. In one embodiment of the invention, for example, a method is provided for synthesizing a terminal olefin, the method comprising contacting an olefinic substrate comprised of at least one internal olefin with ethylene, in the presence of a metathesis catalyst, wherein the catalyst is present in an amount that is less than about 1000 ppm relative to the olefinic substrate, and wherein the metathesis catalyst has the structure of formula (II) ##STR00001## wherein the various substituents are as defined herein. The invention has utility, for example, in the fields of catalysis, organic synthesis, and industrial chemistry.

  2. Practical and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ketones from Internal Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill; Wickens, Zachary K.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Make it simple! A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed oxidation of internal olefins to ketones is reported. The transformation occurs at room temperature and shows wide substrate scope. Applications to the oxidation of seed-oil derivatives and a bioactive natural product (see scheme) are described, as well as intriguing mechanistic features.

  3. Practical and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ketones from Internal Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill


    Make it simple! A convenient and general palladium-catalyzed oxidation of internal olefins to ketones is reported. The transformation occurs at room temperature and shows wide substrate scope. Applications to the oxidation of seed-oil derivatives and a bioactive natural product (see scheme) are described, as well as intriguing mechanistic features.

  4. Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration (United States)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki


    International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

  5. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins


    Kenji Michiue; Makoto Mitani; Terunori Fujita


    In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’)2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl), after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenyl)zirconium dichloride (1), rac-dimethyls...

  6. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones. (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David


    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue


    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  8. Use of piezosurgery for internal auditory canal drilling in acoustic neuroma surgery. (United States)

    Grauvogel, Juergen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kaminsky, Jan


    Piezosurgery is based on microvibrations generated by the piezoelectrical effect and has a selective bone-cutting ability with preservation of soft tissue. This study examined the applicability of Piezosurgery compared to rotating drills (RD) for internal auditory canal (IAC) opening in acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery. Piezosurgery was used in eight patients for IAC drilling in AN surgery. After exposition of the IAC and tumor, the posterior wall of the IAC was drilled using Piezosurgery instead of RD. Piezosurgery was evaluated with respect to practicability, safety, preciseness of bone cutting, preservation of cranial nerves, influences on neurophysiological monitoring, and facial nerve and hearing outcome. Piezosurgery was successfully used for selective bone cutting, while cranial nerves were structurally and functionally preserved, which could be measured by means of neuromonitoring. Piezosurgery guaranteed a safe and precise cut by removing bone layer by layer in a shaping way. Compared to RD, limited influence on neurophysiological monitoring attributable to Piezosurgery was noted, allowing for continuous neuromonitoring. No disadvantage due to microvibrations was noticed concerning hearing function. The angled tip showed better handling in right-sided than in left-sided tumors in the hands of a right-handed surgeon. The short, thick handpiece may be improved for more convenient handling. Piezosurgery is a safe tool for selective bone cutting for opening of the IAC with preservation of facial nerve and hearing function in AN surgery. Piezosurgery has the potential to replace RD for this indication because of its safe and precise bone-cutting properties.

  9. Drilling in troubled waters. For an international regulation on offshore gas and oil activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, Julien


    Due to an increased energy demand, offshore activities are being extended to deep and ultra-deep waters: nearly one third of consumed oil and one quarter of consumed gas come from offshore drilling. This development threatens the environment and natural resources, and may have an impact on human activities which depend on the concerned ecosystems. As some accident had cross-border consequences, the relevance of the international regulatory framework is put into question again. This article first outlines the incomplete character of the legal framework for the safety of offshore activities: uncoordinated national systems, lack of an international convention, fragmented regional initiatives (some agreements exist for some specific regions: Arctic Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-Eastern Atlantic, Persic Gulf and Oman Sea, Africa, western Indian Ocean). The author outlines that there is no international rules regarding responsibility and compensations. While highlighting the risks of a status-quo on these different issues, the author proposes and discusses a set of recommendations aimed at strengthening the regulation of offshore drilling activities

  10. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study


    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin


    Background Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. Methods The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion fo...

  11. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program. (United States)

    Horsfield, Brian


    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  12. Olefin Autoxidation in Flow


    Neuenschwander Ulrich; Jensen Klavs F.


    Handling hazardous multiphase reactions in flow brings not only safety advantages but also significantly improved performance due to better mass transfer characteristics. In this paper we present a continuous microreactor setup capable of performing olefin autoxidations with O2 under solvent free and catalyst free conditions. Owing to the transparent reactor design consumption of O2 can be visually followed and exhaustion of the gas bubbles marks a clear end point along the channel length coo...

  13. Cobalt catalyzed hydroesterification of a wide range of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, H.; Hanton, M.; Tooze, R.P.; Foster, D.F. [Sasol Technology UK, St Andrews (United Kingdom)


    Petrochemical raw materials are an essential raw material for the production of detergents with a substantial portion of synthetic fatty alcohols being produced via hydroformylation of oil or coal derived olefins. Carbonylation processes other than hydroformylation have to date not been commercially employed for the production of fatty esters or alcohols. In this document we highlight the opportunities of converting olefins to esters using cobalt catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation. This process is highly versatile and applicable to a wide range of olefins, linear or branched, alpha or internal in combination with virtually any chain length primary or secondary alcohol allowing the synthesis of a diverse array of compounds such as ester ethoxylated surfactants, methyl branched detergents, lubricants and alkyl propanoates. Furthermore, alkoxycarbonylation of a broad olefin/paraffin hydrocarbon range could be used to produce the corresponding broad cut detergent alcohols. (orig.)

  14. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola


    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  15. Isobutane/olefin-alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waitkamp, J.; Maixner, S.


    Isobutane/olefin-alkylation - technology and reaction mechanism of a refinery process for production of high octane gasoline components: The alkylation of i-butane with olefins, especially with butenes, is a process for the conversion of light byproducts of a catalytic cracker to high quality gasoline components. Alkylate is a complex mixture of i-paraffins containing 5 to ca. 12 carbon atoms. Due to their octane numbers the four trimethylpentane isomers are the most desirable product components. Indeed, under optimum process conditions these isomers are the main products. Presently, alkylation capacity in the western world amounts to more than 40x10/sup 6/ t/a. Most units are located in the USA. Two liquid-phase processes using sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid, respectively, are of commercial importance. At present, there is a definite trend towards HF-alkylation. The reaction mechanism which proceeds via carbocations, is extremely complex. It is composed of a great variety of individual steps. Modern mechanistic concepts are discussed.

  16. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study. (United States)

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin


    Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation. Eight orthopaedic surgeons performed the experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of this device. Each surgeon performed guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation in six synthetic femurs: three times with the new device and three times with the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic time, operative time and surgeon satisfaction were evaluated. In the operations with the new adjustable drill guide, the fluoroscopic and operative times were significantly lower than the operations with the conventional technique (p level of satisfaction of this device was also statistically significantly better (p = 0.02) than the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic and operative times with the new adjustable drill guide were reduced for multiple screw fixation of femoral neck fracture and the satisfaction of the surgeons was good.

  17. Olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization

    CERN Document Server

    Ivin, K J


    This book is a follow-up to Ivins Olefin Metathesis, (Academic Press, 1983). Bringing the standard text in the field up to date, this Second Edition is a result of rapid growth in the field, sparked by the discovery of numerous well-defined metal carbene complexes that can act as very efficient initiators of all types of olefin metathesis reaction, including ring-closing metathesis of acyclic dienes, enynes, and dienynes; ring-opening metathesis polymerizationof cycloalkenes, acyclic diene metathesis polymerization; and polymerization of alkynes, as well as simple olefin metathesis. Olefin Metathesis and Metathesis Polymerization provides a broad, up-to-date account of the subject from its beginnings in 1957 to the latest applications in organic synthesis. The book follows the same format as the original, making it useful toteachers and to researchers, and will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, organometallic chemistry, catalysis, materials scien...

  18. 1-acetylvinyl acrylates: new captodative olefins bearing an internal probe for the evaluation of the relative reactivity of captodative against electron-deficient double bonds in Diels-Alder and Friedel-Crafts reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mich.; Jimenez-Vazquez, Hugo A.; Delgado, Francisco; Tamariz, Joaquin; Soederberg, Bjoern C.G.


    The captodative olefins 1-acetylvinyl esters of methacrylic and trans-crotonic acids, 3a and 3b, have been prepared. The presence of a second double bond in the molecule, acting as an internal probe, allowed us to compare their relative reactivity in Diels-Alder and Friedel-Crafts reactions. The reactivity was evaluated with cyclopentadiene (6) as diene in Diels-Alder cycloadditions, and with furan (9) and thiophene (10) as heteroaromatic Friedel-Crafts substrates. In both processes, the captodative enone double bond proved to be more reactive than that in the acrylic moiety. FMO theory accounted for this chemo selectivity as a consequence of the major π contribution of the enone to the LUMO of these molecules. The slight exo stereoselectivity observed in the cycloaddition to 6 parallels the higher stability of the corresponding transition state, according to the results of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations. (author)

  19. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4= were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and faujasite.

  20. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins




    This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4=) were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and fa...

  1. Experimental investigation of temperature rise in bone drilling with cooling: A comparison between modes of without cooling, internal gas cooling, and external liquid cooling. (United States)

    Shakouri, Ehsan; Haghighi Hassanalideh, Hossein; Gholampour, Seifollah


    Bone fracture occurs due to accident, aging, and disease. For the treatment of bone fractures, it is essential that the bones are kept fixed in the right place. In complex fractures, internal fixation or external methods are used to fix the fracture position. In order to immobilize the fracture position and connect the holder equipment to it, bone drilling is required. During the drilling of the bone, the required forces to chip formation could cause an increase in the temperature. If the resulting temperature increases to 47 °C, it causes thermal necrosis of the bone. Thermal necrosis decreases bone strength in the hole and, subsequently, due to incomplete immobilization of bone, fracture repair is not performed correctly. In this study, attempts have been made to compare local temperature increases in different processes of bone drilling. This comparison has been done between drilling without cooling, drilling with gas cooling, and liquid cooling on bovine femur. Drilling tests with gas coolant using direct injection of CO 2 and N 2 gases were carried out by internal coolant drill bit. The results showed that with the use of gas coolant, the elevation of temperature has limited to 6 °C and the thermal necrosis is prevented. Maximum temperature rise reached in drilling without cooling was 56 °C, using gas and liquid coolant, a maximum temperature elevation of 43 °C and 42 °C have been obtained, respectively. This resulted in decreased possibility of thermal necrosis of bone in drilling with gas and liquid cooling. However, the results showed that the values obtained with the drilling method with direct gas cooling are independent of the rotational speed of drill.

  2. Report of the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling; Dai 8 kai tairiku kagaku kussaku kokusai symposium ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K. [Super Deep Core Drilling Study Group, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    This report relates to the 8th International Symposium on the Observation of the Continental Crust Through Drilling, convened at Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba City, on February 26, 1996. The symposium was represented by approximately 200 people from the U.S., Canada, Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, and some others, who discussed active faults, drilling and logging, transfer of fluids and heat in the crust, history of the earth and climate, ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and international cooperation under this program in the future, etc. In reference to ultradeep drilling in the world, drillings by Germany`s KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm)(9,101m deep) and Russia at Kola Peninsula (l2,261m) were reviewed. Concerning the efforts of U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program during the previous 11-year period, it was reported that it had cost a total of $84,000,000; that investigations had been made into volcanos and geotherm, fault tectonics, sedimentary basins, holes due to meteorites, and metal ore deposits; and that 61 holes (total length: 31,310m and maximum depth: 3,510m) had been drilled and investigated. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Hydride Olefin complexes of tantalum and niobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, Aan Hendrik


    This thesis describes investigations on low-valent tantalum and niobium hydride and alkyl complexes, particularly the dicyclopentadienyl tantalum hydride olefin complexes Cp2Ta(H)L (L=olefin). ... Zie: Summary

  4. Direct Wittig Olefination of Alcohols. (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Qiang; Shah, Zaher; Qu, Jian-Ping; Kang, Yan-Biao


    A base-promoted transition metal-free approach to substituted alkenes using alcohols under aerobic conditions using air as the inexpensive and clean oxidant is described. Aldehydes are relatively difficult to handle compared to corresponding alcohols due to their volatility and penchant to polymerize and autoxidize. Wittig ylides are easily oxidized to aldehydes and consequently form homo-olefination products. By the strategy of simultaneously in situ generation of ylides and aldehydes, for the first time, alcohols are directly transferred to olefins with no need of prepreparation of either aldehydes or ylides. Thus, the di/monocontrollable olefination of diols is accomplished. This synthetically practical method has been applied in the gram-scale synthesis of pharmaceuticals, such as DMU-212 and resveratrol from alcohols.

  5. IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets (INVEST: Defining the New Goals of an International Drilling Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Inagaki


    Full Text Available The INVEST conference, an international meeting to define the scientific goals and required technology for a new ocean drilling program, was held at the University of Bremen on 22–25 September 2009. Based on the large attendance and vigorous engagement of scientists in the discussion of new science/technology ideas, INVEST was extremely successful. Initially 400 participants were expected, but the INVEST steering and organization committees were thrilled to see a much larger number of scientists flock to Bremen to demonstrate their support and enthusiasm for the continuation of an international scientific ocean drilling program. In all, 584 participants, including sixty-four students, from twenty-one nations and >200 institutions and agencies attended the INVEST conference. Contributions to INVEST included 103 submitted white papers that were posted on the INVEST webpage ( html, and breakout discussions in fifty working groups that focused on a range of topics during the course of the conference. In addition, students and early career scientists, as well as national funding agency managers and platform providers, presented a total of eighty-six posters. Interspersed with the working group and plenary sessions were twelve keynote lectures, chosen to highlight overarching themes and new directions in research and technology.

  6. (E)-Specific direct Julia-olefination of aryl alcohols without extra reducing agents promoted by bases. (United States)

    Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Li, Qiang-Qiang; Wang, Mei-Mei; Ning, Xiao-Shan; Kang, Yan-Biao


    An unprecedented base-promoted direct olefination of aryl alcohols with sulfones via a Julia-type reaction has been described. No extra reductants are needed for Julia reaction since alcohols work as double sources of aldehydes and the hydride. Generally high yields were given for both terminal and highly (E)-selective internal olefins.

  7. Striking difference between alkane and olefin metathesis using the well-defined precursor [≡Si-O-WMe5]: Indirect evidence in favour of a bifunctional catalyst W alkylidene-hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima; Callens, Emmanuel; Espinas, Jeff; Dé ry, Alexandre; Samantaray, Manoja; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie


    Metathesis of linear alkanes catalyzed by the well-defined precursor (≡Si-O-WMe5) affords a wide distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane. Olefin metathesis using the same catalyst and under the same reaction conditions gives a very striking different distribution of linear α-olefins and internal olefins. This shows that olefin and alkane metathesis processes occur via very different pathways.

  8. Separation of Olefin/Paraffin Mixtures with Carrier Facilitated Membrane Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.C.; Blanc, R.; Zeid, J.; Suwarlim, A.; Firat, B.; Wijmans, H.; Asaro, M. (SRI); Greene, M.(Lummus)


    This document describes the results of a DOE funded joint effort of Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR), SRI International (SRI), and ABB Lummus (ABB) to develop facilitated transport membranes for olefin/paraffin separations. Currently, olefin/paraffin separation is done by distillation—an extremely energy-intensive process because of the low relative volatilities of olefins and paraffins. If facilitated transport membranes could be successfully commercialized, the potential energy savings achievable with this membrane technology are estimated to be 48 trillion Btu per year by the year 2020. We discovered in this work that silver salt-based facilitated transport membranes are not stable even in the presence of ideal olefin/paraffin mixtures. This decline in membrane performance appears to be caused by a previously unrecognized phenomenon that we have named olefin conditioning. As the name implies, this mechanism of performance degradation becomes operative once a membrane starts permeating olefins. This project is the first study to identify olefin conditioning as a significant factor impacting the performance of facilitated olefin transport membranes. To date, we have not identified an effective strategy to mitigate the impact of olefin conditioning. other than running at low temperatures or with low olefin feed pressures. In our opinion, this issue must be addressed before further development of facilitated olefin transport membranes can proceed. In addition to olefin conditioning, traditional carrier poisoning challenges must also be overcome. Light, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and acetylene exposure adversely affect membrane performance through unwanted reaction with silver ions. Harsh poisoning tests with these species showed useful membrane lifetimes of only one week. These tests demonstrate a need to improve the stability of the olefin complexing agent to develop membranes with lifetimes satisfactory for commercial application. A successful effort

  9. Casing drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper reviewed the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling several wells using only casings as the drill stem. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig called the Casing Drilling {sup TM} system. The system could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of coalbed methane (CBM) reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead, along wire line retrieval, can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core which is typically required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or underbalanced wells with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while simultaneously finding gas. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling {sup TM} could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 9 figs.

  10. Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines: synthesis of ortho-olefinated benzaldehydes. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Lamei; Li, Xingwei


    Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines using acrylates and styrenes has been achieved for the synthesis of ortho-olefinated benaldehydes. This reaction proceeds via a chelation assisted C-H olefination/in situ hydrolysis process.

  11. Selective Metathesis of α-Olefins from Bio-Sourced Fischer–Tropsch Feeds

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu; Queval, Pierre; Borre, Etienne; Falivene, Laura; Poater, Albert; Berthod, Mikael; Hugues, Francois; Cavallo, Luigi; Basle, Olivier; Olivier-Bourbigou, Helene; Mauduit, Marc


    The search for a low-cost process for the valorization of linear alpha-olefins combining high productivity and high selectivity is a longstanding goal for chemists. Herein, we report a soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst that performs the conversion of linear alpha-olefins to longer internal linear olefins with high selectivity (>99%) under neat conditions at low loadings (50 ppm) and without the need of expensive additives. This robust catalytic process allowed us to efficiently and selectively re-equilibrate the naphtha fraction (C-5-C-8) of a Fischer-Tropsch feed derived from non petroleum resources to a higher-value product range (C-9-C-14), useful as detergent and plasticizer precursors.

  12. Selective Metathesis of α-Olefins from Bio-Sourced Fischer–Tropsch Feeds

    KAUST Repository

    Rouen, Mathieu


    The search for a low-cost process for the valorization of linear alpha-olefins combining high productivity and high selectivity is a longstanding goal for chemists. Herein, we report a soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst that performs the conversion of linear alpha-olefins to longer internal linear olefins with high selectivity (>99%) under neat conditions at low loadings (50 ppm) and without the need of expensive additives. This robust catalytic process allowed us to efficiently and selectively re-equilibrate the naphtha fraction (C-5-C-8) of a Fischer-Tropsch feed derived from non petroleum resources to a higher-value product range (C-9-C-14), useful as detergent and plasticizer precursors.

  13. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P


    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  14. New Trends in Olefin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaël Amghizar


    Full Text Available Most olefins (e.g., ethylene and propylene will continue to be produced through steam cracking (SC of hydrocarbons in the coming decade. In an uncertain commodity market, the chemical industry is investing very little in alternative technologies and feedstocks because of their current lack of economic viability, despite decreasing crude oil reserves and the recognition of global warming. In this perspective, some of the most promising alternatives are compared with the conventional SC process, and the major bottlenecks of each of the competing processes are highlighted. These technologies emerge especially from the abundance of cheap propane, ethane, and methane from shale gas and stranded gas. From an economic point of view, methane is an interesting starting material, if chemicals can be produced from it. The huge availability of crude oil and the expected substantial decline in the demand for fuels imply that the future for proven technologies such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS or methanol to gasoline is not bright. The abundance of cheap ethane and the large availability of crude oil, on the other hand, have caused the SC industry to shift to these two extremes, making room for the on-purpose production of light olefins, such as by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane.

  15. Alkylation of isobutane with light olefins: Yields of alkylates for different olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, L.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kranz, K.E.; Masters, K.R. [STRATCO, Inc., Leawood, KS (United States)


    For alkylation of isobutane with C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} olefins using sulfuric acid as the catalyst, the yields of alkylates with different olefins are compared as the operating conditions are changed. The results of recent pilot plant experiments with propylene, C{sub 4} olefins, and C{sub 5} olefins permit such comparisons. The yields expressed as weight of alkylate produced per 100 wt of olefin consumed varied from about 201:100 to 220:100. Weight ratios of the isobutane consumed per olefin consumed vary from about 101:100 to 120:100. differences of yield values are explained by the changes in the overall chemistry. The procedure employed to calculate yields with good accuracy is based on the analysis of the alkylate and the amount of conjunct polymers produced. Based on literature data, yields are also reported for alkylations using HF as the catalyst.

  16. Production of olefins from bioethanol. Catalysts, mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov


    Full Text Available This review describes methods of catalytic obtaining from bioethanol of valuable industrial products – olefins, particularly ethylene. Аmong olefins, ethylene is the most popular key raw material of petrochemical synthesis. The scope of appllication of ethylene is almost unlimited in petrochemical products: polyethylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride etc. It also examines catalysts for the production of olefins and their properties. The most promising and commercially advantageous process of ethylene production by catalytic dehydration of ethanol on catalysts based on modified alumina. And this review discusses the mechanisms of catalytic conversion of ethanol to ethylene.

  17. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  18. Myoglobin-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes. (United States)

    Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi


    The olefination of aldehydes constitutes a most valuable and widely adopted strategy for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry. While various synthetic methods have been made available for this purpose, no biocatalysts are known to mediate this transformation. Reported herein is that engineered myoglobin variants can catalyze the olefination of aldehydes in the presence of α-diazoesters with high catalytic efficiency (up to 4,900 turnovers) and excellent E diastereoselectivity (92-99.9 % de). This transformation could be applied to the olefination of a variety of substituted benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes, also in combination with different alkyl α-diazoacetate reagents. This work provides a first example of biocatalytic aldehyde olefination and extends the spectrum of synthetically valuable chemical transformations accessible using metalloprotein-based catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. (Z)-Selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehydes. (United States)

    Geddis, Stephen M; Hagerman, Caroline E; Galloway, Warren R J D; Sore, Hannah F; Goodman, Jonathan M; Spring, David R


    The Takai olefination (or Takai reaction) is a method for the conversion of aldehydes to vinyl iodides, and has seen widespread implementation in organic synthesis. The reaction is usually noted for its high ( E )-selectivity; however, herein we report the highly ( Z )-selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehyde derivatives. Systematic screening of related substrates led to the identification of key factors responsible for this surprising inversion of selectivity, and enabled the development of a modified mechanistic model to rationalise these observations.

  20. Drilling reorganizes (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  1. Multi-azimuth Anisotropic Velocity Measurements in Fractured Crystalline Rock From the International Continental Drilling Program Outokumpu Borehole, Finland (United States)

    Schijns, H.; Duo, X.; Heinonen, S.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Heikkinen, P.


    A high resolution seismic survey consisting of a multi-depth multi-azimuth VSP, a zero-offset VSP and a reflection/refraction survey was conducting in May, 2006, near the town of Outokumpu, Finland, using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program 2.5 km deep fully cored scientific borehole. The survey was undertaken in order to create an anisotropic velocity model for future micro-seism studies as well as to provide a higher resolution reflection profile through the area than was previously available. The seismic survey high frequency seismic vibrator as a source, employing 8 s linear taper sweeps from 15-250 Hz at 20 m shot spacing. Receivers were 14 Hz single component geophones on the surface and a three component geophone downhole. The walk-away VSP included measurements over two azimuths with the receiver at depths of 1000, 1750 and 2500 m, while the zero-offset VSP used a 2 m depth increment. Surface geophones were located along the same seismic lines as employed in the walk-away VSP and were nominally 4 m apart. The survey area is located on the Fennoscandian shield, and the glacial history of the area required significant static corrections to account for the variable overburden overlying the mica-rich schist and pegmatitic granite composing the bedrock. These were calculated using travel-time inversion of the refraction data and were applied to the walk-away VSP and reflection profiles, significantly improving the quality of both. Anisotropic velocity analysis was performed using a plane-wave decomposition of the processed walk-away VSP. The maximum anisotropy was observed in the walk-away VSPs along the Southeastern azimuth, with the P-wave phase velocity ranging from 5330-5950 m/s between 50-1000 m in depth, and up to 6150 m/s between 1000-1750 m in depth. Shear wave splitting was observed in the Northeastern direction. Preliminary analysis of the zero-offset VSP has revealed shown good agreement with the relevant portions of the

  2. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts. (United States)

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi


    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis of Fluoroolefins via Julia-Kocienski Olefination


    Zajc, Barbara; Kumar, Rakesh


    The Julia-Kocienski olefination provides a versatile platform for the synthesis of fluorovinyl compounds. This review describes our efforts as well as those of others in the synthesis of various fluorinated aryl and heteroaryl sulfones and their utility as olefination reagents for the modular assembly of fluoroalkenes. Where data is available, the influence of the fluorine atom on the reactivity of the olefination reagents and the stereochemical outcome of the olefination are described.

  4. Synthesis of Fluoroolefins via Julia-Kocienski Olefination. (United States)

    Zajc, Barbara; Kumar, Rakesh


    The Julia-Kocienski olefination provides a versatile platform for the synthesis of fluorovinyl compounds. This review describes our efforts as well as those of others in the synthesis of various fluorinated aryl and heteroaryl sulfones and their utility as olefination reagents for the modular assembly of fluoroalkenes. Where data is available, the influence of the fluorine atom on the reactivity of the olefination reagents and the stereochemical outcome of the olefination are described.

  5. Catalytic olefin polymerization with early transition metal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Johan Jan Willem


    The catalysis of organic reactions by soluble metal complexes has become a major tool in synthesis, both in the laboratory and in the chemical industry. Processes catalyzed by transition metal complexes include carbonylation, olefin polymerization, olefin addition, olefin oxidation and alkane and

  6. Olefin copolymerization using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesh, R.; Klumperman, B.


    Olefin copolymers of alpha-olefins with polar monomers with various architectures remain an ultimate goal in polyolefin engineering. The present paper is a more detailed study on the copolymn. of alpha-olefins (1-octene) with acrylates (Me acrylate). Comparison of reaction kinetics between free

  7. Gamma radiolysis of 3-methylpentane. Effect of added olefins on the formation of C12-olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laet, M. de; Tilquin, B.


    Contributions of congruent (parent derived) olefins to the formation of unsaturated heavy products (C 12 H 24 ) are investigated. Effects of dose or of olefinic additives on the G yield values are studied by capillary gas chromatography. The dose dependence is explained by transfer of positive charge to congruent olefins (C 6 H 12 ) even though their concentrations build up linearly with dose. γ Irradiation of 3-methylpentane containing pentenes or butenes (0.2-2 mol %) provides good examples of transfer of energy, however the results are unexpected. C-H scission in the radiolysis of solid 3-methylpentane is also reviewed. (author)

  8. Drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K


    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  9. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I


    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  10. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Méry


    Full Text Available The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis (CM, enyne metathesis reactions (EYM – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions.

  11. (Z-Selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Geddis


    Full Text Available The Takai olefination (or Takai reaction is a method for the conversion of aldehydes to vinyl iodides, and has seen widespread implementation in organic synthesis. The reaction is usually noted for its high (E-selectivity; however, herein we report the highly (Z-selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehyde derivatives. Systematic screening of related substrates led to the identification of key factors responsible for this surprising inversion of selectivity, and enabled the development of a modified mechanistic model to rationalise these observations.

  12. Improved olefinic fat suppression in skeletal muscle DTI using a magnitude-based dixon method. (United States)

    Burakiewicz, Jedrzej; Hooijmans, Melissa T; Webb, Andrew G; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Niks, Erik H; Kan, Hermien E


    To develop a method of suppressing the multi-resonance fat signal in diffusion-weighted imaging of skeletal muscle. This is particularly important when imaging patients with muscular dystrophies, a group of diseases which cause gradual replacement of muscle tissue by fat. The signal from the olefinic fat peak at 5.3 ppm can significantly confound diffusion-tensor imaging measurements. Dixon olefinic fat suppression (DOFS), a magnitude-based chemical-shift-based method of suppressing the olefinic peak, is proposed. It is verified in vivo by performing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based quantification in the lower leg of seven healthy volunteers, and compared to two previously described fat-suppression techniques in regions with and without fat contamination. In the region without fat contamination, DOFS produces similar results to existing techniques, whereas in muscle contaminated by subcutaneous fat signal moved due to the chemical shift artefact, it consistently showed significantly higher (P = 0.018) mean diffusivity (MD). Because fat presence lowers MD, this suggests improved fat suppression. DOFS offers superior fat suppression and enhances quantitative measurements in the muscle in the presence of fat. DOFS is an alternative to spectral olefinic fat suppression. Magn Reson Med 79:152-159, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans


    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  14. Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav


    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  15. Synthesis of pterostilbene by Julie Olefination (United States)

    A simple, stereoselective route for the synthesis of the biologically active compounds trans-pterostilbene and tetramethoxy stilbene from the readily available starting materials 3,5-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde was developed using Julia olefination as a key reaction....

  16. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-to-olefins process in comparison with the oil-to-olefins process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Qian, Yu; Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu


    Highlights: • Present the opportunities and challenges of coal-to-olefins (CTO) development. • Conduct a techno-economic analysis on CTO compared with oil-to-olefins (OTO). • Suggest approaches for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of CTO. • Analyze effects of plant scale, feedstock price, CO 2 tax on CTO and OTO. - Abstract: Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry. To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil, China is increasing the production of olefins from alternative energy resources, especially from coal. This study is concerned with the opportunities and obstacles of coal-to-olefins development, and focuses on making an overall techno-economic analysis of a coal-to-olefins plant with the capacity of 0.7 Mt/a olefins. Comparison is made with a 1.5 Mt/a oil-to-olefins plant based on three criteria including energy efficiency, capital investment, and product cost. It was found that the coal-based olefins process show prominent advantage in product cost because of the low price of its feedstock. However, it suffers from the limitations of higher capital investment, lower energy efficiency, and higher emissions. The effects of production scale, raw material price, and carbon tax were varied for the two production routes, and thus the operational regions were found for the coal-to-olefins process to be competitive

  17. Hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Eliseev, O.L.; Bondarenko, T.N.; Stepin, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry


    Palladium-catalysed hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols proceeds in ionic liquid media. Terminal and internal olefins, cyclohexene, styrene, methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol were tested as substrates for the reaction. A number of molten salts were applied as a reaction medium and tetrabutylammonium bromide (m.p. 103 C) seemed to be the best. Carbon monoxide pressure of 2 MPa and reaction temperature of 110 C are suitable conditions to furnish the reaction in 2 hours in the presence of palladium acetate as a precursor. Triphenylphosphine added as a ligand reduces reaction rate. The critical role of counter anion in molten salt was also recognised. Yield of acids decreased in the order: Br{sup -} > Cl{sup -} > BF{sub 4} {approx}PF{sub 6}{sup -}. A two-route reaction scheme is proposed to explain the regularities of styrene and 1-phenylethanol hydroxycarbonylation. The catalytic system can be used repeatedly by simple extraction of products with diethyl ether. Nine cycles were carried out without loss of activity. (orig.)

  18. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P


    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  19. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.


    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  20. Drilling mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E


    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  1. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V


    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  2. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  3. Catalytic olefin polymerization with early transition metal compounds


    Eshuis, Johan Jan Willem


    The catalysis of organic reactions by soluble metal complexes has become a major tool in synthesis, both in the laboratory and in the chemical industry. Processes catalyzed by transition metal complexes include carbonylation, olefin polymerization, olefin addition, olefin oxidation and alkane and arene oxidation. Traditionally, heterogeneous catalysts have been used for the production of large-scale commodity chemicals such as methanol and ammonia and in the production of high octane gasoline...

