WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal migration flows

  1. Quantifying global international migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Guy J; Sander, Nikola

    2014-03-28

    Widely available data on the number of people living outside of their country of birth do not adequately capture contemporary intensities and patterns of global migration flows. We present data on bilateral flows between 196 countries from 1990 through 2010 that provide a comprehensive view of international migration flows. Our data suggest a stable intensity of global 5-year migration flows at ~0.6% of world population since 1995. In addition, the results aid the interpretation of trends and patterns of migration flows to and from individual countries by placing them in a regional or global context. We estimate the largest movements to occur between South and West Asia, from Latin to North America, and within Africa.

  2. Trends in international migration and remittance flows: Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, K.S; Mozumdar, L.; Kabir, M.S; Hossain, K.B

    2009-01-01

    International migration from Bangladesh has become a defining characteristic of the country. Especially since 1980s, large scale labour migration has become a common phenomenon of Bangladesh. This paper examines the various issues of international migration and remittance flows of Bangladesh on the basis of the secondary data generated from various reports of government and non-government organizations and of various publications of home and abroad. With a few exceptions, manpower export has ...

  3. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  4. A STUDY ON THE INTERNAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN TURKEY: LOWRY HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERHAT TOPBAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to re-examine Lowry hypothesis that were examined for Turkey in period of 1965–1980 by Gedik (1992 and period of 1985–1990 by Yamak and Küçükkale (2001 by using The Census of Population 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 in Turkey. For this reason, the relationships between in-migration and out-migration and net migration have investigated with population size, net migration rate and per capita income factors. Analysis that involve in all provinces called general model is not considered in social, economic and urban development factors. In addition, estimated restriction models that are considered urban development are involved population, net migration rate and per capita income factors. In conclusion we have exposed comparatively relationship between internal migration flows and urban development frame of estimated models.

  5. THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOW OF LABOR DURING THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alic BIRCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author debates the international migration flow of labor during the process of Republic of Moldova’s integration with the European Union. Therefore, the author presents the economic causes and effects of the international migration of workforce. Both emigration and immigration flows grouped by specific categories of persons are presented. The evolution of the number of Moldovan immigrants and emigrants in the member states is also presented. Furthermore, the article shows statistic data regarding the number of Moldovan citizens aged over 15 that are working abroad or searching for a workplace abroad.

  6. Overcoming the Problems of Inconsistent International Migration data : A New Method Applied to Flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Joop; Raymer, James; van der Erf, Rob; van Wissen, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Due to differences in definitions and measurement methods, cross-country comparisons of international migration patterns are difficult and confusing. Emigration numbers reported by sending countries tend to differ from the corresponding immigration numbers reported by receiving countries. In this

  7. Overcoming the problems of inconsistent international migration data: a new method applied to flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, J.A.A.; Raymer, J.; van der Erf, R.F.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Due to differences in definitions and measurement methods, crosscountry comparisons of international migration patterns are difficult and confusing. Emigration numbers reported by sending countries tend to differ from the corresponding immigration numbers reported by receiving countries. In this

  8. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  9. MONITORING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE - TOWARDS A STATISTICAL-DATA BASE COMBINING DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEKENS, F

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent

  10. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  11. Internal migration in Germany, 1995-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    "Over the last two decades, patterns of internal migration in Germany have been discussed under the headings of East-West movements and sub- and re-urbanisation. This paper argues that the intense scientific and public debate that ignited about the possible causes and consequences of internal migration should be based on a clear understanding of how internal migration flows impact on regional population change. Using the German Internal Migration (GIM) database, a unique new dataset that hold...

  12. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  13. Population commission discusses international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  14. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  15. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  16. International Migration of Labor: Boon or Bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip L.; Richards, Alan

    1980-01-01

    According to international trade theory, free labor flows across national borders should benefit workers, employers, and societies. But recent evidence indicates that such migration may not provide these desired benefits. (Author/SK)

  17. International migration and the gender

    OpenAIRE

    Koropecká, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...

  18. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  19. Migration, income redistribution, and international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Meckl, Jürgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...

  20. Interregional migration flows in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajdi, N.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Mulder, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Population Census and Intercensal Population Survey data permit description of the origin–destination patterns that characterize interregional migration flows in Indonesia. Application of the framework of population redistribution proposed by Long (1985) results in indications of over-urbanization,

  1. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  2. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  3. Internal migration in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J

    1989-01-01

    "E. G. Ravenstein proposed 'laws of migration' to explain the movement of population in the British Isles from data in the 1881 census. Here, migration in Peru is studied using data from the 1981 census to ascertain the extent to which Ravenstein's 'laws' hold for a different country at a different time.... In conclusion, it is a salutory exercise to apply Ravenstein's seven laws and other findings to Peru and to see how, in a different environment a good time ago, someone could produce a model with wide applicability." excerpt

  4. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till

    2018-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  5. Internal migration: why do Filipinos move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolipa, N

    1980-01-01

    The rapid movement of Filipinos from 1 part of the Philippines to another is not a new phenomenon, but mobility has been increasing. A study conducted by Peter C. Smith revealed that interprovincial lifetime mobility of the national population increased from 15.8% in 1960 to 17.6% in 1970, while interregional mobility increased from 12.7% to 13.4%. People still disagree as to whether the size and rate of growth of the population are excessive, but there seems to be total consensus as regards its spatial imbalance. Because internal migration appears to be an important factor in national development, a need exists to examine different aspects of internal migration, such as the directions taken by migration flows, the migrants' reasons for moving, the migrants' characteristics, the migrants' success or lack of success at their places of destination, the social problems accompanying internal migration, effforts to deal with the problems caused by internal migration, and the implications of migration trends for policy and for the country's development programs. The most dominant migration trend in the Philippines in recent years has been toward the urban, or more accurately the suburban, areas adjacent to Metropolitan Manila. The city of Manila itself suffered a net outflow, further pointing to the trend toward suburbanization. Migration flows are primarily caused by economic reasons. About one half the sample of a Filipinas Foundation Study moved to provinces other than the province of birth in the pursuit of employment and other economic opportunities. A study of the country's migrant population age 15 and older showed that 53% of migrants were female. For male migrants, age ranges from 20-40; it ranges from 15-35 for females. Where cash income is concerned, migrants in Pernia's study of rural urban migration were better off than nonmigrants. Migrants were, on the average, as well off as native urbanites or metropolitanites. Among the more significant points raised by

  6. International migration policies: conceptual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, M M

    1987-01-01

    Kritz reviews national concepts and policies of migration. She examines how nation-states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policies for permanent, temporary, and illegal migrants are examined for selected countries. While the traditional permanent immigration countries--Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US--continue to admit large numbers of permanent migrants, they are also admitting growing numbers of temporary migrants. Other countries, in Europe and the developing world, have different migration histories and use other approaches to admit foreigners--migrants are generally admitted on a temporary basis for work or other purposes. Growing numbers of these temporary migrants, however, do become long-term or permanent settlers, and the distinction between permanent and temporary migration policies becomes a short-term legal one rather than a long-term sociological one. Governments have been seeking those policy instruments that would allow them to improve control over who enters and settles in their territories, and temporary migration policies are the measures to which they are turning. While increasing restriction characterizes the policy stance of most countries toward international migration, this does not necessarily mean that the number of migrants entering is declining. Kritz argues that the concepts employed by countries in their immigration policies frequently do not correspond to the reality, making it necessary to examine the actual context.

  7. Irregular migration: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, S M

    1984-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of irregular migrations worldwide, a certain misappreciation or underestimation of the saliency of irregular migration issues persists. Conflict in the strife-torn Indian state of Assam, for example, has been widely publicized, but its roots in immigration issues linked to communal tensions are insufficiently understood. Conflict around the globe seems increasingly to involve, both as cause and effect, migrants in irregular status whose problematical or illegitimate presence itself is at issue. The global recession prompted governments in immigration-welcoming countries to adopt more restrictive stances vis-a-vis immigration at a time when global migratory pressures were expanding enormously. As if by a process of demonstration effect, 1 country after another began to view migratory flows with alarm--flows which previously had been regarded as benign or quantitatively unimportant. Part I of this special issue examines a variety of public responses to irregular migration. Part II looks at legalization issues in a number of national contexts. Part III contains 3 comparative reflections on immigration reform in industrial democracies. Part IV provides an overview and sampling of recent empirical and survey research findings on irregular status migrants, primarily in the US. This special issue is intended to encourage further research on irregular migration, foster better understanding of this complex phenomenon, and contribute to enlightened public policy-making.

  8. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have begun intensive recruitment of foreign qualified female healthcare workers, which has led to the point that nurse migration today presents a very intense, and by many accounts specific migration flow. Female migrating work force is often in pursuit of low-wage and lowqualified work. Nurse migration is actually an example of motion of qualified female migrants in pursuit for better employment opportunities. While such a way of filling up the vacant positions works for the “importing” countries as a temporary solution, departure of trained female personnel presents a significant loss for the originating countries. In this paper we pay special attention to the countries who are the main “importers”, but also to those who are “exporters” of nursing personnel, and to specific national strategies these countries have applied.

  9. The future scenario for international labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassello, G

    1989-01-01

    The study of migration helps us to grasp the social evolution and the political and economic strategies required to meet the new economic trends. The issue of permanent or temporary migration, long debated in the 1960s, now tends to disappear. Migrants are compared more to commuters on the international labor markets. Besides the economic out-migration flows, there are also the refugee migrations or the ever present phenomenon of persons uprooted from their home country as a result of natural disasters and famine. The worldwide economic crisis in the 1970s, the recession affecting some industrialized countries which used to be traditional labor-importing countries have barred many potential immigrant workers from entering these countries. If, on 1 hand, the persistent high rate of unemployment due to the transformation of industry and the computerization process has caused the dismissal of numerous unskilled--mainly immigrants--on the other hand, it has created the exigency of highly qualified personnel. The children of the indigenous population are therefore favored because of their better scholastic training. A 2nd generation is now condemned to remain marginal even though they have been brought up to the ideals of social improvement and integration into higher standards of living. A highly dissatisfied category of young people is now an integral part of many labor-importing countries. Many industrial countries are flirting with zero population growth. Considering the demographic, economic, social, and political imbalances which exist and tend to grow, the world now has all the prerequisites for huge and prolonged migration flows originating from the South and moving almost exclusively toward the megacities and the industrial countries in the North. As long as technological as well as social inequalities persist, inner and international migration flows will continue. It is evident that the aim of many highly industrialized countries is the total ceasing of all

  10. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-01-01

    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  11. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized.

  12. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  13. Networks Effects in International Migration : Education versus Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Michel BEINE; Sara SALOMONE

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of networks on the structure of international migration flows to OECD countries. In particular, we look at whether diaspora effects are different across education levels and gender. Using new data allowing to include both dimensions, we are able to analyze the respective impact of networks on the proportion of each category of migrant. Therefore, unlike the preceding literature on macro determinants of international migration, we can identify the factors that in...

  14. Network Effects in International Migration: Education versus Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Beine; Sara Salomone

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of networks on the structure of international migration flows. In particular, we investigate whether diaspora externalities are dif- ferent across education levels and gender. Using new data including both dimensions, we analyze the respective impact of networks on the proportion of each category of migrant. Therefore, in contrast to the preceding literature on macro determinants of international migration, we can identify the factors that influence the selectio...

  15. [International migration in the Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, G

    1985-01-01

    This special issue contains a selection of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of international migration to the Middle East. Papers are included on the impact of migration on socioeconomic development, income distribution, and rural capitalization in Egypt; migration from rural Lebanon; the effect of emigration on Pakistan; Indian workers in Oman; inter-Arab migration and development; the role of the state in migration in the Arab peninsula; the dynamics of manpower in Kuwait; the Iraqi model and Arab unity; and the impact of this migration on the concept of the New Economic Order.

  16. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  17. Migration Flows from the Perspective of Sending and Receiving Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    by migration flows being sensitive to differences in public social expenditures have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. Further, traditional factors such as cultural and linguistic distance and migration costs as measured by physical distance between the countries are important......There are two specific phenomena that have had a large influence on the development in international migration during the last decades. First, while labor migration flows were dominating in the past, refugee immigrants and family reunion migrants from less developed non-Western countries have been...... growing sources of net immigration. Second, the 1990s have been strongly influenced by the collapse of the communism in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). After forty years of communist regime, the "Iron Curtain" fell, which brought, among other things, the possibility of movement abroad. Consequently...

  18. Internal migration and income of immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Saman

    2004-01-01

    Using a longitudinal dataset from the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, this study examines whether migration within the host country of Sweden generates higher total annual income for (two-earner) immigrant families. The empirical findings indicate that internal migration generates a positive outcome in terms of higher family income for newly arrived refugee-immigrant families. Further, with the length of residence in the host country, the monetary gain accruing from internal migration decr...

  19. Globalisation and international migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1998-03-01

    "The present paper attempts to summarise the major contemporary trends in international migration in Asia and how this is related to the rapid demographic transition occurring across most of the region. The diversity of types of mobility is one of the striking features of Asian international migration and developments in each major type [are] discussed in the paper. It is then argued that there are elements within the Asian migration system that give it a momentum which to some extent operates outside of the influence of economic and political trends. Finally some emerging issues in Asian international migration are briefly addressed. These include the scale and effects of remittances, the feminisation of migration, undocumented migration, increasing government involvement and brain drain issues." (EXCERPT)

  20. [International migration: backgrounds and developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J

    1997-03-01

    "Net migration [in the Netherlands] has fluctuated strongly during the past decades. In 1983 net migration (including net administrative corrections) was almost zero. In the early 1990s net migration rose to almost 50 thousand per year. In 1994 net migration dropped sharply to a level of 20 thousand, followed by a further decrease in 1995. In 1996 there was a moderate increase. One cause of the strong decline in immigration in the mid-1990s may be the increasingly strict immigration policy. Another explanation of fluctuations in immigration is the business cycle. A regression analysis for the period 1973-1995 shows that there is a negative relationship between immigration of non-Dutch nationals and the unemployment rate in the Netherlands and a positive relationship between emigration and the unemployment rate." (EXCERPT)

  1. Labor market conditions of leading countries of international migration movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Станіславович Чепеленко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work the labor markets of the leaders of international migration are considered, it is found an acyclicity of movement indicators of the labor market and their impact on the economic and demographic situation of countries that are the most influential of the global labor market. It is found that indicators, characterizing the labor market, have acyclic nature depending on the direction of migration flows

  2. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    UNHCR

    2006-01-01

    UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD) on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  3. International migration : human rights and development dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Colm

    2014-01-01

    According to the United Nations and the OECD, more than 230 million people were living outside their countries of birth in 2013 with an additional 700 million migrating internally within their countries (UN DESA and OECD 2013). Current research and analysis has suggested that in the coming decades, demographic changes, increasing globalisation in a context of growing international inequality and climate change will significantly increase migration pressures within and across borders, at least...

  4. The OECD and International Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  5. The determinants of internal migration in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali; Gokhan, Ali; Filiztekin, Alpay

    2008-01-01

    Internal migration has had a great impact on Turkey’s population dynamics for decades. According to the 2000 population census, nearly 28% percent of the population was born in a different province that they now reside in. This ratio goes up to 62% for Istanbul, a major province that has drawn migrants for years. Although, it is claimed in numerous studies that rural-urban migration that centers on a few urban areas seems to be the predominant pattern of internal migration, we aim to investig...

  6. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Marija

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have be...

  7. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger bet...

  8. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  9. International trade, labour migrations and capital flows: long-term evidence for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H

    1998-01-01

    The following issues need to be examined when considering the historical links between international factor movements and international trade, and whether increases in factor flows stimulated trade or vice versa: the extent to which increased trade and factor mobility foster economic growth and development, how different factor flows are related, whether labor movements induce capital flows or vice versa, whether alternative types of factor mobility substitutes or complements, and whether trade liberalization promotes factor mobility or there are alternate types of international transactions substitutes as argued by those who ascribe to the classic Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson factor-price-equalization tradition. Accordingly, the historical links between international factor mobility and the extent of international trade are analyzed over the long term for Australia, Canada, and the US, high labor immigration countries; and the UK, a high labor emigration country. Time series data are used. Current international openness is assessed. International factor market integration has increased over time with trade liberalization, suggesting that traditional Heckscher-Ohlin thinking cannot be readily used to account for long-term trends in several important economies. Both trade and factor mobility have an episodic character which makes it misleading to assess current international openness only in terms of post-World War II economic trends.

  10. Rethinking international migration: a review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1983-01-01

    A new style of international migration, temporary and often illegal immigration in order to work, began to emerge after World War II. Many countries initiated immigration policies that gave the appearance of control, while their back doors remained open and, possibly, unclosable. In the US, it is slowly becoming obvious that foreign workers cannot be used as a temporary labor force at will. 2 usual theories of migration are the classical and the conflicts schools. The classical school presents migration as a rational, economic act that leads to economic adjustment between sending and receiving countries. The conflict school, often Marxist, views migration as an unequal process that leads to the inclusion of developing countries into the world capitalist system and to a widenin gap between rich and poor countries. The convergence of these 2 theories leads to the idea that although migration may be a survival strategy of individuals and households, it is also determined by a country's integration in the world economic system. The author reviews several books on immigration theory, which appreciate the complexity and worldwide character of migration; indicate that migration patterns are persistent; and support the view that migration is an economic, social, and political problem; and recommend that policies must be integrated and address the entire issue.

  11. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period.

  12. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Philippines Institute for Development Studies and research partners in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand to undertake joint research on existing policy and institutional arrangements for managing labour migration flows, and their development impacts. Researchers will ...

  13. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  14. On the Consistent Migration of Unsplittable Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    In consistent flow migration, the task is to change the paths the flows take in the network, but without inducing congestion during the  update process. Even though the rise of Software Defined Networks allows for centralized control of path changes, the execution is still performed...... in an inherently asynchronous system, the switches distributed over the network. To this end, a multitude of scheduling systems have been proposed since the initial papers of Reitblatt et al. (Abstractions for Network Update, SIGCOMM ’12) and Hong et al. (SWAN, SIGCOMM ’13). While the the complexity...

  15. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  16. International Migration and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    Freedom of movement is considered a basic human right by the majority of countries of the world. As defined in practice, it encompasses the right to move internally within a country, the right to move abroad, and the right to return from abroad. It does not include the right of an individual from one sovereign nation to move to another. In this paper, I examine whether there is an economic rationale for restricting the rights of individuals to move across borders. The typical individual who m...

  17. Zimbabwe's Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Jul 1, 2010 ... A rounded and compelling picture of the great exodus and, behind the turmoil of exile and return, we can glimpse the extraordinary people behind the statistics. — Robin Cohen, International Migration Institute, University of Oxford. The ongoing crisis in Zimbabwe has led to an unprecedented exodus of ...

  18. Gender and Internal Migration dynamics in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    Migration is an important livelihood strategy for many people worldwide, but especially for poor people. Several studies globally .... 2011), the gendered dimensions of sending and using remittances in Ghana have not been the subject of much focus. .... economic status and inclusion in the labour market. Internal Migrants ...

  19. [Internal migration trends and regional dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, M

    1992-01-01

    This study concerns aspects of regional development in Tunisia. It specifically considers how economic factors affect income differentials among regions, and ways in which these in turn influence trends in internal migration. The effect of these trends on urbanization is also explored.

  20. The Future of International Labor Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, John

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the nature of international labor migration today and the economic and political rationale for its occurrence. It is suggested that developed economies will have little need for mass immigration by those with low-level skills, whereas poorer countries will encourage emigration, resulting in more illegal immigration. (SLD)

  1. Towards understanding international migration determinants today: Theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of global migration flows and ever increasing mobility of the workforce in the world, the necessity for constant deepening of theoretical knowledge is imposed as a basis for understanding main determinants of this phenomenon, and with an aim of directing the focus of migration researches towards more efficient overcoming of challenges and making use of the advantages which international migrations could bring both to origin, destination and transit countries. The main goal of this paper is to give a critical review on the development of the economic migrations theory, to state the main similarities and differences between various approaches and to point out to the main drawbacks and problems which the theoretical perspective is facing when studying the determinants of contemporary international labor migrations. The focus of the study refers to voluntary labor migrations with reference to migrations of the highly educated population, while the stress is on economic theories, although some of them are closely connected to sociological, geographical and anthropological theories. The development of the theory on international migrations has been started by micro theoretical models, namely, through the conceptualization of theories which place the individual in the focal point of research, who estimates the positive, namely negative sides of moving from one location to another. Economic models on the micro theoretical level cede more space to models of macro structure which research the social and economic structure within and between countries. There are many theoretical models which offer possible answers to the question on what are the main determinants of international migrations on the macro analytical level. Although every one of them tries to give an answer to the same question, they use different concepts, assumptions and frameworks of research. The reasons which bring about the initiation of international migrations can be

  2. IUSSP Committee on International Migration, Workshop on International Migration Systems and Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lin Lean

    1987-01-01

    This mini-workshop sought a framework for examining the dynamics of migration processes, especially the interlinkages between sending and receiving countries. These two focuses emerged as directions for further research: (1) a topology reflecting the concepts underlying international migration; and (2) empirical studies which attempt to apply the…

  3. International migration: The state-sovereignty-migration nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chigudu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, international human migration is blamed for corroding states sovereignty, especially stemming from policy circles, academic literature and citizens of the host countries. This has attracted the attention of the media highlighting hazards of being a migrant, with some countries viewing migrants as enemies; and, Cuba provides a vivid case. Yet in other countries, migrants are viewed as important contributors to social and economic development, with Mexico, the Dominican Republic and India serving as examples. This article locates migrants in the framework of human rights as guided by international law without prejudice to the demands of state sovereignty, but linking the two in the context of developing international standards. Migration is seen as a feature of human history dating back to primordial time. Nothing appears surprising in the movement of people across borders, defining a migrant through emigration and immigration while giving due respect to the sovereignty of states, both sending and receiving. The article discusses the nexus between migrants and state sovereignty in order to highlight the mutual benefit grounded in international law. It attempts to portray a more positive image of the migrant person in light of the global world, socio-economic development and human rights fundamentals. The main challenge remains that of implementing human rights, which appear to be at the crossroads of individual rights and state sovereignty. The paper reveals how the challenge can be overcome while maintaining the structure of rights and freedoms without infringement on states’ sovereignty. It concludes that migrants remain on the periphery of effective protection from the vagaries of the citizens, partly because the state has a tendency to confine certain rights to its citizenry. States possess discretionary authority to control the ingress of foreign nationals into their territories though sometimes they fail to do that as evidenced

  4. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  5. The role of language in international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and speak...... in shaping international migration. Specifically, we investigate how both linguistic distance and linguistic diversity, as a proxy for the “potential” ease to learn a new language and to adapt to a new context, affect migration. We find that migration rates increase with linguistic proximity and the result...... is robust to the inclusion of genetic distance as a proxy for cultural proximity and to the use of multiple measures of linguistic distance. Interestingly, linguistic proximity matters more for migrants moving into non-English speaking destinations than to English-speaking countries. The likely higher...

  6. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  7. International migration in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, R T

    1984-01-01

    This paper eulogizes the life and work of Gunther Beijer (1904-1983), an international migration research supporter, who was himself a refugee from Nazi Germany. The brain drain of professional workers of other nations into such traditional receiving countries as the US, Canada, and Australia particularly interested Beijer. The creation of many independent nations after World War II changed migration trends greatly. By the 1970s the immigration policies of receiving countries had changed to favor non-Caucasian professional workers and relatives of current residents. This new migration may be classified as 1) permanent settler, 2) guest worker, 3) professional transient, 4) clandestine, and 5) refugee. Non-Caucasian immigrants increasingly find that they may not be wanted when perceived as an economic or social threat. Beijer understood guest worker migration within Europe in the early 1960s, but he could not foresee the demands that guest workers and their families would place on receiving countries. Guest worker migration gives sending countries relief from unemployment and provides remittances; it also provides needed labor to economically health countries. Guest workers such as those currently employed in the Persian Gulf may not be accepted socially or politically by the host community and may be considered undesirable employees on their return home. Nations often tolerate illegal or clandestine migration when the labor need is high, but illegals may be expelled when economic or political conditions turn against them. The problems of the estimated 10 million refugees fall increasingly on developing countries, but must be shared by all nations since their increasing numbers affect domestic and international politics.

  8. The international migration of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The international migration of health care professionals has been recognized as a public health concern. A series of 'push' and 'pull' factors have been identified as driving forces for migration of doctors. The USA, UK, Canada and Australia are the main beneficiaries of medical migration, which has adverse consequences for health care systems in developing countries. Recently, a Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel was adopted by the World Health Assembly. In this paper, a summary of the most important recommendations of the Code is presented. In addition, the case of overseas trained psychiatrists in Australia is illustrated. These specialists complain of discriminatory practices due to the lack of recognition of their professional credentials. Research evidence from different countries confirms that international medical graduates face discriminatory obstacles to exercise their rights and practise their professions in developed countries. An international strategy is required to promote sustainable health care systems worldwide. Additional academic and scientific partnerships must be established between developed and developing nations in order to minimize discrepancies. There is an urgent need to review policies related to the recognition of medical credentials in host countries, including Australia. There are clear implications for psychiatry and psychiatrists.