  4. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.


    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  5. Thermal 18F atom addition to olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.J.M.


    The addition of thermal 18 F atoms to olefins was investigated using various substrate molecules. The 18 F atoms were produced by the 19 F(n,2n) 18 F nuclear reaction with >10 5 eV of energy which is removed by multiple collisions with SF 6 molecules before reaction occurs with an olefin. By varying the SF 6 /substrate mole ratio it was demonstrated that the fraction of non-thermal reactions is dependent upon the frequency of non-reactive energy reducing collisions with SF 6 . The rate constants for addition and abstraction reactions with propene, cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene were determined. The substitution of a C1 atom for the olefinic H atom in the C 1 position does not affect the rate of 18 F bond formation but it changes the orientation of attack. The 18 F atom prefers the terminal carbon-in propene and propene-d 6 by a factor of 1.35 while the preference is less than 0.5 for the terminal carbon in cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene. The addition of 18 F atoms to olefins creates vibrationally excited fluoroalkyl radicals which can either decompose or stabilize by collision with another molecule. The rate constants for decomposition of excited CH 3 CHCHC1F radicals formed by 18 F addition to cis-1-chloropropene and trans-1-chloropropene are competitive with C 1 -C 2 bond rotation. The 18 F atoms add to the parent molecule with retention of geometry and a memory of the geometry persists as demonstrated by the cis-1-fluoropropene/trans-1-fluoropropene decomposition product ratio

  6. Olefin recovery from FCC off-gas can pay off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahn, M.G.


    This paper reports on olefins recovery from refinery FCC offgas streams which offers an attractive cash flow from olefins from a tail-gas stream that has typically been consumed as refinery fuel. Such recovery schemes can be employed in refineries or olefins plants, and can be tailored to fit individual requirements. Mobil Chemical Co. has operated such a dephlegmator-based off-gas recovery unit at its Beaumont, Tex., olefin plant since 1987. It reported that the project was paid out within 11 months of initial start-up

  7. Rhodium-catalyzed regioselective olefination directed by a carboxylic group. (United States)

    Mochida, Satoshi; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro


    The ortho-olefination of benzoic acids can be achieved effectively through rhodium-catalyzed oxidative coupling with alkenes. The carboxylic group is readily removable to allow ortho-olefination/decarboxylation in one pot. α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids such as methacrylic acid also undergo the olefination at the β-position. Under the rhodium catalysis, the cine-olefination of heteroarene carboxylic acids such as thiophene-2-carboxylic acid proceeds smoothly accompanied by decarboxylation to selectively produce the corresponding vinylheteroarene derivatives. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. The olefin metathesis reaction: reorganization and cyclization of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Daniel; Brocksom, Ursula; Brocksom, Timothy John


    The olefin metathesis reaction allows the exchange of complex alkyl units between two olefins, with the formation of a new olefinic link and a sub-product olefin usually ethylene. This reaction has found extensive application in the last ten years with the development of the Grubbs and Schrock catalysts, in total synthesis of complex organic molecules, as opposed to the very important use in the petrochemical industry with relatively simple molecules. This review intends to trace a historical and mechanistic pathway from industry to academy, before illustrating the more recent advances. (author)

  9. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)


    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  10. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  11. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  12. Surface-enhanced light olefin yields during steam cracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Kornegoor, M.; Brink, van den P.; Dierickx, J.; Grotenbreg, R.


    Various papers have shown enhanced olefin yields during steam cracking when a catalytic surface is introduced. Our studies reveal that increased light olefin yields during catalytic steam cracking are mainly due to a surface volume effect and not to a traditional catalytic effect. Augmentation of

  13. Alkylation of isobutane with light olefins catalyzed by zeolite beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivarthy, G.S.; Feller, A.P.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.


    Alkylation of isobutane with ethene and propene was studied over an H-BEA catalyst in a well-stirred reactor. Under similar conditions of space velocity and paraffin-to-olefin feed ratio, lower initial olefin conversions were observed with ethene or propene than those reported earlier for butene.

  14. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of aryl phosphonates. (United States)

    Chary, Bathoju Chandra; Kim, Sunggak


    Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of aryl phosphonic esters is reported for the first time. In this mild and efficient process, the phosphonic ester group is utilized successfully as a new directing group. In addition, mono-olefination for aryl phosphonates is observed using a phosphonic diamide directing group.

  15. Carbonyl-Olefin Exchange Reaction: Present State and Outlook (United States)

    Kalinova, Radostina; Jossifov, Christo

    The carbonyl-olefin exchange reaction (COER) is a new reaction between carbonyl group and olefin double bond, which has a formal similarity with the olefin metathesis (OM) - one carbon atom in the latter is replaced with an oxygen atom. Till now the new reaction is performed successfully only when the two functional groups (carbonyl group and olefin double bond) are in one molecule and are conjugated. The α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (substituted propenones) are the compounds with such a structure. They polymerize giving substituted polyacetylenes. The chain propagation step of this polymerization is in fact the COER. The question arises: is it possible the COER to take place when the two functional groups are not in one molecule and are not conjugated, and could this reaction became an alternative of the existing carbonyl olefination reactions?

  16. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.


    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson


    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  19. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  20. Rhodium(I) catalysis in olefin photoreactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, R.G.; El Sanadi, N.


    The photorearrangement (254 nm) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (1) in the presence of rhodium(I) chloride to give 1,4-cyclooctadiene (4) was found by deuterium labeling to involve an intramolecular [1,3] shift of hydrogen. A rate-determining cleavage of an allylic C--H bond is indicated by a deuterium isotope effect, k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.55 +- 0.03 for the 1 → 4 rearrangement. The acyclic 1,5-diene, 3,3-dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene (8), rearranges in the presence of rhodium(I) chloride upon uv irradiation (254 nm) to give cis-3,3-dimethyl-1,4-hexadiene (10) and the trans isomer 11 in a 1:4 ratio, respectively. This observation supports a mechanism for the photorearrangement of olefins catalyzed by rhodium(I) involving an initial photodissociation of one of two rhodium(I) coordinated carbon-carbon double bonds. This results in an increase in the coordinative unsaturation of rhodium(I) and enhances the proclivity of this d/sub s/ metal atom toward oxidative addition of an allylic C--H bond. A eta 3 -allylrhodium hydride intermediate then gives rearranged olefin by reductive elimination. Lastly, a novel photochemical, rhodium(I) catalyzed hydrogen transfer is reported which gives cyclooctene (7) from cyclooctadienes under unprecedentedly mild conditions. (auth)

  1. A method for producing lower olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemayev, N.V.; Grigorovich, V.A.; Isayev, V.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Mitrofanov, A.I.; Orekhov, A.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Vernov, P.A.


    In the known method for producing lower olefins by pyrolysis of a hydrocarbon raw material in the presence of an initiator which contains ammonia, in order to increase the output of the target products, morpholine or piperidine are additionally introduced into the initiator in a volume of 0.00001 to 0.1 percent each, converted for the raw material. The compounds to be added may be introduced into the pyrolysis zone by dissolving them in the hydrocarbon raw material or in water, which forms vapors with dilution of the raw material being subjected to pyrolysis. The increase in the outputs of the lower olefins in the process through the use of additives may be explained by the synergistic effect of the mixture of ammonia, morpholine and piperidine used. With benzine pyrolysis without the additives the output of ethylene is 24.1 percent; in comparable conditions with additives of ammonia or morpholine alone, or of piperidine alone, the outputs are 24.0, 26.2 and 25.8 percent, respectively. With the joint presence of ammonia and piperidine, the output of ethylene reaches 27.2 percent and with the addition of ammonia and morpholine, it reaches 27.4 percent.

  2. Production and use of light olefins. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Buzzoni, R.; Leitner, W.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Nees, F.; Santacesaria, E. (eds.)


    Within the conference of the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology e.V. (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) at 28th to 30th September, 2009, the following lectures were held: (1) Steamcracking - State of the Art (H. Zimmermann); (2) Diversify Feedstock Options to Olefin Production (Q. Ling et al.); (3) Syngas to lower olefins (E. Schwab et al.); (4) STAR process registered for the on-purpose production of propylene (K. Bueker); (5) The catalytic activity of zinc oxide supported on aerosil for C-H activation of light alkanes (S. Arndt et al.); (6) Novel catalytic approaches for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (D. Hartmann); (7) A comparison of the active sites structures of homogeneous and heterogeneous olefin polymerisation catalysts (A. Zecchina); (8) Catalytic strategies in metathesis (C. Coperet); (9) Multi-technology integrated production and consumption of olefins (J. Popp et al.); (10) Olefin oligomerization for the production of fuels and petrochemicals (H. Olivier-Bourbigou et al.); (11) Dieselization of the world - How to increase diesel yield in a refinery (A. Dueker); (12) Isomerization of butenes: LyondellBasell's Isomplus technology development (T. Zak et al.); (13) Valuable products from butadiene, carbon dioxide and further base chemicals (A. Behr); (14) The partial oxidation of propene to propylene oxide using N{sub 2}O as an oxidant (T. Thoemmes); (15) Alternative feedstocks for olefin production: What role will ethanol play? (B.R. Maughon); (16) Production of light olefins from renewable resources - The effect of deoxygenation degree on yields of light olefins (D. Kubicka et al.); (17) Recovery of low olefins from refinery offgases (M. Bender).

  3. SAXS observation of structural evolution of heated olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Minhua; Mou Hongchen; Wang Yuxi; Li Demin; Wang Aiping; Ma Congxiao; Cheng Weidong; Wang Dan; Liu Jia


    Structural evolution of olefin during its heating process was observed with SAXS method at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The mean square fluctuation of electron density increased from 468.5 nm -2 at 22 degree C to 2416 nm -2 at 100 degree C, while the electronic gyration radius decreased from 11.61 nm at 22 degree C to 11.16 nm at 100 degree C. Therefore, the olefin softens as a result of the increased thermal motion of the molecules, rather than the shrinking size of fundamental structural units of olefin. (authors)

  4. Drilling trends in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At a conference on various aspects of well drilling in the 1990s, papers were presented on drilling waste management, well completion and workovers, drilling fluids, drilling rig equipment and design, drilling mechanics, drill stem testing and materials, cementing, business management, health and safety, environmental issues, and directional drilling technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 46 papers from this conference

  5. Reactions of dihydridotetrakis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) with olefins and isolation of new ruthenium-olefin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Sanshiro; Yamamoto, Akio


    Dihydridotetrakis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium (II), RuH 2 (PPh 3 ) 4 , reacts with olefins (ethylene, propylene, stylene and butadiene) to give olefin-coordinated complexes of the type, Ru(olefin)(PPh 3 ) 3 and equimolar amounts of their hydrogenation products per mol of the dihydride complex. The olefin coordinated with ruthenium can be exchanged with other olefins. Olefin-coordinated complexes easily react with molecular hydrogen to afford tetrahydridotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium, RuH 4 (PPh 3 ) 3 , releasing alkane at room temperature, Under hydrogen atmosphere catalytic hydrogenation of the olefins smoothly takes place with RuH 2 (PPh 3 ) 4 . (Ethylene)tris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(0) reacts with methyl iodide to give propylene and a trace of butadiene along with methane, ethylene, and small amounts of ethane and butenes. The formation of propylene suggests that oxidative addition involving cleavage of the C-H bond of ethylene to ruthenium giving a hydridovinyl complex may be taking place. Reactions of Ru(C 2 H 4 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with methyl-d 3 iodide and ethyl iodide, and of Ru(C 3 H 6 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with methyl iodide were examined to test the generality of this type of reaction. The reaction of Ru(C 2 H 4 )(PPh 3 ) 3 with CD 3 I released CD 4 and CD 2 H 2 together with CD 3 H suggesting the involvement of α-hydrogen abstraction. (auth.)

  6. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.


    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  7. Avoiding pollution in scientific ocean drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.


    Scientific ocean drilling has been carried out in the world's oceans since the nineteen sixties. From 1968-83 the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), managed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California under a contract with the US National Science Foundation, employed the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger for this purpose. In January 1985 the Ocean Drilling Program (GDP), operated by Texas A and M University, began operations with the drillship JOIDES Resolution which continue to this day. The principal funding agency remains the US National Science Foundation, but since its inception GDP has been an international program and currently receives financial support from 21 countries. The ODP operates globally and, as with DSDP before it, drills without a riser or blowout preventer in a wide range of geological environments. Water depths at GDP drill sites have ranged from 38 m to 5969 m, but are typically within the range 1000-5000 m. Depths of penetration at GDP drill sites, while generally less than 1000 m, have ranged up to 2111 m below the sea floor. The drilling fluid is seawater, although occasional slugs of mud are circulated to clean or condition the hole. Thus drilling is carried out without well control, i.e. without the ability to control pressures within the well. Because of the absence of well control, it is vital to ensure that the drillship does not drill into an accumulation of oil or gas. Drilling into a charged reservoir and causing oil or gas to escape into the marine environment is recognised as the main pollution hazard in scientific ocean drilling

  8. Olefin Metathesis in Peptidomimetics, Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry, and Molecular Imprinting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Tammy K


    .... Our research goals consisted of employing olefin metathesis in the synthesis of peptidomimetics, and studying the feasibility of this method in dynamic combinatorial chemistry and molecular imprinting of nerve agents...

  9. Olefin copolymerization via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesh, R.; Staal, B.B.P.; Klumperman, B.


    Successful statistical copolymn. of an a-olefin (1-octene) with an acrylate (Bu acrylate, BA) and with a methacrylate (Me methacrylate, MMA), employing reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated polymn. has been accomplished

  10. Direct observation of OH production from the ozonolysis of olefins (United States)

    Donahue, Neil M.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Anderson, James G.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    Ozone olefin reactions may be a significant source of OH in the urban atmosphere, but current evidence for OH production is indirect and contested. We report the first direct observation of OH radicals from the reaction of ozone with a series of olefins (ethene, isoprene, trans-2-butene and 2,3 dimethyl-2-butene) in 4-6 torr of nitrogen. Using LIF to directly observe the steady-state of OH produced by the initial ozone-olefin reaction and subsequently destroyed by the OH-olefin reaction, we are able to establish OH yields broadly consistent with indirect values. The identification of the OH is unequivocal, and there is no indication that it is produced by a secondary process. To support these observations, we present a complete ab-initio potential energy surface for the O3-ethene reaction, extending from the reactants to available products.

  11. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH. (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus


    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  12. Study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhaojun; Li Wei; Chen Yanhong; Wang Lijiang


    A study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling is described. Under the experimental conditions of this study it is observed, from reliability testing and the fitting of a life-distribution function, that the lives of micro-drills under ordinary drilling follow the log-normal distribution and the lives of micro-drills under vibrating drilling follow the Weibull distribution. Calculations for reliability analysis show that vibrating drilling can increase the lives of micro-drills and correspondingly reduce the scatter of drill lives. Therefore, vibrating drilling increases the reliability of micro-drills

  13. Olefin Metathesis in Peptidomimetics, Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry, and Molecular Imprinting (United States)


    organic, and biochemistry, lectured in chemistry of weapons, and researched on ionic liquids and nucleic acid derivatives. She discovered her joy of...Products from oligomerization of the dimer scaffold or olefin isomerization are excluded from these projected numbers.97,98 The number of...Figure 3-8). This is excluding any olefin isomerization products or oligomerization of the cyclic scaffold. If stereoisomers are considered, then

  14. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder


    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  15. South African drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    According to the president of the South African Drilling Association, the drilling industry is meeting head-on the challenges created by the worldwide recession. The paper is a synopsis of several of the papers presented at the SADA symposium and a look at several mining-related drilling projects in South Africa. These papers include grouting techniques, the use of impregnated bits in hard rock drilling, tunnel boring for mines, surveying improvement methods and the use of explosives to increase groundwater yield

  16. Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides using activated and unactivated alkenes. (United States)

    Li, Xuting; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Miao; Song, Guoyong; Deng, Jian; Li, Xingwei


    Rhodium(III)-catalyzed oxidative olefination of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfonamides has been achieved at the peri position. Three categories of olefins have been successfully applied. Activated olefins reacted to afford five-membered azacycles as a result of oxidative olefination-hydroamination. Unactivated olefins reacted to give the olefination product. 2-fold oxidative C-C and C-N coupling was achieved for allylbenzenes. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis (United States)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  18. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida


    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  19. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders


    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  20. A method for producing light olefines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavada, N.; Katsuno, K.


    A method is proposed for producing light olefins from MeOH in the presence of a catalyst (Kt), a crystalline silicate which includes silicon, an alkaline and or alkaline earth metal, titanium(4+) and phosphorus(5+), whose composition is described by the formula p(019 plus or minus 0.3)M2/mO with pZ4/nO2 with SiO2, where M is the alkaline or alkaline earth metal, Z = titanium(4+) or phosphorus(5+), m is the valency of the metal, n is the valency of Z and O is less than p is less than or equal to 0.1. A high selectivity of MeOH to C2 to C4 olefins is achieved in the presence of the catalyst. Silicon powder, silica gel, colloidal silicon, liquid glass or silicates of alkaline metals in a ratio of SiO2 to M2O of 1 to 5 is used as the source of the first component. Hydroxides or silicates of potassium and sodium (best sodium) and nitrates or chlorides of alkaline earth metals (best calcium) are used as the source of the second component. Water soluble compounds of titanium(4+) (best Ti(SO4)2, TiBr4 and TiI4) and phosphorus(5+) (best H3PO4, Na3PO4) are used as the source of the third component. Heterocyclic compounds (best morpholine, oxazolidine and their derivatives, which are taken in a molar ratio of crystallization agent to SiO2 of 0.01 to 50 (best at 0.1 to 10), are used as the crystallization agent (ArK). The catalyst is prepared through heating in an autoclave at a temperature of 80 to 300 degrees (best at 120 to 200 degrees) at atmospheric pressure for 10 to 50 hours with mixing of the mixture of the three components, water and the crystallization agent. The forming crystalline product is cooled, poured off, washed with water, dried for several hours at a temperature of at least 100 degrees and roasted in air for 2 to 48 hours at 300 to 700 degrees.

  1. Proceedings of the DGMK-Conference 'Creating value from light olefins - production and conversion'. Authors' manuscripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G; Kraemer, H J; Weitkamp, J [eds.


    Main topics of the conference were: production of light olefin by steamcracking and catalytic cracking processes, catalysts, methanol to olefin processes, oxidative dehydrogenation, partial oxidation, selective oxidation of alkanes with various catalysts. (uke)

  2. Primary Alcohols from Terminal Olefins: Formal Anti-Markovnikov Hydration via Triple Relay Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, G.; Teo, P.; Wickens, Z. K.; Grubbs, R. H.


    Alcohol synthesis is critical to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The addition of water across olefins to form primary alcohols (anti-Markovnikov olefin hydration) would be a broadly useful reaction but has largely proven elusive

  3. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure. (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher


    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic

  4. The degradation of 14C-labelled drilling chemicals in a simulated seabed study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.O.; Songe, P.; Schaanning, M.T.


    In an experiment, which lasted nine months, real sea bed sections and naturally occurring sediment dwelling organisms have been used to study the decomposition of today's 'green' chemicals, i.e. drilling mud chemicals comprising a-olefins or esters made from fatty acid extracted from fish. Both types have been shown to be degraded at aerobic conditions at sea bed. However, the fate of the alcoholic part of the ester has been unknown, as was the rate of degradation of the olefin. Both olefin and alcohol were labelled with 14 C at the C1 atom. The results show that the ester hydrolyses quickly and after a lag phase the alcohol is oxidised, while the olefin degrades more slowly. 133 Ba-labelled baryte was used as a bioturbidity marker. The measurements, i.e. scanned sediment columns, show very little bioturbation in the boxes where oil-contaminated sediment was present whereas the control boxes showed more activity from the sediment dwelling organisms down to the depth of the contaminated layer. (author)

  5. Reactivity of olefin and allyl ligands in π-complexes of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.


    The data on reactivity of olefin and allyl ligands in transition metal (Ru, W) π-complexes, published up to 1984 are presented. Metal ion coordination of olefins causes their appreciable reactivity change. Transformations of π-olefin ligands into σ-alkyl ones, interaction of π-complexes with oxygen nucleophilic reagents, amines, halogenides and pseudohalogenides are considered

  6. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of arenes applying sulfoxides as remote directing groups. (United States)

    Wang, Binjie; Shen, Chuang; Yao, Jinzhong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Yuhong


    A novel palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H olefination protocol has been developed by the use of sulfoxide as the directing group. Importantly, relatively remote coordination can be accessed to achieve the ortho olefination of benzyl, 2-arylethyl, and 3-arylpropenyl sulfoxide substrates, and the olefinated sulfoxide can be easily transformed to other functionalities.

  7. Kinetically based NMR method of measuring blending octane number of olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.; Morley, C.


    Olefins are highly nonlinear octane blenders so that standard GC analyses are poor predictors of blend quality. Engine rating is the only way of measuring olefin octane number nonlinearity. It is thus not possible to rapidly assess the quality of the product obtained from an olefin-producing

  8. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E; Gervais, I [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y; Pangarkar, S; Stibbs, B [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)


    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  9. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)


    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  10. Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang


    The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

  11. Allene or alkyne treatment of olefin conversion catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, R.L.


    This patent describes a disproportionation process which comprises contacting at least one olefin from the group consisting of: acyclic mono- and polyenes having at least 3 up to 10 carbon atoms per molecule, and cycloalkyl and aryl derivatives thereof; cyclic mono- and polyenes having at least 4 to 10 carbon atoms per molecule, and alkyl and aryl derivatives thereof; mixtures of two or more of the above olefins; and mixtures of ethylene with one or more of the above olefins capable of undergoing disproportionation with a tungsten oxide on silica disproportionation catalyst system under disproportionation conditions, the improvement comprising contacting the catalyst with an activating amount of at least one alkyne conforming to the formula: R-C=C-R wherein each R is independently H or a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ carbon radical per mole of tungsten oxide

  12. Synthetic and mechanistic aspects of titanium-mediated carbonyl olefinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petasis, N.A.; Staszewski, J.P.; Hu, Yong-Han; Lu, Shao-Po [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    A new method for the olefination of carbonyl compounds with dimethyl titanocene, and other related bishydrocarbyl titanocene derivatives has been recently developed in the author`s laboratories. This process is experimentally convenient and works with various types of carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, esters, lactones, carbonates, anhydrides, amides, imides, lactams, thioesters, selenoesters, and acylsilanes. More recent studies have focused on the scope and utility of this reaction, including mechanistic studies and synthetic applications. In addition to varying the reaction conditions, the authors have examined several mixed titanocene derivatives and have found ways for carrying out this type of olefination at room temperature, such as the use of tris(trimethylsilyl) titanacyclobutene. The authors have also employed this reaction in the modification of carbohydrates and cyclobutenediones. This olefination was also followed-up with subsequent transformations to produce carbocycles and heterocycles, including tetrahydrofurans and tetrahydropyrans.

  13. Olefination reactions of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles. (United States)

    Gu, Yonghong; Tian, Shi-Kai


    A range of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles have been employed for alkene synthesis with high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Horner-Wittig, and Evans-Akiba reactions utilize phosphonium-, phosphonate-, phosphine oxide-, and pentacoordinated phosphorane-stabilized carbanions as nucleophiles, respectively, to undergo olefination with aldehydes or ketones, and each of these transformations has its own advantages and limitations. Modifying the structures of these nucleophiles along with optimizing reaction conditions results in the formation of a wide variety of polysubstituted alkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. The olefination of imines with phosphonium ylides has recently emerged as a useful approach to tune the stereoselectivity for alkene synthesis. This review focuses on recent advances in the stereoselective olefination of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles.

  14. Comparing Ru and Fe-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Chaitanya Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Fe-based complexes with an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, as olefin metathesis catalysts. Apart from a less endothermic reaction energy profile, a small reduction in the predicted upper energy barriers (≈ 2 kcal mol -1) is calculated in the Fe catalyzed profile with respect to the Ru catalysed profile. Overall, this study indicates that Fe-based catalysts have the potential to be very effective olefin metathesis catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Methylenation of perfluoroalkyl ketones using a Peterson olefination approach. (United States)

    Hamlin, Trevor A; Kelly, Christopher B; Cywar, Robin M; Leadbeater, Nicholas E


    An operationally simple, inexpensive, and rapid route for the olefination of a wide array of trifluoromethyl ketones to yield 3,3,3-trifluoromethylpropenes is reported. Using a Peterson olefination approach, the reaction gives good to excellent yields of the alkene products and can be performed without purification of the β-hydroxysilyl intermediate. The reaction can be extended to other perfluoroalkyl substituents and is easily scaled up. The alkenes prepared can be readily transformed into a variety of other perfluoroalkyl-containing compounds.

  16. Silver-Catalyzed Aldehyde Olefination Using Siloxy Alkynes. (United States)

    Sun, Jianwei; Keller, Valerie A; Meyer, S Todd; Kozmin, Sergey A


    We describe the development of a silver-catalyzed carbonyl olefination employing electron rich siloxy alkynes. This process constitutes an efficient synthesis of trisubstituted unsaturated esters, and represents an alternative to the widely utilized Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Excellent diastereoselectivities are observed for a range of aldehydes using either 1-siloxy-1-propyne or 1-siloxy-1-hexyne. This mild catalytic process also enables chemoselective olefination of aldehydes in the presence of either ester or ketone functionality. Furthermore, since no by-products are generated, this catalytic process is perfectly suited for development of sequential reactions that can be carried out in a single flask.

  17. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China (United States)


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Preliminary)] Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  18. Electrochemistry for biofuel generation: transformation of fatty acids and triglycerides to diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures and olefins. (United States)

    dos Santos, Tatiane R; Harnisch, Falk; Nilges, Peter; Schröder, Uwe


    Electroorganic synthesis can be exploited for the production of biofuels from fatty acids and triglycerides. With Coulomb efficiencies (CE) of up to 50 %, the electrochemical decarboxylation of fatty acids in methanolic and ethanolic solutions leads to the formation of diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures. Triglycerides can be directly converted in aqueous solutions by using sonoelectrochemistry, with olefins as the main products (with a CE of more than 20 %). The latter reaction, however, is terminated at around 50 % substrate conversion by the produced side-product glycerol. An energy analysis shows that the electrochemical olefin synthesis can be an energetically competitive, sustainable, and--in comparison with established processes--economically feasible alternative for the exploitation of fats and oils for biofuel production. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel drill design for photoacoustic guided surgeries (United States)

    Shubert, Joshua; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.


    Fluoroscopy is currently the standard approach for image guidance of surgical drilling procedures. In addition to the harmful radiation dose to the patient and surgeon, fluoroscopy fails to visualize critical structures such as blood vessels and nerves within the drill path. Photoacoustic imaging is a well-suited imaging method to visualize these structures and it does not require harmful ionizing radiation. However, there is currently no clinical system available to deliver light to occluded drill bit tips. To address this challenge, a prototype drill was designed, built, and tested using an internal light delivery system that allows laser energy to be transferred from a stationary laser source to the tip of a spinning drill bit. Photoacoustic images were successfully obtained with the drill bit submerged in water and with the drill tip inserted into a thoracic vertebra from a human cadaver.

  20. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.


    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  1. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.


    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  2. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun


    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  3. P(O)R2-Directed Enantioselective C-H Olefination toward Chiral Atropoisomeric Phosphine-Olefin Compounds. (United States)

    Li, Shi-Xia; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong


    An effective synthesis of chiral atropoisomeric biaryl phosphine-olefin compounds via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination has been developed for the first time. The reactions are operationally simple, tolerate wide functional groups, and have a good ee value. Notably, P(O)R 2 not only acts as the directing group to direct C-H activation in order to make a useful ligand but also serves to facilitate composition of the product in a useful manner in this transformation.

  4. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey


    Vorlíček, Petr


    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  5. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.J.; Cankar, K.; Ranzijn, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.


    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a

  6. Methanol conversion to lower olefins over RHO type zeolite

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad; Imai, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Junkonomura; Tatsumi, Takashi


    Eight-membered ring small-pore zeolite of RHO-type topology has been synthesized, characterized and tested for methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction. The zeolite was hydrothermally crystallized from the gel with Si/Al ratio of 5.0. It showed a high BET

  7. Ozonolysis of Model Olefins-Efficiency of Antiozonants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntink, N.M.; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.


    In this study, the efficiency of several potential long lasting antiozonants was studied by ozonolysis of model olefins. 2-Methyl-2-pentene was selected as a model for natural rubber (NR) and 5-phenyl-2-hexene as a model for styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). A comparison was made between the

  8. The asymmetric Schrock olefin metathesis catalysts. A computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goumans, T.P.M.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.


    The mechanism of the transition metal catalyzed olefin metathesis reaction with the Schrock catalyst is investigated with pure (BP86) and hybrid (B3LYP) density functional theory. On the free-energy surface there is no adduct between ethylene and model catalyst (MeO)

  9. Mesoporous molecular sieves as advanced supports for olefin metathesis catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, Hynek; Čejka, Jiří


    Roč. 257, 21-22 (2013), s. 3107-3124 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400805; GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Olefin metathesis * mesoporous molecular sieves * Heterogeneous catalysts Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.098, year: 2013

  10. Catalytic polymerization of olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmere, M.F.; Vries, de T.J.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.


    A novel process is being developed for the catalytic polymerization of olefins in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2), for which potential applications will mainly be in the production of EPDM and other elastomers. For this purpose, the Brookhart catalyst has been tested for the homopolymerization

  11. Radiation-induced copolymerization of hexafluoroacetone with α-olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Watanabe, S.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.; Tabata, Y.


    The copolymerization of hexafluoroacetone with higher α-olefins above butene, such as 1-pentene (I), 1-hexene (II), 1-octene (III), 2-methyl-1-butene (IV), 2-methyl-1-pentene (V), 3-methyl-1-butene (VI), and 4-methyl-1-pentene (VII) was studied at relatively low temperatures by γ-ray irradiation. Copolymerization of II, IV, V, and VII with hexafluoroacetone was found to scarcely take place at -78 0 C in bulk, but the addition of trichlorotrifluoroethane in amounts to yield equimolar mixtures resulted in conversion of 15.7 percent for IV and of 2.1 to 4.0 percent for the other α-olefins. Higher conversion of V at -78 0 C than at 0 0 C suggest that copolymerization may take place via an ionic mechanism. The effects of various additives on the copolymerization are reported. Infrared spectral studies indicated that the double bond of the α-olefins is opened to form a polymer. The C--O double bond of the hexafluoroacetone and the α-olefin double bond are opened to form the copolymer

  12. Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, I.P.; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio


    A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg...

  13. Olefination of carbonyl compounds: modern and classical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotchenko, V N; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Balenkova, Elizabeth S [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shastin, Aleksey V [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The published data on the methods for alkene synthesis by olefination of carbonyl compounds are generalised and systematised. The main attention is given to the use of transition metals and organoelement compounds. The review covers the data on both classical and newly developed methods that are little known to chemists at large.

  14. Manganese Catalyzed α-Olefination of Nitriles by Primary Alcohols. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Das, Uttam Kumar; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David


    Catalytic α-olefination of nitriles using primary alcohols, via dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols with nitriles, is presented. The reaction is catalyzed by a pincer complex of an earth-abundant metal (manganese), in the absence of any additives, base, or hydrogen acceptor, liberating dihydrogen and water as the only byproducts.