  9. Institutional Determinants of International Migration from Central-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka FIHEL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the role of institutional determinants for international migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In the whole post-war period international mobility has been stimulated by economic incentives, such as income disparities and unemployment, and also by particular solutions in migration policies in the receiving countries. Ethnic and asylum procedures, selective labor recruitments, visas barriers, regularization programs have mostly directed and intensified labor migration from CEE countries.Recently the EU enlargement (and, consequently, opening of member states’ labor markets became another institutional enhancement for migrating. The 2004 accession of eight CEE countries has been followed by a massive flow from CEE to the UK and Ireland that, together with Sweden, opened their labor markets for migrant workers. In 2007 Bulgaria and Romania will gain the access into EU, but the directions of mobility has been already established for Romanian and Bulgarian citizens: the main destination countries are Italy and Spain. The dynamics of migration from Romania and Bulgaria to South Europe has been extraordinary high since around 2000, mainly due to low legislative barriers and high demand for low-paid work. Again, the institutional determinant, such as overall acceptance towards illegal, foreign workers and regularization programs, turned out to be decisive.

  10. International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert

    Temporary migration, though empirically relevant, is often ignored in formal models. This paper proposes a migration model with heterogeneous agents and persistent cross country income differentials that features temporary migration. In equilibrium there exists a positive relation between the stock...... of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, existing empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows, instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our investigation of the cointegration relationships...... of German migration stocks and flows since 1967. We find that (i) panel-unit root tests reject the hypothesis that migration flows and the explanatory variables are integrated of the same order, while migration stocks and the explanatory variables are all I(1) variables, and (ii) the hypothesis...

  11. Women Moving Within Borders: Gender and Internal Migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal migration is an inherent part of the processes of development and structural transformation in any region. In Africa, while the focus is often on international migration, internal migration is far more significant for development in terms of the numbers of people moving and their poverty reduction potential and well-being ...

  12. International Migration and its Effects on Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Constantinescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The crises period that still cross Romania explain, between others, the apparition and development of international migration, after 1990. In a world marked by globalization, migration can not disappear, contrary, it grows bigger ant it remains an interesting subject in future. A study about migration consequences on family, specially on children’s personality left in the country, is justified because migration is a present phenomena in Romanian space at the beginning of the XXIth century. We try to analyse the effects of this phenomenon on family. Related to these goal we offer the conclusions obtained from a research realized in Campulung Muscel municipality, Arges county, on a lot of pupils that have parents left in foreign countries and the results to the investigation made in Pitesti municipality. The research showed that it is a relationship between children’s marks at school and parent’s leaving; children’s perceptions on parent’s leaving; identifies school’s interest level in diminution of the low school performance effects caused by this socio-economical phenomena.

  13. Migration in far west Nepal: intergenerational linkages between internal and international migration of rural-to-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poertner, Ephraim; Junginger, Mathias; Müller-Böker, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, international labor migration to India and overseas, as well as internal migration to the rural Nepalese lowlands, is of high socioeconomic significance. Scholarly debates about migration in Nepal have gradually shifted from an economic to a more holistic perspective, also incorporating social dimensions. However, little evidence has been generated about internal migration to urban destinations and the potential linkages between international and internal migration. This article draws on Bourdieu's “Theory of Practice” and sees migration as a social practice. Accordingly, migration practice is regarded as a strategy social agents apply to increase or transfer capitals and ultimately secure or improve their social position. Evidence for this argument is based on a qualitative case study of rural to urban migrants in Far West Nepal conducted in July and August 2009. The study at hand addresses linkages between internal and international migration practices and provides insight about a social stratum that is often neglected in migration research: the middle class and, more precisely, government employees. The authors show that social relations are crucial for channeling internal migration to a specific destination. Furthermore, they unveil how internal migration is connected to the international labor migration of former generations. Finally, the authors examine how migration strategies adopted over generations create multi-local social networks rooted in the family's place of origin.

  14. Seeing the Hidden Part of the Iceberg: Gauging the Real Dimension of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Oţoiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and comparability of international migration statistics belong to the most important statistical issues due to the importance of correct dimensioning of the migration flows and stocks for effective and timely design of effective policy measures. This paper presents an assessment of the migration statistics provided by Eurostat, reveals the most prominent discrepancies between stock and flow data, prepares a summary of vital issues affecting both quality and completeness of the migration data, and identifies certain solutions in order to improve data comparability, reliability and completeness. There is no one-size-fits-all solution, but an eclectic mix which extends the use of administrative and private data, matches data coming from distinct sources, harmonizes the way in which data is compiled and reported by different countries, matches observed flows with (demographic stock-based estimates, provides consistent estimates of the bilateral migration flows between countries, and improves the measurement of temporary and illegal/undeclared migration.

  15. Determinants of International Migration: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi Darkwah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some determinants of international migration in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning the period 1991–2011. Using ordinary least square regression method, the results indicate that the level of unemployment, migrants’ remittances and population growth are the key determinants of emigration from Nigeria to other countries, statistically significant at 0.01 level.In a country where unemployment rate is very high, this movement is likely to help in reducing pressures on the labour market. Migrants’ remittances might also help in alleviating poverty within households. Migrants’ remittance to Nigeria has surpassed both Foreign Direct Investment and Net Official Development Assistance inflows, making it one amongst the major sources of foreign earnings to Nigeria. Nigerians will continue to migrate to other parts of the world so long as the reasons or causes for their movement are not fully addressed i.e. if political and socioeconomic issues in the country do not improve. The Nigerian government should as a matter of urgency, create better jobs and conducive environment in order to stop people from migrating while at the same time encouraging its skilled labour abroad to return home to help in national development.

  16. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  17. Internal Migration and Citizenship Education in China's Shenzhen City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wangbei

    2016-01-01

    Migration's influences on citizenship education were widely discussed in the literature. However, most studies were based on international migration that drew experience from, for example, North America and Europe. Less attention was paid to internal migration or developing areas. This article takes China as an example, which is a country that has…

  18. Nursing shortages and international nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S J; Polsky, D; Sochalski, J

    2005-12-01

    The United Kingdom and the United States are among several developed countries currently experiencing nursing shortages. While the USA has not yet implemented policies to encourage nurse immigration, nursing shortages will likely result in the growth of foreign nurse immigration to the USA. Understanding the factors that drive the migration of nurses is critical as the USA exerts more pull on the foreign nurse workforce. To predict the international migration of nurses to the UK using widely available data on country characteristics. The Nursing and Midwifery Council serves as the source of data on foreign nurse registrations in the UK between 1998 and 2002. We develop and test a regression model that predicts the number of foreign nurse registrants in the UK based on source country characteristics. We collect country-level data from sources such as the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The shortage of nurses in the UK has been accompanied by massive and disproportionate growth in the number of foreign nurses from poor countries. Low-income, English-speaking countries that engage in high levels of bilateral trade experience greater losses of nurses to the UK. Poor countries seeking economic growth through international trade expose themselves to the emigration of skilled labour. This tendency is currently exacerbated by nursing shortages in developed countries. Countries at risk for nurse emigration should adjust health sector planning to account for expected losses in personnel. Moreover, policy makers in host countries should address the impact of recruitment on source country health service delivery.

  19. Comparing internal migration across the countries of Latin America: A multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude; Rowe, Francisco; Bell, Martin; Ueffing, Philipp; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2017-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries. Comparisons reveal substantial cross-national variation but cluster analysis suggests the different dimensions of migration evolve systematically to form a broad sequence characterised by low intensities, young ages at migration, unbalanced flows and high friction of distance at lower levels of development, trending to high intensities, an older age profile of migration, more closely balanced flows and lower friction of distance at later stages of development. However, the transition is not linear and local contingencies, such as international migration and political control, often distort the migration-development nexus, leading to unique migration patterns in individual national contexts.

  20. Comparing internal migration across the countries of Latin America: A multidimensional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude; Rowe, Francisco; Bell, Martin; Ueffing, Philipp; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2017-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries. Comparisons reveal substantial cross-national variation but cluster analysis suggests the different dimensions of migration evolve systematically to form a broad sequence characterised by low intensities, young ages at migration, unbalanced flows and high friction of distance at lower levels of development, trending to high intensities, an older age profile of migration, more closely balanced flows and lower friction of distance at later stages of development. However, the transition is not linear and local contingencies, such as international migration and political control, often distort the migration-development nexus, leading to unique migration patterns in individual national contexts. PMID:28328932

  1. International Talent Flow and Careers: An Australasian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkson, Kerr; Carr, Stuart C.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of migration makes many careers international, and globalisation has accelerated the process. This paper reports on a program of studies, now labelled "talent flow," conducted in New Zealand with a view to increasing understanding of migration and its relationship to careers. Initial studies considered the phenomenon of…

  2. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  3. The measurement of international migration in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, M

    1987-01-01

    This article examines legislation affecting international migration in Belgium from the perspective of 2 questions: 1) What types of migrants are definable by legislation? and 2) What kinds of documents may be utilized to compile statistics on international migration? The following are some of the article's main points. 1) Since January 1, 1847 each communal administration in Belgium has maintained a national population register that details births, deaths, marriages and household structures, and all movements within 1 commune, from 1 commune to another, and movements between states. 2) When a Belgian citizen leaves for a foreign destination with the intention of settling there, his name is struck from the registers. 3) To enter Belgian territory, the alien must possess the documents required under bilateral agreements between Belgium and each of the states concerned. Generally, the alien must obtain a visa to his passport from 1 of the diplomatic or consular offices of Benelux before entering Belgium. The alien must have sufficient means of subsistence to avoid being considered in need. He must not be listed as an undesirable alien in Belgium, he must not have been convicted of a crime, and he must not constitute a danger to public order or national security, The alien also should not have been expelled from Belgium less than 10 years earlier. 4) Absence from Belgium and the right to return is granted to aliens holding a valid certificate of enrollment or a settlement card. 5) Any individual who has reason to fear persecution can obtain refugee status; his stay is protected until his application is declared to be unfounded by the High Commission. 6) The National Statistical Institute issues various types of data from which international population movements can be identified. The 2 main sources of these statistics are the population censuses held every 10 years and the annual demographic statistics. 7) In 1967, the Belgian Council of Ministers authorized the

  4. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  5. Migration, relationship capital and international travel : theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques; Sanderson, Lynda

    In this article we consider how international migration is related to the frequency and duration of trips to the home country. For many migrants, international migration triggers a series of trips to visit the home country that allow for a replenishment of the depleted relationship capital with

  6. Internal Migration Determinants: Evidence from Northern Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... Studies of migration in Ghana – exploring the determinants is not new and date back to the 1960s. However ... assessment of the socio-economic characteristics of Ghanaian migrants and the determinants of internal ...... in a poster session on internal migration at the Brazil IUSSP conference during August.

  7. Theoretical foundations of international migration process studies: analysis of key migration theories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska K.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for transformation of Ukraine's migration policy based on globalized world development trends and in response to the challenges of European integration transformations causes the need of researching the theoretical and methodological basis of migration studies, and the regulations of existing theories of international migration. The bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on international migration in cites indexes found that the recent researches on these problems acquire interdisciplinary character. It necessitates the transformation of migration study approaches basing on economic, social, institutional theories and concepts synthesis. The article is devoted to the study of theoretical regulations of existing international migration theories in the context of the evolution of scientists’ views on this phenomenon. The author found that the existing theories of international migration should be divided into three categories (microeconomic, macroeconomic, globalizational that contributes to their understanding in the context of implementation possibilities in migrational public administration practice. It allows to determine the theories which should be used for Ukrainian state migration policy constructing and eliminating or reducing the external migration negative effects.

  8. International Family Migration and the Dual-Earner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu

    2018-01-01

    Gender differences in labor force participation are exceptionally small in Nordic countries. We investigate how couples emigrating from Denmark self-select and sort into different destinations and whether couples pursue the dual-earner model, in which both partners work, when abroad. Female labor...... force participation is slightly lower among couples that later emigrate, and drops considerably after migration outside the Nordic countries. Pre-migration differences between couples subsequently migrating to different destinations are small. Our survey reveals that couple migration is usually driven...... by the male’s job opportunities. The results suggest that increasing international migration may reduce women’s career investments....

  9. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  10. Impacts and Risks of Migration and Refugee Flows in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    frameworks, policies, and structures giving effect to international protection obligations; redoubling efforts to find durable solutions for...education opportunities, poverty, overpopulation and food scarcity. As migration involves origin, transit and destination countries, inter-state, inter...and intra-regional cooperation are crucial for the management of migration. As a result, Governments should look for collective solutions to

  11. Migrant nurses in Brazil: demographic characteristics, migration flow and relationship with the training process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Tavares, Tatiana Silva; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Maas, Lucas Wan Der

    2016-01-01

    Objective to analyze the migration of nurses in Brazil, describe the demographic characteristics of migrant nurses, the main migration flows, and establish relationships with the training process. Method a descriptive, exploratory study, based on 2010 Census data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result there were 355,383 nurses in Brazil in 2010. Of these, 36,479 (10.3%) reported having moved compared to the year 2005: 18,073 (5.1%) for intrastate migration, 17,525 (4.8%) interstate migration, and 871 (0.2%) international migration. Females (86.3%), Caucasians (65.2%), and unmarried (48.3%) nurses prevailed in the population, without considerable variation between groups according to migration situation. The findings indicate that the migration flows are driven by the training process for states that concentrate a greater number of courses and positions in undergraduate and graduate studies, and the motivation of employment opportunity in regions of economic expansion in the country. Conclusion it is necessary to deepen the discussion on the movement of nurses in Brazil, their motivations, and international migration. PMID:27027681

  12. Family characteristics of internal migration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D T

    1992-03-01

    Data from the 1986 survey of migration conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) were used to examine family characteristics of internal migrants to urban areas in China. The influence of the family either directly or indirectly is considered as part of life cycle events. .2% of households in 74 cities and towns were surveyed (100,267 persons). Data were analyzed 1) for persons who moved within 10 years of the survey (47%--17,890 out of 38,104 in-migrants), and 2) by last move by age regardless of when (72% between 1966-86). The literature and conditions in China strongly support that family welfare is likely to be a significant underlying influence on patterns and selectivity of migration in China. The CASS survey reveals that the most movers were from nuclear families aged 25-44 years, followed by stem families (a couple plus 1 or more parents). 6 factors are identified for sustaining co-residence within generations. Migrations during 1977-86 showed that 41% of males aged 20-24 years had moved at least once (18% were married), while for females the figure was 25% (50% were married). 56% of males moving at ages 25-29 years were married, and 90% of migrant males aged 30-34 years were married. 78% of married females aged 25-29 years and 94% of those aged 30-34 years moved. 23% of widowed females aged 50-54 years were in-migrants, and 69% were aged 65 years and widowed. The opportunity for 2- and 3- generation households is expected t decline over the next 50 years as the population ages and becomes larger than the supporting population. 44% of young-old women (75-74 years) with no children and 25-33% of young-old women total had moved within the last 10 years. 43% of women aged 75 years or older with 5 or more children moved within 10 years, while only 24% with no children had. Women aged 35-54 years had low rates of movement with high parity, while those aged 25-44 with 1 or no children had higher rates of movement. Parity is increasingly

  13. International nurse migration: lessons from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Barbara L; Sochalski, Julie

    2007-02-01

    Developed countries facing nursing shortages have increasingly turned to aggressive foreign nurse recruitment, primarily from developing nations, to offset their lagging domestic nurse supplies and meet growing health care demands. Few donor nations are prepared to manage the loss of their nurse workforce to migration. The sole country with an explicit nurse export policy and the world's leading donor of nurse labor - the Philippines - is itself facing serious provider maldistribution and countrywide health disparities. Examining the historical roots of Philippines nurse migration provides lessons from which other nurse exporting countries may learn. The authors discuss factors that have predicated nurse migration and policies that have eased the way. Furthermore, the authors analyze how various stakeholders influence migratory patterns, the implications of migration for nurses and the public in their care, and the challenges that future social policy and political systems face in addressing global health issues engendered by unfettered recruitment of nurses and other health workers.

  14. International Migration, Management of Natural Resources and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    growing areas in Veracruz, Mexico, are experiencing an increased rate of migration to Mexico City and the United States. The migrants - predominantly young men - send back remittances that are used by the remaining family members to pay ...

  15. The Effect of Hydro-meteorological Emergencies on Internal Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Robalino, Juan; Jimenez, José; Chacon, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of hydro-meteorological emergencies on internal migration in Costa Rica between 1995 and 2000. Nationwide, we find that an increase of one emergency in a canton significantly increases average migration rates from that canton, after controlling for several social, economic, climatic and demographic factors in both the canton of origin and destination. Moreover, when we separately analyze landslides and floods, we find that both increase migration. However, we also find ...

  16. Lateral migration of electrospun hydrogel nanofilaments in an oscillatory flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakielski, Paweł; Zembrzycki, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The recent progress in bioengineering has created great interest in the dynamics and manipulation of long, deformable macromolecules interacting with fluid flow. We report experimental data on the cross-flow migration, bending, and buckling of extremely deformable hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by an oscillatory flow into a microchannel. The changes in migration velocity and filament orientation are related to the flow velocity and the filament’s initial position, deformation, and length. The observed migration dynamics of hydrogel filaments qualitatively confirms the validity of the previously developed worm-like bead-chain hydrodynamic model. The experimental data collected may help to verify the role of hydrodynamic interactions in molecular simulations of long molecular chains dynamics. PMID:29141043

  17. Nurses across borders: foregrounding international migration in nursing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Catherine Ceniza

    2010-01-01

    Although the international migration of nurses has played a formative role in increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the health care labor force, nursing historians have paid very little attention to the theme of international migration and the experiences of foreign-trained nurses, A focus on international migration complements two new approaches in nursing history: the agenda to internationalize its frameworks, and the call to move away from "great women, great events" and toward the experiences of "ordinary" nurses. This article undertakes a close reading of the life and work of Filipino American nurse Ines Cayaban to reconceptualize nursing biography in an international framework that is attentive to issues of migration, race, gender, and colonialism. It was a Hannah keynote lecture delivered by the author on June 5, 2008, as part of the CAHN/ACHN (Canadian Association for the History of Nursing/Association Canadienne pour l'Histoire du Nursing) International Nursing History Conference.

  18. International migration: an assessment for the '90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, S M

    1989-01-01

    A quarter century ago, the world of international migration looked much different than it does today. International migration was then favorable regarded in many parts of the world. Today, this mood has soured. Guestworkers in Germany in 1989, particularly Turks, are the subject of widespread hostility and a growing anti-immigrant political party. France, too, has developed a significant anti-immigrant political party and now facilitates the repatriation of unemployed Algerian nationals with cash assistance. In the US, a chapter thought closed forever in 1964 might well be reopened as the federal government, in 1989, will decide whether or not to admit replenishment agricultural workers. In the Arab region, the Palestine Liberation Organization was created in 1964 to represent one of the world's largest refugee population - the 1 million Palestinians who fled during the 1'947-1949 fighting and their offspring. Today, Africa contains an estimated 4-5 million refugees. In Asia, the Gulf of Tonkin crisis in 1964 served as a pretext to escalate the war in Indochina that would create millions of refugees. Little concern was expressed 25 years ago about illegal migration from developing countries. Asia, Africa, and Latin America seemed to lie outside the usual path of international migration. A conference on international migration was held at Bellagio, Italy, in July 1988. The contributions comprising this volume were presented at the Bellagio Conference. Each contribution approaches the subject matter of international migration from a distinctive theoretical, disciplinary, or thematic perspective. This volume therefore reflects a large measure of the scholarly diversity that coexists in international migration studies. One of the themes of the conference is the realization that states vitally affect international migration and are greatly affected by the phenomenon. The Bellagio conferees also agreed on the importance of comparative research to greater scientific

  19. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  20. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  1. Managing Migration: Time for a New International Regime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFor anyone concerned with understanding the complex factors behind contemporary migration and its impact on international refugee law, and especially for those attempting to develop policies to manage migration, this book makes a valuable contribution. This collection of articles from a

  2. Globalization, history and international migration : a view from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Solimano Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Explores patterns of international migration in Latin America from the first wave of globalization from 1870 to 1913, during the de-globalization period from 1914 to the late 1940s and during the second wave of globalization in the late 20th century. Explores the determinants of this migration and highlights the case of Argentina.

  3. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.

  4. [International migration and income redistribution: a trade-theoretic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, N; Meckl, J

    1995-05-01

    "We analyze the income-redistribution effects of international migration in the host and source country in a general equilibrium framework. The well-known result that marginal migration leaves the welfare of nonmigrants unaffected is discussed in more detail with regard to shifts in national income distributions. With endogenous goods' prices the consequences for the income distribution are in general ambiguous--we show possibilities for an estimation of their magnitude. As long as wage disparities determine the direction of migration it increases world efficiency. However, redistributive policies may generate migration towards the low-wage country." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. The United Nations recommendations and data efforts: international migration statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data

  6. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous selection have led to the following conclusions: migration is a multidimensional phenomenon that requires multidisciplinary research; the heterogeneity of migration flows to the socio-cultural and gender features must be taken into account; the problem of illegal migration requires special solutions; in connection with the emigration of highly skilled professionals and immigration of low-skilled personnel, a professional important indicator of migratory replacement and attracting compatriots from abroad are important. The data obtained can be used for ethnic and cultural planning in order to improve production activities that affect the quality of solving of production tasks and programming adaptation of migrants as the significant impact of intangible factors on the development of society has been noted by economists for a long time. Thus, the economic sustainability requires new thinking based on socio-cultural sustainability determined by such global phenomena as international migration flows.

  7. The commodification of international migration: findings from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H; Pardthaisong, T

    1999-01-01

    "The organisation of international contract-labour migration within Asia has been increasingly dominated by commercial agencies acting as intermediaries between workers and foreign employers. The principles underpinning the gatekeeping role of such agencies in the East Asian migration system are examined. A consideration of the international labour recruitment system in Thailand is based on survey work among agents, community leaders and recently returned migrants." excerpt

  8. INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION AND FOREIGN BANK PENETRATION IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    RONG MA; SUSAN POZO

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of international labor migration on foreign bank presence in 30 Asian and Latin American countries. While it is well established that social and economic characteristics of the host economy influence entry by foreign banks, we test whether social and economic linkages between bank-host and bank-origin economies influence foreign bank activity. In particular, we consider whether international migration from bank-host to the bank-origin countries affects foreign b...

  9. Characterizing the International Migration Barriers with a Probabilistic Multilateral Migration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Xu, Hongzhong; Chen, Jiawei; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jiang; di, Zengru

    2016-09-01

    Human migration is responsible for forming modern civilization and has had an important influence on the development of various countries. There are many issues worth researching, and “the reason to move” is the most basic one. The concept of migration cost in the classical self-selection theory, which was introduced by Roy and Borjas, is useful. However, migration cost cannot address global migration because of the limitations of deterministic and bilateral choice. Following the idea of migration cost, this paper developed a new probabilistic multilateral migration model by introducing the Boltzmann factor from statistical physics. After characterizing the underlying mechanism or driving force of human mobility, we reveal some interesting facts that have provided a deeper understanding of international migration, such as the negative correlation between migration costs for emigrants and immigrants and a global classification with clear regional and economic characteristics, based on clustering of migration cost vectors. In addition, we deconstruct the migration barriers using regression analysis and find that the influencing factors are complicated but can be partly (12.5%) described by several macro indexes, such as the GDP growth of the destination country, the GNI per capita and the HDI of both the source and destination countries.

  10. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  11. Scarce skills and international migration in Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrieri J; Lepore S; Marmora L

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper, case study of the impact of brain drain on the labour market in Argentina - proposes incentives for the return migration of skilled workers and other highly qualified workers, assuring them job placement and tax incentives; assesses training needs; analyses possibility of interregional exchange of experts. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  12. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  13. Lateral migration of a capsule in a parabolic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, S; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T

    2016-07-26

    Red blood cells migrate to the center of the blood vessel in a process called axial migration, while other blood cells, such as white blood cells and platelets, are disproportionately found near the blood vessel wall. However, much is still unknown concerning the lateral migration of cells in the blood; the specific effect of hydrodynamic factors such as a wall or a shear gradient is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the lateral migration of a capsule using the boundary integral method, in order to compute exactly an infinite computational domain for an unbounded parabolic flow and a semi-infinite computational domain for a near-wall parabolic flow in the limit of Stokes flow. We show that the capsule lift velocity in an unbounded parabolic flow is linear with respect to the shear gradient, while the lift velocity in a near-wall parabolic flow is dependent on the distance to the wall. Then, using these relations, we give an estimation of the relative effect of the shear gradient as a function of channel width and distance between the capsule and the wall. This estimation can be used to determine cases in which the effect of the shear gradient or wall can be neglected; for example, the formation of the cell-free layer in blood vessels is determined to be unaffected by the magnitude of the shear gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated "push factors" and actual "pull factors" of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these "migrants" and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees' lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population.

  15. European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinoia, Michela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries

  16. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katica Boric

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  17. Internal migration in the USSR: 1897-1926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, J W; Lewis, R A

    1967-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and to analyze internal migration in the USSR primarily by the use of data from the 1926 census of the USSR. The article is divided into two parts. The first is devoted to a description of the aggregate and regional migration patterns based on place-of-birth data. The second is an analysis of these migration patterns, primarily in terms of economic differentials by guberniya. Because only limited income data are available for the period around1926 and because other economic data are scarce or unusable owing to boundary changes, census data on labor force distribution, literacy, and urbanization are used as substitute variables to approximate income differences.Migrationis a complex phenomenon related to a host of factors. The present study does not presume fully to explain migration in the USSR, but it does attempt to isolate differences in income and to relate these to the internal migration that occurred during this period. As a result of processing and analyzing an extensive array of data, we have shown that differences in income, derived indirectly from a variety of data, are closely related to internal migration in the USSR in the period prior to the 1926 census. There were striking similarities in respect to internal migration between the period prior to the 1897 census and the period prior to the1926 census. The chief areas of out-migration and in-migration were roughly the same,and migrants in both periods moved primarily to areas of higher income.