  15. Olefination of carbonyl compounds: modern and classical methods (United States)

    Korotchenko, V. N.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Balenkova, Elizabeth S.; Shastin, Aleksey V.


    The published data on the methods for alkene synthesis by olefination of carbonyl compounds are generalised and systematised. The main attention is given to the use of transition metals and organoelement compounds. The review covers the data on both classical and newly developed methods that are little known to chemists at large.

  16. Access to Functionalized Steroid Side Chains via Modified Julia Olefination (United States)

    Izgu, Enver Cagri; Burns, Aaron C.; Hoye, Thomas R.


    Various functionalized steroidal side chains were conveniently accessed by a modified Julia olefination strategy using a common sulfone donor and an appropriate α-branched aldehyde acceptor. For the coupling of these hindered classes of reaction partners (and in contrast to typically observed trends), the benzothiazolyl(BT)-sulfone anion gave superior outcomes compared to the phenyltetrazolyl(PT)-sulfone anion. PMID:21244047

  17. A vision for drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millheim, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)


    The future of drilling lies in its relationship with the oil and gas industry. This paper examines how the future of drilling is seen from the view point of the exploration manager, the drilling contractor, the drilling engineer and the company president or managing director. The various pressures on the oil and gas industry are examined, such as environmental issues, alternative energy sources, and the price of oil which determines how companies are run. Exploration activity is driven by the price of oil and gas. The development of wells with multiple horizontal wells or multiple horizontal wells with tributaries will reduce the cost of exploration. Companies will rely less and less on reservoir simulation and more on cheap well-bores, multi-lateral well-bores and will exploit oil that could not be exploited before. The cost of exploratory drilling will need to be kept down so that in the future the industry will get better at economically finding fields at the 10 million to 20 million barrel range that would not have been possible before. The future is expected to see drilling contractors tunnelling, making sewerage lines and drilling 10,000 foot wells with purpose built rigs. Franchising will become a feature of the industry as will the use of databases to answer key technical questions. Offshore platforms will be built to be moveable and disposable. The industry is capable of solving problems, meeting challenges and making ideas work, providing much hope for the future. 10 figs., 1 photo.

  18. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.


    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  19. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi


    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  20. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)


    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Cobalt-Iron-Manganese Catalysts for the Conversion of End-of-Life-Tire-Derived Syngas into Light Terminal Olefins. (United States)

    Falkenhagen, Jan P; Maisonneuve, Lise; Paalanen, Pasi P; Coste, Nathalie; Malicki, Nicolas; Weckhuysen, Bert M


    Co-Fe-Mn/γ-Al 2 O 3 Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were synthesized, characterized and tested for CO hydrogenation, mimicking end-of-life-tire (ELT)-derived syngas. It was found that an increase of C 2 -C 4 olefin selectivities to 49 % could be reached for 5 wt % Co, 5 wt % Fe, 2.5 wt % Mn/γ-Al 2 O 3 with Na at ambient pressure. Furthermore, by using a 5 wt % Co, 5 wt % Fe, 2.5 wt % Mn, 1.2 wt % Na, 0.03 wt % S/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst the selectivity towards the fractions of C 5+ and CH 4 could be reduced, whereas the selectivity towards the fraction of C 4 olefins could be improved to 12.6 % at 10 bar. Moreover, the Na/S ratio influences the ratio of terminal to internal olefins observed as products, that is, a high Na loading prevents the isomerization of primary olefins, which is unwanted if 1,3-butadiene is the target product. Thus, by fine-tuning the addition of promoter elements the volume of waste streams that need to be recycled, treated or upgraded during ELT syngas processing could be reduced. The most promising catalyst (5 wt % Co, 5 wt % Fe, 2.5 wt % Mn, 1.2 wt % Na, 0.03 wt % S/γ-Al 2 O 3 ) has been investigated using operando transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that a cobalt-iron alloy was formed, whereas manganese remained in its oxidic phase. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  3. Drilling rig mast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.


    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  4. The Newberry Deep Drilling Project (NDDP) (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Schultz, A.; Sorle, C.; Asanuma, H.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Jaupart, C. P.; Moran, S. C.; de Natale, G.


    We present the arguments to drill a deep well to the ductile/brittle transition zone (T>400°C) at Newberry Volcano, central Oregon state, U.S.A. The main research goals are related to heat and mass transfer in the crust from the point of view of natural hazards and geothermal energy: enhanced geothermal system (EGS supercritical and beyond-brittle), volcanic hazards, mechanisms of magmatic intrusions, geomechanics close to a magmatic system, calibration of geophysical imaging techniques and drilling in a high temperature environment. Drilling at Newberry will bring additional information to a very promising field of research initiated by ICDP in the Deep Drilling project in Iceland with IDDP-1 on Krafla in 2009, followed by IDDP-2 on the Reykjanes ridge in 2016, and the future Japan Beyond-Brittle project and Krafla Magma Testbed. Newberry Volcano contains one of the largest geothermal heat reservoirs in the western United States, extensively studied for the last 40 years. All the knowledge and experience collected make this an excellent choice for drilling a well that will reach high temperatures at relatively shallow depths (< 5000 m). The large conductive thermal anomaly (320°C at 3000 m depth), has already been well-characterized by extensive drilling and geophysical surveys. This will extend current knowledge from the existing 3000 m deep boreholes at the sites into and through the brittle-ductile transition approaching regions of partial melt like lateral dykes. The important scientific questions that will form the basis of a full drilling proposal, have been addressed during an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held in Bend, Oregon in September 2017. They will be presented and discussed as well as the strategic plan to address them.

  5. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, G.


    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  6. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.


    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  7. Modeling pellet impact drilling process (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.


    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  8. Finite element modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughmani, W A; Bouazza-Marouf, K; Ashcroft, I


    Bone drilling is an essential part of many orthopaedic surgery procedures, including those for internal fixation and for attaching prosthetics. Estimation and control of bone drilling forces are critical to prevent drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a 3D finite element (FE) model for prediction of thrust forces experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the dynamic characteristics involved in the process along with the accurate geometrical considerations. The average critical thrust forces and torques obtained using FE analysis, for set of machining parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results

  9. Reactions of rhodium(I) carbonyl chloride with olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshavskii, Yu.S.; Kiseleva, N.V.; Cherkasova, T.G.; Buzina, N.A.; Bresler, L.S.


    The reactions of [Rh(CO) 2 Cl] 2 (Y 0 ) with cyclooctene and several other olefins (1-heptene, 1-hexene, ethylene, and cyclohexene) have been studied by IR and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The main reaction products are the binuclear complexes Rh 2 L(CO) 3 Cl 2 (Y 1 ) and [RhL(CO)Cl] 2 (Y 2 ), where L denotes the olefin. The extent of replacement of the carbonyl groups depends on the nature of the olefin and the conditions under which the reaction is carried out (the L:Rh ratio and the removal of CO from the reaction sphere). The liquid olefins form the following series according to their ability to replace the carbonyl groups: C 8 H 14 > C 7 H 14 , C 6 H 12 > C 6 H 10 . In the presence of an excess of C 8 H 14 , Y 2 disproportionates with the formation of a dicarbonyl product, which presumably corresponds to the formula Rh(C 8 H 14 ) 2 (CO) 2 Cl (a pentacoordinate complex with a trigonal-bipyramidal structure). The 13 C signal in the NMR spectrum of a solution of Y 2 in C 8 H 14 is a singlet with σ( 13 C) 180.3 ppm, which is an indication of the rapid exchange of the carbonyl groups. Rapid exchange of the CO ligands is also observed in solutions of Y 0 in the olefins (with the exception of C 6 H 10 ). For example, the 13 C signal in the spectrum of a solution of Y 0 in C 8 H 14 is a singlet with σ( 13 C) 179.8 ppm. The spectrum of Y 0 in C 6 H 10 is a doublet with σ( 13 C) = 178.5 ppm and 1 J(CRh) = 76.3 Hz. A scheme for the interaction of Y 0 with olefins based on the conception of the trans antagonism of π-acceptor ligands has been proposed


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell


    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  11. Ternary catalyst-olefin-hydroperoxide complexes and their contribution to epoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitych, R.B.; Rzhevskaya, N.N.; Buchachenko, A.L.; Yablonskij, O.P.; Petukhov, A.A.; Belyaev, V.A.


    Electron and NMR spectroscopy have been used for studying the complex formation of catalysts (Mo 5+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ ) in double and triple systems: metal-olefin and metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. It has been established that ions of metals form complexes with olefins in the first sphere. The formation has been proved of ternary complexes metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. The structure of the complexes has been proposed with olefins in the first and hydroperoxide in the second sphere of the metal ion. The structure explains known kinetic regularities of epoxydation and the mechanism of the formation of final products, oxide and alcohol. It has been shown that the best catalysts for epoxydation of olefins with hydroperoxides must be the compounds of the metals with an electron state of ion d 0 [ru

  12. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China (United States)


    ... Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping and... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  13. A latent ruthenium based olefin metathesis catalyst with a sterically demanding NHC ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Leitgeb, Anita; Abbas, Mudassar E.; Fischer, Roland C.; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Slugovc, Christian


    An olefin metathesis catalyst featuring a SIPr NHC and an ester chelating carbene ligand is introduced. In contrast to its previously published SIMes analogue, only the trans dichloro configurated isomer was obtained. The two counterparts are tested in various olefin metathesis reactions, revealing a striking superiority of the new complex in the cross metathesis of olefins with methyl vinyl ketone allowing for full conversion with only 500 ppm catalyst loading. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Olefination of sp3 C–H Bonds (United States)

    Wasa, Masayuki; Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan


    The first Pd(II)-catalyzed sp3 C–H olefination reaction has been developed using N-arylamide directing groups. Following olefination, the resulting intermediates were found to undergo rapid 1,4-addition to give the corresponding γ lactams. Notably, this method was effective with substrates containing α-hydrogen atoms and could be applied to effect methylene C–H olefination of cyclopropane substrates. PMID:20187642

  15. Direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles: a new entry to optoelectronic materials. (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Bo; He, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Xingang


    Fluorinated olefin-containing benzothiadiazoles have important applications in optoelectronic materials. Herein, we reported the direct olefination of fluorinated benzothiadiazoles, as catalyzed by palladium. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and shows high functional-group compatibility. A preliminary study of the properties of the resulting symmetrical and unsymmetrical olefin-containing fluorinated benzothiadiazoles in red-light-emitting dyes has also been conducted. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Cavallo, Luigi


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Methanol conversion to lower olefins over RHO type zeolite

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad


    Eight-membered ring small-pore zeolite of RHO-type topology has been synthesized, characterized and tested for methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction. The zeolite was hydrothermally crystallized from the gel with Si/Al ratio of 5.0. It showed a high BET specific surface area (812 m2 g-1), micropore volume (0.429 cm3 g-1), and acid amount (2.53 mmol g-1). Scanning electron microscopy observations showed small crystallites of about 1 μm. The zeolite was active for MTO reaction with 100% methanol conversions at 623-723 K, whereas selectivity to lower olefins changed with time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Methyltrioxorhenium as catalyst of a novel aldehyde olefination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, W.A. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Wang Mei (Academia Sinica, Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics (China))


    From aldehydes or cyclic ketones, diazoalkanes, and teritiary phosphanes, olefins may be prepared with MTO as catalyst. In particular, diazoacetates and -malonates (R{sup 2}, R{sup 3} = H, CO{sub 2}Et, or 2 x CO{sub 2}Me) can be transformed into olefins with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes (R{sup 1} = iPr, trans-PhCH=CH, Ph, 4-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, etc.). Readily accessible starting materials, easy handling, mild reaction conditions, and good yields characterize the new synthesis method. (R' = Ph, 3-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na, nBu.) (orig.).

  20. A three-membered ring approach to carbonyl olefination. (United States)

    Niyomchon, Supaporn; Oppedisano, Alberto; Aillard, Paul; Maulide, Nuno


    The carbon-carbon double bond, with its diverse and multifaceted reactivity, occupies a prominent position in organic synthesis. Although a variety of simple alkenes are readily available, the mild and chemoselective introduction of a unit of unsaturation into a functionalized organic molecule remains an ongoing area of research, and the olefination of carbonyl compounds is a cornerstone of such approaches. Here we show the direct olefination of hydrazones via the intermediacy of three-membered ring species generated by addition of sulfoxonium ylides, departing from the general dogma of alkenes synthesis from carbonyls. Moreover, the mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity of the transformation render the methodology appealing from a practical point of view.

  1. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer


    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow


    We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of

  3. Decarbonisation of olefin processes using biomass pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Wang, L.; Shah, N.


    Highlights: • Decarbonization of olefin processes using biomass pyrolysis oil was proposed. • The decarbonization is based on integrated catalytic processing of bio-oil. • The retrofitted process features significant economic and environmental advantages. - Abstract: An imperative step toward decarbonisation of current industrial processes is to substitute their petroleum-derived feedstocks with biomass and biomass-derived feedstocks. For decarbonisation of the petrochemical industry, integrated catalytic processing of biomass pyrolysis oil (also known as bio-oil) is an enabling technology. This is because, under certain conditions, the reaction products form a mixture consisting of olefins and aromatics, which are very similar to the products of naphtha hydro-cracking in the conventional olefin processes. These synergies suggest that the catalytic bio-oil upgrading reactors can be seamlessly integrated to the subsequent separation network with minimal retrofitting costs. In addition, the integrated catalytic processing provides a high degree of flexibility for optimization of different products in response to market fluctuations. With the aim of assessing the techno-economic viability of this pathway, five scenarios in which different fractions of bio-oil (water soluble/water insoluble) were processed with different degrees of hydrogenation were studied in the present research. The results showed that such a retrofit is not only economically viable, but also provides a high degree of flexibility to the process, and contributes to decarbonisation of olefin infrastructures. Up to 44% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions were observed in several scenarios. In addition, it was shown that hydrogen prices lower than 6 $/kg will result in bio-based chemicals which are cheaper than equivalent petrochemicals. Alternatively, for higher hydrogen prices, it is possible to reform the water insoluble phase of bio-oil and produce bio-based chemicals, cheaper than

  4. Surface science of single-site heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts


    Kim, Seong H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.


    This article reviews the surface science of the heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts. The specific focus is on how to prepare and characterize stereochemically specific heterogeneous model catalysts for the Ziegler–Natta polymerization. Under clean, ultra-high vacuum conditions, low-energy electron irradiation during the chemical vapor deposition of model Ziegler–Natta catalysts can be used to create a “single-site” catalyst film with a surface structure that produces only isotactic ...

  5. Retrofit with membrane the Paraffin/Olefin separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motelica, A.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Kreiter, R.; Den Exter, M.J.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Olefins, such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene, are among the most produced intermediates in petrochemical industry. They are produced from a wide range of hydrocarbon feedstocks (ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil) via a cracking process. The last step in this process is the separation of olefins from other hydrocarbons, which is traditionally performed with distillation. As the physicochemical properties, such as volatility and boiling point, of the compounds are very similar, the purification becomes capital and energy intensive. For example, the top of an ethylene/ethane distillation column needs to be chilled to -30C and this requires large amount of electric energy consumption. The separation of butadiene from the C4-fraction is performed with the aid of an additional solvent. This solvent has to be regenerated at the cost of additional high temperature steam. To overcome these separation disadvantages of olefin/paraffin separation, different separation methods have been investigated and proposed in recent years. Suggested options are based on better heat integration of the overall process, or on novel separation systems such as Heat Integrated Distillation Columns, membrane separation, adsorption-desorption systems or on hybrid separation methods, for example, distillation combined with membrane separation.

  6. Mars Drilling Status (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.


    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  7. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu


    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  8. The Role of Well Control Training in Developing Safe Onshore and Offshore Oil Drilling Operations (United States)

    Abulhassn, Aber


    This research investigates the role of the International Well Control Forum (IWCF) Rotary Drilling Well Control Training Program in developing safe oil drilling operations from the perspective of onshore and offshore drilling crews. The research methodology is a qualitative case study. A total of 40 IWCF candidates were interviewed, with 10 from…

  9. Environmental aspect of oil and water-based drilling muds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 19, 2010 ... both oil based and water-based drilling wastes collected from the same depth were analyzed for metals. (iron, copper ... include well cuttings, drilling muds, formation water, cement slurry ..... in the drill wastes (2.38 mg/kg) (Figure 3d). The water .... Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety.

  10. 77 FR 71607 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) Electrical Equipment Certification Guidance (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0839] Mobile Offshore Drilling... hazardous areas on foreign-flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) that have never operated, but... International Maritime Organization (IMO) Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  11. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.


    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  12. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  13. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.


    For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...... at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few...

  14. Drilling Information System (DIS and Core Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Conze


    Full Text Available The Drilling Information System is a modular structure of databases, tailored user applications as well as web services and instruments including appropriate interfaces to DIS. This tool set has been developed for geoscientific drilling projects but is applicable to other distributed scientific operations. The main focuses are the data acquisition on drill sites (ExpeditionDIS, and the curation of sample material e.g., in core repositories (CurationDIS. Due to the heterogeneity of scientific drilling projects, a project-specific DIS is arranged and adjusted from a collection of existing templates and modules according to the user requirements during a one week training course. The collected data are provided to the Science Team of the drilling project by secured Web services, and stored in long-term archives hosted at GFZ. At the end the data sets and sample material are documented in an Operational Report (e.g., Lorenz et al., 2015 and published with assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier and IGSN (International Geo Sample Number; for physical samples by GFZ Data Services.

  15. Elastic properties and seismic anisotropy of the Seve Nappe Complex - Laboratory core measurements from the International Continental Drilling Project COSC-1 well, Åre, Sweden (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Zappone, A. S.


    The COSC-1 scientific borehole was drilled in the summer of 2014 to ~2.5 km depth to study the structure and composition of the Middle Allochthon of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides. It crosscuts the amphibolite-grade lower part of the Seve nappe and intersects a mylonite zone in the lower 800 m of the borehole. We selected six core samples representing the primary lithologies in the COSC-1 borehole for laboratory investigation of elastic properties. The cores consisted of two amphibolites with differing grain sizes, a calc-silicate gneiss, a felsic gneiss, a coarse grained amphibole bearing gneiss, and a garnet bearing mylonitic schist from the basal shear zone. Both P- and S-waves were measured at ultrasonic frequency (1 MHz), and room temperature hydrostatic pressure conditions up to 260 MPa. Measurements were made along three mutually perpendicular directions, one perpendicular to foliation and two parallel to the foliation with one aligned with mineral lineation. Vp and Vs, anisotropy, and elastic properties are reported as an extrapolation of the high-pressure portion of the ultrasonic measurements back to the intersection with the zero pressure axis. The Vp and Vs in the direction perpendicular to foliation ranges from 5.51-6.67 km/s and 3.18-4.13 km/s, respectively. In the direction parallel to foliation the Vp and Vs ranges from 6.31-7.25 km/s and 3.52-4.35 km/s, respectively. Vp anisotropy ranges from 3% in the calc-silicate gneiss to 18% in mylonitic schist. Acoustic impedance estimations at lithostatic pressure conditions at base of the borehole (70 MPa) show that acoustic impedance contrast generating reflection coefficients between the basal shear zone and overlying units are significant enough to cause seismic reflections. Above the mylonite zone/shear zone, the reflectivity within the lower Seve nappe is due to the impedance contrast between the felsic gneiss and the amphibolite. This result fits with 3D seismic reflection imaging in the area of

  16. Drill Sergeant Candidate Transformation (United States)


    leadership styles of NCOs entering Drill Sergeant School (DSS). ARI also developed and administered a prototype DS Assessment Battery to assess...preferred leadership styles . DSS training increases both the degree to which the DSC feels obligated to and identifies with the Army. DSS training...4 TABLE 3. PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLES DEFINITIONS .............................................6 TABLE 4. DSC CHANGE IN

  17. Measurement Space Drill Support (United States)


    II) H-47 Block II (I) *H-47 Block II (II) AVN FVL Att (I) * AVN FVL Att (II) TRAC- MTRY F2025B Logistic Flow MS Drill Support FY15 Research...does not have to use other AVN /ground assets to cover the area, freeing these assets to perform other missions and potentially enhancing the

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed ortho-Olefination of Phenyl Acetic and Phenyl Propylacetic Esters via C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Hu, Jundie; Guan, Mingyu; Han, Jian; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Shi, Da-Qing; Zhao, Yingsheng


    A highly regioselective palladium-catalyzed ester-directed ortho-olefination of phenyl acetic and propionic esters with olefins via C-H bond activation has been developed. A wide variety of phenyl acetic and propionic esters were tolerated in this transformation, affording the corresponding olefinated aromatic compounds. The ortho-olefination of heterocyclic acetic and propionic esters also took place smoothly giving the products in good yields, thus proving the potential utility of this protocol in synthetic chemistry.

  19. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie


    fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  20. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline (United States)


    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  1. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline (United States)


    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  2. Oxidative cracking of n-hexane: a catalytic pathway to olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyadjian, C.A.


    Steam cracking, the major, current existing route for light olefin production, is the most energy consuming process in the chemical industry. The need for an energy efficient processes, urged substantial research work for the development of new catalytic technologies for light olefin production.

  3. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diphenylacetic Acids (United States)

    Shi, Bing-Feng; Zhang, Yang-Hui; Lam, Jonathan K.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination of diphenylacetic acid substrates has been achieved through the use of mono-protected chiral amino acid ligands. The absolute configuration of the resulting olefinated products is consistent with that of a proposed C-H insertion intermediate. PMID:20017549

  4. Rhodium-Catalyzed Regioselective C7-Olefination of Indazoles Using an N-Amide Directing Group. (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yanyu; Zhang, Rong; Peng, Qiujun; Xu, Lanting; Pan, Xianhua


    A rhodium-catalyzed regioselective C-H olefination of indazole is described. This protocol relies on the use of an efficient and removable N,N-diisopropylcarbamoyl directing group, which offers facile access to C7-olefinated indazoles with high regioselectivity, ample substrate scope and broad functional group tolerance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed Olefination of Carboxamides with Trifluoromethyl Allylic Carbonate. (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, In Su


    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed olefination of various carboxamides with α-CF 3 -substituted allylic carbonate is described. This reaction provides direct access to linear CF 3 -allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity. In particular, a rhodium catalyst provided Heck-type γ-CF 3 -allylation products via the β-O-elimination of rhodacycle intermediate and subsequent olefin migration process.

  6. Adsorption heats of olefins on supported MoO3/Al2O3 catalists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinev, V.E.; Madden, M.; Khalit, V.A.; Aptekar', E.L.; Aldag, A.; Krylov, O.V.


    Adsorption heats of C 2 H 4 , C 3 H 6 and C 4 H 8 on supported MoO 3 /Al 2 O 3 catalysts containing 6, 10 and 15 wt. % of MoO 3 at 25, 77 and 195 deg are determimed. Adsorption heat of an olefin increases with a growing length of its carbonic chain. The number of adsorbed olefin molecules grows with an increase in the MoO 3 concentration, while initial adsorption heats decrease. The number of adsorbed olefins is proportional to mean rate of molybdenum reduction in catalysts. Adsorption heats of oxygen on the surface of the catalysts with preliminarily adsorbed olefins are determined. It is shown that adsorption of oxygen and olefins proceeeds both on the same and on different centres of the surface. Mechanisms of surface interactions are discussed

  7. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona


    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  8. Synthesis of thermoplastic poly(ester-olefin elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasijević Branka


    Full Text Available A series of thermoplastic poly(ester-olefin elastomers, based on poly(ethylene-stat-butylene, HO-PEB-OH, as the soft segment and poly (butylene terephthalate, PBT, as the hard segment, were synthesized by a catalyzed transesterification reaction in solution. The incorporation of soft hydrogenated poly(butadiene segments into the copolyester backbone was accomplished by the polycondensation of α, ω-dihydroxyl telechelic HO-PEB-OH, (PEB Mn = 3092 g/mol with 1,4-butanediol (BD and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT in the presence of a 50 wt-% high boiling solvent i.e., 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. The molar ratio of the starting comonomers was selected to result in a constant hard to soft weight ratio of 60:40. The synthesis was optimized in terms of both the concentration of catalyst, tetra-n-butyl-titanate (Ti(OBu4, and stabilizer, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD, as well as the reaction time. It was found that the optimal catalyst concentration (Ti(OBu4 for the synthesis of these thermoplastic elastomers was 1.0 mmol/mol ester and the optimal DPPD concentration was 1.0 wt-%. The extent of the reaction was followed by measuring the inherent viscosity of the reaction mixture. The effectiveness of the incorporation of the soft segments into the copolymer chains was proved by Soxhlet extraction with chloroform. The molecular structures, composition and the size of the synthesized poly(ester-butylenes were verified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, viscometry of dilute solutions and the complex dynamic melt viscosity. The thermal properties of poly(ester-olefins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The degree of crystallinity was also determined by DSC. The thermal and thermo-oxidative stability were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The rheological properties of poly(ester-olefins were investigated by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy in the melt and solid state.

  9. Transmissive Olefination Route to Putative “Morinol I” Lignans (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Pitta, Bhaskar; Ravikumar, P. C.; Purzycki, Matthew; Fleming, Fraser F.


    A series of morinol-type lignans were rapidly assembled using a Grignard-based transmissive olefination. In combination with palladium-catalyzed arylations, the strategy provides stereoselective access to (7Z, 7′E), (7E, 7′E), (7E, 7′Z) morinol diastereomers and the (7Z, 8′E) and (7E, 8′E) conjugated analogs. Critical for the E/Z-stereoselectivity is a new, general method for converting alkenenitriles to alkenemethanols that circumvents the enal E/Z isomerization commonly encountered during conventional i-Bu2AlH reduction. PMID:22432777

  10. Radiation chemical addition of dimethylformamide to α-olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, B.; Saus, A.; Lennertz, A.M.


    With n-hexene-1, n-octene-1 and n-decene-1 the radiation-initiated addition of demethyl formamide to α-olefins is described for the fist time. N,N-dimethyl alkane carbonic acid amides and N-methyl-N-alkyl formamides are formed in a ratio of about 50:50. The addition reaction is investigated in depencence of a solvent, of the ratio of the reaction, temperature, reaction time and dose rate. Mechanistic considerations are performed by radiolysis experiments of dimethyl formamide. (orig.) [de

  11. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom


    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  12. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.


    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  13. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian M. Saffer


    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at

  14. U.S. drilling contractors could face stiff challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.


    Although the outlook for most segments of the contract drilling business is now more optimistic than in the past decade, the increased activity has brought several problems: the availability of fully trained crews, the need for new capital, and the limited number of quality drillstrings. These problems will grow in importance if natural gas deliverability begins to decline visibly and once the scramble to correct this decline begins. As the drilling recovery unfolds, the most important lesson to remember, based on worldwide activity in the past year, is how rapidly conditions can change and how quickly excess capacity can turn into chronic shortages. The various segments of the world wide contract drilling industry's prospects have changed dramatically during the past 12 months, and oddly, some market sectors have improved while others have become worse. These quick changes highlight the unpredictable and volatile nature of the markets for contract drilling and other services needed to drill and complete oil and gas wells. The paper describes the business of well drilling onshore and offshore in the US, drilling activities in Canada, international markets, capacity, the supplies of natural gas, Gulf of Mexico activities, drill pipe shortages, manpower shortages, and challenges offshore

  15. Direct, enantioselective α-alkylation of aldehydes using simple olefins. (United States)

    Capacci, Andrew G; Malinowski, Justin T; McAlpine, Neil J; Kuhne, Jerome; MacMillan, David W C


    Although the α-alkylation of ketones has already been established, the analogous reaction using aldehyde substrates has proven surprisingly elusive. Despite the structural similarities between the two classes of compounds, the sensitivity and unique reactivity of the aldehyde functionality has typically required activated substrates or specialized additives. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of three catalytic processes-photoredox, enamine and hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) catalysis-enables an enantioselective α-aldehyde alkylation reaction that employs simple olefins as coupling partners. Chiral imidazolidinones or prolinols, in combination with a thiophenol, iridium photoredox catalyst and visible light, have been successfully used in a triple catalytic process that is temporally sequenced to deliver a new hydrogen and electron-borrowing mechanism. This multicatalytic process enables both intra- and intermolecular aldehyde α-methylene coupling with olefins to construct both cyclic and acyclic products, respectively. With respect to atom and step-economy ideals, this stereoselective process allows the production of high-value molecules from feedstock chemicals in one step while consuming only photons.

  16. Gas phase reactions of nitrogen oxides with olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P; Cohen, I


    The nature of the condensation products formed in the gas phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide with pentene-1, 2-methylbutene-2, and 2-methylbutadiene-1,3 was investigated. The reactants were combined at partial pressures in the range of 0.1 to 2.5 mm with the total pressure at one atmosphere. The products were determined by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and colorimetry. The condensates included primary and secondary nitro compounds and alkyl nitrates. Strong hydroxyl and single bond carbon to oxygen stretching vibrations indicate the presence of either nitroalcohols or simple aliphatic alcohols formed through oxidation reactions. Carbonyl stretching frequencies observable in some of the reactions support the conclusion that a portion of the reactants disappear by oxidation rather than by nitration processes. The available results do not indicate the presence of appreciable amounts of tert.-nitro compounds, conjugated nitro-olefins, or gem-dinitro-alkanes. The reactivities of the olefins with the nitrogen oxides are in the decreasing order: 2-methyl-butadiene-1,3, 2-methylbutene-2, pentene-1. 20 references.

  17. How much life is left in your olefin unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, J.; Warner, R.


    Highly attractive economics in the olefin industry has justified increasing capacity via plant expansion and using aging olefin units beyond expected limitations. If these existing units are to operate well beyond their design life, what type of analysis and information is necessary to make this decision? What technologies or methods should be used for continued safe and controlled operation of these not so new units. This paper reports that the plant's mechanical integrity is the focal point of this analysis and decision-making method. Plant life expectancy study (PLES) looks at an operating plant's mechanical integrity from several vantage points. Four basic principles, such as plant history, process upsets and operating records, assessment of plant fires, and how to conduct records, assessment of plant fires, and how to conduct inspection and testing, provide the basis of how well a plant has been operated and maintained. Furthermore, the analysis includes a critical component inventory. These items address additional potential-failure causes, such as creep, fatigue, toughness, corrosion, erosion and carburization/oxidation

  18. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division


    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak


    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  20. Techno-economic analysis and comparison of coal based olefins processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu


    Highlights: • The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is proposed and analyzed. • The CFTO suffers from lower energy efficiency and serious CO 2 emissions. • Approaches for improving techno-economic performance of the CFTO are obtained. - Abstract: Traditional olefins production is heavily dependent on oil. In the background of the scarcity of oil and richness of coal in China, olefins production from coal has been attracting more attention of the chemical process industry. The first coal based methanol-to-olefins (CMTO) plant has been commercialized in China. For shorter process route and lower capital cost, Fischer–Fropsch has been put forward in the last few years. The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is designed in this paper and then its techno-economic and environmental performance was detailed studied in this paper, in comparison with the CMTO. Results show that at the present olefins selectivity, the CFTO suffers from relative lower energy efficiency and higher CO 2 emissions. In economic aspect, the capital investment and product cost of the CFTO are roughly equivalent to that of the CMTO. Although the conversion route of the CFTO is shorter, its techno-economic performance is still inferior to that of the CMTO. It is also found that increase of olefins selectivity by cracking oil or decrease of CO 2 selectivity by improving catalyst could significantly improve the performance of the CFTO.