  18. Egyptian international labor migration and social processes: toward regional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, R R

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews evidence that contemporary Egyptian international labor migration to oil-rich Arab countries has followed a classic social process which starts with a homo economicus phase, advances into a goal reorientation phase, and ends with the establishment of diaspora communities in destination societies. The history of Egyptian migration, current estimates of migration, the role of Egyptians in selected Arab countries, and emergent processes all were found to support the predictions of the social process model. Particularly important support comes from the finding that all social classes participated in this migration. For 1982, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, based on individual consulate figures, reported 2.9 million migrants in oil-rich countries. Conclusions suggest the likelihood that Egyptian migration processes will promote economic and perhaps social integration in the region.

  19. The Globalisation of migration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  20. In Search of Peace: Structural Adjustment, Violence, and International Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALVARADO, STEVEN ELÍAS; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the effects of structural adjustment and violence on international migration from selected countries in Latin America by estimating a series of event history models that predicted the likelihood of initial migration to the United States as a function of the murder rate, economic openness, and selected controls in the country of origin. Although several theories posit a connection between structural economic change and violence, such a pattern held only in Nicaragua, where the homicide rate increased as the economy was opened to trade and average incomes deteriorated. Moreover, only in Nicaragua was lethal violence positively related to out-migration. In Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, rising violence reduced the likelihood of emigration. Violence does not appear to have uniform effects on patterns of international migration but depends on broader social and political conditions within particular countries. PMID:21197383

  1. In Search of Peace: Structural Adjustment, Violence, and International Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Steven Elías; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-07-01

    The authors analyze the effects of structural adjustment and violence on international migration from selected countries in Latin America by estimating a series of event history models that predicted the likelihood of initial migration to the United States as a function of the murder rate, economic openness, and selected controls in the country of origin. Although several theories posit a connection between structural economic change and violence, such a pattern held only in Nicaragua, where the homicide rate increased as the economy was opened to trade and average incomes deteriorated. Moreover, only in Nicaragua was lethal violence positively related to out-migration. In Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala, rising violence reduced the likelihood of emigration. Violence does not appear to have uniform effects on patterns of international migration but depends on broader social and political conditions within particular countries.

  2. Balancing the act: The international migration of medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    In this article I examine the phenomenon of international migration of medical graduates. The debate involving the ethical aspects of medical migration as well as the obstacles faced by doctors to practice unreservedly in their host countries are addressed. The situation of Australia in this context is also scrutinised. Finally, I propose a series of strategies aimed at minimising the unfavourable consequences of the international migration of doctors. This commentary favours a reform in the way institutions and society respond to the process of medical migration and to the needs of migrant doctors. Continued research on this health care topic is required in order to identify the major factors that play a role in this process.

  3. International and internal migration measured from the School Census in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ludi; Marquis, Naomi; Jivraj, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The School Census is the only regularly updated dataset covering almost all of the population of a specific age, which records changes of address along with ethnicity and some family economic circumstances. It can be used to measure internal and international family migration as shown in this report. The School Census is suited to identify and quantify new local migration streams between censuses, successfully identifying the local distribution of Eastern European immigration in the decade since 2000. The measures do not provide a complete measure of migration, either internally or internationally. The exclusion of those outside the state school system means that internal migration is under-estimated, and international migration is approximately measured. The advantages of the School Census are its frequent updates, its fine geographical information, and its indicators of ethnicity and low family income, which powerfully complement other sources.

  4. International Migration, Income Taxes and Transfers: A Welfare Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    An important issue in public policy debates is the effect of international migration on welfare in source and host countries. We address this issue by constructing a general equilibrium model of a two-class source or host country. Each country produces many traded and non-traded goods, uses income taxes and distributes the tax receipts equally to all individuals. The analysis examines the effects of permanent migration on class, and national welfare. We show, among other things, that marginal...

  5. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  6. Selective international migration by social position, health behaviour and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-04-01

    Immigrants is an important minority in many countries, but little is known how they are self-selected. We analysed differences in psycho-social and health behavioural factors between international migrants and non-migrants prior to migration in a large cohort of Finnish twins. A questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins in 1975 (response rate 89%, N = 26555 twin individuals). Follow-up data on migration and mortality were derived from population registries in Finland and Sweden up to 31 March 2002. In 1998, another questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins migrated to Sweden and their co-twins (response rate 71%, N = 1534 twin individuals). The data were analysed using Cox and conditional logistic regression models. Life dissatisfaction, higher alcohol use and smoking at baseline predicted future migration. In men additionally, unemployment, neuroticism and extroversion increased the probability to migrate. Similar associations were found for alcohol use in men and smoking in men and women within twin pairs discordant for migration. Twins also reported retrospectively that prior to migration the migrated twin had been less satisfied with his/her educational institution or job and was generally less satisfied with life, used more alcohol (men) and smoked more (women) than the co-twin stayed in Finland. Migrants are self-selected by health behavioural and personality factors, which may compromise their health. The special requirements of migrants should be recognized in health care.

  7. The international migration of dentists: directions for research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David Simon; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie Doris

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Global Code of Practice for International Recruitment of Health Personnel (the WHO Code) was adopted by the 193 Member States of the WHO. The WHO Code is a tool for global diplomacy, providing a policy framework to address the challenges involved in managing dentist migration, as well as improving the retention of dental personnel in source countries. The WHO Code recognizes the importance of migrant dentist data to support migration polices; minimum data on the inflows, outflows and stock of dentists are vital. Data on reasons for dentist migration, job satisfaction, cultural adaptation issues, geographic distribution and practice patterns in the destination country are important for any policy analysis on dentist migration. Key challenges in the implementation of the WHO Code include the necessity to coordinate with multiple stakeholders and the lack of integrated data on dentist migration and the lack of shared understanding of the interrelatedness of workforce migration, needs and planning. The profession of dentistry also requires coordination with a number of private and nongovernmental organizations. Many migrant dentist source countries, in African and the South-Asian WHO Regions, are in the early stages of building capacity in dentist migration data collection and research systems. Due to these shortcomings, it is prudent that developed countries take the initiative to pursue further research into the migration issue and respond to this global challenge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modern Gravity Models of Internal Migration. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BUNEA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal migration, although less investigated than international migration, is a key mechanism for adjustment to regional economic shocks, especially when other tools prove useless. But this process has very complex factors of determination which can be economic, social, demographic, environmental, etc. Based on previous international studies, in the case of Romania the robust variables proved to be the population size, the per capita gross domestic product, the road density, an amenity index and the crime rate from a static perspective, and the previous migration, the population size and the amenity index from a dynamic perspective. The techniques I have employed in making this study are the Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV, or the fixed effects method and the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, or the dynamic method both applied to panel data.

  9. Contradictions of international migration in terms of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    political economy approach is faced with the tension between the two approaches. The first proposed regulation and workforce management at the supranational level. The other remains in the framework of “methodological nationalism”: the appropriate starting point is the national state. Given the fact that structural inequalities should be recognized at a global level, and that processes of migration show that there is a certain hierarchical global flow in the context of the dynamics of workforce, the first approach proves to be inadequate. In other words, the second approach could not articulate the relevant tendencies. Accordingly, the political economy approach that intends to include complex determination regarding the migration should integrate the national trends in the supranational framework. But, proper research should take into account that globalization and its complex order consist of a number of interventions and interferences. This means that the aforementioned approach must develop sufficiently complex methodology in order to articulate its selected subject.

  10. MIGRATE: A FOSS WEB MAPPING APPLICATION FOR EDUCATING AND RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Brovelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a noticeable growth in migration flows from Africa and Middle East to Southern Europe, thus generating a remarkable increase of attention on media and public opinion, sometimes resulting in stereotypes and prejudices. Funded by the European Commission – Joint Research Centre through the MYGEOSS program, MIGRation pATtterns in Europe (MIGRATE aims at educating the citizens about migration fluxes in Europe using a gamification approach based on a trivia game. MIGRATE is completely developed with Free and Open Source Software. On the server-side Django is used to define the models that handle all the required data and tables are created in a PostgreSQL database. Questions and answers are sent in JSON format to the client, while the geospatial layers in GeoJSON format are rendered on the map interface using OpenLayers 3. Bootstrap, HTML5 and CSS3 are used for responsive design, while the jQuery library is used to ease the JavaScript programming. All the data sources used within MIGRATE are available as full and open access with no restrictions for reuse, except for the obligation to mention the source of the input data. Exploited data sources include OpenStreetMap for geospatial information, and UNHCR, IOM, Eurostat and The Migrant’s Files project for non-geospatial information. Overall, data shows how the users’ perceptions change while playing and that players’ awareness of migration-related problems increases with the number of games played. The source code of MIGRATE and the collected data are available respectively under the EU Public License (EUPL and the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Friendship and Internal Migration in Brazil: Vulnerability and Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been investigated in the context of international migration, but little is known about the subject in relation to internal migration, a phenomenon of great social importance in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss data obtained in an investigation on the relations between internal migration and friendship as perceived by citizens from the state of Espírito Santo who were living in other states of Brazil, in the North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast regions. Twenty adults born in the state and who had migrated to another Brazilian state participated in the investigation. The participants have been interviewed about how they perceived the relationship between friendship and migration and the data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Among the results difficulties to maintain friendships with people of the place of origin as well as difficulties in forming new friendships were observed. Friends were considered relevant for adaptation to the new state, affecting the perception of the same. The article also discusses the origin of friends, the perception of cultural differences and difficulties to make friends in another state. It is concluded that friends play a relevant role in the lives of Brazilian internal migrants and further investigations are necessary.

  12. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  13. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  14. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  15. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    International Chinese migration has spanned five periods: 1) an initial period of random and short-term migration dating back to the Qing and Han dynasties; 2) a spontaneous period since the Sui and Tang dynasties along trade routes; 3) a transition period during the Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty with war, poverty, and population growth as push factors; 4) peak migration during the Opium War period due to economic depression, population pressure, and the "coolie" trade; and 5) continuous development between the 1920s and 1949. Migration tended to occur between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and other southeast Asian countries. Four factors were identified as necessary for international migration to occur: the origin of migration, the destination factor, the middle link factor, and the immigrant characteristics. The origins of early Chinese migration appeared in a country of political corruption, population pressure, a backward economy, and social chaos. The pull factors at destination end were demand for labor. The middle link was the short distance between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and southeast Asian countries and longstanding nongovernmental exchanges. Other links were the similarity of climate, similar racial features, cultural lifestyle similarities, and convenient transportation. The people in these two provinces had a history of migration and a personality suitable for the spirit of adventure. Peak migration occurred during the late Qing dynasty and during the continuous development period. Between 1840 and 1911 there were about 10 million Chinese immigrants and during 1911 and 1949 there were about 6 million. In general, over 20 million immigrated prior to 1949, of which about 50% migrated during the peak period, 33% during the continuous period, and 20% before 1840. This amounted to about 33% of European migration and two times African migration. 60% were from Guangdong, and 30% were from Fujian province, of whom most were from counties

  16. Inertial migration of particles in Taylor-Couette flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majji, Madhu V.; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study of inertial migration of neutrally buoyant particles in the circular Couette flow (CCF), Taylor vortex flow (TVF) and wavy vortex flow (WVF) is reported. This work considers a concentric cylinder Taylor-Couette device with a stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner cylinder. The device has a radius ratio of η = ri/ro = 0.877, where ri and ro are the inner and outer radii of the flow annulus. The ratio of the annular width between the cylinders (δ = ro - ri) and the particle diameter (dp) is α = δ/dp = 20. For η = 0.877, the flow of a Newtonian fluid undergoes transitions from CCF to TVF and TVF to WVF at Reynolds numbers Re = 120 and 151, respectively, and for the dilute suspensions studied here, these critical Reynolds numbers are almost unchanged. In CCF, particles were observed to migrate, due to the competition between the shear gradient of the flow and the wall interactions, to an equilibrium location near the middle of the annulus with an offset toward the inner cylinder. In TVF, the vortex motion causes the particles to be exposed to the shear gradient and wall interactions in a different manner, resulting in a circular equilibrium region in each vortex. The radius of this circular region grows with increase in Re. In WVF, the azimuthal waviness results in fairly well-distributed particles across the annulus.

  17. Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2015-01-01

    are indeed key drivers of internal migration flows in Denmark. That is, while we obtain mixed evidence with regard to the role of traditional labor and housing market variables, most of the included proxies for agglomeration economies such as the region’s population density, patent intensity, endowment...... by “new” migration theories related to regional growth models and the new economic geography. The work contributes to the field in the following way: we extend the scarce literature on the different channels through which agglomeration economies act as an attractor for mobile labor. Moreover, we account...... for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies...

  18. Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2015-01-01

    by “new” migration theories related to regional growth models and the new economic geography. The work contributes to the field in the following way: we extend the scarce literature on the different channels through which agglomeration economies act as an attractor for mobile labor. Moreover, we account...... for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies...... are indeed key drivers of internal migration flows in Denmark. That is, while we obtain mixed evidence with regard to the role of traditional labor and housing market variables, most of the included proxies for agglomeration economies such as the region’s population density, patent intensity, endowment...

  19. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  20. Migrant networks: An imperative perspective for study of contemporary international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories have not raised the question of why international migration flows continue even after their initial factors ceased to have impact. The aim of the paper is to point out to the significance of studying migrations within migration systems as a basis for understanding their flows, sizes, directions and prospects for the future. Special attention in the paper, is dedicated to the identification and more detailed insight into various roles which social networks have within international migration (from immigration processes, migration perpetuations and chain migrations, to various forms of transnational activities. Having in mind that migrant networks represent a relatively new approach to studying international migration, the paper also gives a synthesis of the theoretical frameworks of research so far. The future anticipates the broadening of migrant networks activities, especially transnational, because they adapt well in the process of globalization. Furthermore, they can provide new solutions for overcoming social and economic difficulties in both origin and destination countries. Taking this into consideration, further research should be directed towards longitudinal approach of study, gender aspect, as well as network forms of connection among members of certain professions, especially among the highly educated. It should be stressed that Serbia could soon come into the position to turn the negative side of emigration into a benefit for both citizens in the country and abroad through network connections which would gradually bring back the confidence of our diasporas in the stability of economic and political institutions in the country as well as renew professional connections with the mother country. .

  1. The influence of attitudes toward immigrants on international migration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinas, C.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 416-451 ISSN 0197-9183 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international migration * attitudes toward immigrants Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016

  2. International Student Migration and Social Stratification in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Biao; Shen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    During the late 1990s China moved from a period of "wealth creation" that benefited the majority of the population to a period of "wealth concentration" that benefited a minority. This essay focuses on the role of international student migration from China to other countries in this process. In particular the authors delineate…

  3. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  4. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.

  5. The international migration of nurses in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfoot, Donald L; Houser, Ari N

    2008-01-01

    This article describes five major factors that are affecting patterns of international migration among nurses who work in long-term care settings: DEMOGRAPHIC DRIVERS: The aging of the populations in developed countries and the low to negative growth in the working-age population will increase the demand for international workers to provide long-term care services. GENDER AND RACE: A dual labor market of long-term care workers, increasingly made up of women of color, is becoming internationalized by the employment of migrating nurses from developing countries. CREDENTIALING: The process of credentialing skilled workers creates barriers to entry for migrating nurses and leads to "decredentialing" where registered nurses work as licensed practical nurses or aides. COLONIAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY: The colonial histories of many European countries and the United States have increased migration from former colonies in developing countries to former colonial powers. WORKER RECRUITMENT: Efforts to limit the recruitment of health care workers from some developing countries have had little effect on migration, in part because much of the recruitment comes through informal channels of family and friends.

  6. Peculiarities of International Migration of Population in Europe at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of globalization, international migration of population is steadily growing and significantly affects the socio-economic development of countries and regions. The aim of the article is to identify the features of international migration of population in Europe. The migration trends in the region and its subregions are analyzed. It is shown that Western Europe is leading according to the number of migrants residing on its territory, but the maximum growth of migrants for the period of 1990-2015 is observed in Southern Europe. The proportion of women and population of active age groups is increasing in the structure of migrants. In recent years the flow of refugees has increased. The impact of the migration crisis on the economies of the host countries is analyzed. Calculations of coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated the level of dependence between the indicators of migration and GDP, population size, share of urban population. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop migration policies at different hierarchical levels.

  7. "International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2011-05-01

    This paper considers how international migration of the head of household affects the allocation of resources toward boys relative to girls within households remaining in the home country. I address the endogeneity of migration with a differences-in-differences style regression model that compares those households in which migrants have already returned home with those in which migrants are still away. The evidence suggests that while the head of household is away a greater fraction of resources are spent on girls relative to boys, but upon his return, this pattern is reversed.

  8. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  9. The Role of Language in Shaping International Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adsera, Alicia; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Fluency in (or ease to quickly learn) the language of the destination country plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s rate of success at the destination’s labor market. This suggests that the ability to learn and speak...... in shaping international migration. Specifically, we investigate how both linguistic distance and linguistic diversity, as a proxy for the “potential” ease to learn a new language and to adapt to a new context, affect migration. We find that migration rates increase with linguistic proximity and the result...... is robust to the inclusion of genetic distance as a proxy for cultural proximity and to the use of multiple measures of linguistic distance. Interestingly, linguistic proximity matters more for migrants moving into non-English speaking destinations than to English-speaking countries. The likely higher...

  10. THE DETERMINANTS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OFTURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciler Sigeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of the net migration statistics at regionallevel-1, consisting 12 regions, according to the Nomenclature of Units forTerritorial Statistics (NUTS of Turkey during the period 2008-2014 utilizingFeasible Generalized Least Squares. The results show that the coefficient ofpoverty variable found negative as consistent with literature. This finding suggeststhat migration movements are still one of the important strategies against poverty.In the study, the amount of exports and electricity per person used as a proxy forthe level of development of the regions foundsignificant and positive on the netmigration rate of the region. This result shows that the level of development of aregion is related to the net migration of that region in the same direction.Therefore, policy makers should implement policies on internal migrationmovements todecrease differences in income inequality and development levelsbetween regions.

  11. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  12. Construction of the migration flows forecasting into Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Tarasyev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model that can predict the dynamics of migration flows between source countries and host regions, as well as the dynamics of wage levels there. The model is constructed within the framework of neoclassical economics and human capital theory in continuous time. Thanks to liberalization of migration policy in Russia in 2007, the model could be successfully employed to Russian regions and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, which have visa-free entry regulations with the Russian Federation. Employing the model on statistical data, we forecast the number and origin composition of foreign labor force from the CIS into Russian regions for 2010-2016. The purpose of our further research is to classify migrants by skills

  13. Network Dependency in Migration Flows – A Space-time Analysis for Germany since Re-unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    . In the context of this paper, network dependencies are associated with correlations of migration flows strictly attributable to proximate flows in geographic space. Using the neoclassical migration model, we start from its aspatial specification and show by means of residual testing that network dependency eff......The contribution of this paper is to analyse the role of network interdependencies in a dynamic panel data model for German internal migration fl ows since re-unification. So far, a capacious account of spatial patterns in German migration data is still missing in the empirical literature...... ects are highly present. We then construct spatial weighting matrices for our system of interregional flow data and apply spatial regression techniques to properly handle the underlying space-time interrelations. Besides spatial extensions to the Blundell-Bond (1998) system GMM estimator in form...

  14. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  15. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties and community social capital (measuring weak ties. On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances.

  16. Cubans abroad: a gendered case study on international migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sarmiento, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cubans who have migrated since the 1990s after living for two decades or more in their country of origin left with an embedded gender ideology that they acquired in a society where gender relations were undergoing radical transformations. As a result, Cuban feminization of migrations has its peculiarities. In this context, there are three issues to consider: explaining how gender relations attained in Cuba, as part of the overall attitudes gained since childhood, influenced Cuban migrants who have left the island permanently since 1990, introduced uniqueness in their migration processes, and made up a different feminization of migration; identifying the features of Cuban social structure that shaped the gender ideology of Cuban migrants; and producing new knowledge about Cuban international migration processes by using a gender perspective and by analyzing the gender relations prevailing in the years before the crisis of the 1990s, as well as since the beginning of the twenty-first century. The first part of this article focuses on gender distinctiveness of recent Cuban migrants, and the second summarizes some traits of the Cuban social structure—mainly referred to female employment—that could explain the gender training of the migrants.

  17. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  18. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  19. E.U. VERSUS O.E.C.D. - MIGRATION FLOW UNDER THE LABOUR TAXATION IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR PAULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a world governed by the freedom of movement, production factors – capital, labour and consumption – can “run” from on territory to another bringing along positive and negative effects, just as well. Labour, the second in line of “run away” production factors, has a great impact upon a state economy generating sustainable growth or increasing budgetary revenues This paper presents for a period of 7 years, for both European (UE-28 and international (OECD level, the migration flow under the labour taxation impact (it is well known that more than 75% of the migration flow is work force related. The authors found that even if both areas are attracting labour force the reasons for doing that are completely different – while for the OECD member states and non-EU member states there will always be the “occident fascination” in the Europeans are “voting with their feet”.

  20. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-04-01

    We examine the migration of low mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by midplane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  1. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators ar...

  2. International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence for Germany, 1967-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Temporary migration, though empirically relevant, is often ignored in formal models. This paper proposes a migration model with heterogeneous agents and persistent cross country income differentials that features temporary migration. In equilibrium there exists a positive relation between the stock...... of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, existing empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows, instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our investigation of the cointegration relationships...... of German migration stocks and flows since 1967. We find that (i) panel-unit root tests reject the hypothesis that migration flows and the explanatory variables are integrated of the same order, while migration stocks and the explanatory variables are all I(1) variables, and (ii) the hypothesis...

  3. International Conference Migration Management and International Organizations in the 20th Century, Athens, April 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Parsanoglou, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The conference was organized as part of the research project Migration Management and International Organizations: A history of the Establishment of the International Organization for Migration (http://mimio.uop.gr/site/?q=en). The rationale of the conference was built upon two main axes: on the one hand, it aimed at problematizing the concept of “migration management”; on the other hand, it called for an integration of “migration management” into the general history of International Organiza...

  4. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PHENOMENON IN ROMANIA BETWEEN 1991 AND 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration represented and represents a very important phenomenon at global level, taking into consideration besides its demographic implications, its extremely diverse implications such as socio-economic, socio-cultural, territorial, or environmental. This represents, probably, the main reason why the research on migration is interdisciplinary, having strong connections with sociology, political sciences, history, economics, geography, demography, psychology, or low, among others. All these disciplines target different aspects of population migration, and a proper comprehension of the phenomenon implies a contribution from the part of all of them. Although migration represents a phenomenon manifested since ancient times, it has never been such an universal or significant phenomenon from the socio-economical or political perspective, as it is in present times. International migration has both a negative and positive impact on both provider and receiving countries, in general playing a very important role in the structure and dimension of the population of a country. Romania is not an exception to the previously expressed statement; furthermore, after the fall of the communist regime, migration became for Romania one of the most important socio-economical phenomena. The present paper aims at analyzing in a descriptive manner the international migration phenomenon in Romania between 1991 and 2008, from quantitative perspective. Based on data identified in the "Statistical Yearbook of Romania - 2008 and 2009 editions - the analysis revealed the fact that both immigration and emigration flows registered oscillatory evolutions in the analysed period, but the general trend of immigration was of increasing, while the one of emigration was of decreasing. Immigration was dominated by the presence of males, of persons aged between 26 and 40 and of persons coming from the Republic of Moldova. On the other side, in the case of emigration the significant

  5. Migration and Adult Language Learning: Global Flows and Local Transpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne; Roberts, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century, global flows politically, socially, economically, and environmentally are creating widespread movements of people around the world and giving rise to increased resettlements of immigrants and refugees internationally. The reality in most countries worldwide is that contemporary populations are multifaceted, multicultural,…

  6. AN INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR FORCE MIGRATION ON NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chernyak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The governmental regulation of labor force migration is an important part of country’s image. The interdependence between international labor force migration and national economy’s competitiveness is analyzed. The Global Competitiveness Index was chosen as a background of the research. The ways of improving of Ukrainian performance in a Global Competitiveness Index are defined. Tough control and the migrants inflow limits implementation will cause a decrease in an unemployment rate and an increase in a competitiveness of national business. The stimulation of the high-qualified specialists’ immigration is also a way of gaining a competitive advantage. The necessity of governmental programs, supporting national entrepreneurs must be emphasized.

  7. The Role of Language in Shaping International Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Adsera, Alicia

    and/or widely spoken languages (or ease to quickly learn it) plays a key role in the transfer of human capital from the source country to another country and boosts the immigrant’s success at the destination’s labor market. We use data on immigration flows and stocks of foreigners in 27 OECD...... and climate shocks, migrant networks, language and aspects of “cultural distance”. In that regard, the more “foreign” or distant the new culture and the larger the language barriers, the higher the costs are for an individual to migrate to a particular destination. Fluency in destination country’s language...

  8. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns.