  1. ATUCHA I NPP - Emergency drill practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda, Alejandro; Rosales, Gabriel


    Full text: Atucha I NPP performs an Emergency Drill Practice once a year. Its main goals are: -) Fulfill the requirements of the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) regarding Atucha I NPP's Operating License; -) Fulfill the commitment with the community regarding the safe and reliable operation Atucha I NPP; -) Verify the response of the Civil Organizations, Security Forces, and Armed Forces, as well as the correct application of the Emergency Plan; -) Perform the 'General Alarm Drill' periodic control; -) Perform a re-training of the members of the Security Advisor Internal Committee (CIAS) on the Internal and External Aspects of the Emergency Plan and on the related procedures; -) Test the Emergency Communications System. New goals are added every year, considering the Drill's scope. This drill comprises two different kinds of practices: Internal practices (practices in the station, with our personnel) and external practices (practices outside the station with governmental organizations). Internal practices comprise: -) Internal and external communications practices; -) Acoustic alarms; -) Personnel gathering in the Meeting Points; -) Safety of selected Meeting Points; -) Personnel count, selective evacuation; -) Iodide Potassium pills distribution; -) CICE (Internal Group for Emergency Control) Coordination. External practices comprise: -) Nuclear Regulatory Authority; -) Argentine Navy, Comando Area Naval Fluvial, Base Naval Zarate; -) Lima firemen; -) Zarate firemen; -) Municipal Civil Defense (Zarate and Lima); -) National Guard, Escuadron Atucha; -) Zarate Regional Hospital; -) Lima Police Department; -) Zarate Police Department; -) Argentine Coast Guard, Zarate; -) Local radios: Radio FM Libre, FM El Sitio; -) First Aid clinic. The following activities are performed together with the aforementioned organizations: -) Formation of an 'Operative committee'; -) Evacuation of citizens in a 3 km radio; -) Control of every access to Lima; -) Control of

  2. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar


    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  3. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.


    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  4. Drilling string lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M


    A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.

  5. In vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by heme enzymes (United States)

    Coelho, Pedro S; Brustad, Eric M; Arnold, Frances H; Wang, Zhan; Lewis, Jared C


    The present invention provides methods for catalyzing the conversion of an olefin to any compound containing one or more cyclopropane functional groups using heme enzymes. In certain aspects, the present invention provides a method for producing a cyclopropanation product comprising providing an olefinic substrate, a diazo reagent, and a heme enzyme; and admixing the components in a reaction for a time sufficient to produce a cyclopropanation product. In other aspects, the present invention provides heme enzymes including variants and fragments thereof that are capable of carrying out in vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation reactions. Expression vectors and host cells expressing the heme enzymes are also provided by the present invention.

  6. Atmosphere-Controlled Chemoselectivity: Rhodium-Catalyzed Alkylation and Olefination of Alkylnitriles with Alcohols. (United States)

    Li, Junjun; Liu, Yuxuan; Tang, Weijun; Xue, Dong; Li, Chaoqun; Xiao, Jianliang; Wang, Chao


    The chemoselective alkylation and olefination of alkylnitriles with alcohols have been developed by simply controlling the reaction atmosphere. A binuclear rhodium complex catalyzes the alkylation reaction under argon through a hydrogen-borrowing pathway and the olefination reaction under oxygen through aerobic dehydrogenation. Broad substrate scope is demonstrated, permitting the synthesis of some important organic building blocks. Mechanistic studies suggest that the alkylation product may be formed through conjugate reduction of an alkene intermediate by a rhodium hydride, whereas the formation of olefin product may be due to the oxidation of the rhodium hydride complex with molecular oxygen. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp(3))-H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines. (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp(3))-H olefination reactions. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp(3))-H activation of alkyl amines is also a significant step toward practical C-H functionalizations of alkyl amines.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of hydroxy stilbenoids and styrenes by atom-efficient olefination with thiophthalides. (United States)

    Mitra, Prithiba; Shome, Brateen; De, Saroj Ranjan; Sarkar, Anindya; Mal, Dipakranjan


    The synthesis of stilbenoids and styryl carboxylic acids is accomplished with high E-stereoselectivity by olefination of aldehydes with thiophthalides under basic conditions. The olefination is highly atom-efficient as it only loses elemental sulfur during the reaction. This olefination, in conjunction with retro Kolbe-Schmitt reaction, allows facile synthesis of E-hydroxystilbenoids with minimal employment of protecting groups. This study also discloses two important findings: formation of i) 4-methylsulfanyl isocoumarins and ii) an 2-arylindenone. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Primary Alcohols from Terminal Olefins: Formal Anti-Markovnikov Hydration via Triple Relay Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, G.


    Alcohol synthesis is critical to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The addition of water across olefins to form primary alcohols (anti-Markovnikov olefin hydration) would be a broadly useful reaction but has largely proven elusive; an indirect hydroboration/oxidation sequence requiring stoichiometric borane and oxidant is currently the most practical methodology. Here, we report a more direct approach with the use of a triple relay catalysis system that couples palladium-catalyzed oxidation, acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, and ruthenium-catalyzed reduction cycles. Aryl-substituted terminal olefins are converted to primary alcohols by net reaction with water in good yield and excellent regioselectivity.

  10. Conceptual design and system analysis of a poly-generation system for power and olefin production from natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yu; Liu Jingyao; Huang Zhixian; Kraslawski, Andrzej; Cui Jian; Huang Yinlun


    In this paper, a novel poly-generation system for olefin and power production from natural gas is proposed, which integrates hydrocarbon production and the combined cycle power generation. Economic and technological evaluation based on the internal rate of return (IRR) and exergy efficiency is performed. The energy integration results in the proposed poly-generation system for simultaneous production of chemical products (ethylene and propylene) and electricity being more thermodynamically efficient and economically viable than single purpose power generation and chemical products production plants. IRR and exergy efficiency of the proposed poly-generation system are higher than that of natural gas methanol to olefin (NGMTO) system, 18.9% and 49.9%, respectively. The biggest exergy destruction segments, their causes, and possible measures for improvement are investigated simulation and thermodynamic analysis. To analyze the effect of unreacted syngas recycle on the exergy efficiency and economic gains from the proposed poly-generation system, its thermoeconomic optimization model is built by combining economic with thermodynamic analysis. Optimization analysis shows that when 78% of the unreacted syngas is recycled back to the reactor in the methanol synthesization process, the thermoeconomic performance of the poly-generation system is at its optimum.

  11. Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media (United States)

    Kasi, Rajeswari M.

    Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE

  12. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  14. Control procedure for well drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, J C


    A control procedure of rotary drilling operations is proposed. It uses the Drill off test. The drill-off test permits to determine the rock drill speed variation as a function of the wright applied on the top of the pipe. We can deduce from that a rock drill wear parameter. The method permits to prevent a rupture and its grave economic consequences.

  15. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes, without...

  16. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.


    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested

  17. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarz Stanislaw


    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  18. A new drilling method-Earthworm-like vibration drilling. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ni, Hongjian; Wang, Ruihe


    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed "earthworm-like drilling" is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a "soft-string" model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling.

  19. Case drilling - an innovative approach to reducing drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Tessari, R. M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, T. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Casing drilling is introduced as a new drilling technique that uses standard oil field casing to simultaneously drill and case the well. The technology includes both rig and downhole equipment, customized to function effectively as an integrated drilling system. This paper describes the testing program designed to identify and overcome technical challenges. Although not fully optimized, it appears that the system is functional. Test results indicate the need for improvements in the pump down cement float equipment and the tools and procedures for drilling up the cement plugs. The pump down latch and retrieval system also needs to be further developed and tested for high angle directional applications. Cost savings in the range of 10 to 15 per cent are expected for trouble-free wells. By eliminating the cost of unscheduled events encountered in troublesome wells, cost savings may reach as high as 30 per cent. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.A.


    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  1. Production of jet fuel range paraffins by low temperature polymerization of gaseous light olefins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Lijuan; Jin, Feng; Liu, Junxu; Xia, Tongyan; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin


    Graphical abstract: A novel catalytic transformation of light olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. - Highlights: • A novel transformation of light olefins to jet fuel range paraffins was demonstrated. • The synthetic fuels can be produced by atmospheric olefin polymerizations. • C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins from light olefins was achieved with a selectivity of 80.6%. - Abstract: This work demonstrated a novel catalytic transformation of gaseous olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. The production of the desired C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins with the selectivity of 80.6 C mol% was achieved by the room-temperature polymerizations of gaseous light olefins using the [BMIM] Al 2 Cl 7 ionic liquid. The influences of the reaction conditions on the olefinic polymerizations were investigated in detail. The properties of hydrocarbons in the synthetic fuels were determined by the GC–MS analyses combined with 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR analyses. The formation of C 8 –C 15 hydrocarbons from gaseous light olefins was illustrated by the identified products and the functional groups. This transformation potentially provides a useful avenue for the production of the most important components of iso-paraffins required in jet fuels.

  2. Casing and liners for drilling and completion

    CERN Document Server

    Byrom, Ted G


    The Gulf Drilling Series is a joint project between Gulf Publishing Company and the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The first text in this Series presents casing design and mechanics in a concise, two-part format. The first part focuses on basic casing design and instructs engineers and engineering students how to design a safe casing string. The second part covers more advanced material and special problems in casing design in a user-friendly format. Learn how to select sizes and setting depths to achieve well objectives, determine casing loads for design purposes, design casing properties to meet burst, collapse and tensile strength requirements and conduct casing running operations safely and successfully.

  3. Radiation-chemical alkylation of olefines with adamantane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkhalyuzin, A.T.; Vikulin, V.V.; Morozov, V.A.; Nazarova, M.P.; Vereshchinskii, I.V.


    Radiation-chemical alkylation of C 2 to C 4 olefines with adamantane was studied in gas phase at temperatures 270 to 430 0 C. The main reaction product is monoalkyladamantane. The reaction proceeds by a free radical chain mechanism. The effective activation energy is of the order of 8 to 10 kcal/mole. Thermal alkylation was carried out for comparison and the contribution of the thermal component to the radiation-thermal process was estimated. Liquid phase alkylation of hexafluoropropylene with adamantane was studied in the presence of solvents. Under various conditions mono- and di-substituted adamantanes are produced containing fluorine in end groups. These compounds were converted to corresponding fluoroalkenyladamantanes by dehydrofluorination. The kinetic parameters were calculated and physical-chemical data concerning some of the resulting products were determined. (author)

  4. New unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadzhiev, S.N.; Baiburskii, V.L.; Deineko, P.S.; Gruzdev, A.S.; Tagavov, I.T.


    The authors describe and illustrate a sulfuric acid alkylation unit with a horizontal contact. As a result of the use of this design solution, the isobutane/olefin ratio is 10/1 in comparison with 4/1 to 5/1 in the other types of units, namely vertical reactors and cascade tank reactors. The unit was designed to process the butane-butylene cut (BBC) and part of the propane-propylene cut (PPC) from the G-43-107 cat cracker. The unit design includes provisions for controlled caustic washing of the feed and dehydration in an electric field. The authors present the basic data obtained in the three months of unit operation after startup, in comparison with the operating indexes of a sulfuric acid alkylation unit.

  5. The FCC process as a producer of light olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K.Y.; Yanik, S.; O'Connor, P.; Pouwels, C.


    To reduce emissions from the gasoline engine, aromatics content and vapor pressure of the motor gasoline pool will be reduced and a minimum amount of oxygen will be mandated. This reformulation will limit the application of high octane components like benzene, toluene and butanes and will require the use of oxygenates. To compensate for the loss in octane, the use of alkylate and, of course also oxygenates will grow. The Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit is, as producer of (olefinic) propanes, butanes and pentanes, an important feedstock producer for alkylate and oxygenate producing process. Hence, process adjustments and FCC catalyst formations to increase the yield of above desirable light products are of prime importance and will be dealt with in this paper

  6. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cyclopropanation of Olefins with N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-Triazoles (United States)

    Chuprakov, Stepan; Kwok, Sen Wai; Zhang, Li; Lercher, Lukas; Fokin, Valery V.


    N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-triazoles readily form rhodium(II) azavinyl carbenes, which react with olefins to produce cyclopropanes with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity and in high yield. PMID:19928917

  7. Gum forming olefinic precursors in motor gasoline: a model compound study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Singh, J.; Rastogi, S.N. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))


    The source of the cracked components in motor gasoline are generally (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) FCC and thermal cracking naphthas incorporated in the gasoline pool. The FCC olefins are predominant in isostructures, while thermal cracking naphthas obtained from visbreaking and coking operations contain substantial amounts of cyclic structures. The contribution of various olefinic structures present in these naphthas are likely to vary. The gum forming tendencies of different types of olefinic structures have been studied by taking model compounds in a known sample matrix through potential gum measurements under accelerated test conditions. Peroxide number values have also been determined on aged sample. Cyclic and dicyclic structures have been found to contribute maximum, towards gum formation tendencies. Branching generally increases the gum formation. However, position of branching plays an important role besides the double bond. Synergistic effects of dienes with straight chain and branched olefins have also been studied. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Esterase-sensitive sulfur dioxide prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination. (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wang, Binghe


    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule, and is emerging as a potential gasotransmitter. Herein, we describe the first series of esterase-sensitive prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination as SO 2 donors.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed aryl C-H olefination with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes. (United States)

    Deb, Arghya; Bag, Sukdev; Kancherla, Rajesh; Maiti, Debabrata


    Palladium-catalyzed coupling between aryl halides and alkenes (Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is one of the most popular reactions for synthesizing complex organic molecules. The limited availability, problematic synthesis, and higher cost of aryl halide precursors (or their equivalents) have encouraged exploration of direct olefination of aryl carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds (Fujiwara-Moritani reaction). Despite significant progress, the restricted substrate scope, in particular noncompliance of unactivated aliphatic olefins, has discouraged the use of this greener alternative. Overcoming this serious limitation, we report here a palladium-catalyzed chelation-assisted ortho C-H bond olefination of phenylacetic acid derivatives with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes in good to excellent yields with high regio- and stereoselectivities. The versatility of this operationally simple method has been demonstrated through drug diversification and sequential C-H olefination for synthesizing divinylbenzene derivatives.

  10. Nickel-catalysed retro-hydroamidocarbonylation of aliphatic amides to olefins (United States)

    Hu, Jiefeng; Wang, Minyan; Pu, Xinghui; Shi, Zhuangzhi


    Amide and olefins are important synthetic intermediates with complementary reactivity which play a key role in the construction of natural products, pharmaceuticals and manmade materials. Converting the normally highly stable aliphatic amides into olefins directly is a challenging task. Here we show that a Ni/NHC-catalytic system has been established for decarbonylative elimination of aliphatic amides to generate various olefins via C-N and C-C bond cleavage. This study not only overcomes the acyl C-N bond activation in aliphatic amides, but also encompasses distinct chemical advances on a new type of elimination reaction called retro-hydroamidocarbonylation. This transformation shows good functional group compatibility and can serve as a powerful synthetic tool for late-stage olefination of amide groups in complex compounds.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.


    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  12. Structure and dynamics of olefin radical cation aggregates. Time-resolved fluorescence detected magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.; Trifunac, A.D.


    The time-resolved EPR spectra and thus the structure and dynamics of transient hydrocarbon radical cations are obtained by the pulse radiolysis-fluorescence detected magnetic resonance (FDMR) technique. Here the authors report the observation of short-lived radical cations from olefins. FDMR-EPR spectra of radical cations from tetramethylethylene and cyclohexadiene are illustrated. The olefin radical cations, FDMR spectra are concentration-dependent, since dimerization with neutral molecules takes place at higher (>10 -2 M) olefin concentration. Rate constants for the dimerization reaction are derived and the effect of solvent viscosity on aggregate formation is demonstrated. By monitoring the further reactions of dimer cations the authors have obtained EPR evidence for previously unobserved higher-order (multimer) radical cation aggregates of olefins. 16 references, 5 figures

  13. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Ranzijn, Jorn; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules


    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a (+)-limonene synthase from Citrus limon. Both proteins were expressed either with their native plastid targeting signal or in a truncated form in which the plastidial sorting signal was removed. The yeast host strain for expression was AE9 K197G, which expresses a mutant Erg20 enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the formation of geranyl diphosphate, which is the precursor for monoterpenes. Several methods were tested to capture limonene produced by the yeast. Extraction from the culture medium by pentane, or by the addition of CaCl2 followed by solid-phase micro-extraction, did not lead to detectable limonene, indicating that limonene is rapidly lost from the culture medium. Volatile terpenes such as limonene may also be trapped in a dodecane phase added to the medium during fermentation. This method resulted in recovery of 0.028 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.060 mg/l (-)-limonene in strains using the truncated Citrus and Perilla synthases, respectively. Trapping the headspace during culture of the limonene synthase-expressing strains resulted in higher titres, at 0.12 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.49 mg/l (-)-limonene. These results show that the volatile properties of the olefins produced require specific methods for efficient recovery of these molecules from biotechnological production systems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Reinforcement and Drill by Microcomputer. (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest


    Points out why drill work has a role in the language arts classroom, explores the possibilities of using a microcomputer to give children drill work, and discusses the characteristics of a good software program, along with faults found in many software programs. (FL)

  15. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.


    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  16. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii


    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  17. An Improved Protocol for the Aldehyde Olefination Reaction Using (bmim ( as Reaction Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Srivastava


    Full Text Available [Ru(CODCl2]/CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system works efficiently in ionic liquid media for aldehyde olefination reaction. It offers good yield and selectivity with the added advantage of 5 times recyclability for [Ru(CODCl2] /CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system. We also successfully reduced the reaction time from 12 hours to 9 hours for the aldehyde olefination reaction.

  18. Stereoselective Wittig Olefination as a Macrocyclization Tool. Synthesis of Large Carbazolophanes. (United States)

    Myśliwiec, Damian; Lis, Tadeusz; Gregoliński, Janusz; Stępień, Marcin


    Z-Selective Wittig olefination was applied to the synthesis of large carbazolophanes containing up to eight heteroaromatic subunits. A number of strategies were devised and tested, showing that cyclooligomerization yields can be significantly improved by using one-component schemes involving heterobifunctional reactants. [4]- and [6]Carbazolophanes were characterized in the solid state, revealing compact, highly folded structures. Electronic and steric effects of substitution and chain length on the Wittig olefination rates and Z-selectivities were explored theoretically using DFT calculations.

  19. Ligand-Promoted C(sp(3) )-H Olefination en Route to Multi-functionalized Pyrazoles. (United States)

    Yang, Weibo; Ye, Shengqing; Schmidt, Yvonne; Stamos, Dean; Yu, Jin-Quan


    A Pd-catalyzed/N-heterocycle-directed C(sp(3) )-H olefination has been developed. The monoprotected amino acid ligand (MPAA) is found to significantly promote Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H olefination for the first time. Cu(OAc)2 instead of Ag(+) salts are used as the terminal oxidant. This reaction provides a useful method for the synthesis of alkylated pyrazoles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On the nature of the olefination reaction involving ditungsten hexaalkoxides and aldehydes or ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, M.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Lucas, E.A.; Sousa, A.; Streib, W.E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    Reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones to olefins under the action of ditungsten hexaalkoxides was investigated. In these reactions, reductive cleavage of the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is followed by formation of the olefinic C-C bond and breaking of the carbonyl C-O bond of the second aldehyde or ketone. Observations concerning the initial C-O bond cleavage and subsequent C-C bond formation are presented. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Palladium catalyzed selective distal C-H olefination of biaryl systems. (United States)

    Maity, Soham; Hoque, Ehtasimul; Dhawa, Uttam; Maiti, Debabrata


    Palladium catalyzed selective distal C-H activation with nitrile based templates has been of significant research interest in recent times. In this report, we disclose the distal C-H olefination of biphenyl systems with high regio- and stereo-selectivity and useful synthetic yields. The utility of this method has been demonstrated through its wide olefin scope, its operation at the gram scale and the easy removal/recovery of the directing group.

  2. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)


    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  3. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  4. Drilling waste makes concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfjord, A.


    The article deals with a method of drilling waste reclamation by utilizing the converted oil-containing cuttings from the North Sea in the concrete production in Norway. The oil content is to be removed in an incineration process by heating the cuttings to about 800 o C. The output capacity from the exhaust gas water cooling system is 7500 kW/hour, and is to be used in different industrial heating processes. The remaining content of pollutants in the cleaned exhaust gas outlet corresponds to the required limits with the exception of SO 2 and HCl. In addition, an exhaust gas washing plant is to be installed in the near future designed for the further reduction of pollutants by 90%. The converted raw materials are used as a supplement for lessening the demand of sand and cement in the production of concrete-made pipes. 1 fig

  5. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.C.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.


    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  6. Individual Drilling Bit Design and Optimization in Mahu Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenbo


    Full Text Available There are three sets of gravels in Mahu region. The gravels formation is characterized by high heterogeneity, high abrasiveness and poor drillability. It is so difficult to optimize bit that restrict seriously the overall exploration and development process. The compressive strength, internal friction angle, and drillability of the formation are tested to check the rock mechanical characteristic profile established by logging data. The individual bit design is carried out by the 3D simulation technology. A new PDC bit type is designed to form the drill bit series for Mahu area. Single PDC bit increases 90% of the drilling footage. The trip average footage is improved 3.45 times, the horizontal section average penetration increased 34.8%. The technical achievements have greatly improved economic development benefits of Mahu region by improving drilling speed and saving drilling costs.

  7. Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project Completes Coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Scientific Staff of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project


    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project (CBIS Project completed its coring operations during September–December 2005 and April–May 2006. Cores were collected continuously to a total depth of 1766 m. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of impactites beneath 444 m of post-impact continental shelf sediments.The CBIS Project is a joint venture of the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS. Project activities began with a planning workshop in September 2003 attended by sixtythree scientists from ten countries. Field operations began with site preparation in July 2005, and coring began in September 2005. Drilling, Observation and Sampling of theEarth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC was the general contractor for the drilling operations throughout 2005.

  8. Drillings at Veitsivaara in Hyrynsalmi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.


    According to Governmen's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Veitsivaara, Hyrynsalmi the investigation program was started in April 1987. During years 1987-1988 a deep borehole (1002 m) and 4 and 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisso's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. About 75 m deep hole was percussion drilled near the borehole KR1. The spreading of the flushing water in the upper part of bedrock and the quality off the ground of the groundwater were studied by taking watersamples from the hole. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition

  9. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks with optimized pore structure for olefin/paraffin-separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, C.; Boehme, U.; Hartmann, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Erlangen Catalysis Resource Center


    In the chemical industry, the largest part of energy is spent on separation processes such as the separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures from steam cracker effluents by low-temperature rectification. A suitable alternative to this energy and cost intensive process is separation by selective adsorption with suitable microporous adsorbent. In this work, different ZIFs (Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks) have been explored with respect to their separation of olefins and paraffins. The studied materials (e.g. ZIF-8 (SOD-Topology), ZIF-71 (RHO-Topology)) were selected because of their low diameter of the largest pore entrance (0.29 to 4.2 nm) which is close to the kinetic diameter of the C{sub 2} to C{sub 4} olefins and paraffins under study. In contrast to other MOF- or zeolite-based adsorbents, in ZIF-8 and ZIF-71, the paraffin is preferentially adsorbed, which is evident from the single-component adsorption isotherms at different temperature. In the corresponding mixture breakthrough curves, the olefin breaks through first and the alkane even displaces the olefin from the pores. Thus, ZIF-8 and ZIF-71 are interesting candidates for the envisaged paraffin/olefin separation. Whether the observed separation behavior is due to the structural properties of the studied ZIFs or a consequence of peculiar chemical properties is subject to further studies. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  10. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren


    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.


    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  12. Sequential meta-C-H olefination of synthetically versatile benzyl silanes: effective synthesis of meta-olefinated toluene, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohols. (United States)

    Patra, Tuhin; Watile, Rahul; Agasti, Soumitra; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata


    Tremendous progress has been made towards ortho-selective C-H functionalization in the last three decades. However, the activation of distal C-H bonds and their functionalization has remained fairly underdeveloped. Herein, we report sequential meta-C-H functionalization by performing selective mono-olefination and bis-olefination with late stage modification of the C-Si as well as Si-O bonds. Temporary silyl connection was found to be advantageous due to its easy installation, easy removal and wide synthetic diversification.

  13. Pressured drilling riser design for drilling in ultra deep water with surface bop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Morrison, D.; Efthymiou, M.; Lo, K.H. [Shell Global Solutions, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Magne, E.; Leach, C. [Shell Internationale Exploration and Production (Netherlands)


    In conventional drilling with a semi-submersible rig valuable rig time is used to run and retrieve the BOP and its accessories on the seabed, and this time increases with water depth. Furthermore, use of the conventional sub-sea BOP requires a large-diameter riser, which requires substantial rig storage and deck load capacity prior to installation. It also requires high riser-tensioning capacity or additional buoyancy. Thus as the water depth increases, it leads to a need for heavy duty 4. and 5. generation rigs with escalation in costs. The high cost of deep-water drill rigs is leading to the development of Surface BOP technology. In this development, the BOP is placed above sea level and the riser is simply a continuation of the casing (typical diameter 13-3/8''). This eliminates the need for a heavy 21'' riser and for running the BOP to the sea bed and retrieving it. Moreover, the reduced tension requirement for the smaller riser extends the water depth capability of 3. generation drilling semi-submersibles, enabling them to drill in deeper waters. A critical success factor for this development is the ability to design the riser/casing to withstand high internal pressures due to well kicks, in addition to environmental loads, and to restrict vessel offsets within certain limits so as not to overload the riser under the prevailing weather conditions. This paper addresses the design considerations of a pressured drilling riser that can be used with a surface BOP in deep-water. Key design issues that are sensitive to ultra-deep-water applications are discussed. The technical aspects of using (disposable) standard casing with threaded connector for the drilling riser are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the connector fatigue-testing program to quantify the stress concentration factor for fatigue design. Emerging composite material offers some alternatives to the steel riser when drilling in ultra-deep water Design issues related to the

  14. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.


    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  15. Drillings at Kivetty in Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.


    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Kivetty, Konginkangas the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1019 m) and 4 about 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 65 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  16. Drillings at Syyry in Sievi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.


    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Syyry, Sievi the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1022 m) and 4 about 500-700 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 35 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10-20 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 85 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  17. Deepwater drilling; Jakten paa de store dyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Recent technological development has made it possible to drill for oil and gas at the impressive depth of 3000 metres. An increasing part of the world's oil and gas discoveries are made in deep or ultra deep waters. Ultra deep waters are those exceeding 1500 metres. Since drilling at more than 500 metres started at the end of the 1970s, 32 discoveries of about 500 million barrels of extractable oil or gas have been made. These finds amount to almost 60 thousand millions barrels of oil equivalents. Most of the effort has been made in the coasts between Brazil, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. Deepwater projects have been a field of priority for Norwegian oil companies in their search for international commissions. It is frequently time-consuming, expensive and technologically challenging to drill at great depths. The article describes the Atlantis concept, which may reduce the complexities and costs of deepwater activities. This involves making an artificial sea bottom, which in the form of an air-filled buoy is anchored at a depth of 200 - 300 metres. Production wells or exploration wells and risers are extended from the real bottom to the artificial one.

  18. A new drilling method—Earthworm-like vibration drilling (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Ruihe


    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed “earthworm-like drilling” is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a “soft-string” model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling. PMID:29641615

  19. Determination of thermodynamic affinities of various polar olefins as hydride, hydrogen atom, and electron acceptors in acetonitrile. (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Zhang, Song-Chen; Zhang, Min; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing


    A series of 69 polar olefins with various typical structures (X) were synthesized and the thermodynamic affinities (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the polar olefins obtaining hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) obtaining protons and hydrogen atoms, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the polar olefins (XH(•)) obtaining electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure C═C π-bond heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the polar olefins (X) in acetonitrile and the pure C═C π-bond homolytic dissociation energies of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) in acetonitrile were estimated. The remote substituent effects on the six thermodynamic affinities of the polar olefins and their related reaction intermediates were examined using the Hammett linear free-energy relationships; the results show that the Hammett linear free-energy relationships all hold in the six chemical and electrochemical processes. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of the chemical thermodynamics of olefins as one class of very important organic unsaturated compounds but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of olefins.

  20. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I


    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  1. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.


    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  2. Growth in the measurement-while-drilling sector continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.T.


    This book reports that the measurement while drilling (MWD) market is showing some of the most impressive growth in the oil field. Tremendous improvements in the reliability and capability of MWD tools have spurred the expansion of this market. During 1990, the worldwide MWD market expanded by 48%, rising from $250 million in 1989 to $370 million in 1990. The MWD market should expand 15-20% to exceed $430 million in 1991. Although an expansion of 15-20% is considered good, further growth will be impeded by the slowdown of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Total market growth should return to greater than 20% per year in 1992 and 1993. MWD technology is in the midst of a rapid adaptation phase, led by expansion of formation evaluation and other logs and by international expansion in long-reach directional and horizontal drilling. The formation evaluation-while- drilling market will have minimal impact on the size and growth of the wire line market. Customers will increasingly employ teams which include drilling and petrophysics personnel to make MWD purchase decisions. Integration of performance drilling systems including all bottom hole components will accelerate because of increases in automation and the need for cost reduction

  3. hf alkylation in the 1980's: the role of isobutane/olefin ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, T. Jr.


    Research devoted to maximizing no-lead octane numbers in motor fuel is reported. Results of the studies are the basis for the following conclusions: 1. Isobutane alkylate made from either propylene, butene-2, or C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins is a low sensitivity, high motor octane product. Typically, C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefin alkylate has a clear motor octane number of about 92.2 and a clear Research octane number of about 93.5. 2. In separate studies with propylene, butene-2 and C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins, increasing the isobutane-to-olefin ratio suppressed the formation of high molecular weight residue, indicating a substantial reduction in the role of olefin polymerization to large ions. The overall result of increasing ratio was an improvement in selectivity to high-octane components in the alkylate. 3. When alkylating isobutane with propylene, increasing the ratio resulted in a decrease in the concentration of C/sub 7/-fraction (primary product) and an increase in the C/sub 8/-fraction (from chain initiation and subsequent hydrogen transfer). At the same time, the production of chain-termination-product propane also increased. 4. When alkylating isobutane with C/sub 3/--C/sub 4/ mixed olefins, increasing the ratio showed the same trend obtained in separate alkylation tests with propylene and butene-2. As the ratio increased, the concentration of C/sub 7/-fraction (primary propylene--isobutane product) decreased and the concentration of C/sub 8/-fraction increased markedly. Thus, increasing isobutane-to-olefin ratio exerted a strong effect on alkylate quality in the area of about 5 to 1 to 20 to 1; this effect diminished at ratios 20:1.

  4. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia


    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  5. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.


    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  6. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo


    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  7. Synthesis of engineering designs of drilling facilities (United States)

    Porozhsky, K.


    The article sets forth key principles of engineering of drilling equipment based on successive analysis of the goals of the production method, technologies of its implementation and conditions of mineral mining using a new approach to systematization of drilling methods. Potential advancement in the technologies and equipment of drilling is illustrated in terms of oil-well drilling.

  8. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J


    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  9. Proceedings of the DGMK-Conference 'Creating value from light olefins - production and conversion'. Authors' manuscripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G.; Kraemer, H.J.; Weitkamp, J. (eds.)