  9. A Special Case of International Migration: Ethnic Hungarians Migrating from Transylvania to Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Gödri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a special case of international migration, when the ethnicity, mother tongue, historical and cultural traditions of the immigrants are identical with those of the receiving population. This is also a fundamental feature of immigration to Hungary in the last decade and a half and could be observed primarily in the migratory wave from neighboring countries (most of all from Transylvania in Romania. After presenting the historical background we will review the development of the present-day migratory processes as well as their social and economical conditions, relying on statistics based on various sources. The socio-demographic composition of the immigrants and their selection from the population of origin indicate that migration is more frequent among younger, better-educated people living in an ethnically heterogeneous urban environment. At the same time, the rising proportion of older people and pensioners among the immigrants suggests the commencement of the so-called secondary migration. This is con? rmed by a questionnaire-based survey conducted among immigrants, which showed that family reuni? cation is a migratory motivation for a signi? cant group of people, primarily for the older generation. Among younger people economic considerations are decisive in the migrants decision-making. Our analysis underscores the roles of ethnicity and network of connections in the processes under examination.

  10. The influence of attitudes toward immigrants on international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether anti-immigrant attitudes reduce migrant inflows in OECD countries. Using comprehensive data on international migration and natives’ attitudes, we find that natives’ hostility, when captured with natives’ propensity to discriminate against immigrants on the labor market......, reduces immigration. This effect persists after we control for changes in immigration policies and is stronger for immigrants from OECD countries. Further we show that knowledge of the destination country’s language reinforces the effect. Our results raise a challenge for policy makers in times when...

  11. Internal migration in West Germany and implications for east-west salary convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decressin, J W

    1994-01-01

    "Using a simple model of gross migration [in West Germany], the paper shows that provided economic agents are sufficiently risk averse, migrational flows are likely to be procyclical. The econometric results confirm that flows are highly procyclical. They further indicate that changes in regional economic disparities significantly affect migrational flows. However, given the widening of regional disparities in the 1980s accompanied by a worsening in aggregate conditions, migration seems least effective in offsetting the differentiated impact of labor market shocks when it would be most useful. The paper concludes by applying the results to the issue of east-west migration and salary convergence." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  12. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Sirageldin, I

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of internal migration on earnings within the human capital model framework. Since migrants constitute a non-random sample of population, the endogenous nature of migration decision warrants necessary correction for the selectivity bias in their earnings function. The Mincer-type earnings model is thus augmented to determine the extent of this bias. Besides estimating the standard Mincerian earnings model, the paper also attempts to verify the learn-as-you-go proposition by introducing migration duration variables in the earnings model. Based on the household level Population, Labor Force, and Migration (1979-80) survey data, the analysis yields the following important conclusions: (i) the data allowed a meaningful estimation of Mincerian earnings function for migrants and non-migrants; (ii) the level of schooling was one of the important determinants of the distribution of income both for migrants and nonmigrants--the four categorical variables of education were in general statistically significant with expected signs, implying that the hypothesis of a positive relationship between income and education was accepted; (iii) the rates of return to education improved systematically with higher levels of education, thus confirming the notion that education serves as a signalling device; (iv) the age-income profile was almost linear for migrants but showed concavity for nonmigrants; (v) the presence of sample-selection was observed for migrants; and (vi) even after controlling for the influence of personal characteristics, i.e., education and experience, the long-standing migrants earned relatively more at the destination than the more recent migrants.

  13. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  14. Thermodilution-determined Internal Jugular Venous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Widmer, Mario; Hilty, Matthias P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test...

  15. Underestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmann, Angela; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is among the first to link internal migration and subjective well-being in developed countries. Economic theory predicts that individuals migrate towards urban agglomerations, if the potential gain in income is sufficient to cover costs. However, this narrow view cannot explain why migration exists also to the rural periphery. In our analysis, we investigate non-monetary benefits beyond economics from internal migration. Using highly disaggregated spatial information on people s mi...

  16. Embedding international migration: the response of Bolivian local governments and NGOs to international migraton.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.

    2010-01-01

    International migration is an integral part of the lives of many people in the South, and many households add remittances to their income in order to finance the daily costs of living that cannot be met by their traditional source of income. In the literature, a debate has emerged on the impacts

  17. International migration and the propagation of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docquier, F; Vasilakis, Ch; Tamfutu Munsi, D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we identify and quantify the role of international migration in the propagation of HIV across sub-Saharan African countries. We use panel data on bilateral migration flows and HIV prevalence rates covering 44 countries after 1990. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, reverse causality, reflection issues, incorrect treatment of country fixed effects and spatial autocorrelation, we find evidence of a highly robust emigration-induced propagation mechanism. On the contrary, immigration has no significant effect. Numerical experiments reveal that the long-run effect of emigration accounts for more than 4 percent of the number of HIV cases in 15 countries (and more than 20 percent in 6 countries). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. International migration data: their problems and usefulness in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1987-01-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s Venezuela was an important destination for migrants from Southern Europe, a flow that disappeared almost entirely during the 1960s, to be replaced by border movements and the largely illegal migration of Colombians. The oil boom of the 1970s saw an increase of the latter, which may have subsided during the 1980s due to the more difficult economic conditions that have also led to significant emigration levels of Venezuelans and former immigrants. Methods of data collection systems that provide information on migrants include the National Population and Housing Census, the National Household Survey, migration surveys, arrival and departure statistics, registration systems operated by the Direccion General Sectorial de identificacion y Control de Extranjeros, the 1980 regularization drive, statistics gathered by the Ministry of Labor, and vital and civil registration statistics. The lack of effective coordination among the different government agencies gathering information and the administrative nature of the data collected give rise to problems of comparability. Mechanisms to publish and disseminate the data available are not well developed, so that researchers often have no access to potentially useful sources of information. Problems of timeliness in the publication of the most widely used information are also present, as is the large gap existing in data pertaining to emigration, be it of Venezuelan nationals or of immigrants leaving the country.

  19. [Female international migration: the Colombian-Venezuelan case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in female migration in Latin America are analyzed, using the example of migration from Colombia to Venezuela since the 1950s. Consideration is given to the causes of this migration, the economic role of female migrants, and the concept of migration as a survival strategy. Data are from a survey of migrant origin carried out in 1980 in major Colombian cities.

  20. Modern trends in international labour migration within the integration of Ukraine to the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Serpukhov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the impact of labor migration on the economy of member countries of the integration process. With the development of integration processes of particular relevance to the issues the impact of migration flows on the economies of members of the integration process. Different levels of development of countries, wages, living standards and reducing barriers to migration are largely encourages the development of labor migration, which greatly affected the labor market and develo...

  1. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  2. MEASURING POLYCENTRICITY OF MEGA-CITY REGIONS IN CHINA BASED ON THE INTERCITY MIGRATION FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Mu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  3. [Migration in Austria: 1850-1900. Migration flows within the monarchy and the structure of migration to Vienna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmann, H

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys migration within the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1850 to 1900 using census data. "As a result of the increase in regional mobility during the nineteenth century, clearly defined patterns of migration developed involving movement from the peripheral areas to the center.... In the process of this development, various sub-systems of migration appeared. Of these, migration from one region to another was more important than that within the same region...and Vienna, the Imperial capital, became the center of migration." Migrants are studied by place of origin and distance traveled and by social class and demographic characteristics. Employment, segregation, and the integration of urban migrants are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  4. Networks and Selection in International Migration to Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubecker, Nina; Smolka, Marcel; Steinbacher, Anne

    This paper provides new evidence on migrant networks as determinants of the scale and skill structure of migration, using aggregate data from a recent migration boom to Spain. We develop a three-level nested multinomial logit migration model. Our model accommodates varying degrees of similarity...

  5. The role of family decision in internal migration: the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of family decisions and individual decisions on rural-urban migration in India under 2 different rural institutions--family farm and wage labor systems. An analytical framework for explaining family migration decisions reveals that whenever a member of the extended family migrates, he gives up his share in the produce of the family farm. When this happens, the number of adult members on the farm goes down and the total product is affected. 3 case studies of Indian villages are analyzed for this study. 2 empirical relations are examined: 1) if individual migration decisions are predominant, and 2) if family decisions are important in determining the overall flow of migration. Relationships between migration decisions and other variables, such as: 1) number of males in urban areas; 2) urban wages; 3) daily wage rate; 4) average agricultural income; 5) railway distance between rural and urban areas; 6) size of the labor market in destination region; 7) probability that a migrant arriving in an urban area will find a job; and 8) comsumption expenditure, in urban areas estimated by working class consumer price index, are determined. Results show that: 1) the market determined wage variable does not play a very significant role in migration decisions; 2) distance is one of the most important variables in analyzing migration; and 3) the aggregate flow of migration is affected if migration decisions are predominantly family decisions. These findings have relevant policy implications for less developed countries (LDCs), especially because large flows of rural-urban migration in recent years have forced governments to adopt policies for controlling the flows to reduce the burden of unemployment in the urban areas. Government policies affecting rural institutions will have an impact on migration flow; those that lead to a reduction of uncertainty in agriculture will affect average per-capita consumption levels in family farms and hence

  6. Levels and patterns of internal migration in Europe: A cohort perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-11-01

    Europe displays important variations in the level of internal migration, with a clear spatial gradient of high mobility in northern and western Europe but lower mobility in the south and east. However, cross-national variation in levels of internal migration remains poorly understood, because it is analysed almost exclusively using cross-sectional data and period measures. This paper seeks to advance understanding of cross-national variation in migration levels in 14 European countries by drawing on a recently proposed suite of migration cohort measures, coupled with internationally comparable retrospective residential histories. It shows that differences in migration levels are mainly attributable to variation in the extent of repeat movement, which is underpinned by the differences in mean ages at first and last move that together delineate the average length of migration careers. Cohort analysis provides a robust foundation for exploring the demographic mechanisms underpinning variation in migration levels across countries and over time.

  7. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  8. Costs and benefits of the international labor migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Hagiu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration has been an important part of the transition process and it's effects are complex including significant changes in attitudes and norms that are relevant for democratic processes. Migration changes the way of life, leads to social-economical and cultural modification, at a continuous readjustment of social organization and assimilation and rejection problems.The amplitude and intensity of migrating fluxes, its dynamic as well as the peculiarity of migrating persons (social level, professional preparation, age, sex is different according with the scope of migration ( work, obliged change of home, refugee, making or gathering the family.

  9. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  10. Emerging migration flows in a changing climate in dryland Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniveton, Dominic R.; Smith, Christopher D.; Black, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Fears of the movement of large numbers of people as a result of changes in the environment were first voiced in the 1980s (ref. ). Nearly thirty years later the numbers likely to migrate as a result of the impacts of climate change are still, at best, guesswork. Owing to the high prevalence of rainfed agriculture, many livelihoods in sub-Saharan African drylands are particularly vulnerable to changes in climate. One commonly adopted response strategy used by populations to deal with the resulting livelihood stress is migration. Here, we use an agent-based model developed around the theory of planned behaviour to explore how climate and demographic change, defined by the ENSEMBLES project and the United Nations Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, combine to influence migration within and from Burkina Faso. The emergent migration patterns modelled support framing the nexus of climate change and migration as a complex adaptive system. Using this conceptual framework, we show that the extent of climate-change-related migration is likely to be highly nonlinear and the extent of this nonlinearity is dependent on population growth; therefore supporting migration policy interventions based on both demographic and climate change adaptation.

  11. Does Access to Foreign Markets shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hering; Rodrigo Paillacar

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how internal migration is affected by Brazil’s increased integration into the world economy. It analyzes the impact of regional differences in access to foreign demand on sector-specific bilateral migration rates between the Brazilian states for the years 1995 to 2003. Using international trade data, a foreign market access measure is computed at the sectoral level,...

  12. The benefits and caveats of international nurse migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is a dramatic shortage of nurses. An increase in the migration of nurses from their home countries to recipient countries is having a global effect on the healthcare system. This global phenomenon stems from historical, economical, social, and political factors. Migration has a significant impact on both the individual and national level. This article summarizes the factors that contribute to nurse migration form the perspective of the source and recipient countries. Additionally, the impacts and issues surrounding nurse migration were also analyzed.

  13. The national and international implications of a decade of doctor migration in the Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bidwell, Posy

    2012-12-17

    BACKGROUND: Between 2000 and 2010, Ireland became increasingly dependent on foreign-trained doctors to staff its health system. An inability to train and retain sufficient doctors to meet demand is the primary reason for the dependence on foreign-trained doctors. By 2008 the proportion of foreign-trained doctors was the second highest in the OECD. This increased dependence on international medical migration has both national and international policy implications. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) for a 10-year period: 2000-2010. Data indicate country of qualification but not nationality. The total number of registrants and entrants (n) was determined for each year. Immigration data were also obtained on the number of work visas issued to doctors. Registration and visa data were then compared in order to estimate doctor migration to Ireland 2000-2010. RESULTS: The proportion of foreign-trained doctors rose from 13.4% of all registered doctors in 2000 to 33.4% by 2010. The largest increase was in foreign-trained doctors from outside the EU, rising from 972 (7.4%) in 2000 to 4740 (25.3%) of registered doctors in 2010. The biggest source country in 2000 was Pakistan. By 2010, South Africa had become the biggest source country. The number of foreign-trained doctors from other EU countries doubled from 780 in 2000 to 1521 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Registration data are likely to over-estimate and visa data under-estimate the numbers of doctors actively working in Ireland. However, they serve to illustrate Ireland\\'s rapidly increasing and potentially unsustainable reliance on foreign-trained doctors; and to highlight the need for better data to measure migratory flows. Improved measurement of health worker migration is necessary both for national workforce planning and to fulfil the requirements of the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel.

  14. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  15. [Recent trends in international migration to Venezuela: results of a national migration survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1988-12-01

    The author discusses the results of a national migration and household survey conducted in Venezuela in 1987. Incoming migration is described and the sociodemographic characteristics of resident aliens are analyzed, including place of origin, occupational status, and sex. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  17. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  18. International migration and related policies in europe 1950-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a) its particular development in time; b) the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c) the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in

  19. International Migration and Transnational Ethics of Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees

  20. Migrations across International Boundaries and the Nationality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is indicated that these migrations were influenced by the changing political, economic security and demographic impact on both countries across their common borders; from the colonial era to date. These trans-border migrations, their trend, character including the British policy of encouraging immigration to south west ...

  1. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  2. [A historical survey of international migration of China population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1987-07-01

    Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education.

  3. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  4. Ligand-Occupied Integrin Internalization Links Nutrient Signaling to Invasive Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rainero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrin trafficking is key to cell migration, but little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of integrin endocytosis. Here, we show that α5β1 integrin undergoes tensin-dependent centripetal movement from the cell periphery to populate adhesions located under the nucleus. From here, ligand-engaged α5β1 integrins are internalized under control of the Arf subfamily GTPase, Arf4, and are trafficked to nearby late endosomes/lysosomes. Suppression of centripetal movement or Arf4-dependent endocytosis disrupts flow of ligand-bound integrins to late endosomes/lysosomes and their degradation within this compartment. Arf4-dependent integrin internalization is required for proper lysosome positioning and for recruitment and activation of mTOR at this cellular subcompartment. Furthermore, nutrient depletion promotes subnuclear accumulation and endocytosis of ligand-engaged α5β1 integrins via inhibition of mTORC1. This two-way regulatory interaction between mTORC1 and integrin trafficking in combination with data describing a role for tensin in invasive cell migration indicate interesting links between nutrient signaling and metastasis.

  5. Shear-induced particle migration in one-, two-, and three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Gilchrist, J. F.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the segregation resulting from the competition between advection and shear-induced migration of suspensions in steady open flows. Herringbone channels form a concentration profile deviating from the particle focusing found in straight channels. Transients can result from a buckling instability during the onset of migration when particle-depleted fluid is injected into particle-rich fluid. In chaotic flows, the better mixing found at low bulk volume fraction is not seen at higher bulk volume fraction. Thus, the ability of static mixers to reduce the effects of shear-induced migration is significantly limited.

  6. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  7. Lateral migration of an elastic capsule by optical force in a uniform flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-12-01

    The lateral migration of an elastic capsule under an optical force in a uniform flow was studied to show the separation characteristics according to the elastic properties in the cross-type optical separator. The initially spherical capsule was moved through the fluid flow using a laser beam with a Gaussian distribution focused along the direction normal to the flow device surface. To simulate such a system, a penalty immersed boundary method was adopted to enable fluid-membrane coupling, and a dynamic ray tracing method was applied to the optical force calculation. The effects of the elastic properties of the capsule membrane (the surface Young's modulus and the bending modulus) on the lateral migration were studied. By increasing the surface Young's modulus, the capsule deformed less and the migration distance increased; however, buckling occurred in the capsule with a high surface Young's modulus. Buckling could be suppressed by increasing the bending rigidity. The effects of the flow velocity and the laser beam power were also examined. In the simulation, the S number, i.e., the ratio of the optical force to the viscous force, was adjusted by decreasing the flow velocity or increasing the laser beam power. The migration distance increased as the S number increased, and a constant lateral migration distance was obtained for a rigid particle for a given S number. An elastic capsule under conditions intermediate between a fixed flow velocity and a fixed laser beam power, however, did not yield a constant lateral migration distance due to the extent of the deformation in the different situations. To predict the lateral migration distance of an elastic capsule, a nondimensional parameter, S_{e}, was defined to include the effects of the optical force, the elastic force, and the fluid viscous force. A unified tendency of the lateral migration distance with S_{e} was obtained for capsules with intermediate elasticity, by varying either the flow velocity or the laser

  8. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990- 2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear......Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration...

  9. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  10. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  11. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  12. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Jennifer H; Massey, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are 'political' or 'economic' migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family's migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here - which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends - enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work.

  13. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  14. Macro patterns of internal migration in Indonesia, 1971-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatas, S

    1993-12-01

    Indonesia's population mobility rate is still relatively low. In 1990 only 8.25% of Indonesians lived outside the provinces where they were born. In contrast, according to the US censuses, since the 1870s no fewer than 20% of Americans did. The level of population mobility is even lower for inter-island and interregional migration. In 1990 only 4.29% of Indonesians lived outside their home islands or regions. The level of urbanization has also had an impact, with rural-urban migration increasing from 17.18% in 1971 to 22.38% in 1980, and to 30.93% in 1990. Between 1971 and 1990 the increase amounted to 20.34% in Jakarta, Surbaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang. Migration occurs because people want to improve their lives. The reasons for migration include: 1) to continue education, 2) to search for a better job, 3) to obtain better wages or income, 4) to accompany parents or spouse, 5) to secure political support, and 6) to escape from unpleasant conditions. The 1990 census data on migration were derived from 1) province of birth, 2) province of previous residence, 3) duration of residence at the current province, and 4) province of residence 5 years prior to the census. Interprovincial life time migration increased in Indonesia from 5.8 million in 1971 to 10.2 million in 1980 and to 14.8 million in 1990. Most of the provinces of Sumatra and Kalimantan experienced net positive migration in which in-migration exceeded out-migration. On the other hand, migrants from Jakarta to West Java accounted for 75.6% or 794,987 out of the 1,052,234 people who moved out of the capital city. In 1971 as much as 31.18% of migration across provincial borders headed for DKI Jakarta. In 1990 DKI Jakarta and West Java accommodated 37.75% of the interprovincial migrants. Recent in, out, and net migration declined 2.8 million between 1980 and 1985, but it went up to 5.3 million between 1985 and 1990. Between 1985 and 1990 interprovincial migration towards urban areas amounted to 3.2 million

  15. Investigation of particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Sheng; Peng, Gangrou; Zhao, Qianbin; Alici, Gursel; Du, Hejun; Li, Weihua

    2016-08-01

    In this work, particle lateral migration in sample-sheath flow of viscoelastic fluid and Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated. The 4.8-μm micro-particles were dispersed in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) viscoelastic solution, and then the solution was injected into a straight rectangular channel with a deionised (DI) water Newtonian sheath flow. Micro-particles suspended in PEO solution migrated laterally to a DI water stream, but migration in the opposite direction from a DI water stream to a PEO solution stream or from one DI water stream to another DI water stream could not be achieved. The lateral migration of particles depends on the viscoelastic properties of the sample fluids. Furthermore, the effects of channel length, flow rate, and PEO concentration were studied. By using viscoelastic sample flow and Newtonian sheath flow, a selective particle lateral migration can be achieved in a simple straight channel, without any external force fields. This particle lateral migration technique could be potentially used in solution exchange fields such as automated cell staining and washing in microfluidic platforms, and holds numerous biomedical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. State and legal regulation of refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migration in EU as institutional basis of management of international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ievdokymov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of World Bank data on the dynamics of migration indicators in Europe and Fragile State Index data the authors determine the groups of EU countries in geo-economic risk, which forms the pushing factors in the refugee flow formation. The geographic structure of refugees’ migratory flows to the EU is analyzed and the migration corridor dynamics is determined, in particular, it is found out that the overwhelming majority of refugees arrive to the EU through the Central and Eastern Mediterranean channels. In addition, It is determined that strengthening military and political instability in Africa and the Middle East, the tight policies and institutional mechanisms for crossing the EU's borders cause the increased flows of illegal migrants entering the EU in dangerous ways, in particular through the Mediterranean Sea, where a significant number of such persons, especially women and children, die. In addition, EU countries are structured by their migration policies (views on immigration, using of quantitative restrictions on immigration including highly skilled workers. As a result of the legal document study, the authors establish the system of documents identifying the institutional frameworks for the refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migratory flow management.

  17. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West....... We indeed get evidence for such a puzzle throughout the mid-1990s, which is likely to be caused by huge West-East income transfers, a fast exogenously driven wage convergence and the possibility of East-West commuting. However, we also observe an inversion of this relationship for later periods...

  18. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    term migration of (usually skilled) workers and the second is the high-frequency short-term cross-border movement of (mostly unskilled) workers. The two streams have different policy implications and require different management arrangements.

  19. Religion and International Migration: A Case Study of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationships between religion and migration in modern-day Ukraine. We focus on Ukraine’s numerous churches and their attitude toward the phenomenon of emigration, their relevant activities with regard to the outward migration from the country, and the migration experiences and intentions of the believers. We find that the Greek Catholic Church has put special attention on the emigration phenomenon in its social doctrine, while the doctrines of other churches have been less elaborate, both in general terms and with regard to the issue of external migration in particular. Moreover, we demonstrate that worshippers belonging to the different churches have very similar growing concerns about the negative effects of Ukraine’s economic development—social divide and unemployment in particular.

  20. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ... effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects...the actual migration patterns and their relative effects on the economy; and the domestic policies enacted by the PRC that directly prompted

  1. International labor migration: between human rights and political objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Musetescu

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the relation between the human right to migrate and the objectives of immigration policies. We argue that the temporary work migration is the clearest sign of the failure of political governance in both the host and native states, even if we may argue, to a different degree. The only way to reduce the pressure of immigration in developed countries would be to allow a freer global environment, in trade, industrial and taxation policies.

  2. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  3. Internal migration and life satisfaction: Well-being effects of moving as a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Switek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Migration typically leads to higher income, but its association with life satisfaction remains unclear. Is migration accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction? If it is, is the increase in income responsible or are other life domains driving the satisfaction changes? These two questions are addressed using longitudinal data from a Swedish Young Adult Panel Study for 1999 and 2009. Comparing migrants to non-migrants, it is found that internal migration is accompanied by an increase in li...

  4. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." excerpt

  5. Internal migration and unemployment in Germany: an Anglo-Irish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, M; Newell, A

    1993-01-01

    "The paper analyzes the effect on the migration rate of a number of labour market variables; in particular, relative wage levels and growth rates, and the relative unemployment rates in the home and foreign country. We study the Ireland-U.K. migration rate and use the estimates to predict migration between the two parts of unified Germany. We conclude that magnitudes of unemployment differences and wage differentials are such that currently observed substantial migration flows will not slow down for the forseeable future." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  6. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  7. Putting trapped populations into place: Climate change and inter-district migration flows in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; DeWaard, Jack

    2018-02-01

    Research shows that the association between adverse climate conditions and human migration is heterogeneous. One reason for this heterogeneity is the differential vulnerability of populations to climate change. This includes highly vulnerable, "trapped" populations that are too poor to migrate given deep and persistent poverty, the financial costs of migrating, and the erosion of already fragile economic livelihoods under climate change. Another reason for this heterogeneity is the differential vulnerability of places . However, despite the growing list of studies showing that the climate-migration relationship clearly varies across places, there is surprisingly little research on the characteristics of places themselves that trap, or immobilize, populations. Accordingly, we provide the first account of the "holding power" of places in the association between adverse climate conditions and migration flows among 55 districts in Zambia in 2000 and 2010. Methodologically, we combine high resolution climate information with aggregated census micro data to estimate gravity models of inter-district migration flows. Results reveal that the association between adverse climate conditions and migration is positive only for wealthy migrant-sending districts. In contrast, poor districts are characterized by climate-related immobility. Yet, our findings show that access to migrant networks enables climate related mobility in the poorest districts, suggesting a viable pathway to overcome mobility constraints. Planners and policy makers need to recognize the holding power of places that can trap populations and develop programs to support in situ adaptation and to facilitate migration to avoid humanitarian emergencies.

  8. The possibilities of least-squares migration of internally scattered seismic energy

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Approximate images of the earth’s subsurface structures are usually obtained by migrating surface seismic data. Least-squares migration, under the single-scattering assumption, is used as an iterative linearized inversion scheme to suppress migration artifacts, deconvolve the source signature, mitigate the acquisition fingerprint, and enhance the spatial resolution of migrated images. The problem with least-squares migration of primaries, however, is that it may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples, such as vertical and nearly vertical faults or salt flanks. To alleviate this problem, we adopted a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally scattered energy. We apply the least-squares migration of first-order internal multiples to image subsurface vertical fault planes. Tests on synthetic data demonstrated the ability of the proposed method to resolve vertical fault planes, which are poorly illuminated by the least-squares migration of primaries only. The proposed scheme is robust in the presence of white Gaussian observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault planes using inaccurate migration velocities. Our results suggested that the proposed least-squares imaging, under the double-scattering assumption, still retrieved the vertical fault planes when imaging the scattered data despite a slight defocusing of these events due to the presence of noise or velocity errors.