    Main topics of the conference were: production of light olefin by steamcracking and catalytic cracking processes, catalysts, methanol to olefin processes, oxidative dehydrogenation, partial oxidation, selective oxidation of alkanes with various catalysts. (uke)

  10. Drilling a better pair : new technologies in SAGD directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, C.; Richter, D. [Statoil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Person, J.; Tilley, J.; Bittar, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The Leismer Demonstration Project (LDP) is the first of 8 proposed major steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects for Statoil's Kai Kos Dehseh (KKD) asset in the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen resources are expected to produce approximately 2.2 billion barrels of oil over approximately 35 years with a peak production of 220,000 bbl/day. To date, 23 well pairs have been drilled on 4 drilling pads. The precise placement of well pairs is among the most important factors in a successful SAGD drilling program. The producer well must be placed in relation to the reservoir boundaries. It must also be accurately twinned with the injector well. A strong focus on technological innovation is needed in order to deliver on these high expectations in unconsolidated formations, such as the McMurray oil sands. Lateral SAGD pairs are often drilled with conventional steerable mud motors and logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements, but this combination imposes certain limitations in terms of wellbore quality and placement. Several industry firsts were successfully implemented at the Statoil LDP, including a combination of the newest and most cutting-edge directional, measurement, and LWD technology. The keystone of these industry firsts was the use of a soft formation modified, point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS), used on 20 horizontal wells. The RRS was combined with an ultra deep azimuthal resistivity sensor to provide precise geosteering along the bottom bed boundary in the producer wells, resulting in improved reservoir capture and reservoir characterization. This paper described the new drilling system and its impact on the progressive future of directional drilling in SAGD. 8 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

  11. Technical performance of drilling operations of wells Erslev 1 and 2 on Mors Salt Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomm, H.


    This paper deals strictly with the performance of the drilling itself. The wells were designed and drilled by an international team of experts, using a Cabot Franks Explorer 900 rig. The two exploration wells were located in the top area of the Mors Saltdome after geological and geophysical investigations at a distance of about 1 100 m. (EG)

  12. 75 FR 34974 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-966] Drill Pipe From the People's... duty investigation of drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final determination....S. Department of Commerce, Room 4014, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230...

  13. (Electro)Mechanical Properties of Olefinic Block Copolymers (United States)

    Spontak, Richard


    Conventional styrenic triblock copolymers (SBCs) swollen with a midblock-selective oil have been previously shown to exhibit excellent electromechanical properties as dielectric elastomers. In this class of electroactive polymers, compliant electrodes applied as active areas to opposing surfaces of an elastomer attract each other, and thus compress the elastomer due to the onset of a Maxwell stress, upon application of an external electric field. This isochoric process is accompanied by an increase in lateral area, which yields the electroactuation strain (measuring beyond 300% in SBC systems). Performance parameters such as the Maxwell stress, transverse strain, dielectric breakdown, energy density and electromechanical efficiency are determined directly from the applied electric field and resulting electroactuation strain. In this study, the same principle used to evaluate SBC systems is extended to olefinic block copolymers (OBCs), which can be described as randomly-coupled multiblock copolymers that consist of crystallizable polyethylene hard segments and rubbery poly(ethylene-co-octene) soft segments. Considerations governing the development of a methodology to fabricate electroresponsive OBC systems are first discussed for several OBCs differing in composition and bulk properties. Evidence of electroactuation in selectively-solvated OBC systems is presented and performance metrics measured therefrom are quantitatively compared with dielectric elastomers derived from SBC and related materials.

  14. Separation of products of alkylation of isobutane by olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.


    The alkylation (A1) of isobutane (I) by propylene, butylene and amylenes is carried out at 24-52 degrees, pressure sufficient to maintain the liquid phase, and a molar ratio of I to olefins (O1) 10:1-15:1. The bulk ratio of catalysts to hydrocarbons in the reaction zone was 0.5:1-10:1; when using HF-K-T as the catalysts, it should contain less than 5 percent water and greater than or equal to 65 percent titrated HF. The hydrocarbon products (UP) from the alkylation zone are added after separating the catalyst in a fractionation tower; distillation is carried out at 38-49 degrees and 1.03-1.3 NPa. The head fraction containing I and less than 50 molar percent C3H8 and also fraction I at the point below the input side of the UP which contains less than 8 molar percent C3H8 and fraction n-C4H10 at the point below the point of discharge of fraction I is drained from the tower. The alkylate is discharged at the bottom of the tower. According to the patent the tower operates at low pressure. This improves relative volatility of individual components and reduces heat consumption. The best results are obtained when a head fraction or the concentration C3H8 approximately 25 molar percent is discharged.

  15. Catalyst compositions useful for olefin isomerization and disproportionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, C.A.


    A process is described for the double bond isomerization of an aliphatic olefinic hydrocarbon feed which comprises contacting the feed under isomerization conditions with a catalyst prepared by: (a) impregnating an alumina support having a surface area of at least 200 m/sup 2//g and a pore volume of at least 0.45 cm/sup 3//g with: 1 up to 20 wt. % of at least one magnesium compound convertible to the oxide, based on the weight of support and calculated as the metal; 0 up to 5 wt. % of at least one alkali metal compound convertible to the oxide, based on the weight of support and calculated as the metal; and 0 up to 5 wt. % of at least one zirconium compound convertible to the oxide, based on the weight of support and calculated as the metal; and (b) heating the alumina support impregnated in accordance with step (a) in an oxygen-containing atmosphere under conditions suitable to convert at least a portion of the magnesium, alkali metal, and zirconium compounds to the oxide form

  16. Engineering work plan for container venting system drill press assembly troubleshooting. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.


    This work plan is for troubleshooting the current CVS drill press to ensure that the drill bit assembly doesn't bind in the press plate. A drill press assembly has been fabricated for the Container Venting System (CVS). The drill bit assembly has bound in the press plate in previous revisions of this design. Initial troubleshooting of the drill press per Rev. 0 of this work plan was performed at the 200W Kaiser Machine Shop under Work Package 2H9401670F, Internal Work Order E20027. The drill press operated without jamming. Then, during the pre-operational test on 11/14/17 and the operational test on 11/17/94, two drum lids were drilled. Immediately after the test on 11/17/94, the drill was again operated, and it jammed. An inspection found shavings at the bottom of the drill bit assembly, between the drill bit sleeve and the press plate bore. This revised work plan provides direction for the machine shop to diagnose and correct this recent problem

  17. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT


    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  18. Pneumatically Powered Drilling of Carbon Fibre Composites Using Synthetic Biodegradable Lubricating Oil: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corydon M. J. Morrell


    Full Text Available Carbon fibre composites are a key component of aircraft structures because of their enhanced material properties such as favourable strength to weight ratios when compared to metal alloys. During the assembly process of an aircraft, carbon fibre components are joined to other structures using rivets, bolts, and fasteners, and as part of the joining process, the components will need to be machined or drilled. Unlike metal alloys, composites are sensitive to heat and are vulnerable to internal structural damage from machining tools. They are also susceptible to a reduction in strength when fibres are exposed to moisture. In the machining process, carbon fibre composites may be drilled using oils to lubricate carbide machining tools. In this study, a description of the experimental apparatus is provided along with an investigation to determine the influence synthetic biodegradable lubricating oil has on drill rotational speed, drilling load, and drilling temperature when using a pneumatic drill to machine carbon fibre composite material.

  19. Radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s - Fundamental research to practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.J.; O'Donnell, J.H.


    The degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s by high energy radiation, particularly by γ-rays and electron beams, provides an example of the application of fundamental science to high technology industry. Scientific interest in the radiation degradation of these polymers was first aroused by the discovery that they underwent highly specific bond scission in the backbone chain as the primary result of absorption of high energy radiation and in fact they were the first polymers in which such an effect had been demonstrated. This conclusion was initially based mainly on evidence from electron spin resonance spectroscopy and was subsequently verified by studies of molecular weight changes. These studies showed that the poly(olefin sulphone)s not only degraded by main chain scission but were also among the most radiation-sensitive polymers known. The extremely high sensitivity of poly(olefin sulphone)s to radiation-induced main-chain scission has found application in the field of microelectronics. Electron beam writing on poly(olefin sulphone) films is used to produce lithographic masks for the manufacture of integrated circuits on silicon wafers. Poly(1-butene sulphone) (PBS) is currently used in the production of a substantial proportion of the masks for the industry. The fundamental aspects of the radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s and the practical applications to high technology are reviewed. (author)

  20. Optimization of catalytic glycerol steam reforming to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.Y.; Amin, N.A.S.; Linnekoski, J.


    Highlights: • Glycerol steam reforming to light olefin using Cu/ZSM-5 process was optimized. • Response surface methodology and multi-objective genetic algorithm were employed. • Second order polynomial model produced adequately fitted experimental data. • Thermodynamic study inferred high temperature requirement for ethylene formation. • Turn-over-frequency at optimized responses is higher than the non-optimized process. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the process parameters for catalytic conversion of glycerol, a byproduct from biodiesel production, to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst. The effects of operating temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and glycerol concentration on light olefins selectivity and yield were observed. Experimental results revealed the data adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The linear temperature and quadratic WHSV terms gave significant effect on both responses. Optimization of both the responses indicated that temperature favouring high light olefin formation lied beyond the experimental design range. The trend in the temperature profile concurred commensurately with the thermodynamic analysis. Multi-objective genetic algorithm was performed to attain a single set of processing parameters that could produce both the highest light olefin selectivity and yield. The turn-over-frequency (TOF) of the optimized responses demonstrated a slightly higher value than the one which was not optimized. Combination of RSM, multi-objective response and thermodynamic is useful to determine the process optimal operating conditions for industrial applications

  1. Diagnostic System of Drill Condition in Laminated Chipboard Drilling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiderski Bartosz


    Full Text Available The paper presents an on-line automatic system for recognition of the drill condition in a laminated chipboard drilling process. Two states of the drill are considered: the sharp enough (still able to drill holes acceptable for processing quality and worn out (excessive drill wear, not satisfactory from the quality point of view of the process. The automatic system requires defining the diagnostic features, which are used as the input attributes to the classifier. The features have been generated from 5 registered signals: feed force, cutting torque, noise, vibration and acoustic emission. The statistical parameters defined on the basis of the auto regression model of these signals have been used as the diagnostic features. The sequential step-wise feature selection is applied for choosing the most discriminative set of features. The final step of recognition is done by support vector machine classifier working in leave one out mode. The results of numerical experiments have confirmed good quality of the proposed diagnostic system.

  2. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  3. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda


    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  4. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of N-pentafluoroaryl benzamides using air as the sole oxidant. (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Huai-Wei; Spangler, Jillian E; Chen, Kai; Cui, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan


    The oxidative olefination of a broad array of arenes and heteroarenes with a variety of activated and unactivated olefins has be achieved via a rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation reaction. The use of an N -pentafluorophenyl benzamide directing group is crucial for achieving catalytic turnovers in the presence of air as the sole oxidant without using a co-oxidant.

  5. Comparative toxicity of various ozonized olefins to bacteria suspended in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dark, P A; Nash, T


    Air containing olefin vapor was treated with known amounts of ozone simulating natural concentrations. The bactericidal effect of the mixture was tested using microthreads sprayed with washed cultures of Escherichia coli var. communis or Micrococcus albus, aerosol strain. With 20 different olefins a wide range of activity was found, those in which the double bond formed part of a ring being the most bactericidal; gasoline vapor was about as active as the average open-chain olefin. The two organisms behaved similarly at the experimental relative humidity of 80%. The estimated amount of bactericidal substance present was only about one hundreth of that required to give the same kill with a 'conventional' air disinfectant; a simple physical explanation is proposed for this enhanced effect.

  6. A comprehensive study of olefin metathesis catalyzed by Ru-based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    During a Ru-catalyzed reaction of an olefin with an alkylidene moiety that leads to a metallacycle intermediate, the cis insertion of the olefin can occur from two different directions, namely side and bottom with respect to the phosphine or N-heterocyclic ligand (NHC), depending on the first or second generation Grubbs catalyst. Here, DFT calculations unravel to which extent the bottom coordination of olefins with respect is favored over the side coordination through screening a wide range of catalysts, including first and second generation Grubbs catalysts as well as the subsequent Hoveyda derivatives. The equilibrium between bottom and side coordination is influenced by sterics, electronics, and polarity of the solvent. The side attack is favored for sterically less demanding NHC and/or alkylidene ligands. Moreover the generation of a 14-electron species is also discussed, with either pyridine or phosphine ligands to dissociate.

  7. A comprehensive study of olefin metathesis catalyzed by Ru-based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi


    During a Ru-catalyzed reaction of an olefin with an alkylidene moiety that leads to a metallacycle intermediate, the cis insertion of the olefin can occur from two different directions, namely side and bottom with respect to the phosphine or N-heterocyclic ligand (NHC), depending on the first or second generation Grubbs catalyst. Here, DFT calculations unravel to which extent the bottom coordination of olefins with respect is favored over the side coordination through screening a wide range of catalysts, including first and second generation Grubbs catalysts as well as the subsequent Hoveyda derivatives. The equilibrium between bottom and side coordination is influenced by sterics, electronics, and polarity of the solvent. The side attack is favored for sterically less demanding NHC and/or alkylidene ligands. Moreover the generation of a 14-electron species is also discussed, with either pyridine or phosphine ligands to dissociate.

  8. Stereoselective Carbonyl Olefination with Fluorosulfoximines: Facile Access to Z or E Terminal Monofluoroalkenes. (United States)

    Liu, Qinghe; Shen, Xiao; Ni, Chuanfa; Hu, Jinbo


    Terminal monofluoroalkenes are important structural motifs in the design of bioactive compounds, such as homeostasis regulators and mechanism-based enzyme inhibitors. However, it is difficult to control the stereoselectivity of known carbonyl olefination reactions, and olefin metathesis is limited to disubstituted terminal monofluoroalkenes. Although sulfoximines have been used extensively in organic synthesis, reports on their use in carbonyl olefination reactions have not appeared to date. Herein, we report highly stereoselective carbonyl monofluoroolefination with a fluorosulfoximine reagent. The potential of this method is demonstrated by the synthesis of MDL 72161 and by the late-stage monofluoromethylenation of complex molecules, such as haloperidol and steroid derivatives. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ligand-Enabled Reactivity and Selectivity in a Synthetically Versatile Aryl C–H Olefination* (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hui; Engle, Keary M.; Shi, Bing-Feng; Yu, Jin-Quan


    The Mizoroki–Heck reaction, which couples aryl halides with olefins, has been widely used to stitch together the carbogenic cores of numerous complex organic molecules. Given that the position-selective introduction of a halide onto an arene is not always straightforward, direct olefination of aryl C–H bonds would obviate the inefficiencies associated with generating halide precursors or their equivalents; however, methods for carrying out such a reaction have suffered from narrow substrate scope and low positional selectivity. Here we report an operationally simple, atom-economical, carboxylate-directed Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H olefination reaction with phenylacetic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid substrates, using oxygen at atmospheric pressure as the oxidant. The positional selectivity can be tuned by introducing amino acid derivatives as ligands. We demonstrate the versatility of the method through direct elaboration of commercial drug scaffolds and efficient synthesis of 2-tetralone and naphthoic acid natural product cores. PMID:19965380

  10. Ligand-enabled ortho-C-H olefination of phenylacetic amides with unactivated alkenes. (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Xing-Rong; Xu, Hui; Dai, Hui-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Although chelation-assisted C-H olefination has been intensely investigated, Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H olefination reactions are largely restricted to acrylates and styrenes. Here we report a quinoline-derived ligand that enables the Pd(ii)-catalyzed olefination of the C(sp 2 )-H bond with simple aliphatic alkenes using a weakly coordinating monodentate amide auxiliary. Oxygen is used as the terminal oxidant with catalytic copper as the co-oxidant. A variety of functional groups in the aliphatic alkenes are tolerated. Upon hydrogenation, the ortho -alkylated product can be accessed. The utility of this reaction is also demonstrated by the late-stage diversification of drug molecules.

  11. General regularities of olefin epoxidation by hydroperoxide catalyzed by V, W and Ti compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapunov, V.N.; Sharykin, V.G.; Logvinov, A.S.; Litvintsev, I.Yu.; Lebedev, N.N.


    The kinetic analysis of cyclohexane epoxidation by ethylbenzene hydroperoxide when catalyzed by titanium- and tungsten cyclohexandiolates has shown that the reaction follows the main regularities of hydroperoxide epoxidation previously established for catalysis by molybdenum- and vanadiUm compounds. The catalyst activity varies depending on the metal nature and forms the following series: Mo>V>W>Ti, which agrees with their π-acceptor capacity. During the cyclohexane epoxidation on all catalysts the hydroperoxide activities vary according to the following series: ethylbenzene hydroperoxide>cumene>tertiarybutyl>tertiaryamyl. Correlation relationships between the olefine structure, characterized by th constants, and the reactivity of olefines are foUnd. The reaction sensitivity during catalysis by WV, and Ti cyclohexandiolates is -1.2, -1.0- and -1.3, respectively. The mechanism of hydroperoxide epoxidation of olefine is discussed

  12. At the frontier between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis: hydrogenation of olefins and alkynes with soluble iron nanoparticles. (United States)

    Rangheard, Claudine; de Julián Fernández, César; Phua, Pim-Huat; Hoorn, Johan; Lefort, Laurent; de Vries, Johannes G


    The use of non-supported Fe nanoparticles in the hydrogenation of unsaturated C-C bonds is a green catalytic concept at the frontier between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Iron nanoparticles can be obtained by reducing Fe salts with strong reductants in various solvents. FeCl(3) reduced by 3 equivalents of EtMgCl forms an active catalyst for the hydrogenation of a range of olefins and alkynes. Olefin hydrogenation is relatively fast at 5 bar using 5 mol% of catalyst. The catalyst is also active for terminal olefins and 1,1' and 1,2-cis disubstituted olefins while trans-olefins react much slower. 1-Octyne is hydrogenated to mixtures of 1-octene and octane. Kinetic studies led us to propose a mechanism for this latter transformation where octane is obtained by two different pathways. Characterization of the nanoparticles via TEM, magnetic measurements and poisoning experiments were undertaken to understand the true nature of our catalyst.

  13. Western Canada drilling cycle optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs

  14. First examples of intramolecular addition of primary amidyl radicals to olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreault, P.; Drouin, C.; Lessard, J. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie


    This paper presents the first examples of radical cyclization involving a primary amidyl radical and a pendant olefin. Amidyl radicals have attracted interest in terms of their structure, reactivity, and ways to generate them. The intramolecular addition of an amidyl radical on a pendant olefin appears to be a powerful synthetic tool for creating nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Although several examples of cyclization involving secondary amidyl radicals are cited in the the literature, there are no examples of a successful cyclization involving a primary amidyl radical. This is because all attempts to prepare the usual radical precursors have failed when applied to olefinic primary amides. This study reveals that N-(phenylthio) derivatives of olefinic primary amides can be easily prepared and that nitrogen heterocycles resulting from their radical cyclization can be obtained in good to very good yields. Four olefinic primary amides were chosen as models for radical cyclization of primary amidyl radicals. They were prepared from the corresponding carboxylic acids via the acid chlorides. Conversion of primary amides into suitable amidyl radical precursors was also examined. The study showed that N-(phenylthio) amides could be easily prepared by following a slightly modified protocol developed by Esker and Newcomb, by reacting the anion of the amide with phenylsulfenyl chloride. In particular, olefinic N-(phenylthio) amides were prepared and used as primary amidyl radical precursors in a reaction with a solution of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) in catalytic quantities and tributyltin hydride in benzene. The resulting yields of cyclic products ranged from 63 to 85 per cent. The intent of the study was to demonstrate that it is no longer necessary to prepare an N-protected precursor and then remove the protecting group after cyclization. Further studies are currently underway. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  15. The progress of SINOPEC methanol-to-olefins (S-MTO) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongxing; Xie, Zaiku; Zhao, Guoliang [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (China)


    It is widely recognized that naphtha steam crackers and FCC units are the main current sources of ethylene and propylene. On the condition of high oil price, olefin producers are striving to develop new economical routes to produce ethylene and propylene with low-cost feedstocks. Methanol to olefins (MTO) has aroused great attention in recent years, and SINOPEC has developed a new kind of MTO process named S-MTO which features high olefins selectivity, high methanol conversion and low catalyst consumption. Puyang Zhongyuan 200 KTA S-MTO has been in steady operation for more than 17 months. The catalyst used in the process is based on a silicoaluminophosphate, SAPO-34, which has very high carbon selectivity to low carbon olefins. Results from the commercial plant show that S-MTO process converts methanol to ethylene and propylene at about 81% carbon selectivity. The carbon selectivity approaches 92% if butenes are also accounted for as part of the product. Typically, the ratio of propylene to ethylene can range from 0.6 to 1.3. When combined with OCC (Olefin Catalytic Cracking) process to convert the heavier olefins, the overall yield of ethylene and propylene can increase to 85% {proportional_to} 87% and propylene-ethylene ratios of more than 1.5 are achievable. Other co-products include very small amounts of C1-C4 paraffins, hydrogen, CO and CO{sub 2}, as well as heavier oxygenates only with ppm level. Because of the quick deactivation of MTO catalyst, a kind of high efficiency fast fluidized bed reactor is adopted. The activity of deactivated catalyst is recovered by burning the coke in the regenerator. This paper gives an updated introduction of S-MTO technology developed by SINOPEC SRIPT. (orig.)

  16. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan


    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Encapsulated Nickel/Cobalt Nanoparticle Catalysts for Olefin Migration of Allylarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Buss, Kasper Spanggård


    Olefin migration of allylarenes is typically performed with precious metal-based homogeneous catalysts. In contrast, very limited progress has been made using cheap, earth-abundant base metals as heterogeneous catalysts for these transformations - in spite of the obvious economic and environmental...... advantages. Herein, we report on the use of an easily prepared heterogeneous catalyst material for the migration of olefins, in particular allylarenes. The catalyst material consists of nickel/cobalt alloy nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon shells. The encapsulated nanoparticles are stable...

  18. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Correa, Andrea; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi


    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  20. Kinetics of H-D exchange in olefins with complicating reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trokhimets, A.I.


    The kinetics of H-D-exchange is considered for olefins under conditions when simple and complicated exchange occur together with hydrogenation. If hydrogenation takes place in the system, it is theoretically impossible to derive the integrated rate equation for the accumulation of deuterium in the olefin. The variation of the concentration of different deuteroolefins during the process can be calculated numerically. A method is proposed for evaluating the contribution of individual steps to the overall process and determining the rate constants of the most important reactions. (author)

  1. Synthetic lubricants based on copolymers of n-butyl methacrylate and α-olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakov Tatjana A.


    Full Text Available Synthetic fluids obtained by the copolymerization of α -olefins with alkyl esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids have a unique combination of properties of non-polar poly-a-olefins (PAOs and polar esters in a single molecule. These compounds are characterized by superior thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, miscibility with mineral and synthetic base oils solubility of additives and neutral elastomer behavior. Depending on the molar masses and comonomer ratios in the copolymer molecule, synthetic fluids with a wide range of properties are obtained. These compounds are valuable components in lubricating oil formulations for different applications.

  2. Dithioacetals as an Entry to Titanium-Alkylidene Chemistry: A New and Efficient Carbonyl Olefination. (United States)

    Breit, Bernhard


    Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Julia-Lythgoe, Tebbe, Grubbs, and Petasis-when it comes to carbonyl olefinations, these names are familiar to all chemistry students. In the future, the name Takeda will probably have to be added to this list. His recent work on the formation of titanium-alkylidene species from dithioacetals has provided organic chemists with a remarkable method for carbonyl olefination that is generally applicable under neutral to Lewis acidic conditions. © 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  3. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng


    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke


    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  5. Comprehensive borehole management for shorter drilling time; Umfassendes Bohrfortschrittsmanagement zur Verkuerzung der Bohrprojektdauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrlich, M. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    In 2006, the trademarked ExxonMobil Fast Drill Process (FDP) was introduced also in the German ExxonMobil boreholes. The process is to maximize the drilling speed for every meter drilled. The process makes it possible to ensure borehole management on the basis of quantitative data and in consideration of all phases that are relevant for sinking a borehole. The FDP is used world-wide in all ExxonMobil drilling departments. More than 1.35 million meters are drilled annually in many different boreholes with different geological conditions, drilling profiles and international sites. The results were similar in many cases, with a significant increase in ROP and drill bit life, and with less damage caused by vibrations. FDP was developed on the basis of real time monitoring of the specific mechanical energy (MSE) required for drilling. MSE monitoring was found to be an effective tool dor detecting inefficient functioning of the drill bit and the overall system. To make operation more efficient, the causes must be identified and measures must be taken accordingly, taking into account the potential risks involved in such measures. MSE monitoring is a tool while FDPL is a broad management process ensuring that MSE and many other data sources are used effectively for optimisation of the ROP. Consequent implementation of the process resulted in a significant increase of the ROP. The major elements required for achieving this goal are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.


    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  7. You say you want a revolution: casing drilling targets 30 per cent well-cost saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.; Marsters, S.


    Casing drilling is a new method of drilling that eliminates drill strings by using standard casing to simultaneously drill and case wells. Tesco Corporation of Calgary acquired patent rights to casing drilling technology in 1995. The company now offers a conversion kit for existing drill rigs as well a new compact casing drilling rig for shallow markets. The single derrick will be rated at 1,500 meters, but initially it will be used to drill 700-800 meter gas wells in southeast Alberta. Some cost savings will be realized at these shallow depths, but the real cost saving advantages will be realized on deep holes. In the meantime, improvements are planned to the cutting structures of the under-rimming bit to increase safety and withstand higher torque loads. It will be also necessary to adapt techniques such as directional drilling and logging to the casing drilling conveyance mechanism which has been only partially successful thus far, especially in the retrieving mode. Another challenge already met, involved ensuring that casing could be run in high-compression loads without damage to connections. Despite these problems, the system attracted considerable attention with several international companies placing orders for immediate delivery. Another system, this one developed by Sperry-Sun Drilling Services and known as a 'casing while drilling' (CWD) system, is strictly a downhole assembly and is targeted for offshore use and deeper vertical holes. This system is currently being tested in two commercial operations in offshore Indonesia for Unocal Corporation. Despite numerous problems to fill casing with fluid during connections, penetration rates of 300-400 feet per hour were achieved.

  8. The right computational recipe for olefin metathesis with ru-based catalysts: The whole mechanism of ring-closing olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    The initiation mechanism of ruthenium methylidene complexes was studied detailing mechanistic insights of all involved reaction steps within a classical olefin metathesis pathway. Computational studies reached a good agreement with the rarely available experimental data and even enabled to complement them. As a result, a highly accurate computational and rather cheap recipe is presented; M06/TZVP//BP86/SVP (PCM, P = 1354 atm).

  9. The right computational recipe for olefin metathesis with ru-based catalysts: The whole mechanism of ring-closing olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Cavallo, Luigi


    The initiation mechanism of ruthenium methylidene complexes was studied detailing mechanistic insights of all involved reaction steps within a classical olefin metathesis pathway. Computational studies reached a good agreement with the rarely available experimental data and even enabled to complement them. As a result, a highly accurate computational and rather cheap recipe is presented; M06/TZVP//BP86/SVP (PCM, P = 1354 atm).

  10. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.


    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  11. Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. Part II. Composition and effect of olefinic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Rastogi, S.N. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)


    Olefinic concentrates were separated from two naphthas, one from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and one thermal crackate, using column chromatography. The composition and structure of the olefins were determined by a combination of analytical techniques. FCC naphthas contain relatively higher levels of conjugated dienes. The monoolefins are highly branched. The thermal crackates have higher levels of {alpha}-olefins and abound in mono-, di-, tri- and conjugated cyclic olefins. Stability tests on these olefinic concentrates blended in low-S,N straight-run naphtha showed that cyclic olefins are very active gum formers. Representative commercial antioxidants (hindered phenols and phenylenediamines) both gave good responses to different olefin concentrate test blends. Hindered phenols had a marginally better effect. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.


    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  13. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren


    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  14. Development of controlled drilling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki


    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  15. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.


    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  16. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling


    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory


    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  17. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.


    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  18. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.


    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  19. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.


    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  20. Catamaran type semisubmersible platform for offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, G; Chevallier, J; Hampton, G


    A semi-submersible oil rig which allows the vertical storage of drilling tubes and drill pipes is presented. The structure which links the floaters to the bridge consists of hollow columns forming caissons and containing means for storing tubes.

  1. Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban - An initial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.


    It appears that a short list of four suppliers should be further evaluated to formulate OSI-applicable packages. They are Baker-Hughes ESTTEQ, SLIMDRIL International, Halliburton Energy/ENSCO Technology, and Schlumberger-Dowell/Anadrill. It is noteworthy that all of them are headquartered in Houston, TX, making it a logical place to present the OSI requirements to a community of expert drillers. We have requested from these companies that they let us know of operations with coiled tubing to be conducted in California, so as to use such opportunities to view the systems in action. On such job was just completed by Schlumberger-Dowell near Bakersfield, and they have another one coming up in late July in Long Beach. An example of the 'footprint' of such a C-T drilling operation is shown. The Verification community also can take advantage of drilling conferences to keep up with the state-of-the-art. The next such meeting, co-sponsored by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) and the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), is scheduled for March 12-15, 1996, in New Orleans. The next step in this study should be to determine an optimal combination of the new drilling methods with the health and safety procedures and the diagnostics which are required when drilling in a radioactive environment. This will involve bringing together the expertise of the NTS/National Laboratories with those of the exploration/production drillers. The final outcome will be the formulation of drilling systems which have significant cost and weight advantages over those of the equipment previously used at NTS

  2. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling. (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R


    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Drill cuttings mount formation study (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye


    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  4. Prediction of properties of new halogenated olefins using two group contribution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Cignitti, Stefano; Abildskov, Jens


    The increasingly restrictive regulations for substances with high ozone depletion and global warming potentials are driving the search for new sustainable fluids with low environmental impact. Recent research works have pointed out the great potential of fluorine- and chlorine-based olefins as re...


    In the presence of a catalytic amount of RuCl2(PPh3)3, a cross-coupling of 3-buten-2-ol with aldehydes and imines was developed via a tandem olefin migration--aldol--Mannich reaction in bmim[PF6]. With In(OAc)3 as a co-catalyst, a-vinylbenzyl alcohol and aldehydes underwent sim...

  6. Steam cracking and methane to olefins: Energy use, CO2 emissions and production costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X


    While most olefins (e.g., ethylene and propylene) are currently produced through steam cracking routes, they can also possibly be produced from natural gas (i.e., methane) via methanol and oxidative coupling routes. We reviewed recent data in the literature and then compared the energy use, CO2

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes

    CERN Document Server


    The first NATO Advanced Study Institute on Olefin Metathesis and Polymerization Catalysts was held on September 10-22, 1989 in Akcay, Turkey. Based on the fundamental research of RRSchrock, RGrubbs and K.B.Wagener in the field of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) and alkyne polymerization, these areas gained growing interest within the last years. Therefore the second NATO-ASI held on metathesis reactions was on Ring Opening Metathesis Po­ lymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes on September 3-16, 1995 in Akcay, Turkey. The course joined inorganic, organic and polymer chemists to exchange their knowledge in this field. This volume contains the main and short lectures held in Akcay. To include ADMET reactions better into the title of this volume we changed it into: Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Alkyne Polymerization. This volume is addressed to research scientists, but also to those who start to work in the area of olefin metathesis and al...

  8. Radiation-induced copolymerization of α,β,β-trifluoroacrylonitrile with α-olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Kostov, G.K.; Tabata, Y.; Machi, S.


    Homopolymerization and copolymerization of α,β,β-trifluoroacrylonitrile (FAN) with α-olefins were carried out in bulk by γ-ray irradiation at 25 0 C. FAN gives very small quantities of brown and greasy low molecular weight polymer. Cyano groups in FAN polymer were found to be readily hydrolyzed to acid amide groups in the atmosphere. FAN was found to copolymerize with ethylene, propylene, and isobutylene via a radical mechanism to form equimolar copolymers in a wide range of monomer compositions. The polymerization rate increases linearly with FAN fraction in the monomer mixture. These copolymers are also hydrolyzed in the atmosphere, and the hydrolysis proceeds with more difficulty for the copolymer with higher α-olefin. The reactivity ratios r 1 (FAN) and r 2 (α-olefin) were determined to be 0.01 and 0.12 for the FAN/ethylene copolymerization and 0.01 and 0.07 for the FAN/propylene copolymerization. These results confirm that an alternating copolymerization takes place in the FAN/α-olefin system

  9. Ru-Based Complexes with Quaternary Ammonium Tags Immobilized on Mesoporous Silica as Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastva, Jakub; Skowerski, K.; Czarnocki, S. J.; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří; Bastl, Zdeněk; Balcar, Hynek


    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 3227-3236 ISSN 2155-5435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0189 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : olefin metathesis * heterogeneous catalysts * mesoporous molecular sieves Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.312, year: 2014

  10. Immobilisation of homogeneous olefin polymerisation catalysts. Factors influencing activity and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severn, J.R.; Chadwick, J.C.


    The activity and stability of homogeneous olefin polymerisation catalysts, when immobilised on a support, are dependent on both chemical and physical effects. Chemical factors affecting catalyst activity include the ease of formation of the active species, which is strongly dependent on the

  11. Catalysts for production of lower olefins from synthesis gas: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Galvis, H.M.; de Jong, K.P.


    C2 to C4 olefins are traditionally produced from steam cracking of naphtha. The necessity for alternative production routes for these major commodity chemicals via non-oil-based processes has driven research in past times during the oil crises. Currently, there is a renewed interest in producing

  12. Omega-functionalized fatty acids, alcohols, and ethers via olefin metathesis (United States)

    Methyl 17-hydroxy stearate was converted to methyl octadec-16-enoate using copper sulfate adsorbed on silica gel. This compound, possessing unsaturation at the opposite end of the chain from the carboxylate, served as a useful substrate for the olefin metathesis reaction. As a result, several fatt...

  13. Mechanism of alkylation of isobutane by olefins in the presence of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baiburskii, V.L.; Khadzhiev, S.N.; Ovsyannikov, V.P.


    The authors attempted here to examine the mechanism of alkylation of isobutane by olefins in the presence of sulfuric acid in terms of an initial stage of activation of isoparaffin. The version of formation of tert-alkyl cations and the role of the catalyst in this stage were analyzed. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Synthesis of 7-Deoxypancratistatin from Carbohydrates by the Use of Olefin Metathesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Palmelund, Anders; Holm, H.


    from D-xylose and piperonal. The former is converted into ribofuranoside 28, which is coupled with bromide 7 in the presence of zinc, and this is followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis. Subsequent Overman rearrangement, dihydroxylation, and deprotection then affords the natural product....

  15. Radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl trifluoroacrylate with α-olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Watanabe, T.; Tabata, Y.; Machi, S.


    Paper describes the radiation-induced bulk copolymerization of methyl trifluoroacrylate with various α olefins; propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, and isobutylene. MTFA (purity above 98%) was synthesized by method described in literature. Reagent grade α-olefins were used. An equimolar mixture of MTFA and α-olefin was charged into the reactor. Trace amounts of oxygen were purged by the freeze-thaw technique. Irradiation was carried out with gamma rays from a 60 Co source under vapor pressure of the monomers at 25 0 C. The product was precipitated and washed with methanol to remove unreacted monomers, and dried under vacuum at 60 0 C. Infrared spectra of the copolymers were measured; compositions were determined from elemental analysis. Reactivity of the α-olefins appears to be related to the electron density at the double bond. All copolymers were found to have almost equimolar compositions and were soluble in polar solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and acetone. Copolymerization was inhibited completely by the addition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihydrazil, but not by water, indicating that the copolymerization proceeds via a radical mechanism. 1 table; 2 figures

  16. Primary processes of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of aromatic olefins studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Boes, J.; Helmstreit, W.; Mehnert, R.


    By pulse radiolysis of solutions of aromatic olefins (styrene, 1-methylstyrene, 1,1-diphenylethylene) in non-polar solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, n-butylchloride) the mechanism and kinetics of primary processes of radiation-induced cationic polymerization were investigated. In cyclohexane, radical cations of the olefins are generated by charge transfer from solvent cations. These cations dimerize in a diffusion-controlled reaction. The next step of chain-growth is slower by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. In carbon tetrachloride and in n-butyl chloride growing olefin cations are produced by a reaction of radical cations with solvent as well as by addition of solvent carbonium ions to the monomer. In strongly acidic aqueous solution of olefins radical cations produced indirectly from hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals dimerize and react in a subsequent step by deprotonation forming non-saturated dimer radicals. The reaction mechanism established shows that in the case of radiation-induced cationic polymerization it is not possible to define a uniform first step of the chain reaction. (author)

  17. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatics with unactivated alkenes. (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    A cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatic and heteroaromatic amides with unactivated alkenes, allyl acetates and allyl alcohols is described. This method offers an efficient route for the synthesis of vinyl and allyl benzamides in a highly stereoselective manner. It is observed that the ortho substituent on the benzamide moiety is crucial for the observation of allylated products in unactivated alkenes.

  18. Olefins from conventional and heavy feedstocks: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tao; Patel, Martin; Blok, Kornelis


    Steam cracking for the production of light olefins, such as ethylene and propylene, is the single most energy-consuming process in the chemical industry. This paper reviews conventional steam cracking and innovative olefin technologies in terms of energy efficiency. It is found that the pyrolysis section of a naphtha steam cracker alone consumes approximately 65% of the total process energy and approximately 75% of the total exergy loss. A family portrait of olefin technologies by feedstocks is drawn to search for alternatives. An overview of state-of-the-art naphtha cracking technologies shows that approximately 20% savings on the current average process energy use are possible. Advanced naphtha cracking technologies in the pyrolysis section, such as advanced coil and furnace materials, could together lead to up to approximately 20% savings on the process energy use by state-of-the-art technologies. Improvements in the compression and separation sections could together lead to up to approximately 15% savings. Alternative processes, i.e. catalytic olefin technologies, can save up to approximately 20%

  19. Ether-Directed ortho-C–H Olefination with a PdII/MPAA Catalyst** (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leow, Dasheng; Wan, Li; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Weak coordination is powerful! A PdII-catalyzed olefination of ortho-C–H bonds of arenes directed by weakly coordinating ethers is developed using mono-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands. This finding provides a method for chemically modifying ethers, which are abundant in natural products and drug molecules. PMID:23239120

  20. Copper(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones. (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Gao, Yunpeng; Chen, Ri; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo


    The Cu(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones via metal carbene intermediates is reported. This reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds. Mechanistically, Cu(I) carbene formation and subsequent carbene migratory insertion are proposed as the key steps.

  1. Primary processes of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of aromatic olefins studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Boes, J.; Helmstreit, W.; Mehnert, R.


    By pulse radiolysis of solutions of aromatic olefins (styrene, 1-methylstyrene, 1,1-diphenylethylene) in nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, n-butyl chloride) the mechanism and kinetics of primary processes of radiation-induced cationic polymerization were investigated. In cyclohexane, radical cations of the olefins are generated by charge transfer from solvent cations (k about 10 11 l mol -1 s -1 ). These cations dimerize in a diffusion-controlled reaction (k approximately 10 10 l mol -1 s -1 ). The next step of chain-growth is slower by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, in carbon tetrachloride and in n-butyl chloride growing olefin cations are produced by a reaction of the radical cations with the solvent as well as by addition of solvent carbonium ions to the monomer. In strongly acidic aqueous solution of olefins radical cations produced indirectly from hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals dimerize and react in a subsequent step by deprotonation forming non-saturated dimer radicals. The established reaction mechanism shows that in the case of radiation-induced cationic polymerization it is not possible to define a uniform first step of the chain reaction. (author)

  2. Novel route to 5-position vinyl derivatives of thiolactomycin: Olefination vs. deformylation (United States)

    Kim, Pilho; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd*, Cynthia S.


    Vinyl and diene derivatives of thiolactomycin have been prepared via Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination from protected 5-formyl-3,5-dimethylthiotetronic acid. Several 4-position protecting groups and a variety of phosphonates were evaluated, with MOM protection and β-ketophosphonates yielding the highest ratio of desired product to deformylated product. PMID:16699591

  3. Polymer PCF Bragg grating sensors based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Ian P; Webb, David J; Kalli, Kyriacos


    mode PCF with a core diameter of 6μm based on TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. Bragg grating inscription was achieved using a 30mW continuous wave 325nm helium cadmium laser. Both TOPAS and PMMA fibre have a large attenuation of around 1dB/cm in the 1550nm spectral region, limiting fibre lengths...

  4. Radiation-induced copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid and its methyl ester with α-olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Matsuda, O.; Tabata, Y.; Machi, S.


    Homopolymerizations and copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid (FVA) and its methyl ester (MFVA) were carried out by γ radiation at a temperature of 25 0 C, a dose rate of 1 x 10 6 rad/hr, and FVA/α-olefin and MFVA/α-olefin ratios of 10/90-90/10 in the monomer mixture. FVA and MFVA gave small quantities of brown and greasy low-molecular-weight homopolymers. The polymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA were extremely small, as shown by the maximum G value of monomer consumption of 12. FVA and MFVA reacted with α-olefin to form waxlike copolymers. The copolymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA with α-olefin were remarkably larger than those of the homopolymerizations, particularly with ethylene. The polymer compositions of FVA/ethylene or MFVA/ethylene were nearly 1/2 over a wide range of the monomer compositions. The Mayo-Lewis method gave negative r 1 (FVA) and r 1 (MFVA). The polymer composition curves could be well interpreted by introducing the penultimate model

  5. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Olefination of Electron-Deficient Arenes Using 2,6-Dialkylpyridine Ligands (United States)

    Zhang, Yang-Hui; Shi, Bing-Feng; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Pd(II)-catalyzed meta-olefination of highly electron deficient arenes is achieved through the use of a rationally designed mutually repulsive ligand. The combination of directed and non-directed C–H functionalization of arenes provides a versatile route for the synthesis of highly sought-after 1,2,4-trisubstituted arenes. PMID:19296661

  6. Modified Julia Olefination on Anhydrides: Extension and Limitations. Application to the Synthesis of Maculalactone B. (United States)

    Dussart, Nicolas; Trinh, Huu Vinh; Gueyrard, David


    The preparation of exo-enol esters from cyclic anhydrides is reported using a modified Julia olefination. The reaction is highly stereoselective. The Smiles rearrangement can be performed in a one-pot process, giving a straightforward access to exo-enol lactones. Furthermore, the reaction was extended to semistabilized sulfones, and this methodology was applied to the synthesis of maculalactone B.

  7. Catalyst Design and Development for the Direct Production of Lower Olefins from Synthesis Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, J.


    The increase in global demand for lower olefins (ethylene, propylene, and butylenes) coupled with the regional diversification of carbon raw materials bring about opportunities and challenges for emerging technologies. Crude oil has been the primary carbon feedstock for the past 50 years, but

  8. Effects of a Short Drilling Implant Protocol on Osteotomy Site Temperature and Drill Torque. (United States)

    Mihali, Sorin G; Canjau, Silvana; Cernescu, Anghel; Bortun, Cristina M; Wang, Hom-Lay; Bratu, Emanuel


    To establish a protocol for reducing the drilling sequence during implant site preparation based on temperature and insertion torque. The traditional conventional drilling sequence (used several drills with 0.6-mm increment each time) was compared with the proposed short drilling protocol (only used 2 drills: initial and final drill). One hundred drilling osteotomies were performed in bovine and porcine bones. Sets of 2 osteotomy sites were created in 5 bone densities using 2 types of drilling protocols. Thermographic pictures were captured throughout all drilling procedures and analyzed using ThermaCAM Researcher Professional 2.10. Torque values were determined during drilling by measuring electrical input and drill speed. There were statistically significant differences in bone temperature between the conventional and short drilling protocols during implant site preparation (analysis of variance P = 0.0008). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 types of drilling protocols for both implant diameters. Implant site preparation time was significantly reduced when using the short drilling protocol compared with the conventional drilling protocol (P drilling protocol proposed herein may represent a safe approach for implant site preparation.

  9. Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.


    Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said

  10. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  11. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations on...

  12. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review (United States)

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.


    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  13. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements. (United States)


    ... deposit. (2) Inclinational surveys shall be obtained on all vertical wells at intervals not exceeding 1... to that leaseholder. (f) Fixed drilling platforms. Applications for installation of fixed drilling... removed or have been otherwise immobilized are classified as fixed bottom founded drilling platforms. (g...

  14. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.


    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO₂, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C₁₂{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO₂, allene, C₂–C₆ olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water

  15. Development of vertical drilling apparatus (Terra-Drill); Entwicklung eines Vertikal-Bohrgeraets (Terra-Drill) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.


    This well-illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a vertical drilling apparatus named Terra-Drill. The various stages of the development of the apparatus, which is based on earlier designs, is discussed. New norms issued in Germany for the size of boreholes for buried vertical heat-exchangers and the appropriate linings to be used are discussed. The new Terra Drill 4407 V drilling apparatus and its testing are discussed. The drill is quoted as being particularly suitable for cramped locations. Technical details are presented and a comprehensive collection of photographs is included. Various preliminary reports and development documentation are included.

  16. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Hydroxyl-Directed C–H Olefination Enabled by Mono-Protected Amino Acid Ligands (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Dong-Hui; Engle, Keary M.


    A novel Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H olefination protocol has been developed using spatially remote, unprotected tertiary, secondary, and primary alcohols as the directing groups. Mono-N-protected amino acid ligands were found to promote the reaction, and an array of olefin coupling partners could be used. When electron-deficient alkenes were used, the resulting olefinated intermediates underwent subsequent Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidative intramolecular cyclization to give the corresponding pyran products, which could be converted into ortho-alkylated alcohols under hydrogenolysis conditions. The mechanistic details of the oxidative cyclization step are discussed and situated in the context of the overall catalytic cycle. PMID:20359184

  17. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor


    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  18. A drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, G P; Anderson, B A; Minkhayrov, K A; Sharipov, A U


    In a known drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks, which contains clay, sodium silicate and polyacrylamide (PAA), in order to increase its specific electrical resistance and to increase the strengthening properties, a silicoorganic liquid is additionally introduced into its composition with the following component ratio (percent): clay, 5 to 7; sodium silicate, 5 to 7; polyacrylamide, 0.3 to 0.5; silicoorganic liquid, GKZh-94, 0.5 to 1.5 and water, the remainder. The GKZh-94 is a chemical compound based on alkylphenylchlorsilanes and substituted ethers of orthosilicic acid, used for waterproofing fabrics and soils. The addition of GKZh-94 provides the required values of the specific electric resistance of the mud and does not distort the gas logging indications. The proposed mud has low water production (4 to 6 cubic centimeters), optimal viscosity (25 to 31 seconds) and high structural and mechanical properties. Its strengthening properties are substantially above those of the known mud.

  19. Ti-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Terminal Mono-substituted Olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Soo; Lee, Gab Yong


    The isomerization of olefins occurs either by a metal hydride addition-elimination or by a π-allyl metal hydride intermediate. HCo(CO) 4 , [(C 2 H 4 ) 2 RhCl] 2 , Ni[P(OEt) 3 ] 4 , and PtCl 2 (PPh 3 ) 2 -SnCl 2 are effective catalysts for isomerization of olefins via a metal hydride addition-elimination mechanism, 3,4 and Fe 3 (CO) 12 catalyzed isomerization of 3-ethyl-1-pentene and isomerization of 1-heptene catalyzed by (PhCN) 2 PdCl 2 occur via a π-allyl metal hydride mechanism. The cis/trans ratio of 2-butene obtained from isomerization of 1-butene by RhH(CO)(PPh 3 ) 3 has also been investigated. The skeletal isomerization of olefins catalyzed by (R 3 P) 2 NiCl 2 is developed such as conversion of cis-1,4-hexadiene to trans-2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene. Titanium complexes serve as an effective catalysts for a variety of reactions such as hydroalumination, hydroboration, and hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons. We have been interested in the selective reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons by using titanium and zirconium compounds. The reagent system composed of LiAlH 4 /Cp 2 TiCl 2 ≤ 2 in the molar ratio promotes the isomerization of 1-octene, but the detailed reaction for isomerization of olefins has not been reported. We report here a selective isomerization of olefins with low valent titanium complex generated from Cp 2 TiCl 2 (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) and LiAlH 4

  20. Cobalt carbide nanoprisms for direct production of lower olefins from syngas (United States)

    Zhong, Liangshu; Yu, Fei; An, Yunlei; Zhao, Yonghui; Sun, Yuhan; Li, Zhengjia; Lin, Tiejun; Lin, Yanjun; Qi, Xingzhen; Dai, Yuanyuan; Gu, Lin; Hu, Jinsong; Jin, Shifeng; Shen, Qun; Wang, Hui


    Lower olefins—generally referring to ethylene, propylene and butylene—are basic carbon-based building blocks that are widely used in the chemical industry, and are traditionally produced through thermal or catalytic cracking of a range of hydrocarbon feedstocks, such as naphtha, gas oil, condensates and light alkanes. With the rapid depletion of the limited petroleum reserves that serve as the source of these hydrocarbons, there is an urgent need for processes that can produce lower olefins from alternative feedstocks. The ‘Fischer-Tropsch to olefins’ (FTO) process has long offered a way of producing lower olefins directly from syngas—a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide that is readily derived from coal, biomass and natural gas. But the hydrocarbons obtained with the FTO process typically follow the so-called Anderson-Schulz-Flory distribution, which is characterized by a maximum C2-C4 hydrocarbon fraction of about 56.7 per cent and an undesired methane fraction of about 29.2 per cent (refs 1, 10, 11, 12). Here we show that, under mild reaction conditions, cobalt carbide quadrangular nanoprisms catalyse the FTO conversion of syngas with high selectivity for the production of lower olefins (constituting around 60.8 per cent of the carbon products), while generating little methane (about 5.0 per cent), with the ratio of desired unsaturated hydrocarbons to less valuable saturated hydrocarbons amongst the C2-C4 products being as high as 30. Detailed catalyst characterization during the initial reaction stage and theoretical calculations indicate that preferentially exposed {101} and {020} facets play a pivotal role during syngas conversion, in that they favour olefin production and inhibit methane formation, and thereby render cobalt carbide nanoprisms a promising new catalyst system for directly converting syngas into lower olefins.

  1. Methanol to olefin Conversion on HSAPO-34 zeolite from periodic density functional theory calculations: a complete cycle of side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.M.; Wang, Y.D.; Xie, Z.K.; Liu, Z.P. [SINOPEC, Shanghai (China)


    For its unique position in the coal chemical industry, the methanol to olefin (MTO) reaction has been a hot topic in zeolite catalysis. Due to the complexities of catalyst structure and reaction networks, many questions such as how the olefin chain is built from methanol remain elusive. On the basis of periodic density functional theory calculations, this work establishes the first complete catalytic cycle for MTO reaction via hexamethylbenzene (HMB) trapped in HSAPO-34 zeolite based on the so-called side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism. The cycle starts from the methylation of HMB that leads to heptamethylbenzenium ion (heptaMB{sup +}) intermediate. This is then followed by the growth of side chain via repeated deprotonation of benzenium ions and methylation of the exocyclic double bond. Ethene and propene can finally be released from the side ethyl and isopropyl groups of benzenium ions by deprotonation and subsequent protonation steps. We demonstrate that (i) HMB/HSAPO-34 only yields propene as the primary product based on the side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism and (ii) an indirect proton-shift step mediated by water that is always available in the system is energetically more favorable than the traditionally regarded internal hydrogen-shift step. Finally, the implications of our results toward understanding the effect of acidity of zeolite on MTO activity are also discussed.

  2. Automatic real time drilling support on Ekofisk utilizing eDrilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, Rolv; Bjorkevoll, Knut S.; Halsey, George W.; Kluge, Roald; Molde, Dag Ove; Odegard, Sven Inge [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Herbert, Mike [HITEC Products Drilling, Stavanger (Norway); ConocoPhillips Norge, Stavanger (Norway)


    eDrilling is a new and innovative system for real time drilling simulation, 3D visualization and control from a remote drilling expert centre. The concept uses all available real time drilling data (surface and downhole) in combination with real time modelling to monitor and optimize the drilling process. This information is used to visualize the wellbore in 3D in real time. eDrilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center in Norway. The system is composed of the following elements, some of which are unique and ground-breaking: an advanced and fast Integrated Drilling Simulator which is capable to model the different drilling sub-processes dynamically, and also the interaction between these sub-processes in real time; automatic quality check and corrections of drilling data; making them suitable for processing by computer models; real time supervision methodology for the drilling process using time based drilling data as well as drilling models / the integrated drilling simulator; methodology for diagnosis of the drilling state and conditions. This is obtained from comparing model predictions with measured data. Advisory technology for more optimal drilling. A Virtual Wellbore, with advanced visualization of the downhole process. Dat low and computer infrastructure. e-Drilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center on Ekofisk in Norway. The system is being used on drilling operations, and experiences from its use are presented. The supervision and diagnosis functionalities have been useful in particular, as the system has given early warnings on ECD and friction related problems. This paper will present the eDrilling system as well as experiences from its use. (author)

  3. The effect of gas and fluid flows on nonlinear lateral vibrations of rotating drill strings (United States)

    Khajiyeva, Lelya; Kudaibergenov, Askar; Kudaibergenov, Askat


    In this work we develop nonlinear mathematical models describing coupled lateral vibrations of a rotating drill string under the effect of external supersonic gas and internal fluid flows. An axial compressive load and a torque also affect the drill string. The mathematical models are derived by the use of Novozhilov's nonlinear theory of elasticity with implementation of Hamilton's variation principle. Expressions for the gas flow pressure are determined according to the piston theory. The fluid flow is considered as added mass inside the curved tube of the drill string. Using an algorithm developed in the Mathematica computation program on the basis of the Galerkin approach and the stiffness switching method the numerical solution of the obtained approximate differential equations is found. Influences of the external loads, drill string angular speed of rotation, parameters of the gas and fluid flows on the drill string vibrations are shown.

  4. Advanced control strategies for a drill rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Hiller, M.; Fink, B.


    The construction of tunnels is usually undertaken using a combination of blasting and drilling to achieve rock excavation. Easy handling and high accuracy, and thus greater efficiency, in drilling rigs is an essential ingredient of successful competition in the market place. This article describes a cartesian control concept used for a twin boom drill rig. This simplifies the handling of a drilling boom, reduces the duration of a working cycle and increases security. A remote control system has been added to the drill rig to support the operator working in complicated environments. (UK)

  5. Electric drill-string telemetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, J M


    We design a numerical algorithm for simulation of low-frequency electric-signal transmission through a drill string. This is represented by a transmission line with varying geometrical and electromagnetic properties versus depth, depending on the characteristics of the drill-string/formation system. These properties are implicitly modeled by the series impedance and the shunt admittance of the transmission line. The differential equations are parabolic, since at low frequencies the wave field is diffusive. We use an explicit scheme for the solution of parabolic problems, based on a Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator and the Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. The results are verified by comparison to analytical solutions obtained for the initial-value problem with a voltage source.

  6. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.


    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  7. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo


    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility

  8. A model for self-defocusing in laser drilling of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chong; Quick, Nathaniel R.; Kar, Aravinda


    A numerical thermal model is presented for laser microvias drilling in multilayer electronic substrates with Nd:YAG (YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet) and CO 2 lasers. Such substrates have different optical properties such as the refractive index and absorption coefficient at these two laser wavelengths, resulting in different drilling mechanisms. Since the skin depth of the polymer is large for both the lasers, volumetric heating is considered in the model. As soon as a small cavity is formed during the drilling process, the concave curvature of the drilling front acts as a concave lens that diverges the incident laser beam. This self-defocusing effect can greatly reduce the drilling speed as predicted by the model. This effect makes the refractive index of the substrate at different wavelengths an important parameter for laser drilling. The model was used to calculate the laser ablation thresholds which were found to be 8 and 56 J/cm 2 for the CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers respectively. Due to the expulsion of materials because of high internal pressures in the case of Nd:YAG laser microvia drilling, the ablation threshold may be far below the calculated value. A particular laser beam shape, such as pitch fork, was found to drill better holes than the Gaussian beam

  9. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling (United States)

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John


    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  10. Fragmentation of delta-diketones by electron impact. Olefin elimination and formation of an enol acetate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizur, J.P.; Mercier, J.; Casals, P.F.


    Under electron impact delta-diketones lose an olefin. The mechanism and structure of the resulting ion have been established by several techniques: substitution, Mike and Cid spectra and thermochemical data [fr

  11. Manganese oxide as a promoter for C2-C4 olefin production in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.; Chen, K.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, Y.


    A number of active research and development programs have been initiated to explore the potential of CO hydrogenation process as a source of low molecular weight (C 2 -C 4 ) olefins. Metal catalysts such as Co-Mn, Ni-zeolite, Rd and Mo have been evaluated for low molecular weight olefin selectivity. The coprecipitated Fe-Mn system (Mn/Fe=9/1) was reported to be highly olefin selective. Recently, many investigators reported supporting evidence for the promotional effect of Mn for precipitated Fe catalysts. In this study, Raney Fe promoted with Mn has been evaluated for C 2 -C 4 olefin selectivity in the hydrogenation of CO relative to coprecipitated Fe-Mn catalysts. Catalyst characterization, including BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, selective chemisorption and ESCA, has been carried to provide insight into the role of manganese in both the Coprecipitated and Raney catalyst systems

  12. On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.; Mueller, S.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry


    Methanol-to-hydrocarbons processes using HZSM-5 archetype acidic zeolites or zeotype SAPO-34 catalysts are regarded as a vital suite of conversion technologies to bypass petroleum-based routes for the production of specific fuels and petrochemical commodities. Special significance of the methanol chemistry originates from its versatility enabling selective transformations towards various products. Industry demonstrated successfully implementations of Methanol-To-Gasoline, Methanol-To-Olefin, and Methanol-To-Propylene processes, although the typical single-pass selectivity remained limited and recycling is necessary. Considerable fundamental research efforts both from experimental and computational sides contributed to unravel the underlying complex reaction mechanism. The indirect hydrocarbon pool mechanism, in which Broensted acid sites combined with adsorbed light olefins or lower methylbenzenes act as active centers, is generally accepted to explain the formation of light olefins. As olefin and aromatics populated catalytic sites show different reactivity in terms of activity and selectivity to ethylene or propylene, one could envision optimizing the product distribution by suitable co-feeding of specific hydrocarbons. The present work addresses three questions with an experimental study conducted under realistic MTP operation conditions: (1) How are ethylene and propylene formed at molecular level? (2) Which reaction pathway leads to the formation of undesired hydrogen transfer products? (3) Does olefin or aromatics co-feeding change the selectivity to ethylene or propylene? Xylenes and various olefins were co-fed with methanol to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism over acidic HZSM-5 zeolites. Results suggest, that an olefin homologation/cracking route (olefin cycle) accounts for the autocatalytic (-like) nature and the majority of methanol consumption rather than the route involving aromatic intermediates (aromatics cycle). Co

  13. Optimization of surfactant application for synthetic drilling fluid; Otimizacao da aplicacao de emulsificante em fluidos de perfuracao sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Jefferson Teixeira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Telma Pitanga; Medeiros, Ana Catarina da Rocha; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo


    The most common synthetic drilling fluids are made of polymerized olefins, paraffin and esters, which have absence of aromatics hydrocarbons and biodegradability as advantages. These fluids have good performance during the drilling operations (high thermal stability) and have low toxicity. Nevertheless, their big disadvantage is the high cost, which limits their use. One of the biggest challenges in working with synthetic fluids is the control of water/oil emulsion stability, being the surfactant the main agent responsible for keeping this stability between both phases of the fluid. The water/oil and oil/water emulsion is defined by the chemical nature of the surfactant. The emulsions can be changed from oil/water to water/oil and vice versa by many mechanisms, such as temperature variation, addition of another surfactant and alteration of the disperse phase volumetric percentage. The aim of this work was the optimization of synthetic drilling fluids formulations by using commercial surfactants. The optimized formulations showed similar rheological properties. After aging at high temperature (300 deg F), some tendency to migration of oil phase in both fluids was observed. This result was associated to the fluid's viscosity. However, the formulations showed high electrical stability, indicating formation of stable emulsions. The HTHP filtration volumes were small. (author)

  14. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu


    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  15. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*


    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.


    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative γ-Olefination of 2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic Acid Derivatives with Vinyl Halides. (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Hao; Chou, Chih-Ming


    This study explores a Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative Heck-type Csp 3 -Csp 2 coupling reaction of 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid derivatives with vinyl halides to provide γ-olefination products. The olefinated 1,3-cyclohexadienes can be further oxidized to produce meta-alkylated stilbene derivatives. Additionally, the conjugated diene products can also undergo a Diels-Alder reaction to produce a bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene framework.

  17. Highly Convergent Total Synthesis of (+)-Lithospermic Acid via a Late-Stage Intermolecular C–H Olefination (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan


    The total synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid is reported, which exploits two successive C–H activation reactions as the key steps. Rh-catalyzed carbene C–H insertion reaction using Davies’ catalyst built the dihydrobenzofuran core, and a late-stage intermolecular C–H olefination coupled the olefin unit with the dihydrobenzofuran core to construct the molecule in a highly convergent manner. PMID:21443224

  18. Oxidant-free Rh(III)-catalyzed direct C-H olefination of arenes with allyl acetates. (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Feng, Daming; Loh, Teck-Peng


    Rh(III)-catalyzed direct olefination of arenes with allyl acetate via C-H bond activation is described using N,N-disubstituted aminocarbonyl as the directing group. The catalyst undergoes a redox neutral process, and high to excellent yields of trans-products are obtained. This protocol exhibits a wide spectrum of functionality compatibility because of the simple reaction conditions employed and provides a highly effective synthetic method in the realm of C-H olefination.

  19. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.


    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  20. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.


    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  1. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland number-sign 70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line

  2. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike


    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  3. The conversion of biomass to light olefins on Fe-modified ZSM-5 catalyst: Effect of pyrolysis parameters. (United States)

    Zhang, Shihong; Yang, Mingfa; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Zeng, Kuo; Chen, Yingquan; Luo, Jun; Agblevor, Foster A; Chen, Hanping


    Light olefins are the key building blocks for the petrochemical industry. In this study, the effects of in-situ and ex-situ process, temperature, Fe loading, catalyst to feed ratio and gas flow rate on the olefins carbon yield and selectivity were explored. The results showed that Fe-modified ZSM-5 catalyst increased the olefins yield significantly, and the ex-situ process was much better than in-situ. With the increasing of temperature, Fe-loading amount, catalyst to feed ratio, and gas flow rate, the carbon yields of light olefins were firstly increased and further decreased. The maximum carbon yield of light olefins (6.98% C-mol) was obtained at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C, catalyst to feed ratio of 2, gas flow rate of 100ml/min, and 3wt% Fe/ZSM-5 for cellulose. The selectivity of C 2 H 4 was more than 60% for all feedstock, and the total light olefins followed the decreasing order of cellulose, corn stalk, hemicelluloses and lignin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Propagation/depropagation equilibrium and structural factors in the radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, T.N.; O'Donnell, J.H.