  9. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future.

  10. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future

  11. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  12. International migration in Asia and the Pacific: trends, problems, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Diaz, C

    1986-01-01

    Like other parts of the world, the Asia and Pacific region has experienced mass movements of the population within and across countries. This report presents the issues and problems discussed, and the recommendations given at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific, held in 1984 in Manila. The 9 issues discussed include: 1) available data on international migration are often inconsistent, incomplete, and inadequate for a thorough analysis of the migration situation; 2) the conventional economic theory of migration, and the modern view are different, but related; 3) are internal and international migration 2 distinct phenomena, or are they simply opposite ends of a continuum ranging from short-distance moves within a country to long-distance moves across national boundaries?; 4) permanent migration from Asia and the Pacific to the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand has risen sharply over the the past few years; 5) international migration could have considerable effects on the size, composition, growth, and structure of the populations of both sending and receiving countries; 6) temporary labor migration to the Middle East increased rapidly in the recent past; 7) temporary labor migration has benefits and costs to the home country and to the returning workers and their families; 8) refugee movements within and from Asia have had significant repercussions, not only in the lives of the migrants themselves, but also in the national policies and social structures of the asylum countries; and 9) international migration, if properly controlled and organized, could work for the benefit of every country involved.

  13. Cell-scale dynamic recycling and cortical flow of the actin–myosin cytoskeleton for rapid cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiko Yumura

    2012-11-01

    Actin and myosin II play major roles in cell migration. Whereas pseudopod extension by actin polymerization has been intensively researched, less attention has been paid to how the rest of the actin cytoskeleton such as the actin cortex contributes to cell migration. In this study, cortical actin and myosin II filaments were simultaneously observed in migrating Dictyostelium cells under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The cortical actin and myosin II filaments remained stationary with respect to the substratum as the cells advanced. However, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and direct observation of filaments showed that they rapidly turned over. When the cells were detached from the substratum, the actin and myosin filaments displayed a vigorous retrograde flow. Thus, when the cells migrate on the substratum, the cortical cytoskeleton firmly holds the substratum to generate the motive force instead. The present studies also demonstrate how myosin II localizes to the rear region of the migrating cells. The observed dynamic turnover of actin and myosin II filaments contributes to the recycling of their subunits across the whole cell and enables rapid reorganization of the cytoskeleton.

  14. [The use of information on residence of relatives to measure international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1987-12-01

    The author discusses progress made in measuring international migration and proposes a method based on the use of information from censuses of countries of origin, with emphasis on the geographic location of relatives' residence. This method is evaluated using data for migration from Barbados and Colombia to Venezuela and the United States. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. Invisible barriers in international labour migration : The case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Why is labour mobility in the European Union so low? To shed light on this issue we focus and examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended labour migration of the Dutch is that its low level and the fact that it is strongly

  16. Labor Market Determinants of Migration Flows in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.

  17. International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: a cross-national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the dynamics of physician international migration patterns and identify the countries deviating most from expected migration rates. A negative binomial log-linear model of physician migration to the United States from every other country was constructed using a panel of country-level data for years 1994-2000. The model was used to identify factors associated with physician migration and to identify countries with higher or lower rates of physician migration than expected. Physician migration varied with a country's GDP per capita in an inverse-U pattern, with highest migration rates from middle-income countries. The absence of medical schools, immigrant networks in the United States, medical instruction in English, proximity to the United States, and the lack of political and civil liberties were also associated with higher migration rates. Countries with higher-than-predicted migration rates included Iceland, Albania, Armenia, Dominica, Lebanon, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Bulgaria. Countries with lower-than-predicted migration rates included Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Portugal, Senegal, and France. This analysis shows that many of the most powerful factors associated with physician migration are difficult or impossible for countries to change through public policy. GDP per capita and proximity to the U.S. are two of the most powerful predictors of physician migration. Networks of immigrants in the U.S. and fewer political and civil liberties also put countries at higher risk for physician emigration. Several other factors that were associated with physician migration might be more easily amenable to policy intervention. These factors include the absence of a medical school and medical instruction in English. Policies addressing these factors would involve making several difficult tradeoffs, however. Other examples of policies that are effective in minimizing physician migration might be found by examining countries with lower

  18. Reconstructing trends in international migration with three questions in household surveys: Lessons from the MAFE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Schoumaker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on migration trends are crucially lacking in developing countries. The lack of basic information on migration contrasts sharply with the increasing importance of migration in the policy agenda of both sending and receiving countries. Objective: The general objectives of this paper are: to show how trends in international migration can be reconstructed with three questions in a household survey; to evaluate the precision of the estimates; and to test how sensitive the estimates are to several methodological choices and assumptions. Methods: Migration trends are reconstructed with event history models. The reconstruction uses data collected through migration surveys conducted in cities in three countries (Senegal, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ghana as part of the MAFE (Migration between Africa and Europe project. Specifically, two types of data are used: simple data on the first migration of children of household heads, collected through household surveys, and full migration histories of children collected in biographic surveys. First, we evaluate the precision of our estimates using data collected in the household questionnaire. Next, the sensitivity of our results to different methodological choices and assumptions is evaluated. Results: Migration trends measured with simple data from household surveys are broadly consistent with results obtained from full migration histories. However, increases in migration trends tend to be underestimated with household data. Migration probabilities are also affected by large confidence intervals. Conclusions: Estimates using household data may be affected by large confidence intervals, and migrations trends are influenced by the simplifying assumptions that are made when using these data. Despite these limitations, estimates based on three simple questions provide useful information on migration levels and trends.

  19. Migration Studies and Academic Research on International Migration Policies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the historical development of the field of migratory studies in Argentina and makes a review of the academic production around the so - called "migratory policies." The systematization of these studies, historically placed on migration policies, aims to highlight some of the most significant contributions of the research during the last 30 years, to understand or explain various aspects and dimensions of the Argentinean migration policy. To achieve this, texts were selected that derived from empirical research that explicitly assume the migratory policies as the object of study, or whose themes and research problems adopt as a framework for discussion the policies and practices aimed at regulating migration and mobility in Argentina. The organization and presentation of these selected texts consider issues related to the interests and thematic concerns, disciplinary and analytical approaches, distinct periods, scales of analysis and sources of information.

  20. A comparative study of species migration and diffusion mechanisms in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Migration effects on crossover phenomena is examined. • Crossover and migration model is newly implemented. • Totally opposite crossover trend is observed with migration during charging. • During discharging, the crossover is enhanced due to migration. - ABSTRACT: According to the Nernst–Planck equation, the transport of charged species in porous electrodes is mainly driven by diffusion and migration. Although a number of all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) models have been developed by several VRFB modeling groups, a comparative study of these two ion transport mechanisms has not been clearly reported in the literature. In this study, we develop a three-dimensional (3-D), transient VRFB model that rigorously accounts for both diffusion and migration mechanisms of charged species, including V 2+ , V 3+ , VO 2+ ,VO 2 + and H + . The VRFB model relies upon five principles of conservation: mass, momentum, species, electric charge, and thermal energy. Due to the general form of the conservation equations, both species migration effects on species transport and species diffusion effects on charge transport are considered in the source terms of the model equations. The model calculates species migration and diffusion fluxes through the membrane and compares their relative magnitudes under various charging and discharging stages. This paper clearly elucidates the role of species migration on vanadium crossover and the subsequent capacity losses, demonstrating that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for optimizing the component design and operation of VRFBs.

  1. On the Mutual Dynamics of Interregional Gross Migration Flows in Space and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    2016-01-01

    -time summary measures thereby hint at the validity of the neoclassical migration model in predicting gross out-migration flows. In order to take a closer look at the dynamic evolution the direct and indirect network effects over time, cumulative multipliers for a time horizon of up to 10 years have been...... computed for each variable. The results show that the speed of adjustment of the migration response towards the long-run impact of labor market signals is fast and mostly occurs within the first 3 years. Regarding the interplay of the direct and indirect effects, the estimation results uniformly hint...... at additive linkages for all variables. Overall, the obtained results underline the importance of a decomposition of the total effects of labor market signals on interregional migration flows by means of their spatial and temporal network dynamics....

  2. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  3. How is internal migration reshaping metropolitan populations in Latin America? A new method and new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vignoli, Jorge; Rowe, Francisco

    2018-01-30

    Internal migration is a key driver of patterns of human settlement and socio-economic development, but little is known about its compositional impacts. Exploiting the wide availability of census data, we propose a method to quantify the internal migration impacts on local population structures, and estimate these impacts for eight large Latin American cities. We show that internal migration generally had small feminizing, downgrading educational, and demographic window effects: reducing the local sex ratio, lowering the average years of schooling, and raising the share of working-age population due to an increased young adult population. Over time, a rise in the proportion of males and a drop in the share of the young adult population moving into cities reduced the feminizing and demographic window effects. Concurrently, a rise in the average years of schooling associated with people moving into cities attenuated the downgrading impact of internal migration on local education levels.

  4. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  5. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  6. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  7. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  8. Human Capital Theory and Internal Migration: Do Average Outcomes Distort Our View of Migrant Motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W

    2017-05-01

    By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.

  9. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  10. Feminist Ethnography on International Migration: From Acculturation Studies to Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel V. Kosminsky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the book Italianos no mundo rural paulista, by João Baptista Borges Pereira (1974, one of the earliest Brazilian ethnographic international migration researches, based on the acculturation theory, in order to corroborate its contribution to the feminist ethnography. We focus on the use of gender as a central category on the international migration studies, thus empowering the Feminist Ethnography.

  11. The Determinants of International News Flow: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmo; Barnett, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure of international news flow and its determinants. Reveals inequality of international news flow between core and periphery, with Western industrialized countries at the center. Finds that the news flow network is structured into eight geographic-linguistic groups. Indicates flow is influenced by a country's economic…

  12. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J K

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a random sample of 431 temporary migrant workers from developing countries in Korea. Interviews were conducted from mid-October 1995 to mid-March 1996 with 105 Pakistanis, 77 Filipinos, 71 Sri Lankans, 67 Bangladeshi, 40 Indonesians, 26 individuals from Myanmar, 22 Chinese, 16 Nepalese, 2 Iranians, 2 Kazakstanians, 1 Malaysian, 1 Vietnamese, and 1 Ghanaian. Migration follows legal and illegal patterns. Legal trainee migrants leave before their contract time due to low pay, inadequate living conditions, forced overtime work, and lack of freedom. Trainees tend to be ethnic Koreans born in China and Chinese nationals. The number of illegal migrants is increasing. Foreign workers gain entry illegally through smuggling networks and legally through industrial work or tourist visas. Sample data reveal that the average age ranged from 26 to 32 years. Almost 70% were unmarried, and most were males. Filipinos tended to be older and show gender and marital balance. Age, marital status, religion, and education varied widely by ethnic group. Indonesians and Sri Lankans had lower household income than Pakistanis and Filipinos. Pakistanis tended to come from larger families. Total travel costs ranged from $3000 to $5000. Korea is one of four rapidly developing countries that shifted from being a major exporter of labor to a major importer of workers. Shortages of workers accompanied the shift. This case study illustrates that the traditional structural paradigm does not explain some unique features of international labor migration (ILM) in Asia, including the encouragement of illegal migration. The clandestine networks are different from those in developed countries. State policies mediate the flow of ILM.

  13. How job characteristics affect international migration: the role of informality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andrés; Blanchard, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Despite the importance given to employment opportunities as a primary motive for migration, previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the kinds of jobs that are more likely to retain workers in their countries of origin. We use information from a panel survey of Mexican adults to examine how job characteristics affect the risk of international migration. The sampling strategy and overall size of the survey allow us to analyze the effect of employment characteristics on migration from urban areas, which have much greater labor market diversity, and to separate our analysis by gender. We also distinguish migrants according to whether they migrate for work or for other reasons. We find informality to be a significant predictor of international migration. Even after controlling for individual factors including workers' wages, as well as various household- and community-level predictors, we find that workers employed in the informal sector have significantly higher odds of migrating than their counterparts in the formal sector. The pervasive nature of informality in many developing countries from which a high proportion of international migrants originate may therefore create a constant supply of workers who are predisposed to migrate. Our findings thus have important implications for a proper understanding of the effects of economic development on migration.

  14. Experiment on effect of water flow velocity on migration of strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Guo Qian; Li Shushen; Jiao Zhilan; Meng Liping; Guo Zhiming

    2003-01-01

    Tracer migration experiment of stable elements, strontium, is conducted in both unsaturated and saturated columns with undisturbed loess. It is found from the experiment that retardation coefficient, R d , of Sr can be joined up very well. It can be seen that retardation coefficient, R d , of Sr in loess is not constant and increases with water flow velocity either in unsaturated columns or in saturated columns, as well as migration velocity of Sr at unit sprinkling rate decreases with sprinkling rate according to positions of either peaks or mass centers. It is shown that to use equilibrium adsorption model is not proper for describing migration of Sr in loess

  15. International Migration: The Search for Work. Worldwatch Paper 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Kathleen

    Approximately 20 million workers are presently living in countries other than their homelands in order to find better job opportunities. This labor migration is determined mainly by an income gap between the sending and receiving countries. Less important determinants are historical ties, cultural or linguistic affinity, and proximity. Emigrants…

  16. THE USE OF AID TO MANAGE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among the visitor category, tourism, transit and those going on business trips are in the majority (Twum-Baah, 2005). CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS. Age ..... clude the co-development policy of France, 'Progresa' in Mexico and Spanish Migra- tion Accords to mention a few. The success of these 'aid for migration' ...

  17. The role of language in shaping international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Adsera, Alicia

    and climate shocks, migrant networks, language and aspects of "cultural distance". In that regard, the more "foreign" or distant the new culture is and the larger the language barrier is, the higher are the costs of an individual to migrate to a particular destination. Fluency in destination country...

  18. International Migration, 1995: Some Reflections on an Exceptional Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of recent New Zealand immigration policy including information suitable for inclusion in lesson plans and units of study. Discusses accessing and using population, migration, and immigration data and addresses possible problems and deficiencies. Includes statistical and graphic analysis of data. (MJP)

  19. The nexus between cross-border migration and international trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempted to unlock the conundrum of migration-trade relationship in Tanzania, using the country's migrant stock (diaspora) in the parts of the world. It also aimed to investigate how this effect, if at all exist, differs between developing and developed countries. The augmented gravity model of trade has been ...

  20. Flow-accelerated corrosion 2016 international conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The paper discusses materials and results of the most representative world forum on the problems of flow-accelerated metal corrosion in power engineering—Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) 2016, the international conference, which was held in Lille (France) from May 23 through May 27, 2016, sponsored by EdF-DTG with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). The information on major themes of reports and materials of the exhibition arranged within the framework of the congress is presented. The statistics on operation time and intensity of FAC wall thinning of NPP pipelines and equipment in the world is set out. The paper describes typical examples of flow-accelerated corrosion damage of condensate-feed and wet-steam pipeline components of nuclear and thermal power plants that caused forced shutdowns or accidents. The importance of research projects on the problem of flow-accelerated metal corrosion of nuclear power units coordinated by the IAEA with the participation of leading experts in this field from around the world is considered. The reports presented at the conference considered issues of implementation of an FAC mechanism in single- and two-phase flows, the impact of hydrodynamic and water-chemical factors, the chemical composition of the metal, and other parameters on the intensity and location of FAC wall thinning localized areas in pipeline components and power equipment. Features and patterns of local and general FAC leading to local metal thinning and contamination of the working environment with ferriferous compounds are considered. Main trends of modern practices preventing FAC wear of NPP pipelines and equipment are defined. An increasing role of computer codes for the assessment and prediction of FAC rate, as well as software systems of support of the NPP personnel for the inspection planning and prevention of FAC wall thinning of equipment operating in singleand two

  1. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  2. Fluid flow and solute migration within the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Stephen E; Berkowitz, Brian; Simunek, Jirka; van Genuchten, M Th

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory experiments involving both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are used to demonstrate that fluid flow and solute transport will occur regularly in the capillary fringe (CF), including both vertical (upward as well as downward) and horizontal flow velocities. Horizontal flow above the water table appears to be limited primarily to the region of high water saturation (i.e., the CF), an observation supported by numerical modeling and consistent with the literature. Beyond observations presented in prior literature, it was observed that exchange of water within the CF with water below the water table is active, with flux both from the CF downward across the water table and from the region below the water table, upward into the CF. This flux is enhanced by the presence of physical heterogeneity. These findings strongly contrast the common conceptualization of predominantly downward vertical fluid flow through the unsaturated zone, with transition to fully three-dimensional flow only below the water table. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the CF may affect, far more significantly than is usually assumed, the natural geochemical and microbial conditions present in the region of transition from unsaturated to saturated ground water flow.

  3. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  4. Casas Muertas and Oficina No. 1: internal migrations and malaria trends in Venezuela 1905-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2007-06-01

    To compare internal migration and temperature as factors behind the decreasing trend in malaria deaths observed in Venezuela from 1905 to 1945, linear autoregressive models are fitted to a historical dataset. The model that only incorporates internal migration is the one with the best fit. The decreasing trend in malaria deaths in Venezuela, from 1905 to 1945, is not explained by a trend in mean annual temperature, but it is associated with an increase in the proportion of population in the Capital District, during a time period when the area was the principal attractor of migrations within the country.

  5. Impacts of international migration and remittances on child outcomes and labor supply in Indonesia : how does gender matter ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang; Purnamasari, Ririn

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate empirically how international migration and remittances in Indonesia, particularly female migration, affect child outcomes and labor supply behavior in sending households. The authors analyze the Indonesia Family Life Survey data set and apply an instrumental variable estimation method, using historical migration networks as instruments for migration and remi...

  6. Internal migration of physicians who graduated in Brazil between 1980 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mario Cesar; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Dal Poz, Mario Roberto

    2018-05-02

    The internal migration of physicians from one place to another in the same country can unbalance the supply and distribution of these professionals in national health systems. In addition to economic, social and demographic issues, there are individual and professional factors associated with a physician's decision to migrate. In Brazil, there is an ongoing debate as to whether opening medicine programmes in the interior of the country can induce physicians to stay in these locations. This article examines the migration of physicians in Brazil based on the location of the medical schools from which they graduated. A cross-sectional design based on secondary data of 275,801 physicians registered in the Regional Councils of Medicine (Conselhos Regionais de Medicina-CRMs) who graduated between 1980 and 2014. The evaluated outcome was migration, which was defined as moving away from the state where they completed the medicine programme to another state where they currently work or live. 57.3% of the physicians in the study migrated. The probability of migration ratio was greater in small grouped municipalities and lower in state capitals. 93.4% of the physicians who trained in schools located in cities with less than 100,000 inhabitants migrated. Fewer women (54.2%) migrated than men (60.0%). More than half of the physicians who graduated between 1980 and 2014 are in federative units different from the unit in which they graduated. Individual factors, such as age, gender, time of graduation and specialty, vary between the physicians who did or did not migrate. The probability of migration ratio was greater in small municipalities of the Southeast region and strong in the states of Tocantins, Acre and Santa Catarina. New studies are recommended to deepen understanding of the factors related to the internal migration and non-migration of physicians to improve human resource for health policies.

  7. The International Migration of Population in the Current Phase: Tendencies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the characteristics of contemporary international migration of population. It has been shown that international migration encompasses all countries over the world and is an important constituent of the globalization of the world-wide economy. Tendencies in the international migration have been described by regions of the world and by type of country. It has been shown that a concentration of international migrants is present in a relatively small number of world countries, while the developed world is more attractive to migrants than the developing countries. The structure of migrants by sex and age has been considered and the most attractive regions for the migration of women and men have been identified. The problems and tendencies of the forced migration of population have been identified. It has been determined that, in many developed countries, the migration inflow of population will increase in importance in the demographic situation. The need to develop a migration policy in the regions of different hierarchical levels and to implement it in practice has been indicated.

  8. Modelling of flow and contaminant migration in single rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.; Joensson, L.

    1990-03-01

    The report deals with flow and hydrodynamic dispersion of a nonreactive contaminant in a single, irregularly shaped fracture. The main purpose of the report is to describe the basis and development of a computational 'tool' for simulating the aperture geometry of a single fracture and the detailed flow in it. On the basis of this flow information further properties of the fracture can be studied. Some initial application to dispersion of a nonreactive contaminant are thus discussed. The spatial pattern of variation of the fracture aperture is considered as a two-dimensional stochastic process. A method for simulation of such a process is described. The stochastic properties can be chosen arbitrarily. It is assumed that the fracture aperture belongs to a log-normal distribution. For calculation of the flow pattern, the Navier-Stokes equations are simplified to describe low velocity and steady-state flow. These equations, and the continuity equation are integrated in the direction across the fracture plane. A stream function, which describes the integrated flow in the fracture, is defined. A second order partial differential equation, with respect to the stream function, is established and solved by the finite difference method. Isolines for the stream function define boundaries between channels with equal flow rates. The travel time for each channel can be calculated to achieve a measure of the dispersion. The impact of the aperture distribution on the ratio between the mass balance fracture aperture and the cubic law fracture aperture is shown by simple examples. (28 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.)

  9. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  10. From east to west. Enlargement and migration flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ferrero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold produced migratory flows of an economic type in the direction East-West Although the exchange and movement of populations in Europe is nothing new, what was new was the change in the underlying philosophy. The change of paradigm from a world with two opposing poles to one with an hegemonic power, shattered all the schemes that until then were taken for granted. Since the fall of the Berlin wall the issue was no longer to take in political refugies coming from the soviet block, butrather to regulate the flows coming from those countries in more and more numbers. In this paper we try to reconstruct the history of the development of control of the migratory flows coming from Central and Easter Europe towards the European Union before,during and after the enlowgement processes which have taken place in 2004 and 2007.

  11. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990-2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear...

  12. Selection or network effects? Migration flows into 27 OECD countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    patterns may be affected by the relatively generous welfare schemes in most OECD countries, but also network effects and migration policy changes may be important factors behind the observed development. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into 27 OECD countries during a period...... of 11 years, 1990- 2000. Using a panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows. Our results indicate that traditional factors as cultural and linguistic distance are important. Network effects are also strong, but vary between source and destination countries. We do not find clear...

  13. An integrative review of the role of remittances in international nurse migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allison Squires,1 Angela Amico2 1College of Nursing, 2Global Institute of Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: This review seeks to understand the role of remittances in international nurse migration within the context of three theories of international migration: equilibrium approaches, social networks, and globalization. To analyze the phenomenon, an integrative review of the literature was conducted. Search terms sought articles discussing, either directly or indirectly, remittances and international nurse migration. The initial search returned 369 articles, and further screening decreased the total to 65. Full text screening reduced the final number for the analysis to 48. A directed content analysis structured the analytic approach by examining how authors discussed remittances in the content and context of the paper. The final analysis showed the majority of papers were policy analyses (five; opinion papers, reviews, or editorials that indirectly discussed remittances (27; or were qualitative and quantitative studies (16, either with primary data collection (14 or secondary data analyses (two. Overall, a nurse’s individual motivation for sending remittances home stemmed from familial factors but was never a primary driver of migration. Domestic labor market factors were more likely to drive nurses to migrate. The nurse’s country of origin also was a factor in the remittance dynamic. The identity of the author of the paper played a role in how they discussed remittances in the context of international nurse migration. The three theories of migration helped explain various aspects of the role of remittances in international nursing migration. While the phenomenon has changed since the 2008 global economic crisis and the passing of the World Health Organization’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in 2010, future research around the role of remittances needs to

  14. Migrants' dreams and planners' nightmares: international labour migration in the Arab world and the growth of two sets of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, A M

    1985-11-01

    "The author investigates how trends in international labour migration in the Arab world have been paralleled by new directions in migration research....[She] seeks to evaluate why the urban impact of international migration is so great and outlines the considerable potential which exists for pursuing research on this aspect of urban development." excerpt

  15. Internal migration and the health of the returned population: a nationally representative study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Guoying; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-07-28

    China had 236 million internal migrants in 2012 and the majority of them migrated from rural to urban areas. The research based on medical and epidemical records found that the migrants had worse health than the urban residents, but the household and working place investigations reported better health status. The sick or unhealthy migrants are likely to return to their hometowns, which in turn may cause a report bias or over-estimation of the health status of rural-to-urban migrants in China. This paper explores the association of migration status and the physical and psychological health of Chinese internal migrants. Nationally representative household survey data from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2012 (CLDS) were used to analyze the association between the migration status and the health status of internal migrants in China. Migration status of the respondents was measured by hukou status and migration experience and all respondents were divided into four groups: returned population, migrant population, urban residents, and rural residents. Health status of respondents was measured by self-reported physical and psychological health. Migration experience was associated with the physical health of the returned population. The physical health of the returned population was worse than the migrant population and was distinguished by age and sex. The physical health status of migrant population was significantly better than rural residents, but not significantly better than urban residents. However, the association between migration status and psychological health was not statistically significant. Besides migration status, the socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive correlation with both physical and psychological health status, while occupational hazards exerted negative influence. The results indicate a tight association between migration experience and health status. The internal unhealthy migrants were more likely to return to their hometown and the

  16. International migration and the global agenda: reflections on the 1998 UN Technical Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, S

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of discussions at the 1998 UN Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development. The Symposium reviewed the literature linking migration and development and successful policy approaches. Several themes emerged. A research framework is needed for accounting for all types of population mobility at all stages of the migratory process. Research should integrate contributions from a range of disciplines. The influence of social networks and cultural capital has grown in importance. Strategies need to account for women's experiences, which involve both empowerment and exploitation. Strategies need to consider return migration and better public information on migration and settlement. It was agreed that there is a need for a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches and multidimensional analysis. The links between migration and development are complex, but sufficient information is available to greatly improve policy formation and international cooperation. National level responses have occasionally eroded the rights and protection of migrants. Few countries have adopted the 1990 UN Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families and ILO Conventions 97 and 143. A prominent realization was that international cooperation did matter. International migration should be viewed as an opportunity for cooperation and development.