    The principal volatile products observed after γ irradiation of nine different poly(olefin sulfone)s in the solid state were the two comonomers, i.e., the respective olefin and sulfur dioxide. An exponential increase in yield, G (volatile products), with increasing irradiation temperature, T/sub irr/, was observed for each copolymer through the ceiling temperature, T/sub c/, for the corresponding propagation/depropagation equilibrium. Thus the G value increased by ca. 3 orders of magnitude from T/sub irr/ = 0.7 T/sub c/ to T/sub irr/ = 1.3 T/sub c/ for all of the poly(olefin sulfone)s. Depropagation sensitivity was considered to be best measured by G(SO 2 ) since radiation induced, cationic homopolymerization of the product olefin occurred to a variable extent. Five of the poly(olefin sulfone)s had similar rates of depropagation at their respective T/sub c's/ but the polysulfones of 1-hexene, cyclohexene and 2-butene showed anomalously high depropagation rates. This may be related to greater steric hinderance to segmental chain mobility in the polysulfones of the 1,2 disubstituted olefins. Poly(1-hexene sulfone) appears to be anomalous, as in other respects

  5. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.


    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  6. Detailed Mechanistic Studies on Palladium-Catalyzed Selective C-H Olefination with Aliphatic Alkenes: A Significant Influence of Proton Shuttling. (United States)

    Deb, Arghya; Hazra, Avijit; Peng, Qian; Paton, Robert S; Maiti, Debabrata


    Directing group-assisted regioselective C-H olefination with electronically biased olefins is well studied. However, the incorporation of unactivated olefins has remained largely unsuccessful. A proper mechanistic understanding of olefination involving unactivated alkenes is therefore essential for enhancing their usage in future. In this Article, detailed experimental and computational mechanistic studies on palladium catalyzed C-H olefination with unactivated, aliphatic alkenes are described. The isolation of Pd(II) intermediates is shown to be effective for elucidating the elementary steps involved in catalytic olefination. Reaction rate and order determination, control experiments, isotopic labeling studies, and Hammett analysis have been used to understand the reaction mechanism. The results from these experimental studies implicate β-hydride elimination as the rate-determining step and that a mechanistic switch occurs between cationic and neutral pathway. Computational studies support this interpretation of the experimental evidence and are used to uncover the origins of selectivity.

  7. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, O [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden)


    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  8. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  9. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, O.


    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs

  10. Key product development based on cyclo olefin polymer for LCD-TV (United States)

    Konishi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Masahi; Arakawa, Kouhei


    Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP), which was developed by Zeon Corporation, is well known and used as an optical plastic in optical markets, having unique properties such as high light transmission, low water absorption, low birefringence etc. Optes Inc, who is ZEON CORPORATION's affiliate optical parts manufacturer, has succeeded in the development of high performance optical base films. These are used for retardation and polarizing films in LCD's (Liquid Crystal Displays), made from Cyclo Olefin Polymer with own film extrusion technologies. The Optical base film developed by Optes Inc has superior properties compared with those of existing products such as polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Triacetate Cellulose (TAC) base in terms of low birefringence, high optical isotropy and high dimensional stability under high humidity and temperature conditions.

  11. The activation mechanism of Ru-indenylidene complexes in olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Urbina-Blanco, César A.


    Olefin metathesis is a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds. Several families of well-defined ruthenium (Ru) catalysts have been developed during the past 20 years; however, the reaction mechanism for all such complexes was assumed to be the same. In the present study, the initiation mechanism of Ru-indenylidene complexes was examined and compared with that of benzylidene counterparts. It was discovered that not all indenylidene complexes followed the same mechanism, highlighting the importance of steric and electronic properties of so-called spectator ligands, and that there is no single mechanism for the Ru-based olefin metathesis reaction. The experimental findings are supported quantitatively by DFT calculations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of new magnetically recoverable molybdenum nanocatalyst for epoxidation of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masteri-Farahani, M., E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashef, Z. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    New heterogeneous molybdenum catalyst was prepared through covalent attachment of a Schiff base ligand on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles via aminopropyl spacer and subsequent complexation with MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2}. The prepared nanocatalyst was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and vibrating sample magnetometry. Catalytic epoxidation of some olefins and allylic alcohols by prepared nanocatalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide as oxidants was achieved with good activities and selectivities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles were modified with a Schiff base ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next reaction with MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2} afforded magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared nanocatalyst catalyzed the epoxidation of olefins with TBHP.

  13. The activation mechanism of Ru-indenylidene complexes in olefin metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Urbina-Blanco, Cé sar A.; Poater, Albert; Lé bl, Tomá š; Manzini, Simone; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P.


    Olefin metathesis is a powerful tool for the formation of carbon-carbon double bonds. Several families of well-defined ruthenium (Ru) catalysts have been developed during the past 20 years; however, the reaction mechanism for all such complexes was assumed to be the same. In the present study, the initiation mechanism of Ru-indenylidene complexes was examined and compared with that of benzylidene counterparts. It was discovered that not all indenylidene complexes followed the same mechanism, highlighting the importance of steric and electronic properties of so-called spectator ligands, and that there is no single mechanism for the Ru-based olefin metathesis reaction. The experimental findings are supported quantitatively by DFT calculations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Synthesis of amide-functionalized cellulose esters by olefin cross-metathesis. (United States)

    Meng, Xiangtao; Edgar, Kevin J


    Cellulose esters with amide functionalities were synthesized by cross-metathesis (CM) reaction of terminally olefinic esters with different acrylamides, catalyzed by Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst. Chelation by amides of the catalyst ruthenium center caused low conversions using conventional solvents. The effects of both solvent and structure of acrylamide on reaction conversion were investigated. While the inherent tendency of acrylamides to chelate Ru is governed by the acrylamide N-substituents, employing acetic acid as a solvent significantly improved the conversion of certain acrylamides, from 50% to up to 99%. Homogeneous hydrogenation using p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide successfully eliminated the α,β-unsaturation of the CM products to give stable amide-functionalized cellulose esters. The amide-functionalized product showed higher Tg than its starting terminally olefinic counterpart, which may have resulted from strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the amide functional groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving energy efficiency of an Olefin plant – A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahouni, Nassim; Bagheri, Narges; Towfighi, Jafar; Hassan Panjeshahi, M.


    Highlights: • The retrofit of an Olefin plant is studied to improve the overall energy efficiency. • Three levels of retrofit and optimization of this process are suggested. • A simultaneous method is presented to optimize low-temperature separation processes. - Abstract: Low-temperature gas separation processes are the most important gas separation routes. There is a complex interaction between core process (separation columns), associated heat exchanger network and refrigeration cycles in sub ambient processes. The aim of this paper is performing a comprehensive retrofit study of an Olefin plant (as an industrial example) to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this regard, the effect of improving column operating parameters and refrigeration cycles are first evaluated separately. Then, column operating parameters and refrigeration cycles as well as heat exchanger network are optimized simultaneously using genetic algorithm or simulated annealing. Having compared all results, one can conclude that simultaneous optimization leads to higher efficiency of the overall system

  16. Sustainable solid catalyst alkylation of commercial olefins by regeneration with supercritical isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar; David N. Thompson; Kyle C. Burch


    Supercritical isobutane regeneration of a USY zeolite alkylation catalyst was examined in a continuous, automated reaction / regeneration system. Two feeds were studied; a synthetic isobutane / 2-butene blend, and a commercial refinery isoparaffin / olefin blend. The refinery blend was minimally treated, containing a variety of light olefins, and contaminants, including butadiene, oxygenates and sulfur, which are well known to cause severe catalyst deactivation. Synthetic feed experiments showed that high levels of butene conversion was maintained for more than 200 hours time on stream, and that product quality and catalyst maintenance was relatively stable over the course of the experiment using a 3 hour reaction / 3 hour regeneration cycle. Catalyst activity maintenance was lower when the commercial feed was employed. High levels of alkene conversion were maintained for 78 hours and 192 hours using a 3 hour reaction / 3 hour regeneration cycle and a 2 hour reaction / 2 hour regeneration cycle, respectively.

  17. A Wittig-olefination-Claisen-rearrangement approach to the 3-methylquinoline-4-carbaldehyde synthesis. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Mukund G; Desai, Mayur P; Birhade, Deekshaputra R; Shaikh, Yunus B; Dhatrak, Ajit N; Gannimani, Ramesh


    Efficient syntheses are described for the synthetically important 3-methylquinoline-4-carbaldehydes 6a-h from o-nitrobenzaldehydes 1a-h employing a Wittig-olefination-Claisen-rearrangement protocol. The Wittig reaction of o-nitrobenzaldehydes with crotyloxymethylene triphenylphosphorane afforded crotyl vinyl ethers 2a-h, which on heating under reflux in xylene underwent Claisen rearrangement to give 4-pentenals 3a-h. Protection of the aldehyde group of the 4-pentenals as acetals 4a-h and subsequent oxidative cleavage of the terminal olefin furnished nitroaldehydes 5a-h. Reductive cyclization of these nitroaldehydes yielded the required 3-methylquinoline-4-carbaldehydes 6a-h in excellent yields. Therefore, an efficient method was developed for the preparation of 3-methylquinoline-4-carbaldehydes from o-nitrobenzaldehydes in a simple five-step procedure.

  18. Manganese-catalyzed Dehydrogenative Alkylation or α-Olefination of Alkyl-N-Heteroaromatics by Alcohols. (United States)

    Kempe, Rhett; Zhang, Guoying; Irrgang, Torsten; Dietel, Thomas; Kallmeier, Fabian


    Catalysis involving earth-abundant transition metals is an option to help save our rare noble metal resources and is especially interesting if novel reactivity or selectivity patterns are observed. We report here on a novel reaction: the dehydrogenative alkylation or α-olefination of alkyl-N-heteroaromatics by alcohols. Manganese complexes developed in our laboratory catalyze the reaction efficiently. Fe and Co complexes stabilized by such ligands are essentially inactive. Hydrogen is liberated during the reaction and bromo or iodo functional groups and olefins can be tolerated. A variety of alkyl-N-heteroaromatics can be functionalized, and benzyl and aliphatic alcohols undergo the reaction. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Trends in the Drilling Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Czekaj


    Full Text Available Petroleum Industry is trying to achieve sustainable development goals. Each year new solutions are implemented to minimize the environmental impact of drilling operations. The paper presents trends in the drilling waste management caused by introducing the sustainable development into the petroleum industry. Old solutions such as the drilling waste disposal at the waste dump or dumping ground are not acceptable from the environmental point of view. The paper presents an analysis of new solutions as the sustainable solutions. The most important problem is the chemical pollution in cuttings and the waste drilling mud. The industrial solutions as well as the laboratory research on the pollution removing from drilling wastes are analysed. The most promising method seems to be the recycling and design for the environment of drilling mud.

  20. PDVSA INTEVEP Technologies in oil well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, C.; Rafael, A.; Davila, Manuel A.


    The orimulsion, the generation of catalytic technologies and the development of HDH (process which transform heavy crudes in light crudes), are examples of some of the well known technologies developed by PDVSA INTEVEP. But the drilling oil wells technologies developed by the same entreprise, even though are very important, are less known all around the world. This document describes some products developed through those technologies: THIXOGAS T M which is an antimigratory aditive; INTEFLOW T M which is a fluid for drilling, complementation and rehabilitation of oil drills; INTERCAB T M which is an aditive for fluids in drilling; orimatita which is a denser for drilling fluids; CARBOLIG T M which is an aditive for drilling fluids; and many other products and technologies in development, impacted considerably the venezuelan economy by preserving the environment and saving quite an important amount of money in 1997 (Bs. 3.000 M M)

  1. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited) (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.


    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact

  2. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser


    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  3. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs


    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan


    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  4. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.


    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  5. Iron(II)-catalyzed intramolecular aminohydroxylation of olefins with functionalized hydroxylamines. (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Sai; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Yong-An; Xu, Hao


    A diastereoselective aminohydroxylation of olefins with a functionalized hydroxylamine is catalyzed by new iron(II) complexes. This efficient intramolecular process readily affords synthetically useful amino alcohols with excellent selectivity (dr up to > 20:1). Asymmetric catalysis with chiral iron(II) complexes and preliminary mechanistic studies reveal an iron nitrenoid is a possible intermediate that can undergo either aminohydroxylation or aziridination, and the selectivity can be controlled by careful selection of counteranion/ligand combinations.

  6. STIR: Redox-Switchable Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: Electronically Tunable Ligands for Controlled Polymer Synthesis (United States)


    production of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) topped 53 billion pounds in 2011.1 This extreme demand has ensured that olefin an ideal starting monomer as it is a liquid at room temperature facilitating rapid screening and data collection without the need for cumbersome...elastomers, binders, thermoplastic elastomers, rheology modifiers, permeation selective membranes, and high strength, light-weight structural materials

  7. Microchannel fabrication on cyclic olefin polymer substrates via 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Ronán [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Bagga, Komal; Groarke, Robert [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Stalcup, Apryll [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Vázquez, Mercedes, E-mail: [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brabazon, Dermot [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)


    Highlights: • Rapid single-step microchannel fabrication on optically transparent cyclic olefin polymer using IR Nd:YAG laser. • Ability to tailor channel depth between 12–47 μm demonstrated for single laser pass. • Use of multiple laser passes showed capability for finer depth control. • Potential applications in lab-on-chip and microfluidic devices. - Abstract: This paper presents a method for fabrication of microchannels on cyclic olefin polymer films that have application in the field of microfluidics and chemical sensing. Continuous microchannels were fabricated on 188-μm-thick cyclic olefin polymer substrates using a picosecond pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. The effect of laser fluence on the microchannel morphology and dimensions was analysed via scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Single laser passes were found to produce v-shaped microchannels with depths ranging from 12 μm to 47 μm and widths from 44 μm to 154 μm. The ablation rate during processing was lower than predicted theoretically. Multiple laser passes were applied to examine the ability for finer control over microchannel morphology with channel depths ranging from 22 μm to 77 μm and channel widths from 59 μm to 155 μm. For up to five repeat passes, acceptable reproducibility was found in the produced microchannel morphology. Infrared spectroscopy revealed oxidation and dehydrogenation of the polymer surface following laser ablation. These results were compared to other work conducted on cyclic olefin polymers.

  8. Photoredox-Catalyzed Ketyl–Olefin Coupling for the Synthesis of Substituted Chromanols

    KAUST Repository

    Fava, Eleonora


    A visible light photoredox-catalyzed aldehyde olefin cyclization is reported. The method represents a formal hydroacylation of alkenes and alkynes and provides chromanol derivatives in good yields. The protocol takes advantage of the double role played by trialkylamines (NR3) which act as (i) electron donors for reducing the catalyst and (ii) proton donors to activate the substrate via a proton-coupled electron transfer. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. InCl3/NaClO: a reagent for allylic chlorination of terminal olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisoni, Diego S.; Gamba, Douglas; Fonseca, Carlos V.; Costa, Jesse S. da; Petzhold, Cesar L.; Oliveira, Eduardo R. de; Ceschi, Marco A.


    Indium trichloride promotes the chlorination of terminal olefins in the presence of sodium hypochlorite with good results. Carvone was chosen as a model compound to examine some of the general features of this reaction, such as stoichiometry, temperature, reaction time and product conversion. Treatment of β-pinene with sodium hypochlorite in the presence of indium trichloride resulted in a facile rearrangement to selectively yield perillyl chloride, which is an important precursor for C-7 oxygenated limonenes. (author)

  10. Microchannel fabrication on cyclic olefin polymer substrates via 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, Ronán; Bagga, Komal; Groarke, Robert; Stalcup, Apryll; Vázquez, Mercedes; Brabazon, Dermot


    Highlights: • Rapid single-step microchannel fabrication on optically transparent cyclic olefin polymer using IR Nd:YAG laser. • Ability to tailor channel depth between 12–47 μm demonstrated for single laser pass. • Use of multiple laser passes showed capability for finer depth control. • Potential applications in lab-on-chip and microfluidic devices. - Abstract: This paper presents a method for fabrication of microchannels on cyclic olefin polymer films that have application in the field of microfluidics and chemical sensing. Continuous microchannels were fabricated on 188-μm-thick cyclic olefin polymer substrates using a picosecond pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. The effect of laser fluence on the microchannel morphology and dimensions was analysed via scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry. Single laser passes were found to produce v-shaped microchannels with depths ranging from 12 μm to 47 μm and widths from 44 μm to 154 μm. The ablation rate during processing was lower than predicted theoretically. Multiple laser passes were applied to examine the ability for finer control over microchannel morphology with channel depths ranging from 22 μm to 77 μm and channel widths from 59 μm to 155 μm. For up to five repeat passes, acceptable reproducibility was found in the produced microchannel morphology. Infrared spectroscopy revealed oxidation and dehydrogenation of the polymer surface following laser ablation. These results were compared to other work conducted on cyclic olefin polymers.

  11. Constructing Multiply Substituted Arenes Using Sequential Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Olefination** (United States)

    Engle, Keary M.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Complementary catalytic systems have been developed in which the reactivity/selectivity balance in Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H olefination can be modulated through ligand control. This allows for sequential C–H functionalization for the rapid preparation of 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes. Additionally, a rare example of iterative C–H activation, in which a newly installed functional group directs subsequent C–H activation has been demonstrated. PMID:20632344

  12. Photoredox-Catalyzed Ketyl–Olefin Coupling for the Synthesis of Substituted Chromanols

    KAUST Repository

    Fava, Eleonora; Nakajima, Masaki; Nguyen, Anh L. P.; Rueping, Magnus


    A visible light photoredox-catalyzed aldehyde olefin cyclization is reported. The method represents a formal hydroacylation of alkenes and alkynes and provides chromanol derivatives in good yields. The protocol takes advantage of the double role played by trialkylamines (NR3) which act as (i) electron donors for reducing the catalyst and (ii) proton donors to activate the substrate via a proton-coupled electron transfer. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  13. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.


    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  14. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, P.R.; Duke, T.W.


    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC 50 s were from 25 μ liter -1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  15. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris


    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  16. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) with evaporated TiO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Fissi, Lamia, E-mail: [ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique du Louvain, place de Levant 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vandormael, Denis [SIRRIS Liege Science Park, 4102 Seraing (Belgium); Houssiau, Laurent [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Francis, Laurent A. [ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique du Louvain, place de Levant 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/COC (cyclic olefin copolymer) hybrid material for BioMEMS applications. • Thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was deposed on cyclic olefin copolymer using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. • The coating possess the highest level of adhesion with an excellent morphology of the hybrid material (TiO{sub 2}/COC). - Abstract: Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a new class of thermoplastic polymers used for a variety of applications ranging from bio-sensing to optics. However, the hydrophobicity of native COC hampers the further development and application of this material [1]. In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material, which provides a desirable substrate for optical devices and subsequent surface modifications. The TiO{sub 2} film on COC substrate was deposited by the evaporation method, and it was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometry and atomic force microscope (AFM). Using an UV-vis spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material in the visible domain reached 80%. The TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid appeared to be stable in most of the assessed polar solvents and acid/basic solutions. The new TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material and the robust fabrication method are expected to enable a variety of BioMEMS applications.

  17. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils. (United States)

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B


    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.


    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  19. Positive ion scavenging by olefins in trans-decalin: TRMC and product analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warman, J.M.; Leng, H.C. de; Haas, M.P. de; Anisimov, O.A.


    The rate constants for scavenging of the mobile positive ion in trans-decalin have been measured using the time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) pulse radiolysis technique for a series of olefins and cyclopropane. For the olefins the values vary from ≤2 x 10 8 dm 3 /mol/s for ethylene to 1.6 x 10 11 dm 3 /mol/s for cyclohexene. Steady-state (γ) radiolysis of solutions of isobutene in trans-decalin results in the formation of isobutane and C 8 and C 14 products which display different dependences on solute concentration. The results are explained in terms of the formation of a complex between the solvent radical cation and isobutene which can dissociate, within a timescale of approx. 1 ns, to give isobutane or on neutralisation leads to the formation of C 14 condensation products. The C 8 products which are formed above 5 x 10 -2 mol/dm 3 are attributed to reaction of the complex with isobutene to form the olefin dimer cation. Cyclopropane is unreactive, i.e. k 8 dm 3 /mol/s, towards the mobile positive ion in trans-decalin (author)

  20. 1-O-vinyl glycosides via Tebbe olefination, their use as chiral auxiliaries and monomers. (United States)

    Yuan, Jialong; Lindner, Kristof; Frauenrath, Holger


    A series of anomerically pure 1-O-formyl glycosides 1 was prepared and converted into the corresponding 1-O-vinyl glycosides 2 by Tebbe olefination. The unsubstituted vinyl glycosides were obtained as anomerically pure compounds in good yields, and the method of preparation was compatible with the presence of a variety of functional groups. Remarkably, the anomeric formate group was regioselectively converted into the corresponding olefin in the presence of acetate and benzoate protecting groups. With the perspective to use the 1-O-vinyl glycosides as monomers for the preparation of glycosylated poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives with controlled tacticity, their scope as chiral auxiliaries for a stereodifferentiation in addition reactions to the olefin function was investigated by using the [2+2] cycloaddition to dichloroketene as a model reaction. In particular, vinyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-alpha-d-mannopyranoside (2i) exhibited excellent diastereoselectivity. Finally, the 1-O-vinyl glycosides were successfully subjected to radical homopolymerization in bulk or used as electron-rich comonomers in radical copolymerizations with maleic anhydride, yielding alternating, glycosylated poly(vinyl alcohol-alt-maleic anhydride).

  1. Synthesis of a gamma irradiation grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based olefinic copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreto, Helio Fernando Rodrigues


    The extrusion of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is limited by a process related defect known as 'melt fracture' or 'sharkskin', which is a surface defect of the extruded polymer. This defect results in a product with a rough surface that lacks luster and in alterations of specific surface properties. The aim of this study was to obtain a recycled polytetrafluoroethylene polymer with an olefin that could improve the extrudability of the LLDPE. The copolymer was obtained by irradiating recycled PTFE in an inert atmosphere followed by the addition of an olefinic monomer to graft the latter in the polymeric matrix (PTFE). After a certain time of contact, the copolymer was heat treated to permit recombination and elimination of the radicals, both in a reactive and/or inert atmosphere. Three olefinic monomers were used, namely; acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The 1,3-butadiene monomer was found to be more effective with respect to grafting. The specimens were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). 0.2-2.0 wt% of the copolymer that was obtained was mixed with LLDPE. The rheological properties of the mixture were determined with a torque rheometer. The results indicated that the process used rendered a copolymer which when added to LLDPE, improved the extrusion process and eliminated the defect 'melt fracture'. (author)

  2. Slow drilling speeds for single-drill implant bed preparation. Experimental in vitro study. (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, R A; Velasco Ortega, E; Romanos, G E; Gerhke, S; Newen, I; Calvo-Guirado, J L


    To evaluate the real-time bone temperature changes during the preparation of the implant bed with a single-drill protocol with different drill designs and different slow drilling speeds in artificial type IV bone. For this experimental in vitro study, 600 implant bed preparations were performed in 10 bovine bone disks using three test slow drilling speeds (50/150/300 rpm) and a control drilling speed (1200 rpm). The temperature at crestal and apical areas and time variations produced during drilling with three different drill designs with similar diameter and length but different geometry were recorded with real-life thermographic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way analysis of variance. Multiple comparisons of temperatures and time with the different drill designs and speeds were performed with the Tukey's test. T Max values for the control drilling speed with all the drill designs (D1 + 1200; D2 + 1200; D3 + 1200) were higher compared to those for the controls for 11 ± 1.32 °C (p drilling at 50 rpm resulted in the lowest temperature increment (22.11 ± 0.8 °C) compared to the other slow drilling speeds of 150 (24.752 ± 1.1 °C) and 300 rpm (25.977 ± 1.2 °C) (p drilling speeds compared to that for the control drilling speed. Slow drilling speeds required significantly more time to finish the preparation of the implant bed shown as follows: 50 rpm > 150 rpm > 300 rpm > control (p drill protocol with slow drilling speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) without irrigation in type IV bone increases the temperature at the coronal and apical levels but is below the critical threshold of 47 °C. The drill design in single-drill protocols using slow speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) does not have an influence on the thermal variations. The time to accomplish the implant bed preparation with a single-drill protocol in type IV bone is influenced by the drilling speed and not by the drill design. As the speed decreases, then

  3. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.


    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  4. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  5. Arctic Ocean Paleoceanography and Future IODP Drilling (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger


    Although the Arctic Ocean is a major player in the global climate/earth system, this region is one of the last major physiographic provinces on Earth where the short- and long-term geological history is still poorly known. This lack in knowledge is mainly due to the major technological/logistical problems in operating within the permanently ice-covered Arctic region which makes it difficult to retrieve long and undisturbed sediment cores. Prior to 2004, in the central Arctic Ocean piston and gravity coring was mainly restricted to obtaining near-surface sediments, i.e., only the upper 15 m could be sampled. Thus, all studies were restricted to the late Pliocene/Quaternary time interval, with a few exceptions. These include the four short cores obtained by gravity coring from drifting ice floes over the Alpha Ridge, where older pre-Neogene organic-carbon-rich muds and laminated biosiliceous oozes were sampled. Continuous central Arctic Ocean sedimentary records, allowing a development of chronologic sequences of climate and environmental change through Cenozoic times and a comparison with global climate records, however, were missing prior to the IODP Expedition 302 (Arctic Ocean Coring Expedition - ACEX), the first scientific drilling in the central Arctic Ocean. By studying the unique ACEX sequence, a large number of scientific discoveries that describe previously unknown Arctic paleoenvironments, were obtained during the last decade (for most recent review and references see Stein et al., 2014). While these results from ACEX were unprecedented, key questions related to the climate history of the Arctic Ocean remain unanswered, in part because of poor core recovery, and in part because of the possible presence of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus or interval of starved sedimentation within the ACEX record. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key

  6. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.


    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of approximately minus8 m (minus27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of approximately1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of ∼ -21 m (-70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned

  7. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills. ...

  8. Co-Aromatization of Methane with Olefins: The Role of Inner Pore and External Surface Catalytic Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, Matthew M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); He, Peng [University of Calgary; Jarvis, Jack [University of Calgary; Meng, Shijun [University of Calgary; Wang, Aiguo [University of Calgary; Kou, Shiyu [University of Calgary; Gatip, Richard [University of Calgary; Liu, Lijia [Soochow University; Song, Hua [University of Calgary


    The co-aromatization of methane with olefins is investigated using Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 as the catalyst at 400 degrees C. The presence of methane has a pronounced effect on the product distribution in terms of increased average carbon number and substitution index and decreased aromatic carbon fraction compared with its N2 environment counterpart. The participation of methane during the co-aromatization over the Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst diminishes as the co-fed olefin feedstock molecule becomes larger, from 1-hexene to 1-octene and 1-decene, in diameter. The effect of suppressed methane participation with larger olefinic molecules is not as significant when Ag-Ga/HY is employed as the catalyst, which might be attributed to the larger pore size of HY that gives more room to hold olefin and methane molecules within the inner pores and reduces the diffusion limitation of olefin molecules. The effect of olefin feedstock on the methane participation during the co-aromatization over Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 is experimentally evidenced by 13C and 2D NMR. The incorporation of the methane carbon atoms into the phenyl ring of product molecules is reduced significantly with larger co-fed olefins, whereas its incorporation into the substitution groups of the formed aromatic molecules is not notably affected, suggesting that the methane participation in the phenyl ring formation might preferably occur within inner pores, while its incorporation into substitution groups may mainly take place on external catalytic sites. This hypothesis is well supported by the product selectivity obtained over Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 catalysts prepared using conventional ZSM-5, ZSM-5 with the external catalytic sites deactivated, nanosize ZSM-5, ZSM-5 with a micro/meso pore structure and ZSM-5 with the inner pores blocked, and further confirmed by the isotopic labeling studies.

  9. Drilling technology advances on four fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.


    Trends and advances in drilling technology are discussed. Four different major trends have been identified. One of these is proprietary case drilling which is said to allow operators to simultaneously drill, case, and evaluate oil and gas wells. In proprietary case drilling, the well is drilled with standard oil field casing which remains in the hole all the time, eliminating the need for tripping. Drill bits and other downhole tools are lowered via wireline inside the casing and latched to the last joint of casing. Wells are drilled either by rotating the casing or by using a downhole mud motor for steering, using conventional directional tools. This technology was introduced by Tesco and is marketed in 25 countries along with a full range of drilling products and services. Super single rigs are an other trend which, owing to their versatility, combined with relatively small environmental footprint have become the rig of choice in a growing number of drilling programs. Super single rigs use 45-ft. joints of drill pipe, more versatile top drives and they have an automated pipe handling system. Super singles can be used on both vertical and slant wells and offer advantages of lower costs, higher efficiencies and greater drilling depths. Given their low environmental impact hydraulic capability, super singles also find application where zero disturbance rules are in effect, as for example, in some parts of southern Alberta. Directional drilling and MWD are most associated with SAGD projects but they also have been used and made significant difference in other spheres of oil recovery as well. The fact is that about 35 percent of wells drilled today are drilled with some form of directional drilling; this will stimulate the growth of ever more advanced MWD technology. Northern rigs are in a class of their own in that here the emphasis is on keeping the crew warm, as opposed to lots of gadgets. The most immediately-visible heat-conserving modification is the 60-ft wind

  10. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh


    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  11. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide (United States)

    Kolle , Jack J.


    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  12. Performance of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments with a superimposed bending deflection: V. Gates Glidden and Peeso drills. (United States)

    Brantley, W A; Luebke, N H; Luebke, F L; Mitchell, J C


    A laboratory study was performed on Gates Glidden and Peeso drills to determine the incidence of shaft fracture when a bending deflection was superimposed on the rotating drills. Samples of sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel Gates Glidden drills, sizes #1 to #6 stainless steel and carbon steel-type P Peeso drills, and sizes #009 to #023 carbon steel-type B-1 Peeso drills from each of two manufacturers were evaluated with a unique apparatus that applied a 2-mm bending deflection while rotating the instruments. The apparatus did not restrict movement of the bur head during rotation. The test drills were rotated at 2500, 4000, and 7000 revolutions per minute, and the number of revolutions at failure was recorded. Scanning electron microscopic observations established that the stainless steel Gates Glidden and Peeso drills failed by ductile fracture, whereas the carbon steel Peeso drills failed by brittle fracture. Instrument fracture was always near the handpiece shank with this test, and the length of the fractured drills was measured from the working tip. It is recommended that this additional test be adopted to determine fatigue properties of engine-driven rotary endodontic instruments in establishing international performance standards.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be inspected...

  14. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  15. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system. (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai


    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Drilling Fluids Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sedaghatzadeh


    Full Text Available Designing drilling fluids for drilling in deep gas reservoirs and geothermal wells is a major challenge. Cooling drilling fluids and preparing stable mud with high thermal conductivity are of great concern. Drilling nanofluids, i.e. a low fraction of carbon nanotube (CNT well dispersed in mud, may enhance the mixture thermal conductivity compared to the base fluids. Thus, they are potentially useful for advanced designing high temperature and high pressure (HTHP drilling fluids. In the present study, the impacts of CNT volume fraction, ball milling time, functionalization, temperature, and dispersion quality (by means of scanning electron microscopy, SEM on the thermal and rheological properties of water-based mud are experimentally investigated. The thermal conductivities of the nano-based drilling fluid are measured with a transient hot wire method. The experimental results show that the thermal conductivity of the water-based drilling fluid is enhanced by 23.2% in the presence of 1 vol% functionalized CNT at room temperature; it increases by 31.8% by raising the mud temperature to 50 °C. Furthermore, significant improvements are seen in the rheological properties—such as yield point, filtration properties, and annular viscosity—of the CNTmodified drilling fluid compared to the base mud, which pushes forward their future development.