  17. Optimization of internal migration as a mechanism for solving the problems of monotowns in Sverdlovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Vladimirovna Nekrasova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of single-industry towns and their solutions are reviewed in this paper. The analysis of internal mobility of the population of Russia on the basis of sociological research and Gallup International Research Institute of the family is made. The necessity of optimization of commuting between the territories of the municipal level to address the one-company towns is underlined. A mathematical model for the optimization of the problem of migration flows between the territories of the municipal level for commuting by road was developed. Testing was conducted on a model example of the six type-representative singleindustry towns of Sverdlovsk region (Revdinskiy district, VerkhnyayaPyshma, towns of Krasnoturinsk, Krasnouralsk, Serov and Sukhoi Log. Taking into account the current situation on the labor market and future labor requirements, a division of municipalities in the territory of employment and departure of migrants was performed under consideration. An optimal plan was constructed in areas of employment in company towns of Sverdlovsk region, which is designed to implement the scheme of traffic from the north to the south of Sverdlovsk region with the organization of interchange hub in the city of Yekaterinburg.

  18. [Internal migration. Geographic mobility: search for well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Vazquez, R

    1988-01-01

    Interstate migrations have increased in the past 4 decades in Mexico. The number of Mexicans living in a state other than that of origin increased from slightly over 2 million in 1940 to 5 million in 1960 and 11.6 in 1980. The 558% in migrants exceeded the growth of national population of 342% in the same years. 10.7% of the residents of Mexico were migrants in 1940, 14.5% in 1960, and 17.5% in 1980. There were 89.6 male per 100 female migrants in 1940 and 92.4 males per 100 females in 1980. Most migrants are in the early working years. Among interstate migrants in 1979 for example, 43.5% were aged 15-29. Baja California Sur, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Morelos, and Quintana Roo are strong attractions for migrants, with positive annual net migration rates from 1940-80. The Federal District and State of Mexico have been the most important migrant destinations in recent decades because metropolitan Mexico city is located within their borders. Nevertheless, the Federal District lost more than 1/2 million inhabitants between 1970-80. The state of Mexico had negative annual net migration rates before the midcentury and positive rates thereafter. 10 Mexican states have usually been net expellers of population since 1940: Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Michoacan, Guerrero, and Oaxaca. Together they account for slightly less than 1/2 of interstate outmigrants and receive about 10% of inmigrants. The proportion of the Mexican population living in these 10 states declined from 41.7% in 1940 to 29.6% in 1980. The principal destinations of outmigrants from the 10 states were the Federal District and the state of Mexico, which absorbed 45.5% in 1960 and 49.0% in 1980.

  19. Functional city zoning. Environmental assessment of eco-geological substance migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrova, Stanislav V; Podlipskiy, Ivan I; Kurilenko, Vitaliy V; Siabato, Willington

    2015-02-01

    One of the unsolved problems today is that of the division of the natural (geochemical background) and anthropogenic components of substance migration flows, such as complex integrated systems in the supergene zone. Not only qualitative, but also quantitative assessment of each component allows greater understanding of the correlation between the processes within the geological body and their impact on the environment. This study is based on academic knowledge in the field of geological sciences and study group research-developments aimed at the detailed examination of the migration of pollutants in anthropogenically modified city soils and the creation of a methodological framework in the field of the geochemical zoning of substance migration flows in the hypergenesis zone. We demonstrate that certain parameters of "zero-level" pollutant concentration for functional area land use can be developed for each city - the state of the environment before the beginning of a new stage of technogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of U.S. Refugee and Migration Policies: An International Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the current U.S. policy response to refugee and immigration problems in an international context and identifies instruments of international cooperation. Emphasizes the interrelationship between refugee and migration issues and proposes long term solutions. Makes recommendations based on the experience of the Intergovernmental Committee…

  1. Internal migration of Canadian immigrants, 1993–2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. King; K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs). Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion acr...

  2. Stress-gradient-induced polymer migration in Taylor-Couette flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Elnaz; Larson, Ronald G

    2017-09-13

    We apply our recent continuum theory for stress-gradient-induced migration of polymers in solution (G. Zhu et al., J. Rheol., 2016, 60, 327-343) to rotational shearing flow in the gap between concentric cylinders (the so-called Taylor-Couette flow), where we have also accounted for the effect of polymer depletion from the solid boundaries on migration patterns. The steady-state distribution of dilute solutions of polymer dumbbells, obtained both using a systematic perturbation analysis in terms of the Weissenberg number (Wi) and by solving numerically the transport problem coupled to the upper-convected Maxwell equation, shows accumulation of polymers near the inner cylinder. This accumulation becomes so strong that most polymers are driven near the inner cylinder once Wi > 4. We also show that there is no first-order contribution to the polymer migration in Taylor-Couette flow due to the absence of a velocity component in the r-direction. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations for a Hookean dumbbell give a concentration distribution in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of our theory, confirming the accuracy of the theory when the dumbbell radius of gyration is around an order of magnitude or much smaller than the gap. The demonstration of the accuracy of our continuum theory by direct molecular simulation opens the door to application of the theory to journal bearing and other lubrication flows containing polymers that may migrate due to stress gradients.

  3. Lateral Migration and Rotational Motion of Elliptic Particles in Planar Poiseuille Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dewei; Luo, Li-Shi; Aravamuthan, Raja; Strieder, William; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Simulations of elliptic particulate suspensions in the planar Poiseuille flow are performed by using the lattice Boltzmann equation. Effects of the multi-particle on the lateral migration and rotational motion of both neutrally and non-neutrally buoyant elliptic particles are investigated. Low and intermediate total particle volume fraction f(sub a) = 13%, 15%, and 40% are considered in this work.

  4. International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of the Determinants of Emigration from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burulcha SULAIMANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents empirical evidence on determinants of international migration from the perspective of a source country and applies the gravity model of migration to empirically assess the determinants of emigration from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan from 1998 to 2011. The findings of the study unveil that economic factors such as, GDP per capita, real wage(s, value added per worker in agriculture, remittances, exchange rates and demographic factor as amount of labor force influence the emigration decision.

  5. FROM EXCLUSION TO INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OF LATINO YOUTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez R, Magaly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I refer to structural tendencies reflected in the responses of excluded Latinos youths, who range from street children to radical youths (gangs or not) and finally to migrants. The latter, face unusual challenges as a result of being undocumented, forcing them to pursue mobility within a formal system that blocks their way. I review these tendencies through a "positive" lens, focusing mainly on Latino youth who are using different strategies to fight social exclusion. I aim to raise the paradoxical temporality , which indicates that as we learn and analyze more, we tend to move further away from the possibility of transforming pressing problems in society. I raise the question of how to intervene using more knowledge in the alarming situation of one of the most excluded social groups, Latino Youth and also of how to alert and visualize ways of integrating those youth who migrate and become undocumented.

  6. Effects of international law on migration policy and practice: the uses of hypocrisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Classical learning recognizes no role for international law in affecting migration policy and practice, but in modern times the salutary effects are increasing, although they remain modest. International law influences migration policy primarily through effective invocation of various forms of "soft law" in internal and international political forums. More limited prospects exist for beneficial changes enforced by international institutions and domestic courts. The article cautions against inflated expectations in the latter settings, however, particularly because overly ambitious claims can be counterproductive. It then offers a few predictions about near-term effects of international law, having to do with departures from a country, refugee law, and the integration of migrants into their new homelands.

  7. Endothelial Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2c Inhibits Migration of Smooth Muscle Cells Through Fenestrations in the Internal Elastic Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao Wei; Lowery, Anthony M; Sun, Li-Yan; Singer, Harold A; Dai, Guohao; Adam, Alejandro P; Vincent, Peter A; Schwarz, John J

    2017-07-01

    Laminar flow activates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors in vitro to induce expression of atheroprotective genes in the endothelium. Here we sought to establish the role of Mef2c in the vascular endothelium in vivo. To study endothelial Mef2c, we generated endothelial-specific deletion of Mef2c using Tie2-Cre or Cdh5-Cre-ER T2 and examined aortas and carotid arteries by en face immunofluorescence. We observed enhanced actin stress fiber formation in the Mef2c-deleted thoracic aortic endothelium (laminar flow region), similar to those observed in normal aortic inner curvature (disturbed flow region). Furthermore, Mef2c deletion resulted in the de novo formation of subendothelial intimal cells expressing markers of differentiated smooth muscle in the thoracic aortas and carotids. Lineage tracing showed that these cells were not of endothelial origin. To define early events in intimal development, we induced endothelial deletion of Mef2c and examined aortas at 4 and 12 weeks postinduction. The number of intimal cell clusters increased from 4 to 12 weeks, but the number of cells within a cluster peaked at 2 cells in both cases, suggesting ongoing migration but minimal proliferation. Moreover, we identified cells extending from the media through fenestrations in the internal elastic lamina into the intima, indicating transfenestral smooth muscle migration. Similar transfenestral migration was observed in wild-type carotid arteries ligated to induce neointimal formation. These results indicate that endothelial Mef2c regulates the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and inhibits smooth muscle cell migration into the intima. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effects of flow rate on the migration of different plasticizers from PVC infusion medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lise; Eljezi, Teuta; Clauson, Hélène; Lambert, Céline; Bouattour, Yassine; Chennell, Philip; Pereira, Bruno; Sautou, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Infusion medical devices (MDs) used in hospitals are often made of plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). These plasticizers may leach out into infused solutions during clinical practice, especially during risk-situations, e.g multiple infusions in Intensive Care Units and thus may enter into contact with the patients. The migrability of the plasticizers is dependent of several clinical parameters such as temperature, contact time, nature of the simulant, etc… However, no data is available about the influence of the flow rate at which drug solutions are administrated. In this study, we evaluated the impact of different flow rates on the release of the different plasticizers during an infusion procedure in order to assess if they could expose the patients to more toxic amounts of plasticizers. Migration assays with different PVC infusion sets and extension lines were performed with different flow rates that are used in clinical practice during 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h, using a lipophilic drug simulant. From a clinical point of view, the results showed that, regardless of the plasticizer, the faster the flow rate, the higher the infused volume and the higher the quantities of plasticizers released, both from infusion sets and extension lines, leading to higher patient exposure. However, physically, there was no significant difference of the migration kinetics linked to the flow rate for a same medical device, reflecting complex interactions between the PVC matrix and the simulant. The migration was especially dependent on the nature and the composition of the medical device.

  9. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data

  10. Modelling internal migration in Kenya: an econometric analysis with limited data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, G M; Milne, W J

    1988-09-01

    "In this paper the determinants of internal migration in Kenya are analyzed on the basis of a human capital model. Explanatory variables included in the specification are both economic (wage rates and employment rates) and noneconomic (for example, population density and educational attainment). Also incorporated are variables which reflect intervening opportunities.... The econometric results show that destination variables are important determinants of internal migration, as is distance between the districts. Further, the variables for the intervening opportunities add significantly to the explanatory power of the model." excerpt

  11. Interntional Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert

    Two puzzling facts of international migration are that only a small share of a sending country's population emigrates and that net migration rates tend to cease over time. This paper addresses these issues in a migration model with heterogeneous agents that features temporary migration....... In equilibrium a positive relation exists between the stock of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our empirical...... investigation of cointegration relationships of flow and stock migration models....

  12. Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin, E-mail: hjsung@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z{sub d}/r{sub p} = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively.

  13. Trends in the International Academic Migration: A Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mihi-Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyses how undergraduate students’ mobility has changed after the last economics recession. Research Design & Methods: The study analysed the last data about public and private Universities of higher education system of Spain comparing it at international level in order to find the problems and challenges of the last few years. Findings: The results showed significant imbalances in mobile students’ trends by home and host region, especially after a deep restructuration of the higher education system of Spain due to the last crisis. In particular there are substantial differences in tuition fees, scholarships, number of teachers and their skills according to the region and type of university. Consequently international inflows and international study programs and agreements became very important. Implications & Recommendations: A growing number of students who study abroad, especially after the economic collapse of 2008, represents an excellent opportunity for the host countries due to an incomes growth and recruitment opportunities of highly skilled workers. Therefore to adapt the academic offer taking in account the language, needs and diversity of mobile students would increase their number. Also to increase the highly skilled teachers could help to attract these mobile students, and it would improve the quality of higher education system too. Contribution & Value Added: This research provided a value information to understand the current problems, challenges, changes and opportunities of the higher education mobility through the analysis of the case of Spain and international comparisons.

  14. Internal migration of Canadian immigrants, 1993–2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. King

    2011-12-01

    migration modeling results may differ when pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion across Canada, with the foreign-born primarily choosing one of the three immigrant gateway cities of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, or moving to other relatively large CMAs.

  15. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  16. Direction of actin flow dictates integrin LFA-1 orientation during leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Moore, Travis I; Mehta, Shalin B; Kalappurakkal, Joseph Mathew; Swaminathan, Vinay; Koga, Nobuyasu; Lambert, Talley J; Baker, David; Waters, Jennifer C; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Tani, Tomomi; Mayor, Satyajit; Waterman, Clare M; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-12-11

    Integrin αβ heterodimer cell surface receptors mediate adhesive interactions that provide traction for cell migration. Here, we test whether the integrin, when engaged to an extracellular ligand and the cytoskeleton, adopts a specific orientation dictated by the direction of actin flow on the surface of migrating cells. We insert GFP into the rigid, ligand-binding head of the integrin, model with Rosetta the orientation of GFP and its transition dipole relative to the integrin head, and measure orientation with fluorescence polarization microscopy. Cytoskeleton and ligand-bound integrins orient in the same direction as retrograde actin flow with their cytoskeleton-binding β-subunits tilted by applied force. The measurements demonstrate that intracellular forces can orient cell surface integrins and support a molecular model of integrin activation by cytoskeletal force. Our results place atomic, Å-scale structures of cell surface receptors in the context of functional and cellular, μm-scale measurements.

  17. Overall migration test in food packaging: Evaluation of alternative internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Andres Avendaño Florez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the global migration test for plastic packaging intended for fatty foods, glyceryl triheptadecanoate (GTM is used as the internal standard for the quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs by gas chromatography. In this work, ethyl 3-phenyl propanoate (EFP and tetradecanoic acid (AM were evaluated as alternative internal standards. The use of (AM presented linear behavior (r > 0.99 and %Sb < 5%, good intermediate precision (HORRATr = 0.9, and accuracy (%R = 100.6%. In contrast, the evaluation of (EFP demonstrated that this is not an adequate internal standard for the quantification of FAMEs. In addition, it was statistically evaluated that there are no significant differences in the calculation of the global migration from FAMEs quantified using GTM or AM as internal standards, but the use of EFP presents significant differences.

  18. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  19. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  20. What's wrong with the global migration of health care professionals? Individual rights and international justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, James

    2007-01-01

    When health care workers migrate from poor countries to rich countries, they are exercising an important human right and helping rich countries fulfill obligations of social justice. They are also, however, creating problems of social justice in the countries they leave. Solving these problems requires balancing social needs against individual rights and studying the relationship of social justice to international justice.

  1. Migration of international students and mobilizing skills in the MENA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses both the descriptive and comparative approaches to provide an overview of migration of international students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and mobilizing skills in the MENA Region. We fill the gap in the MENA literature and present a more comprehensive and

  2. Internal Migration and Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Middle Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana KC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The movement of rural households from remote uplands to valley floors and to semiurban and urban areas (internal migration is a common phenomenon in the middle mountain districts of Nepal. Understanding the causes and effects of internal migration is critical to the development and implementation of policies that promote land use planning and sustainable resource management. Using geospatial information technologies and social research methods, we investigated the causes and effects of internal migration on land use and land cover patterns in a western mountain district of Nepal between 1998 and 2013. The results show a decreasing number of households at high elevations (above 1400 m, where an increase in forest cover has been observed with a consequent decrease in agricultural land and shrub- or grassland. At lower elevations (below 1400 m, forest cover has remained constant over the last 25 years, and the agricultural land area has increased but has become geometrically complex to meet the diverse needs and living requirements of the growing population. Our findings indicate that internal migration plays an important role in shaping land use and land cover change in the middle mountains of Nepal and largely determines the resource management, utilization, and distribution patterns within a small geographic unit. Therefore, land use planning must take an integrated and interdisciplinary approach rather than considering social, environmental, and demographic information in isolation.

  3. International labour migration and local rural activities in the Kyrgyz Republic: determinants and trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanov, A.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a representative household-budget survey from the Asian Development Bank to analyse the determinants of international labour migration, distinguishing between seasonal and permanent (long-term) moves and comparing them with determinants of rural local income-generating activities in

  4. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  5. Health and Social Services among International Labor Migrants: A Comparative Perspective. CMAS Border & Migration Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Antonio, Ed.; Cardenas, Gilberto, Ed.

    Eleven papers from a workshop titled "International Migration: Health and Social Policies" focus on common concerns and problems in providing social and health services to labor migrants and immigrants in the United States and the European Union. Following an introduction (Antonio Ugalde, Gilberto Cardenas), the papers are: (1)…

  6. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  7. Internal Migration and Depressive Symptoms among Migrant Factory Workers in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Cheng, Jinquan; Griffiths, Sian M.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Hillier, Sheila; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in rural-urban migration in China over the last two decades but there are few studies on the mental health of Chinese internal migrants. This study assesses the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and their associated factors among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A questionnaire survey was sent to…

  8. Evidence for a fluid flow triggered spatio-temporal migration of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhuj earthquake. This includes 13 Mw 5.0–5.9, 250. Mw 4.0–4.9 and about 4000 Mw 3.0–3.9 events. To study the spatio-temporal changes in seismic- ity, first, we relocated earthquakes occurring in. Keywords. Fluid flow; migration of seismicity; relocations; rift zone; pore-pressure relaxation; seismic diffusivity. J. Earth Syst.

  9. Internal flow measurement in transonic compressor by PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongqing; Wu, Huaiyu; Liu, Yin

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents some research works conducted in National Key Laboratory of Aircraft Engine of China on the shock containing supersonic flow measurement as well as the internal flow measurement of transoijc compressor by PIC technique. A kind of oil particles in diameter about 0.3 micrometers containing in the flow was discovered to be a very good seed for the PIV measurement of supersonic jet flow. The PIV measurement in over-expanded supersonic free jet and in the flow over wages show a very clear shock wave structure. In the PIV internal flow measurement of transonic compressor a kind of liquid particle of glycol was successful to be used as the seed. An illumination periscope with sheet forming optics was designed and manufactured, it leaded the laser shot generated from an integrate dual- cavity Nd:YAG laser of TSI PIV results of internal flow of an advanced low aspect ratio transonic compressor were shown and discussed briefly.

  10. Selection and network effects - Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into the OECD countries during the period 1990-2000. Our results indicate that network effects are strong, but vary between different groups of welfare states and between countries according to the type of immigration policy being applied....... Network effects seem to be less important in the Nordic countries which also seem to attract immigrants from the lowest income level source countries. We do not find clear evidence that selection effects measured by migration flows being sensitive to differences in public social expenditures have had...

  11. Sexual orientation, internal migration, and mental health during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji; Vaghela, Preeti; Ritter, Lacey J

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexual minorities may have higher rates of migration than heterosexuals, indicating their effort to escape stigma in the currently residing areas. However, direct evidence for the migration pattern has been lacking, and mental health implications of such coping effort have been unclear. This study seeks to fill these gaps in the literature by analyzing the Add Health data, which include longitudinal measures of residential locations, sexual orientation, and mental health. The analysis focuses on the transition to adulthood, when the rate of internal migration peaks. Among women, sexual minorities have a higher rate of migration than heterosexuals, but men do not show such a difference. Sexual minorities show better mental health when they migrate to counties with higher proportions of people living in urban areas whereas heterosexuals do not show such an association. Among sexual minority men, migration to counties with higher population density and higher proportions of college-educated residents is also linked to better mental health. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  12. μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J; Gaver, Donald P

    2009-08-01

    Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method.

  13. μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J.; Gaver, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method. PMID:23049158

  14. Economic, social and gender aspects of the international migration in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin VACULOVSCHI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International labor migration is one of the most marked phenomenon that characterize the current situation on the Moldovan labor market. Geographical and gender distribution in labor migration is largely determined by the type of work that provide migrant workers. Women migrate to provide domestic and care services abroad, delegating in the same time their responsibilities in this area to other people, leads to the constitution of so-called global care chains. Migration with the purpose of study in Moldova is accompanied by a negative phenomenon, of the departure of highly qualified specialists. International migration of highly skilled labor, known as "brain drain"clearly evokes a loss of intellectual capital. Moldova continues to be characterized as an origin country of human beings trafficking, being at lesser extent a country of transit of human trafficking victims from NIS countries to Europe. The lack of some measures from the Government on “human capital loss” problem will essentially reduce the chances of exit from the crisis.

  15. Empirical Evidence for Impacts of Internal Migration on Vegetation Dynamics in China from 1982 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xiao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the major socio-economic characteristics of China since the country adopted the policy of economic reform in late 1970s. Many studies have been dedicated to understand why and how people move, and the consequences of their welfare. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental impacts of the large scale movement of population in China. We analyzed the trend in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR along with China migration data from the 1 percent national survey during 1982-1987, the 4th national census during 1985-1990 and the 5th national census during1995~2000. We found that the internal migration in China has a statistically significant negative impact on vegetation growth at the provincial scale from 1982 to 2000 even though the overall vegetation abundance increased in China. The impact from migration (R2=0.47, P=0.0001 on vegetation dynamics is the second strongest as among the factors considered, including changes in annual mean air temperature (R2=0.50, P=0.0001 and annual total precipitation (R2=0.30, P=0.0049 and gross domestic production (R2= 0.25, P=0.0102. The negative statistical relationship between the rate of increase in total migration and the change in vegetation abundance is stronger (R2=0.56, P=0.0000 after controlling for the effects of changes in temperature and precipitation. In-migration dominates the impacts of migration on vegetation dynamics. Therefore, it is important for policy makers in China to take the impacts of migration on vegetation growth into account while making policies aiming at sustainable humanenvironment relations.

  16. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  17. Time-dependent particle migration and margination in the pressure-driven channel flow of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qin M.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2018-03-01

    We present a theory to describe the time evolution of the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet concentration distributions in pressure-driven flow through a straight channel. This model is based on our previous theory for the steady-state distributions [Qi and Shaqfeh, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093102] and captures the flow-induced nonuniformity of the concentrations of RBCs and platelets in the cross-flow direction. Starting with a uniform concentration, RBCs migrate away from the channel walls due to a shear-induced lift force and eventually reach steady state due to shear-induced diffusion, i.e., hydrodynamic "collisions" with other RBCs. On the other hand, platelets exit the cell-laden region due to RBC-platelet interactions and enter the cell-free layer, resulting in margination. To validate the theory, we also perform boundary integral simulations of blood flow in microchannels and directly compare various measureables between theory and simulation. The timescales associated with RBC migration and platelet margination are discussed in the context of the simulation and theory, and their importance in the function of microfluidic devices as well as the vascular network are elucidated. Due to the varying shear rate in pressure-driven flow and the wall-induced RBC lift, we report a separation of timescales for the transport in the near-wall region and in the bulk region. We also relate the transient problem to the axial variation of migration and margination, and we demonstrate how the relevant timescales can be used to predict corresponding entrance lengths. Our theory can serve as a fast and convenient alternative to large-scale simulations of these phenomena.

  18. International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers how international migration of the head of household affects the allocation of resources toward boys relative to girls within households remaining in the home country. I address the endogeneity of migration with a differences-in-differences style regression model that compares those households in which migrants have already returned home with those in which migrants are still away. The evidence suggests that while the head of household is away a greater fraction of resources are spent on girls relative to boys, but upon his return, this pattern is reversed. PMID:23239896

  19. Taikongs and Calos: the role of middlemen and brokers in Javanese international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, E

    1994-01-01

    "This article discusses international migration from Java in the past and present and the role brokers have played in stimulating this movement. It describes legal and clandestine labor migration to Singapore, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia, the influence of employment brokers on the process, and the organization of the recruitment networks. The involvement of brokers is crucial but not always beneficial for the migrants. Migrants are dependent on the brokers and risk exploitation. In the case of movement to Saudi Arabia, there is a linkage with religious institutions and the Islamic pilgrimage." excerpt

  20. ELDERLY PARENTS AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF SONS: E VIDENCE FROM PAKISTA N AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia ASHFAQ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the relation between international migration of male children and the the parents left behind. The premise was to investigate how the international migration of male children affects the family and social life, financial security and health of the parents left behind. For this purpose, using qualitative research design In-Depth Interviews (IDI were conducted with four parents selected purposively whose male children had migrated abroad. Moreover, interview guide was used as research instrument for collecting the data and narrative analysis has been done to make sense of the data. Two cities namely Gujrat (Pakistan and Mirpur (Azad Jammu & Kashmir were selected on the basis of existing higher trend of international migration in these regions. The findings reveal that the respondents’ children were living abroad for more than 15 years and their children were involved in skilled labour work. The parents reported to have feelings of sadness, isolation, depression and loneliness in the absence of their children. The findings also unleashed the coping strategies used by left behind parents for lessening their suffering.