  17. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition (United States)

    Zhang, Peng


    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  18. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.


    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  19. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, C.P.


    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility

  20. Lifting device for drilling rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzivilovich, L L; Laptev, A G; Lipkovich, V A


    A lifter is proposed for drilling rods including a spacer stand with rotating bracket, boom with by-pass rollers, spacing and lifting hydrocylinders with rods and flexible tie mechanism. In order to improve labor productivity by improving maneuverability and to increase the maintenance zone, the lifter is equipped with a hydrocylinder of advance and a cross piece which is installed with the possibility of forward and rotational movement on the stand, and in which by means of the hydrocylinder of advance a boom is attached. Within the indicated boom there is a branch of the flexible tie mechanism with end attached with the possibility of regulation over the length on a rotating bracket, while the rod of the lifting hydrocylinder is connected to the cross piece.

  1. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  2. The effect of ultralow temperature on olefin cation formation by ionic fragmentation in the radiolysis of 2,3-dimethylbutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo


    The formation of olefin cations in the radiolysis of 2,3-dimethylbutane (DMB) was studied by ESR at 4.2 and 77 K. When a DMB-SF 6 mixture is γ-irradiated at 77 K, tetramethylethylene (TME) cations are formed remarkably. The formation of the TME cations, however, is suppressed at 4.2 K. When the DMB-SF 6 mixture is γ-irradiated at 4.2 K and then warmed to 77 K, TME cations are formed by thermal annealing. The TME cations are not formed by a charge transfer to olefinic impurities or olefinic products in radiolysis, but by H 2 elimination from parent DMB cations in the ground state. The remarkable formation of olefin cations at 77 K corresponds to the large yields of unsaturated dimers in the radiolysis of DMB at 77 K. The suppression of olefin cation formation at 4.2 K corresponds to the low yields of unsaturated dimers in the radiolysis of DMB at 4.2 K. (author)

  3. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  4. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque


    Zhonghua Li; Liyuan Zhu; Wanlei Yin; Yanfang Song


    This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the a...

  5. Effects of calcination and activation conditions on ordered mesoporous carbon supported iron catalysts for production of lower olefins from synthesis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oschatz, M; van Deelen, T W; Weber, J L; Lamme, W S; Wang, G; Goderis, B; Verkinderen, O; Dugulan, A I; de Jong, K P


    Lower C2–C4 olefins are important commodity chemicals usually produced by steam cracking of naphtha or fluid catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil. The Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of lower olefins (FTO) with iron-based catalysts uses synthesis gas as an alternative feedstock. Nanostructured carbon

  6. Metal-free oxidative olefination of primary amines with benzylic C-H bonds through direct deamination and C-H bond activation. (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Xing, Li-Juan; Xu, Tong; Zhu, Xue-Ping; Zhou, Wen; Kang, Ning; Wang, Bin


    An oxidative olefination reaction between aliphatic primary amines and benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds has been achieved using N-bromosuccinimide as catalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The olefination proceeds under mild metal-free conditions through direct deamination and benzylic C-H bond activation, and provides easy access to biologically active 2-styrylquinolines with (E)-configuration.

  7. Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments (United States)

    Hahn, Simon; Duda, Mandy; Stoeckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker; Bracke, Rolf


    Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments S. Hahn, M. Duda, F. Stoeckhert, V. Wittig, R. Bracke International Geothermal Centre Bochum High pressure water jet drilling technologies are widely used in the drilling industry. Especially in geothermal and hard rock applications, horizontal (radial) jet drilling is, however, confronted with several limitations like lateral length, hole size and steerability. In order to serve as a serious alternative to conventional stimulation techniques these high pressure jetting techniques are experimentally investigated to gain fundamental knowledge about the fluid-structure interaction, to enhance the rock failing process and to identify the governing drilling parameters. The experimental program is divided into three levels. In a first step jetting experiments are performed under free surface conditions while logging fluid pressures, flow speeds and extracted rock volume. All process parameters are quantified with a self-developed jet-ability index and compared to the rock properties (density, porosity, permeability, etc.). In a second step experiments will be performed under pressure-controlled conditions. A test bench is currently under construction offering the possibility to assign an in-situ stress field to the specimen while penetrating the rock sample with a high pressure water jet or a radial jet drilling device. The experimental results from levels 1 and 2 allow to identify the governing rock failure mechanisms and to correlate them with physical rock properties and limited reservoir conditions. Results of the initial tests do show a clear dependency of achievable penetration depth on the interaction of jetting and rock parameters and an individual threshold of the nozzle outlet velocity can be noticed in order to successfully penetrate different formation types. At level 3 jetting experiments will be performed at simulated reservoir conditions corresponding to 5.000 m depth (e

  8. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview (United States)

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.


    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  9. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.


    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  10. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea


    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  11. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Pharis, B.


    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  12. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.


    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  13. Palladium(II-catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids with olefins under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh


    Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.

  14. Argentation gas chromatography revisited: Separation of light olefin/paraffin mixtures using silver-based ionic liquid stationary phases. (United States)

    Nan, He; Zhang, Cheng; Venkatesh, Amrit; Rossini, Aaron J; Anderson, Jared L


    Silver ion or argentation chromatography utilizes stationary phases containing silver ions for the separation of unsaturated compounds. In this study, a mixed-ligand silver-based ionic liquid (IL) was evaluated for the first time as a gas chromatographic (GC) stationary phase for the separation of light olefin/paraffin mixtures. The selectivity of the stationary phase toward olefins can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of silver ion and the mixed ligands. The maximum allowable operating temperature of these stationary phases was determined to be between 125°C and 150°C. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the coordination behavior of the silver-based IL as well as provide an understanding into the retention mechanism of light olefins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp3)–H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao


    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp3)–H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp3)–H olefination reaction. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp3)–H activation of alkyl amine is also a significant step towards practical C–H functionalizations of alkyl amines. PMID:26796676

  16. Tacticities study of high poly-α-olefins, from poly-1-hexene to poly-1-octadecene, obtained with metallocenes catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciano F. da; Galland, Griselda B.


    High poly-α-olefins such as poly-1-hexene, poly-1-octene, poly-1-decene, poly-1-dodecene, poly-1-tetradecene, poly-1-hexadecene and poly-1-octadecene were obtained with the homogeneous iso specific catalyst rac-Et[Ind]ZrCl 2 /MAO and with the homogeneous syndiospecific catalyst Me 2 C[Cp(9-Flu)]ZrCl 2 /MAO at the polymerization temperatures of 0 deg C, 30 deg C and 60 deg C. The polymers were analyzed by 13 C NMR to study the influence of the α - olefins sizes, the catalysts type and the polymerization temperatures in their tacticities. The stereospecific control of both catalytic systems decreased with the increase of the reaction temperature and with the α-olefin size. (author)

  17. Synthesis and essay of an Ionomer like catalyst of olefins epoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyaca Mendivelso, Alejandro; Tempesti, Ezio


    The purpose of the present work is the preparation of an ionomer with base in Molybdenum and to evaluate its activity like catalyst of olefins epoxidation like alternative of synthesis of catalysts of the Hawk process. A polymer is synthesized with available functional groups to stabilize the metal starting from sodium molybdate; the characterization is made by atomic absorption, spectroscopy to GO, and X.P.S. The characterization indicates that indeed it is possible to stabilize the Mo in the main polymeric. The evaluation in reaction in liquid phase allows similar conversions to those of a homogeneous catalyst. The selective epoxidation of olefins for alkyl hydroperoxides, it has acquired great importance inside the industrial processes obtaining of propylene oxide due to the recent use of the terbutilic alcohol (co-produced together with the epoxide), as preservative in gasoline free of lead. In the environment of these processes, and in particular in the Hawk process possibilities of technological innovation, in the concerning to the heterogenization of conventional catalysts, at the moment used in homogeneous phase. The present work collaborate to some tentative that look for to generate alternative of preparation of catalysts for the process Hawk, synthesizing and testing the activity of an ionomer like epoxidation catalyst, which tries to reproduce the chemical structure of the complexes organ-metallic pear to suppress the separation stages and necessary recovery facilitating its recurrent reutilization with eventual economic repercussions in the industrial process. It is described the procedure of synthesis of the ionomer, the characterization and the evaluation of the activity in reaction under diverse conditions. Of the made characterization it comes off that the heterogenization of catalysts for olefins epoxidation, according to the Hawk process, is possible by means of the preparation of polymers modified appropriately. Likewise the evaluation in

  18. Cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamzadah, Soheila; Petty, Tom J.; De Almeida, Victor; Nishimura, Taisuke; Joly, Jacques; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Halazonetis, Thanos D.


    A cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system has been established for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction. Microfluidics is a promising technology for the rapid identification of protein crystallization conditions. However, most of the existing systems utilize silicone elastomers as the chip material which, despite its many benefits, is highly permeable to water vapour. This limits the time available for protein crystallization to less than a week. Here, the use of a cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction is described. Liquid handling in this system is performed in 2 mm thin transparent cards which contain 500 chambers, each with a volume of 320 nl. Microbatch, vapour-diffusion and free-interface diffusion protocols for protein crystallization were implemented and crystals were obtained of a number of proteins, including chicken lysozyme, bovine trypsin, a human p53 protein containing both the DNA-binding and oligomerization domains bound to DNA and a functionally important domain of Arabidopsis Morpheus’ molecule 1 (MOM1). The latter two polypeptides have not been crystallized previously. For X-ray diffraction analysis, either the cards were opened to allow mounting of the crystals on loops or the crystals were exposed to X-rays in situ. For lysozyme, an entire X-ray diffraction data set at 1.5 Å resolution was collected without removing the crystal from the card. Thus, cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics systems have the potential to further automate protein crystallization and structural genomics efforts


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis


    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  20. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido


    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  1. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L


    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  2. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M


    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  3. Energetics of the ruthenium-halide bond in olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura; Poater, Albert; Cazin, Catherine S J; Slugovc, Christian; Cavallo, Luigi


    A DFT analysis of the strength of the Ru-halide bond in a series of typical olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts is presented. The calculated Ru-halide bond energies span the rather broad window of 25-43 kcal mol-1. This indicates that in many systems dissociation of the Ru-halide bond is possible and is actually competitive with dissociation of the labile ligand generating the 14e active species. Consequently, formation of cationic Ru species in solution should be considered as a possible event. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Cascade olefin isomerization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes. (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Lupton, David W


    The addition of an N-heterocyclic carbene to the carbonyl group of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated enol ester affords a hemiacetal azolium intermediate that enables a cascade olefin isomerization/Diels-Alder reaction, for which mechanistic studies implicate Lewis base catalysis. Preliminary studies into the utility of the products have been undertaken with reductive and oxidative cleavage, giving materials for potential use in complex-target synthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New synthesis of photocurable silanes and polysiloxanes bearing heterocyclic or olefinic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, B.; Lecamp, L.; Garin, S.; Bunel, C.


    In this work, we described the synthesis of silanes and polysiloxanes bearing cationic photopolymerizable groups. Two new methods were used. The first one is the reaction between 3-mercapto-propyl-1-triethoxysilane (1) and chloromethylated olefins by a phase transfer catalysis. The second one is the radical addition of (1) or poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-methylmercaptopropylsiloxane) (9) to allyl or vinyl substituted heterocyclic monomers. These methods led to the expected adducts with an excellent yield. The polysiloxanes bearing heterocyclic functional groups linked through thioether bonds were photocurable by cationic route. Under UV light intensity of 17.5 mW/cm 2 , these polymers harden after 15 or 20 s

  6. Synthesis and characterization of tantalum organometallic complexes. Catalytic activity for olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley, A.S.


    Synthesis of monoaryloxy (alcoxy) neopentyl compounds is investigated. The tantalum-oxygen bond is formed by two parallel ways from TaCl 5 or TaR 2 Cl 3 with R = neopentyl and the tantalum carbon bond from a neopentyl derivative of the main series. Some compounds were isolated and characterized by NMR, elemental analysis and sometimes X-ray structure, some others are characterized in solution only. Catalytic effect is tested by ethylene dimerization and olefin polymerization. Reactivity of tantalum aryloxy neopentyl in respect to complexing and chelating ligands is studied for preparation of neopentylidene complexes

  7. Synthesis of Chiral, Enantiopure Allylic Amines by the Julia Olefination of α-Amino Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Benedetti


    Full Text Available The four-step conversion of a series of N-Boc-protected l-amino acid methyl esters into enantiopure N-Boc allylamines by a modified Julia olefination is described. Key steps include the reaction of a lithiated phenylalkylsulfone with amino esters, giving chiral β-ketosulfones, and the reductive elimination of related α-acetoxysulfones. The overall transformation takes place under mild conditions, with good yields, and without loss of stereochemical integrity, being in this respect superior to the conventional Julia reaction of α-amino aldehydes.

  8. Wittig Reaction: Domino Olefination and Stereoselectivity DFT Study. Synthesis of the Miharamycins' Bicyclic Sugar Moiety. (United States)

    Cachatra, Vasco; Almeida, Andreia; Sardinha, João; Lucas, Susana D; Gomes, Ana; Vaz, Pedro D; Florêncio, M Helena; Nunes, Rafael; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Calhorda, Maria José; Rauter, Amélia P


    2-O-Acyl protected-d-ribo-3-uloses reacted with [(ethoxycarbonyl)methylene]triphenylphosphorane in acetonitrile to afford regio- and stereoselectively 2-(Z)-alkenes in 10-60 min under microwave irradiation. This domino reaction is proposed to proceed via tautomerization of 3-ulose to enol, acyl migration, tautomerization to the 3-O-acyl-2-ulose, and Wittig reaction. Alternatively, in chloroform, regioselective 3-olefination of 2-O-pivaloyl-3-uloses gave (E)-alkenes, key precursors for the miharamycins' bicyclic sugar moiety.

  9. A new approach to ferrocene derived alkenes via copper-catalyzed olefination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Muzalevskiy


    Full Text Available A new approach to ferrocenyl haloalkenes and bis-alkenes was elaborated. The key procedure involves copper catalyzed olefination of N-unsubstituted hydrazones, obtained from ferrocene-containing carbonyl compounds and hydrazine, with polyhaloalkanes. The procedure is simple, cheap and could be applied for the utilization of environmentally harmful polyhalocarbons. The cyclic voltammetry study of the representative examples of the synthesized ferrocenyl alkenes shows the strong dependence of the cathodic behavior on the amount of vinyl groups: while for the monoalkene containing molecules no reduction is seen, the divinyl products are reduced in several steps.

  10. A new approach to ferrocene derived alkenes via copper-catalyzed olefination. (United States)

    Muzalevskiy, Vasily M; Shastin, Aleksei V; Demidovich, Alexandra D; Shikhaliev, Namiq G; Magerramov, Abel M; Khrustalev, Victor N; Rakhimov, Rustem D; Vatsadze, Sergey Z; Nenajdenko, Valentine G


    A new approach to ferrocenyl haloalkenes and bis-alkenes was elaborated. The key procedure involves copper catalyzed olefination of N-unsubstituted hydrazones, obtained from ferrocene-containing carbonyl compounds and hydrazine, with polyhaloalkanes. The procedure is simple, cheap and could be applied for the utilization of environmentally harmful polyhalocarbons. The cyclic voltammetry study of the representative examples of the synthesized ferrocenyl alkenes shows the strong dependence of the cathodic behavior on the amount of vinyl groups: while for the monoalkene containing molecules no reduction is seen, the divinyl products are reduced in several steps.

  11. Synthesis of Chiral, Enantiopure Allylic Amines by the Julia Olefination of α-Amino Esters. (United States)

    Benedetti, Fabio; Berti, Federico; Fanfoni, Lidia; Garbo, Michele; Regini, Giorgia; Felluga, Fulvia


    The four-step conversion of a series of N-Boc-protected l-amino acid methyl esters into enantiopure N-Boc allylamines by a modified Julia olefination is described. Key steps include the reaction of a lithiated phenylalkylsulfone with amino esters, giving chiral β-ketosulfones, and the reductive elimination of related α-acetoxysulfones. The overall transformation takes place under mild conditions, with good yields, and without loss of stereochemical integrity, being in this respect superior to the conventional Julia reaction of α-amino aldehydes.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Oxidative Arylation/Olefination of Aromatic Tethered Alkenes/Alkynes. (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Gao, Yinglan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Liu, Wenbo; Li, Chao-Jun


    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed tandem oxidative arylation/olefination reaction of aromatic tethered alkenes/alkynes for the synthesis of dihydrobenzofurans and 2 H-chromene derivatives. This reaction features a 1,2-difunctionalization of C-C π-bond with two C-H bonds using O 2 as terminal oxidant at room temperature. The products obtained are valuable synthons and important scaffolds in biological agents and natural products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed olefination via carbonyl reductive cross-coupling. (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Haining; Li, Chenchen; Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Chao-Jun


    Natural availability of carbonyl groups offers reductive carbonyl coupling tremendous synthetic potential for efficient olefin synthesis, yet the catalytic carbonyl cross-coupling remains largely elusive. We report herein such a reaction, mediated by hydrazine under ruthenium(ii) catalysis. This method enables facile and selective cross-couplings of two unsymmetrical carbonyl compounds in either an intermolecular or intramolecular fashion. Moreover, this chemistry accommodates a variety of substrates, proceeds under mild reaction conditions with good functional group tolerance, and generates stoichiometric benign byproducts. Importantly, the coexistence of KO t Bu and bidentate phosphine dmpe is vital to this transformation.

  14. Lewis Base Activation of Silyl Acetals: Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination. (United States)

    Dakarapu, Udaya Sree; Bokka, Apparao; Asgari, Parham; Trog, Gabriela; Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Rahman, Nawal; Jeon, Junha


    A Lewis base promoted deprotonative pronucleophile addition to silyl acetals has been developed and applied to the iridium-catalyzed reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of esters and the chemoselective reduction of the resulting enoates. Lewis base activation of silyl acetals generates putative pentacoordinate silicate acetals, which fragment into aldehydes, silanes, and alkoxides in situ. Subsequent deprotonative metalation of phosphonate esters followed by HWE with aldehydes furnishes enoates. This operationally convenient, mechanistically unique protocol converts the traditionally challenging aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl esters to homologated enoates at room temperature within a single vessel.

  15. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Ortho- or Meta-C–H Olefination of Phenol Derivatives (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Xiong; Li, Gang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Stepan, Antonia F.


    A combination of weakly coordinating auxiliaries and ligand acceleration allows for the development of both ortho- and meta-selective C–H olefination of phenol derivatives. These reactions demonstrate the feasibility of directing C–H functionalizations when functional groups are distal to target C–H bonds. The meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich phenol derivatives is unprecedented and orthogonal to previous electrophilic substitution of phenols in terms of regioselectivity. These methods are also applied to functionalize α-phenoxyacetic acids, a fibrate class of drug scaffolds. PMID:23614807

  16. An adaptive self-healing ionic liquid nanocomposite membrane for olefin-paraffin separations. (United States)

    Pitsch, Fee; Krull, Florian F; Agel, Friederike; Schulz, Peter; Wasserscheid, Peter; Melin, Thomas; Wessling, Matthias


    An adaptive self-healing ionic liquid nanocomposite membrane comprising a multi-layer support structure hosting the ionic salt [Ag](+) [Tf(2) N](-) is used for the separation of the olefin propylene and the paraffin propane. The ionic salt renders liquid like upon complexation with propylene, resulting in facilitated transport of propylene over propane at benchmark-setting selectivity and permeance levels. The contacting with acetylene causes the ionic salt to liquefy without showing evidence of forming explosive silver acetylide. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electrochromatography on acrylate-based monolith in cyclic olefin copolymer microchip: an attractive technology. (United States)

    Ladner, Y; Cretier, G; Faure, K


    Electrochromatography (EC) on a porous monolithic stationary phase prepared within the channels of a microsystem is an attractive alternative for on-chip separation. It combines the separation mechanisms of electrophoresis and liquid chromatography. Moreover, the porous polymer monolithic materials have become popular as stationary phase due to the ease and rapidity of fabrication via free radical photopolymerization. Here, we describe a hexyl acrylate (HA)-based porous monolith which is simultaneously in situ synthesized and anchored to the inner walls of the channel of a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) device in only 2 min. The baseline separation of a mixture of neurotransmitters including six amino acids and two catecholamines is realized.

  18. Preparation of Mesoporous SBA-16 Silica-Supported Biscinchona Alkaloid Ligand for the Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen M. Sarkar


    Full Text Available Optically active cinchona alkaloid was anchored onto mesoporous SBA-16 silica and the as-prepared complex was used as a heterogeneous chiral ligand of osmium tetraoxide for the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins. The prepared catalytic system provided 90–93% yield of vicinal diol with 92–99% enantioselectivity. The ordered mesoporous SBA-16 silica was found to be a valuable support for the cinchona alkaloid liganded osmium catalyst system which is frequently used in chemical industries and research laboratories for olefin functionalization.

  19. Dismantlable Thermosetting Adhesives Composed of a Cross-Linkable Poly(olefin sulfone) with a Photobase Generator. (United States)

    Sasaki, Takeo; Hashimoto, Shouta; Nogami, Nana; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Mori, Madoka; Naka, Yumiko; Le, Khoa V


    A novel photodetachable adhesive was prepared using a photodepolymerizable cross-linked poly(olefin sulfone). A mixture of a cross-linkable poly(olefin sulfone), a cross-linking reagent, and a photobase generator functioned as a thermosetting adhesive and exhibited high adhesive strength on quartz plates comparable to that obtained for commercially available epoxy adhesives. The cured resin was stable in the absence of UV light irradiation but completely lost its adhesive strength upon exposure of glued quartz plates to UV light in conjunction with heating to 100 °C.

  20. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Credendino, Raffaele; Slugovc, Christian; Cavallo, Luigi


    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Pd(II)-catalyzed di-o-olefination of carbazoles directed by the protecting N-(2-pyridyl)sulfonyl group. (United States)

    Urones, Beatriz; Gómez Arrayás, Ramón; Carretero, Juan Carlos


    Despite the significance of carbazole in pharmacy and material science, examples of the direct C-H functionalization of this privileged unit are quite rare. The N-(2-pyridyl)sulfonyl group enables the Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of carbazoles and related systems, acting as both a directing and readily removable protecting group. This method features ample structural versatility, affording typically the double ortho-olefination products (at C1 and C8) in satisfactory yields and complete regiocontrol. The application of this procedure to related heterocyclic systems, such as indoline, is also described.

  2. Aerobic Pd-Catalyzed sp3 C–H Olefination: A Route to Both N-Heterocyclic Scaffolds and Alkenes (United States)

    Stowers, Kara J.; Fortner, Kevin C.


    This communication describes a new method for the Pd/polyoxometalate-catalyzed aerobic olefination of unactivated sp3 C–H bonds. Nitrogen heterocycles serve as directing groups, and air is used as the terminal oxidant. The products undergo reversible intramolecular Michael addition, which protects the mono-alkenylated product from over-functionalization. Hydrogenation of the Michael adducts provides access to bicyclic nitrogen-containing scaffolds that are prevalent in alkaloid natural products. Additionally, the cationic Michael adducts undergo facile elimination to release α,β-unsaturated olefins, which can be elaborated in numerous C–C and C–heteroatom bond-forming reactions. PMID:21476513

  3. Clay-free drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeyev, R G; Panov, V B; Simonenkov, O I


    A clay-free drilling mud is proposed which contains humate-containing substance, alkali electrolyte, gel-former, inhibitor and water. In order to reduce viscosity of the static shear stress and water output under conditions of polyvalent aggression, it additionally contains organic stabilizer with the following ratio of components, % by mass: humate-containing substance 4.0-8.0; alkali electrolyte 0.2-1.5; gel-former 1.0-3.0; organic stabilizer 0.1-1.0; inhibitor 1.0-40.0; water--the rest. The solution is also distinguished by the fact that the gel-former used is magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate, or calcium chloride or aluminum sulfate, or iron chloride (III) or iron sulfate (II) or waste of chlorides of titanium production with average chemical composition, % by mass: Ti 1.5-7.0; Fe 5.0-15.0; Al 1.5-10.0; Na 5.0-16.0; Mg 0.5-3.0; Cl 30.0-60.0; Ca 0.2-2.0; Cr 0.2-2.0; Cu 0.2-1.5.

  4. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna


    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  5. Performance of Partially-Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide in Water Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Nasiri*


    Full Text Available Fluid properties with constant improvement in efficiency have been noticeable as important criteria in drilling operation. The main drilling fluid properties highly depend on utilization of new polymers with high efficiency in drilling fluid composition. In this paper, the performance of a new polymer, called partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (PHPA, is studied which has recently entered the drilling fluids industry in Iran. Hence viscosity property, fluid loss control and shale inhibition of this polymer have been evaluated based on an international standard method of API-13-I by considering the drilling and operational priorities of thecountry. Then the thermal effect, salt contaminants such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and pH tolerance effect as major pollution indicators are also investigated in relation to polymeric fluid properties. The results obtained by the tests show that furthermore polymer PHPA increases rheological properties (apparent viscosity, plastic fluidity and yield point and it plays important role in increases in fluid loss. This polymer has also demonstrated acceptable resistance toward sodium chloride contaminants, but its efficiency decreases toward calcium and magnesium ion contaminants. The thermal tests show that polymer PHPA has high thermal stability up to 150°C. This polymer improves shale inhibition property and by encapsulation mechanism prevents dispersion of shale cuttings into the drilling fluid system as it stops any changes in fluid properties which will finally results inwellbore stability.

  6. Milton Hydro's Energy Drill Program : demand response based on behavioural responses to price signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.; Heeney, D.


    The Energy Drill Program is a demand response tool and economic instrument based on a fire drill protocol. The aim of the program is to reduce peak demand and emissions and improve system reliability and price volatility. This presentation provided details of an Energy Drill pilot program, conducted in Milton, Ontario. Customized approaches were used in the buildings partaking in the drill, which included the Milton Hydro Headquarters, the Robert Baldwin Public School, and a leisure centre. Building assessments inventoried building systems and equipment usage patterns. Pilot monitoring and evaluation was conducted through the use of checklists completed by marshals and building coordinators. Energy use data was tracked by Milton Hydro, and report cards were sent after each drill. A short-term drop in demand was observed in all the buildings, as well as overall reductions in peak period demand. Energy consumption data for all the buildings were provided. Results of the pilot program suggested that rotating the drills among participating buildings may prove to be a more effective strategy for the program to adopt in future. A greater emphasis on energy efficiency was also recommended. It was concluded that the eventual roll-out strategy should carefully consider the number and types of buildings involved in the program; internal commitment to the program; available resources; and timing for implementation. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Seize the data (Carpe data) : wave of computerized data capture technology sweeps drilling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.


    The computerization of all aspects of the monitoring and collection of well drilling information is discussed. Global Link International Inc. of Calgary, has developed a computerized system for tracking and recording drilling data. This operations recording database is named the Electronic Tour Book (ETB). It is similar to the Electronic Tour Sheet (ETS) developed by Chimo Equipment Ltd. of Alberta. Both Windows-based systems represent computerized reporting mechanisms for operators, producers, loggers and rig-managers. Another Alberta company, Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., has begun marketing the Tru Vu Fusion system of hardware and software, yet another system for gathering and recording drilling data. Tru Vu Fusion can capture data and display it in a format that everybody at the wellsite can use for decision making. Another drilling data management system, entitled INSITE (for Integrated System for Information Technology and Engineering) is marketed by Sperry-Sun Drilling Services. While INSITE is intended primarily for offshore drilling applications, it can be used onshore with equal success. 4 figs.

  8. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.


    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  9. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations


    Li, Hongtao; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Gao; Wei, Na; Liu, Jiajie; Ma, Xiao; Duan, Mubai; Gu, Siman; Zhu, Kuanliang; Xu, Xiaofeng


    Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental dat...

  10. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.


    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  11. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirud, Aase P.


    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  12. Drilling and logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The report reviews drilling and logging practices in exploration of uranium ores and summarizes the papers presented in the panel meeting. Recommendations for further research and development are given


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  14. An elevator for locked drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R.S.; Abbasov, E.M.; Ismailov, A.A.; Mamedov, Yu.S.; Safarov, A.A.


    An elevator is proposed, which includes a body with a door. To reduce the probability of gas shows in a well with high speed lowering and lifting of the column of locked drilling pipes through providing the possibility of feeding a drilling mud in this case into the mine, the elevator is equipped with a pneumatic cylinder with a two way hollow rod, on one face of which a sealing element is mounted for sealing the drilling pipe and on the other, an adapter for feeding the drilling mud. The rod is linked with the sleeve of the pneumatic cylinder, which is rigidly linked with the body with the capability of axial movement without rotation.

  15. Ocean Drilling Program: Web Site Access Statistics (United States)

    web site ODP/TAMU Science Operator Home Ocean Drilling Program Web Site Access Statistics* Overview See statistics for JOIDES members. See statistics for Janus database. 1997 October November December

  16. Pushing the limits : from better bits to faster coil, companies leverage technology to ramp up onshore drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.


    Horizontal drilling and drilling with coiled tubing are two well drilling techniques that have steadily gained ground in the drilling industry. Most of the techniques evolved in western Canada and Alaska, but are now being successfully used south of the border. This article discussed the leveraging of technology by drilling companies in order to ramp up onshore drilling performance. Calgary-based Xtreme Coil Drilling Corp. leveraged its unique coil over top drive rigs in order to score more speed records and set new marks in both the United States Rockies and Mexico. This article also referred to other companies and their wells that have set records, including CNX Gas Corporation and the Marcellus Shale prospect; Smith International and its horizontal turbodrilling of a Pennsylvanian reservoir; and Baker Oil Tools' new rotating, self-aligning multilateral (RAM) system. For each of these examples, the article described the technology and the challenges encountered by the companies as well as the objectives of the project, and results of the drilling efforts. 2 figs.

  17. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.


    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  18. Remarks on Residual Stress Measurement by Hole-Drilling and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barile


    Full Text Available Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  19. Remarks on residual stress measurement by hole-drilling and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. (United States)

    Barile, Claudia; Casavola, Caterina; Pappalettera, Giovanni; Pappalettere, Carmine


    Hole drilling is the most widespread method for measuring residual stress. It is based on the principle that drilling a hole in the material causes a local stress relaxation; the initial residual stress can be calculated by measuring strain in correspondence with each drill depth. Recently optical techniques were introduced to measure strain; in this case, the accuracy of the final results depends, among other factors, on the proper choice of the area of analysis. Deformations are in fact analyzed within an annulus determined by two parameters: the internal and the external radius. In this paper, the influence of the choice of the area of analysis was analysed. A known stress field was introduced on a Ti grade 5 sample and then the stress was measured in correspondence with different values of the internal and the external radius of analysis; results were finally compared with the expected theoretical value.

  20. Stratigraphy in Apollo 16 drill section 60002 (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Morrison, D. A.


    Contacts in drill stem 60002 which indicate layers at least several centimeters thick and with one firm age of about 2.5 x 10 to the 7th yr are observed on the basis of characteristic patterns of track density variation with depth from the contact. The patterns can be observed primarily because the drill stem has a large immature component (path II soils).