  1. Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, J.; Roussel, N.; Hattel, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare the various physical phenomena which potentially lead to flow induced particle migration in concrete. We show that, in the case of industrial casting of concrete, gravity induced particle migration dominates all other potential sources of heterogeneities ind...

  2. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-02-16

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p flow. Distal filter protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  3. Ukrainian population emigration in the context of international labor migration trends: economical and socio-demographic basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.V. Romanchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the phenomenon of international migration in the world and Ukraine’s integration into the global community creates preconditions for its participation in international migration processes. But the demographic problem in Ukraine, reduced fiscal revenues and increased pension burden are caused by emigration of the labor force, young professionals. The article describes the economic, social and demographic basis of Ukrainian population emigration and analyzes the statistics on migration and natural population movement indicators in Ukraine and Ukrainian foreign labor migration. An overview of wages in Ukraine and the EU, the structure of income and private money transfer from abroad have been done. As conclusions of the study the socio-economic and demographic preconditions of labor migration Ukraine as a part of the international labor migration process have been formulated.

  4. Polymer Stress-Gradient Induced Migration in Thin Film Flow Over Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouka, Sophia; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2014-11-01

    We consider the 2D, steady film flow of a dilute polymer solution over a periodic topography. We examine how the distribution of polymer in the planarization of topographical features is affected by flow intensity and physical properties. The thermodynamically acceptable, Mavrantzas-Beris two-fluid Hamiltonian model is used for polymer migration. The resulting system of differential equations is solved via the mixed FE method combined with an elliptic grid generation scheme. We present numerical results for polymer concentration, stress, velocity and flux of components as a function of the non-dimensional parameters of the problem (Deborah, Peclet, Reynolds and Capillary numbers, ratio of solvent viscosity to total liquid viscosity and geometric features of the topography). Polymer migration to the free surface is enhanced when the cavity gets steeper and deeper. This increases the spatial extent of the polymer depletion layer and induces strong banding in the stresses away from the substrate wall, especially in low polymer concentration. Macromolecules with longer relaxation times are predicted to migrate towards the free surface more easily, while high surface tension combined with a certain range of Reynolds numbers affects the free surface deformations. Work supported by the General Secretariat of Research & Technology of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918) in the framework ``Education and Lifelong Learning'' co-funded by the ESF.

  5. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  6. The Impact of International Migration on the Labor Market – A Case Study from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political and social changes experienced globally in recent years have influenced international migration in various countries. The aim of our study is to present the economic and non-economic aspects which determine the quantitative evaluation of migration and to reveal which of the two main factor groups is more dominant. In January 2017, an online questionnaire survey was conducted on the subject of migration. The group of respondents consisted of 438 full-time BSc, MSc and PhD students in Hungarian higher education institutions. Based on these questionnaires, two independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA, factor analysis and binary logistic regression procedures were performed. Based on the findings obtained, it was concluded that anti-migration behaviour cannot be explicitly explained by its economic impacts on the labour market. The rejecting attitudes observed on behalf of certain respondents were not in significant correlation with their highest educational levels or their given social class. As a result of the statistical analysis performed, it was concluded that the integration of foreigners is hindered by the so-called socio-cultural barriers, which cannot be removed solely by economic policy measures. Social conflicts of interest have to be eliminated in order for migration to have an active and permanently positive impact on the economy.

  7. Timing avian long-distance migration: from internal clock mechanisms to global flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Susanne; Ilieva, Mihaela; Karagicheva, Julia; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Tomotani, Barbara; Helm, Barbara

    2017-11-19

    Migratory birds regularly perform impressive long-distance flights, which are timed relative to the anticipated environmental resources at destination areas that can be several thousand kilometres away. Timely migration requires diverse strategies and adaptations that involve an intricate interplay between internal clock mechanisms and environmental conditions across the annual cycle. Here we review what challenges birds face during long migrations to keep track of time as they exploit geographically distant resources that may vary in availability and predictability, and summarize the clock mechanisms that enable them to succeed. We examine the following challenges: departing in time for spring and autumn migration, in anticipation of future environmental conditions; using clocks on the move, for example for orientation, navigation and stopover; strategies of adhering to, or adjusting, the time programme while fitting their activities into an annual cycle; and keeping pace with a world of rapidly changing environments. We then elaborate these themes by case studies representing long-distance migrating birds with different annual movement patterns and associated adaptations of their circannual programmes. We discuss the current knowledge on how endogenous migration programmes interact with external information across the annual cycle, how components of annual cycle programmes encode topography and range expansions, and how fitness may be affected when mismatches between timing and environmental conditions occur. Lastly, we outline open questions and propose future research directions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wild clocks: integrating chronobiology and ecology to understand timekeeping in free-living animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Internal Migration of Canadian Immigrants, 1993-2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs. Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion across Canada, with the foreign-born primarily choosing one of the three immigrant gateway cities of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, or moving to other relatively large CMAs.

  9. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  10. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services.

  11. Changing western German internal migration systems during the second half of the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    T Kontuly; K P Schön

    1994-01-01

    The slow downward trend toward greater spatial deconcentration in West Germany during the time period 1970 to 1984 shifted back toward concentration from 1985 and through 1988. This 'swing back' occurred over only a three-year period. Regional labor-market changes appear to be the only factor able to cause such an abrupt shift to concentration, suggesting the importance of the regional restructuring hypothesis as an explanation. Changing internal migration patterns by two age-groups, 25 - 29 ...

  12. Peran International Organization For Migration dalam Menanggulangi Masalah Women Trafficking di India (2008-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachri, Yuli; Elfitriani, Yori

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to find out the role of International Organization for Migration (IOM) against women trafficking in India. IOM started its operations in India in the year 2001 to provide emergency relief in Gujarat when it was hit by an earthquake. While implementing the project in Gujarat, IOM was planning to expand its operations in India, it decided to work on the counter trafficking issue which was one of its mandated service areas. IOM, in close collaboration with Ministry of Overseas...

  13. Post war migration flows and disparities in mortality from age 50 onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    are an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepen the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality by socioeconomic...... status, from age 50 onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, where many low educated individuals from the southern regions migrated to Turin with seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant effect. However......, lowly educated individuals are employed in heavier and riskier jobs. They thus undergo a faster health selection due to exposure to higher mortality risk that selects the most robust individuals. This paper hypothesized that the interplay of these mechanisms might have produced a homogenization process...

  14. Post-War Migration Flows and Disparities in Mortality from Age 50 Years Onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    these inequalities being an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepening the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality...... by socio-economic status, from age 50 years onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, to which many low-educated individuals from the southern regions migrated, seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant...... effect. However, low-educated individuals are employed in heavier and riskier jobs. They thus undergo a faster health selection due to exposure to a higher mortality risk that selects the most robust individuals. This paper hypothesised that the interplay of these mechanisms might have produced...

  15. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  16. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  17. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHANGE IN LAND USE IN BELLA ESPERANZA, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An increase in international migration from the State of Veracruz, Mexico, in the decade of the 1990s, mostly occurred as a result of the agricultural crisis in the rural sector. The state coffee producing sector proved to be no exception to the impact of the recurring crises, caused by the fall in the price of coffee grain in the international market. Many coffee growers migrated to the USA to stave off their own economic collapse. This investigation aimed to analyze the relationship between the process of international migration and change in land use in the communal landholding of Bella Esperanza, Veracruz. For this purpose, historic documentation, interviews with 21 coffee producing families -some of which included migrants-, interviews with key informants and geographical information systems were all used. The main change in land use entailed the substitution of shaded coffee plantations for sugarcane monoculture, implying deforestation. Urban expansion was shown to be incipient, in spite of the significant amount of money transfers directed towards housing construction and the proximity of this “ejido” or communal landholding to the cities of Xalapa and Coatepec. These changes are mainly associated with the crisis involving this commodity, but they have been exacerbated by emigration of family members, who were once in charge of coffee production.

  18. Transnationalism and vocabularies of motive in international migration: the case of Israelis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S J

    1997-01-01

    "The great body of recent work on international migration has generally considered immigration as a permanent movement and explored the phenomenon from either a micro or macro perspective. Transnationalism offers a new model that integrates these dichotomized views. This paper uses the perspective of transnationalism to explore the motives of Israeli immigrants in the U.S. Integrating insights from both micro and world systems perspectives, findings emphasize the importance of personal and macro-level networks as well as Israelis' international culture and experience as both facilitating and giving meaning to their presence in the United States." excerpt

  19. Challenges faced by international nurses when migrating: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, L-X; Goh, Y-S

    2017-03-01

    Results from this literature review were used to identify the challenges faced by international nurses in their host countries following migration. The increasing strain of nursing shortages in the healthcare system has led to the recruitment of international nurses among many countries. However, following migration, international nurses are faced with challenges that may result in poor integration with their host countries. Using Cooper's five stages for integrative research reviews, a literature search was conducted across seven databases using a PRISMA search strategy. Additional manual searches were also conducted on the end-references of the retrieved articles. The authors then independently reviewed the selected articles using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal form to extract and generate the themes for the review. Twenty-four articles were selected for the review. The themes generated included: (i) difficulty orientating; (ii) a longing for what is missing; (iii) professional development and devaluing; (iv) communication barriers; (v) discrimination and marginalization; (vi) personal and professional differences; and (vii) a meaningful support system. By identifying the challenges faced by international nurses, interventions that ensure equal treatment (e.g. multifaceted transition programmes and culturally sensitive 'buddy' systems) can be implemented to help international nurses adapt to their new environments. Adequate communication can be achieved by encouraging international nurses to speak English and learn the colloquial language and non-verbal behaviours used by native nurses. With good integration international nurses may be able to reach their full career potential as professional nurses in their host countries. The adaptation process is a dynamic process that requires effort from both international and native nurses. Thus, any strategies that are developed and implemented must be multifaceted. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  20. International labor migration in the social and economic development of Ukraine: trends, negative consequences and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shymanska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the prerequisites for the development of labor migration in Ukraine. The main trends and negative consequences of international migration for Ukraine, including the growing problem of human trafficking, national aging, loss of fiscal revenues and increased strain on the pension fund have been defined. Statistics on labor migration indicators and the number of Ukrainian victims of trafficking in the world have been analyzed. In the conclusions possible solutions of overcoming social and economic problems associated with external labor migration, have been grounded, including monitoring internal and external migration data on its changes, signing international agreements on migrant workers’ abroad employment and social protection, improving higher education targeting to the needs of national and regional labor markets.

  1. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  2. Russian periphery is dying in movement: A cohort assessment of Russian internal youth migration based on census data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashnitsky, I.; Mkrtchyan, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study youth migration in Russia at the sub-regional level of administrative division. The aim of the research is to assess the volume of internal youth migration. The task is only doable with the use of census data, which not only allows us to research at the sub-regional level, but

  3. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  4. Prediction of radionuclide migration in the geosphere: is the porous-flow model adequate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Practically all models used today to describe radionuclide migration in geologic media are based on the concept of flow in porous media. Recently it has been questioned if Fickian dispersion is the most important dispersion mechanism. Field observations of dispersion indicate that the dispersion coefficient increases with observation distance. This should not be the case in a homogeneous porous medium. For a medium with essentially independent channels, on the other hand, such an effect can be predicted. In some calculated examples it is shown that the use of the Fickian dispersion mechanism will very seriously underestimate the radionuclide concentration at a point downstream if the spreading mechanism in reality is channelling. The consequences of the often-used assumption that the interaction between the radionuclides and the rock is instantaneous is also discussed. It has been shown that in sparsely fissured crystalline rock the whole rock mass will not be able to participate in the sorption reactions, because the radionuclides will not have time to penetrate all through the large blocks. On the other hand, the assumption that only the surface of the fissures interacts with the radionuclides is likely to be an extremely conservative assumption in view of some recent diffusion experiments in crystalline rocks performed in our laboratories and at the Canadian Geologic Survey. Some experimental results on radionuclide migration in a single natural fissure under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory are also presented and interpreted using a model which includes channelling, surface sorption, diffusion in the rock matrix and sorption in the rock matrix. Some implications of these mechanisms in predicting radionuclide migration in the geosphere are discussed and compared with what a porous-flow model would predict

  5. Cohort profile: internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa—The Migration and Health in Malawi (MHM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglewicz, Philip; VanLandingham, Mark; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Migration and Health in Malawi (MHM) study focuses on a key challenge in migration research: although it has long been established that migration and health are closely linked, identifying the effect of migration on various health outcomes is complicated by methodological challenges. The MHM study uses a longitudinal panel premigration and postmigration study design (with a non-migrant comparison group) to measure and/or control for important characteristics that affect both migration and health outcomes. Participants Data are available for two waves. The MHM interviewed 398 of 715 migrants in 2007 (55.7%) and 722 of 1013 in 2013 (71.3%); as well as 604 of 751 (80.4%) for a non-migrant reference group in 2013. The total interviewed sample size for the MHM in both waves is 1809. These data include extensive information on lifetime migration, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, social networks and social capital, HIV/AIDS biomarkers and other dimensions of health. Findings to date Our result for the relationship between migration and health differs by health measure and analytic approach. Migrants in Malawi have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than non-migrants, which is primarily due to the selection of HIV-positive individuals into migration. We find evidence for health selection; physically healthier men and women are more likely to move, partly because migration selects younger individuals. However, we do not find differences in physical or mental health between migrants and non-migrants after moving. Future plans We are preparing a third round of data collection for these (and any new) migrants, which will take place in 2018. This cohort will be used to examine the effect of migration on various health measures and behaviours, including general mental and physical health, smoking and alcohol use, access to and use of health services and use of antiretroviral therapy. PMID

  6. International Migration, US Immigration Law and Civil Society: From the Pre-Colonial Era to the 113th Congress (Edited by Leonir Mario Chiarello and Donald Kerwin, Scalabrini International Migration Network, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breana George

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available International Migration, US Immigration Law and Civil Society: From the Pre-Colonial Era to the 113th Congress, published by the Scalabrini International Migration Network in collaboration with the Center for Migration Studies of New York, offers an overview of immigration law and policy that contextualizes the present challenges in reaching policy consensus in the immigration debate. This book review highlights the debate on executive action in relation to a chapter on the evolution of US immigration laws by Charles Wheeler and a chapter on the role of civil society in immigration policymaking by Sara Campos. 

  7. A política do Brasil para as migrações internacionais Brazilian policy for international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a maneira como o Estado brasileiro vem se posicionando em relação às migrações internacionais, e seu comportamento em relação aos fluxos migratórios contemporâneos que envolvem o país. Ao longo dos últimos vinte anos, o Brasil adotou uma série de novas políticas voltadas ao atendimento dos brasileiros no exterior, à gestão dos movimentos transfronteiriços e aos imigrantes no Brasil, políticas estas que respondem não somente ao ativismo dos migrantes e seus aliados, mas também à estratégia da política externa brasileira, sobretudo ao longo do governo Lula. Nos últimos anos, as migrações internacionais despontam como um tema estratégico para as relações internacionais no século XXI, e o Estado brasileiro tem explorado a questão como uma plataforma para criticar determinados países e demandar mudanças na ordem internacional.The purpose of this article is to analyze how the Brazilian State has positioned itself with respect to the international migration, and to analyze its behavior regarding contemporary migratory flows involving the country. Over the last twenty years, Brazil has adopted a set of new policies concerning the treatment of Brazilians abroad and the management of the cross-borders movements, including the issue of immigrants in Brazil. These policies not only respond to the activism of migrants and their partners, but also reflect the strategy of Brazilian foreign policy, mainly conducted during the Lula administration. In recent years, international migration has become a strategic issue in the international relations' agenda of the twenty-first century, and Brazil has engaged with this question as a basis to criticize some countries and to demand changes in the international order.

  8. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  9. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  10. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  11. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  12. Numerical simulation of internal flow in mixed-flow waterjet propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T T; Pan, Z Y; Zhang, D Q; Jia, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the internal flow characteristic of a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion, a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion under different conditions was simulated based on multi-reference frame(MRF), the standard k − ε turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The relationship between pump performance instability and internal flow was obtained. The numerical results showed that characteristic instability occurred at 0.65-0.67Q BEP , the reason is that the backflow on the vaned diffuser hub-side blocks the downstream flow from the impeller. Therefore, the flow separates on the pressure surface of the impeller outlet and a strong vortex is generated, then the characteristic instability appeared due to the instability of internal flow. Backflow was found in diffuser passage at 0.65 Q BEP and 0.85 Q BEP , as flow rate decreases, the backflow region and velocity increases. Pressure fluctuation at diffuser inlet and diffuser passages was severe at at 0.65 Q BEP . According to the numerical simulation, the mixed-flow waterjet propulsion has characteristic instability at partial flow rate condition.

  13. Tracer Migration in a Radially Divergent Flow Field: Longitudinal Dispersivity and Anionic Tracer Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, J.C., P.M. Bertsch, M. Wilson, J. Singer, F. Majs and S.A. Aburime

    2007-01-01

    Hydrodynamic dispersion, the combined effects of chemical diffusion and differences in solute path length and flow velocity, is an important factor controlling contaminant migration in the subsurface environment. However, few comprehensive three-dimensional datasets exist for critically evaluating the impact of travel distance and site heterogeneity on solute dispersion, and the conservative nature of several commonly used groundwater tracers is still in question. Therefore, we conducted a series of field-scale experiments using tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sup 1}HO), bromide (Br{sup -}), and two fluorobenzoates (2,4 Di-FBA, 2,6 Di-FBA) as tracers in the water-table aquifer on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS), located on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. For each experiment, tracer-free groundwater was injected for approximately 24 h (56.7 L min{sup -1}) to establish a steady-state forced radial gradient before the introduction of a tracer pulse. After the tracer pulse, which lasted from 256 to 560 min, the forced gradient was maintained throughout the experiment using nonlabeled groundwater. Tracer migration was monitored using six multilevel monitoring wells, radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from the central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously ({approx}0.1 L min{sup -1}) throughout the course of the experiments. Longitudinal dispersivity ({alpha}{sub L}) and travel times for {sup 3}H{sup 1}HO breakthrough were estimated by fitting the field data to analytical approximations of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) for uniform and radial flow conditions. Dispersivity varied greatly between wells located at similar transport distances and even between zones within a given well, which we attributed to variability in the hydraulic conductivity at the study site. The radial flow equation generally described tritium breakthrough better than the

  14. Linking international student mobility to skilled migration: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana

    2010-01-01

    of internationalisation of higher education by harmonising diverse institutional structures. At the same time states are also in competition to attract and retain international students as future knowledge workers. Denmark is one of such countries where internationalisation of higher education stands high on the national...... to link intensifying international student mobility to the demand for highly skilled labour. Among the EU member states eager to secure their positions in the globalising knowledge economy, this tendency has led to both cooperation and competition. On one hand, countries cooperate in the process...... agenda for solidifying the country’s position as a knowledge society. Looking at the Danish case, this paper illustrates the policy areas as well as the central issues that come to the fore when a host country seeks to link international student mobility and skilled migration. The discussion provides...

  15. Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016, Third Edition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 attempts to present numbers and facts behind the stories of international migration and remittances, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. It provides a snapshot of statistics on immigration, emigration, skilled emigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 regional and income groups. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 updates the 2011 edition of the Factbook with additional data on bilateral migration and remittanc...

  16. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  17. Migration and religious (intolerance: Contribution to the studies regarding the impact of international migration and the perception of religious diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Odgers Ortiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.

  18. Evaluation and use of geosphere flow and migration computer programs for near surface trench type disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, R.W.; Stephens, J.L.; Broyd, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes calculations of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration for near surface trench type radioactive waste disposal facilities. Aspects covered are verification of computer programs, detailed groundwater flow calculations for the Elstow site, radionuclide migration for the Elstow site and the effects of using non-linear sorption models. The Elstow groundwater flows are for both the current situation and for projected developments to the site. The Elstow migration calculations serve to demonstrate a methodology for predicting radionuclide transport from near surface trench type disposal facilities. The majority of the work was carried out at the request of and in close collaboration with ANS, the coordinators for the preliminary assessment of a proposed radioactive waste disposal site at Elstow. Hence a large part of the report contains results which were generated for ANS to use in their assessment. (author)

  19. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  20. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong T-d

    1996-01-01

    "This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints." excerpt

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted/intact systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-03-01

    The international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted / intact systems was held at ENTRY, JAEA, Tokai on 21st - 23rd January, 2009. This workshop was hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as part of the project on the mechanistic model/database development for radionuclide sorption and diffusion behavior in compacted / intact systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop the mechanistic model / database for a consistent understanding and prediction of migration parameters and its uncertainties for performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The objective of the workshop is to integrate the state-of-the-art of mechanistic sorption and diffusion model in compacted / intact systems, especially in bentonite / clay systems, and discuss the JAEA's mechanistic approaches and future challenges, especially the following discussions points; 1) What's the status and difficulties for mechanistic model/database development? 2) What's the status and difficulties for applicability of mechanistic model to the compacted/intact system? 3) What's the status and difficulties for obtaining evidences for mechanistic model? 4) What's the status and difficulties for standardization of experimental methodology for batch sorption and diffusion? 5) What's the uncertainties of transport parameters in radionuclides migration analysis due to a lack of understanding/experimental methodologies, and how do we derive them? This report includes workshop program, overview and materials of each presentation, summary of discussions. (author)

  2. Cohort profile: internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa-The Migration and Health in Malawi (MHM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglewicz, Philip; VanLandingham, Mark; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-17

    The Migration and Health in Malawi (MHM) study focuses on a key challenge in migration research: although it has long been established that migration and health are closely linked, identifying the effect of migration on various health outcomes is complicated by methodological challenges. The MHM study uses a longitudinal panel premigration and postmigration study design (with a non-migrant comparison group) to measure and/or control for important characteristics that affect both migration and health outcomes. Data are available for two waves. The MHM interviewed 398 of 715 migrants in 2007 (55.7%) and 722 of 1013 in 2013 (71.3%); as well as 604 of 751 (80.4%) for a non-migrant reference group in 2013. The total interviewed sample size for the MHM in both waves is 1809. These data include extensive information on lifetime migration, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, social networks and social capital, HIV/AIDS biomarkers and other dimensions of health. Our result for the relationship between migration and health differs by health measure and analytic approach. Migrants in Malawi have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than non-migrants, which is primarily due to the selection of HIV-positive individuals into migration. We find evidence for health selection; physically healthier men and women are more likely to move, partly because migration selects younger individuals. However, we do not find differences in physical or mental health between migrants and non-migrants after moving. We are preparing a third round of data collection for these (and any new) migrants, which will take place in 2018. This cohort will be used to examine the effect of migration on various health measures and behaviours, including general mental and physical health, smoking and alcohol use, access to and use of health services and use of antiretroviral therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  3. 2nd International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF '95

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, T; Bataille, Jean

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing world-wide interest in obtaining an understanding of various multiphase flow phenomena and problems in terms of a common language of multiphase flow. This volume contains state-of-the-art papers which have been contributed from all over the world by experts working on all aspects of multiphase flows. The volume also highlights international technology-sharing in the fields of energy, environment and public health, in order to create a brighter and sustainable future for man and for all life in the next century. It is intended that this volume will serve as a major source of

  4. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  5. What Drives International Financial Flows? Politics, Institutions and Other Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, Elias

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a large panel of financial flow data from banks to assess how institutions affect international lending. First, employing a time varying composite institutional quality index in a fixed-effects framework, the paper shows that institutional improvements are followed by significant increases in international finance. Second, cross-sectional models also show a strong effect of initial levels of institutional quality on future bank lending. Third, instrumental variable estimates f...

  6. Numerical Investigation of the Internal Flow in a Banki Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús De Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the numerical analysis of the internal flow in a hydraulic cross-flow turbine type Banki. A 3D-CFD steady state flow simulation has been performed using ANSYS CFX codes. The simulation includes nozzle, runner, shaft, and casing. The turbine has a specific speed of 63 (metric units, an outside runner diameter of 294 mm. Simulations were carried out using a water-air free surface model and k-ε turbulence model. The objectives of this study were to analyze the velocity and pressure fields of the cross-flow within the runner and to characterize its performance for different runner speeds. Absolute flow velocity angles are obtained at runner entrance for simulations with and without the runner. Flow recirculation in the runner interblade passages and shocks of the internal cross-flow cause considerable hydraulic losses by which the efficiency of the turbine decreases significantly. The CFD simulations results were compared with experimental data and were consistent with global performance parameters.

  7. Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case

  8. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo’s navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hays, Graeme C.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    to solve this problem has received limited consideration, even though wind and ocean currents cause the lateral displacement of flyers and swimmers, respectively, particularly during long-distance journeys of 1000s of kilometres. Here, we examine this problem by combining long-distance, open-ocean marine......The optimum path to follow when subjected to cross flows was first considered over 80 years ago by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo, in the context of a boat being displaced by ocean currents, and has become known as the ‘Zermelo navigation problem’. However, the ability of migrating animals...... turtle movements (obtained via long-term GPS tracking of sea turtles moving 1000s of km), with a high resolution basin-wide physical ocean model to estimate ocean currents. We provide a robust mathematical framework to demonstrate that, while turtles eventually arrive at their target site, they do...

  9. Impact of kinetics and flow path heterogeneity on nanoparticle/radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Florian M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing PhD thesis experimentally investigates the impact of both sorption/desorption (reversibility) and reduction kinetics on radionuclide migration in synthetic and natural systems from the nano-to the centimeter scale. Furthermore, the impact of fracture heterogeneity on flow and solute/nanoparticle transport as a potential additional retardation mechanism is examined both on an experimental and numerical basis. The process of sorptive reduction of U(VI) to sparingly soluble tetravalent uranium by structural bound Fe(II) in magnetite shows fast kinetics (hours to a few days contact time). A clear correlation between the Fe(II) content on the magnetite surface and the amount of U(VI) was observed, that is, increasing U(IV) with increasing Fe(II). Moreover, a congruency between the measured Eh(SHE) and the U valence state can partly been derived within the analytical uncertainties of the redox potential measurements. Thus, secondary phases as the stainless steel corrosion product magnetite can have beneficial effects on radionuclide migration as an effective retardation pathway for redox sensitive radionuclides. Beside, the studies on U(VI) maghemite sorption show that oxidized surfaces can possess long-term reduction capacities further enhancing radionuclide retention. Concerning the colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport, the batch sorption reversibility studies revealed the significance of kinetically controlled radionuclide desorption from the colloidal phase and subsequent sorption to the fracture filling materials (independent of the mineralogy and/or size fraction). By this process, initially colloidal associated radionuclides like the tri-and tetravalent radionuclides Th, Pu and Am are effectively retarded leading to an increase in the residence time. These reversibility results need to be included in codes for simulating colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport to reduce the conservatism and degree of uncertainties in input parameters

  10. Internal vs. International Migration: Impacts of Remittances on Child Well-Being in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Binci; Gianna Giannelli

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature on the effects of domestic and international remittances on schooling and child labour. Using the information gathered in the 1992/93 and 1997/98 Vietnam Living Standards Surveys (VLSS), we examine separately the school attendance rates and the incidence of child labour in remittance recipient households, as compared to households where this income source is absent. We apply ordinary least squares regression for the two cross-sections and a f...

  11. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  12. International medical migration: a critical conceptual review of the global movements of doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradby, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    This paper critically appraises the discourse around international medical migration at the turn of the 21st century. A critical narrative review of a range of English-language sources, including grey literature, books and research reports, traces the development and spread of specific causative models. The attribution of causative relations between the movement of skilled medical workers, the provision of health care and population health outcomes illustrates how the global reach of biomedicine has to be understood in the context of local conditions. The need to understand migration as an aspect of uneven global development, rather than a delimited issue of manpower services management, is illustrated with reference to debates about 'brain drain' of Africa's health-care professionals, task-shifting and the crisis in health-care human resources. The widespread presumed cause of shortages of skilled health-care staff in sub-Saharan Africa was overdetermined by a compelling narrative of rich countries stealing poor countries' trained health-care professionals. This narrative promotes medical professional interests and ignores historical patterns of underinvestment in health-care systems and structures. Sociological theories of medicalization suggest that the international marketization of medical recruitment is a key site where the uneven global development of capital is at work. A radical reconfiguration of medical staffing along the lines of 'task-shifting' in rich and poor countries' health-care systems alike offers one means of thinking about global equity in access to quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    OpenAIRE

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  14. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences. Home · About IASc · History · Memorandum of ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 6. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider. Mark A Thomson. Simulation and Reconstruction Volume 69 Issue 6 ...

  15. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in

  16. Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.

  17. Modern Schemes for Computation of Transonic Flows in Internal Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fürst

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with numerical solution of steady transonic flows with applications in internal aerodynamics. The problems are described by the system of 2D or 3D Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Our group developed during last years several central or upwind TVD finite volume methods for computation of transonic flows through a cascade or in a channel using grids of quadrilateral cells or triangular cells. We also developed other (non TVD schemes e.g. MacCormack scheme or several multistage Runge-Kutta finite volume schemes with applications of some acceleration techniques (multi-grid solution or hierarchical residual averaging. Our aim is to present some comparison of results of flows in internal aerodynamics using TVD schemes or other schemes. One can also compare the influence or artificial viscosity effects especially using TVD schemes.

  18. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  19. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  20. Migration of health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  1. Constraints on the dynamics of melt migration, flow and emplacement across the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Carolina; Viegas, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    The presence of partial melting during deformation produces a drastic change in the rheological behavior of the continental crust. The rock strength decreases with melt fractions as low as ~0.7 %. At pressure/temperature conditions typical of the middle crust, melt-bearing systems may play a critical role in the processes of strain localization and in the overall strength of the continental lithosphere. In eastern Brazil, Neoproterozoic tectonics are often associated with wide partial melting and shear zone development, that promote the exhumation of mid- to lower crustal layers where compositionally heterogeneous anatexites with variable melt fractions and leucosome structures are exposed. The leucosomes usually form interconnected networks of magma that reflect the high melt content present during deformation. In this contribution we address two case studies encompassing the dynamics of melt flow at magma chambers, represented by the Carlos Chagas anatexite, and the mechanisms of melt migration and channeling through shear zones, in which the Patos shear zone serves as an analogue. Through detailed petrostructural studies of anatexites exposed at these settings, we aim to demonstrate the way melt deforms and localizes strain, the different patterns of melt flow pathways across the crust, and the implications for the mechanical behaviour of the Earth's lithosphere during orogenic deformation.

  2. A porous flow approach to model thermal non-equilibrium applicable to melt migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Marquart, Gabriele; Grebe, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We develop an approach for heat exchange between a fluid and a solid phase of a porous medium where the temperatures of the fluid and matrix are not in thermal equilibrium. The formulation considers moving of the fluid within a resting or deforming porous matrix in an Eulerian coordinate system. The approach can be applied, for example, to partially molten systems or to brine transport in porous rocks. We start from an existing theory for heat exchange where the energy conservation equations for the fluid and the solid phases are separated and coupled by a heat exchange term. This term is extended to account for the full history of heat exchange. It depends on the microscopic geometry of the fluid phase. For the case of solid containing hot, fluid-filled channels, we derive an expression based on a time-dependent Fourier approach for periodic half-waves. On the macroscopic scale, the temporal evolution of the heat exchange leads to a convolution integral along the flow path of the solid, which simplifies considerably in case of a resting matrix. The evolution of the temperature in both phases with time is derived by inserting the heat exchange term into the energy equations. We explore the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between fluid and solid by considering simple cases with sudden temperature differences between fluid and solid as initial or boundary conditions, and by varying the fluid velocity with respect to the resting porous solid. Our results agree well with an analytical solution for non-moving fluid and solid. The temperature difference between solid and fluid depends on the Peclet number based on the Darcy velocity. For Peclet numbers larger than 1, the temperature difference after one diffusion time reaches 5 per cent of \\tilde{T} or more (\\tilde{T} is a scaling temperature, e.g. the initial temperature difference). Thus, our results imply that thermal non-equilibrium can play an important role for melt migration through partially molten systems

  3. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  4. Migration, foraging, and residency patterns for Northern Gulf loggerheads: implications of local threats and international movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Hart

    Full Text Available Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM loggerheads (Caretta caretta make up one of the smallest subpopulations of this threatened species and have declining nest numbers. We used satellite telemetry and a switching state-space model to identify distinct foraging areas used by 59 NGoM loggerheads tagged during 2010-2013. We tagged turtles after nesting at three sites, 1 in Alabama (Gulf Shores; n = 37 and 2 in Florida (St. Joseph Peninsula; n = 20 and Eglin Air Force Base; n = 2. Peak migration time was 22 July to 9 August during which >40% of turtles were in migration mode; the mean post-nesting migration period was 23.0 d (±13.8 d SD. After displacement from nesting beaches, 44 turtles traveled to foraging sites where they remained resident throughout tracking durations. Selected foraging locations were variable distances from tagging sites, and in 5 geographic regions; no turtles selected foraging sites outside the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Foraging sites delineated using 50% kernel density estimation were located a mean distance of 47.6 km from land and in water with mean depth of -32.5 m; other foraging sites, delineated using minimum convex polygons, were located a mean distance of 43.0 km from land and in water with a mean depth of -24.9 m. Foraging sites overlapped with known trawling activities, oil and gas extraction activities, and the footprint of surface oiling during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (n = 10. Our results highlight the year-round use of habitats in the GoM by loggerheads that nest in the NGoM. Our findings indicate that protection of females in this subpopulation requires both international collaborations and management of threats that spatially overlap with distinct foraging habitats.

  5. From surnames to linguistic and genetic diversity: five centuries of internal migrations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Blanco-Villegas, María José; Manni, Franz

    2017-12-30

    In a previous study concerning 33,753 single Spanish surnames (considered as tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times we have shown that the present-day geography of contemporary surname variability in Spain still corresponds to the political geography of the country at the end of the Middle Ages. Here we reprocess the same database, by clustering surnames with Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) according to their geographic distribution, to identify the monophyletic surnames showing a geo-historical origin in one of the 47 provinces of continental Spain. They are 25,714, and they occur 12,348,109 times, meaning that about 75% of the Spanish population bears a surname that had a polyphyletic origin. From monophyletic surnames we compute migration matrices accounting for the internal migrations that took place since five centuries ago, when Spanish surnames started to be patrilineally inherited. The mono/ polyphyletic classification we obtain fits ancient census data and is compatible with published molecular diversity of the Y-chromosomes associated to selected Spanish surnames. Monophyletic surnames indicate that i) the provinces exhibiting a higher percentage of autochthonous surnames are also ii) those from which emigration corresponds to a local isolation-by-distance model of diffusion and iii) those that attracted a lower number of immigrants. These are also the provinces where languages other than Castilian are spoken. We suggest that demographic stability explains linguistic resilience, as people prefer to move to areas in which the linguistic variety is more similar to their own. So far the reciprocal influence of migration and language has been investigated at local scales, here we outline how to investigate it at national scales and for time-depths of centuries.

  6. International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  7. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  8. A systematic analysis of motivations of international migration of people from the homes of overseas Chinese in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Y

    1988-12-01

    Based on quantitative analyses of the latest survey data and qualitative analyses of the demographic literature, this paper studies the course of international migration of Chinese people from Fujian Province during the period from the 1920s to 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded. Migration to Southeast Asia is emphasized. Per capita arable land in Fujian Province was only 1.8 mu. in 1936. Far more arable land was available in Southeast Asian countries, and a lot of it was farmed far more productively. The period from the 1920s to 1949 was one of the most politically turbulent periods in Chinese history. Numerous wars took place during this period. 30% of the emigrants during this period went to join family members. Emigrants were not only informed about employment opportunities in the destination, they were also provided with transportation, accommodations, and even employment. This chain migration was influenced by the inertia of migration movements. Demographic theories describe patterns of migration, including primary, compulsory, promoting, free, and large-scale migration patterns. The international migration of Chinese from Fujian Province to Southeast Asia was a comprehensive process characterized by multiple patterns of migration. The process was influenced by many factors at both destination and origin, including the inertia principle. The major factors leading to emigration were poor living conditions at home, the attraction of the blood relationship, life-threatening political conditions, and the intention of seeking a better business environment, as well as the feedback effect of the previous migration process. Moreover, good transportation, a favorable natural environment, a large labor force, and political stability pulled emigrants to the Southeast Asian countries.

  9. Inactive supply wells as conduits for flow and contaminant migration: conditions of occurrence and suggestions for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    Water supply wells can act as conduits for vertical flow and contaminant migration between water-bearing strata under common hydrogeologic and well construction conditions. While recognized by some for decades, there is little published data on the magnitude of flows and extent of resulting water quality impacts. Consequently, the issue may not be acknowledged widely enough and the need for better management persists. This is especially true for unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins that are hydrologically stressed by agricultural activities. Theoretical and practical considerations indicate that significant water volumes can migrate vertically through wells. The flow is often downward, with shallow groundwater, usually poorer in quality, migrating through conduit wells to degrade deeper water quality. Field data from locations in California, USA, are presented in combination with modeling results to illustrate both the prevalence of conditions conducive to intraborehole flow and the resulting impacts to water quality. Suggestions for management of planned wells include better enforcement of current regulations and more detailed consideration of hydrogeologic conditions during design and installation. A potentially greater management challenge is presented by the large number of existing wells. Monitoring for evidence of conduit flow and solute transport in areas of high well density is recommended to identify wells that pose greater risks to water quality. Conduit wells that are discovered may be addressed through approaches that include structural modification and changes in operations.

  10. International labour migration in Nigeria 1976-1986: employment, nationality and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, K

    1990-01-01

    International migration trends associated with the oil boom and bust that occurred in Nigeria between 1976 and 1986 are analyzed. "Large numbers came from Ghana..., [and] Niger, Chad and Togo, whose countries were suffering from a mixture of drought, political instability and stagnant economies. The resultant labour market became segmented according to job skills, nationality and ethnicity...." The decline in the oil industry led to the expulsion of some two million aliens between 1983 and 1986, causing considerable friction between Nigeria and its neighbors. The author concludes that "the rise and fall of migrant labour in Nigeria and the political situation within the country were embedded in the changing regional political economy of West Africa and its linkages to the larger world capitalist economy." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  11. Internal transport barriers in plasmas with reversed plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, R. M.; Caldas, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    Evidences of internal particle transport barriers have been observed in plasma discharges with reversed plasma flow. To investigate the influence of the radial electric field profile on these barriers, we apply a drift wave map that describe the plasma particle transport and allows the integration of particle drift in the presence of a given electrostatic turbulence spectrum. With this procedure we show that transport barriers due to the shearless flow invariant lines are created inside the plasma. Moreover, by varying the radial electric field profile, we observe the formation and destruction of internal transport barriers constituted by shearless invariant lines, as well as its effects on the transport in the map's phase space. Applicability of our results are discussed for the Texas Helimak, a toroidal plasma device in which the radial electric field can be changed by application of bias potential.

  12. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...

  13. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  14. The efficiency of interprovincial migration in Canada, 1961-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N

    1983-05-01

    A programming model is used to analyze the impact of the efficiency of migration flows on regional income disparities in Canada. A new method to measure such efficiency is presented in an attempt to show that occupations involving high-level skills and training have efficient migration patterns. The relationship between income differentials and internal migration is discussed.

  15. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman

    2017-05-01

    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  16. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....

  17. The 'global interconnectedness' of dentist migration: a qualitative study of the life-stories of international dental graduates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D

    2015-05-01

    The migration of dentists is a major challenge contributing to the oral health system crisis in many countries. This paper explores the origins of the dentist migration problem through a study on international dental graduates, who had migrated to Australia. Life-stories of 49 international dental graduates from 22 countries were analysed in order to discern significant themes and patterns. We focused on their home country experience, including stories on early life and career choice; dental student life; professional life; social and political life; travels; and coming to Australia. Our participants exhibited a commitment to excellence in earlier stages of life and had cultivated a desire to learn more and be involved with the latest technology. Dentists from low- and middle-income countries were also disappointed by the lack of opportunity and were unhappy with the local ethos. Some pointed towards political unrest. Interestingly, participants also carried prior travel learnings and unforgettable memories contributing to their migration. Family members and peers had also influenced participants. These considerations were brought together in four themes explaining the desire to migrate: 'Being good at something', 'Feelings of being let down', 'A novel experience' and 'Influenced by someone'. Even if one of these four themes dominated the narrative, we found that more than one theme, however, coexisted for most participants. We refer to this worldview as 'Global interconnectedness', and identify the development of migration desire as a historical process, stimulated by a priori knowledge (and interactions) of people, place and things. This qualitative study has enriched our understanding on the complexity of the dental migration experience. It supports efforts to achieve greater technical co-operation in issues such as dental education, workforce surveillance and oral health service planning within the context of ongoing global efforts on health professional

  18. Migration Perspectives in Social Work Research: Local, National and International Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Pat; Geisen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Within social work, it is often assumed that migration is a signifier for social deprivation; however, closer examination of migrant populations in different European countries reveals tremendous heterogeneity. For example, recent migration patterns in Germany, Switzerland and the UK show that inward migration is characterised also by highly qualified migrant peoples. Against this background, the question arises as to what are the relevant issues which make migration a question for social wor...

  19. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement......, and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  20. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  1. Influence of complex interfacial rheology on the thermocapillary migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayan; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-02-01

    The effect of surface viscosity on the motion of a surfactant-laden droplet in the presence of a non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied, both analytically and numerically. The presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants along the droplet surface results in interfacial shear and dilatational viscosities. This, in turn, is responsible for the generation of surface-excess viscous stresses that obey the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive law for constant values of surface shear and dilatational viscosities. The present study is primarily focused on finding out how this confluence can be used to modulate droplet dynamics in the presence of Marangoni stress induced by nonuniform distribution of surfactants and temperature along the droplet surface, by exploiting an intricate interplay of the respective forcing parameters influencing the interfacial stresses. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and thermal convection, the steady-state migration velocity of a non-deformable spherical droplet, placed at the centerline of an imposed unbounded Poiseuille flow, is obtained for the limiting case when the surfactant transport along the interface is dominated by surface diffusion. Our analysis proves that the droplet migration velocity is unaffected by the shear viscosity whereas the dilatational viscosity has a significant effect on the same. The surface viscous effects always retard the migration of a surfactant-laden droplet when the temperature in the far-field increases in the direction of the imposed flow although the droplet always migrates towards the hotter region. On the contrary, if a large temperature gradient is applied in a direction opposite to that of the imposed flow, the direction of droplet migration gets reversed. However, for a sufficiently high value of dilatational surface viscosity, the direction of droplet migration reverses. For the limiting case in which the surfactant transport along the droplet surface is dominated by surface convection, on

  2. Changes in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim; Lachat, Carl; Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey carried out in April-May 2006 among international students enrolled at Ghent University in Belgium. The aim of the study was to assess their knowledge and attitudes related to nutrition, perceived changes in dietary habits, perceived barriers to healthy eating and the determinants of dietary changes since their arrival in Belgium. In total, 235 students from 60 countries participated. Following the reported dietary changes, which were factor-analyzed into "less energy-dense" foods, "more fruits and vegetables" and "less processed" foods, three clusters could be identified. Cluster 1 composed of students who increased their fruits, vegetables and fiber intake. Cluster 2, the largest, reported dietary changes overall and in particular towards less processed foods. Cluster 3 composed of students who changed in the main towards less energy-dense foods. Gender differences were observed in healthy dietary changes, particularly in males. Healthier choices were hindered by a perceived unavailability of healthy food products. Gender and availability of healthy foods should be taken into consideration when informing temporal migration populations, such as international students in this study, about the healthy food options available during their stay in a different cultural, food and dietary environment.

  3. Medical migration: A qualitative exploration of the atypical path of Japanese international medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Brian S; Torok, Haruka Matsubara

    2018-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are commonly understood to move from low to high resource countries with motivations including improved financial situations and cultures of emigration. A presumable exception to the above themes would be the Japanese IMG population. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the Japanese IMG experience. Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed 19 Japanese IMGs working in the US and 16 Japanese IMGs working in Japan who had completed US clinical training. Questions addressed decision-making to pursue US clinical training, goals for the training, and career decision-making upon completing the training. Data collection and constant comparative analysis were conducted iteratively to identify emerging themes. The emerging model of the Japanese IMG experience is focused around pivotal experiences that often include dissatisfaction with the quality of Japanese clinical training and personal exposures to US clinical education. Further decision-making in the pursuit of US residency is influenced by educator training quality, and clinical training and career opportunities. The desire to improve Japanese clinical training commonly influences career decision-making after US training. The Japanese IMG experience contrasts numerous perceptions of international physician migration and, in turn, enhances understanding of this paradigm.

  4. International migration and dietary change in Mexican women from a social practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Rosales, Cecilia; Angulo, Alexandra; de Zapien, Jill; Denman, Catalina; Madanat, Hala

    2018-02-02

    Migration from lower- and middle-income to high-income countries is associated with dietary change, and especially with the adoption of a modern, less healthy diet. In this article we analyze the dietary changes experienced by Mexican migrants, employing as a theoretical framework the concept of social practice. According to this framework, practices integrate material elements, meanings and competences that provide their conditions of possibility. Practices are shared by members of social groups, and interact with other competing or reinforcing practices. Between 2014 and 2015, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women, international return migrants living in Tijuana, Mexico. The interview guide asked about history of migration and dietary change. We found three main areas of dietary change: from subsistence farming to ready meals, abundance vs. restriction, and adoption of new food items. The first one was associated with changes in food procurement and female work: when moving from rural to urban areas, participants substituted self-produced for purchased food; and as migrant women joined the labor force, consumption of ready meals increased. The second was the result of changes in income: participants of lower socioeconomic position modified the logic of food acquisition from restriction to abundance and back, depending on the available resources. The third change was relatively minor, with occasional consumption of new dishes or food items, and was associated with exposure to different cuisines and with learning how to cook them. Public health efforts to improve the migrants' diets should take into account the constitutive elements of dietary practices, instead of isolating individuals from their social contexts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysing the Demography and Migration Related Challenges within the Internal Periphery of South-Heves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Bogardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my study is to perform an analysis with the application of regional statistical data, in order to understand the changes within the number of the population at South-Heves in the past period, and to the reveal its special characteristics compared to regional, national trends. The examined area is a classic internal periphery, a region “hit severely by social, economic and environmental crisis” (according to the draft proposal of Heves county’s regional development concept (2014-2020. Considering such regions, besides the examination of the intention to migrate, it is also important to see who will remain in the region. Experiences show that in case of regions with a more disadvantageous situation than average, generally classes of lower social statuses will become dominant, while as it is described by Győri-Nagy (2003, “the escape of competent classes of the population” can be observed. It results in a contra-selected local society which is unable to retain the young and ambitious. The future of the affected regions, settlements is largely determined by the perspectives perceived by young people who live there, and who shall start their families and careers there in the near future. I have conducted an empirical research amongst high-school students living and studying at South-Heves, focusing on issues such as whether the high-school age-group of this classic periphery is considering migration; if so, then what are the reasons, destinations, and as an important question from the aspect of the national strategy as well, how could these young people who are longing to go elsewhere manage their lives here, and how could we make them stay in their homeland (in a narrow sense. By investigating the intention to migrate, we also receive indirect answers for questions such as how could significant regional differences be reduced, and how could we close the gap in case of the most disadvantageous regions.

  6. International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa : viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, Aderanti; Naerssen, Ton van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    This book aims at achieving a better understanding of the implications of international migration for national development from the perspective of the sending countries, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, the volume explores (1) current perceptions of the links between

  7. Living apart together across borders; how Ghanaian couples form, transform, or dissolve in the context of international migration. Doctoral thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides insight into the role of international migration in how Ghanaian couples form, transform or dissolve. It investigates if, when and where families live geographically separate from each other and if, when and where they reunify. Employing a transnational approach, this

  8. Formation of compositional gradient profiles by using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon under Couette flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Su Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duck Jong; Park, O Ok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Moo Hyun [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We investigated whether a graded-index profile, specified by the polymer compositional gradient, could be formed using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon in a polymer solution. For the presented model system, we generated a shear flow by rotating a glass rod at the center of a polystyrene/methylmethacrylate (PS/MMA) solution and measured the degree of polymer migration by the shear flow field by examining the concentration of polymer solution along the radial direction from the rotating axis to the periphery. Through model experiments, we formed a compositional gradient and controlled its profile in the solution by varying the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight of polymer, and shear rate. Finally, we solidified the gradient profiles by the polymerization of the PS/MMA solution and confirmed that the gradient profiles were maintained with a compositional gradient twice larger than the mother PS/MMA solution.

  9. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  10. Movements of Croatian Labour Supply and Their Implications on Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian labour market is characterised by a low degree of activity on the part of the population, a high unemployment rate, a pronounced problem with long-term unemployment and a high structural disproportion between supply and demand. Because of the relatively high share of the unofficial economy, there is a large difference between the administrative unemployment rate and that shown by surveys. Analysis of the situation on the Croatian labour market shows that significant structural issues still remained unsolved (such as inflexibility, mismatch between supply and demand with respect to profession and education, and similar. There is still very limited creation of new jobs. The employment rates of men and women and the employment of young people are among the lowest in comparison with the EU-27 and are far from attainment of the Lisbon objectives. The high rate of economic inactivity indicates the lack of utilisation of the existing work force potential. The conducted research shows that the continued advised needs for workers is 25 time higher than the annual number of approved work permits to foreigners from 1992 to 2006, while that number was negligible in 1991. Due to this situation, Croatia still has a very strict protectionist orientation towards employing foreigners, although the fact is that this situation will have to change very quickly with accession to the EU. It can be concluded that no major changes in migration flows or any significant shifts in em¬ployment and unemployment rates can be expected until the year 2010. Although opening the borders could mean, on the one hand, the possibility of increased emigration of the Croatian work force, the expectations are that such movements, nonetheless, will not occur. It is more likely that opening borders would be connected with greater mobility of workers, both from Croatia into other countries and from other countries towards Croatia.

  11. Intensity and patterns redistributive effect of internal migration in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. According DAM and DAME. 2000 and 2010 census rounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelis Rosalén Mora Pérez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aware of the differences and similarities in the socioeconomic and demographic contexts that characterize Cuba and the Dominican Republic, is made from the information collected in the Census of Population and Housing of the two countries in the rounds 2000 and 2010, a study on migration internal. A summary of the management of census questions regarding the recruitment of absolute internal migration of lifetime and recent migration fixed date five years ago. The research is conducted in order to identify how has been the evolution of the intensity, the redistributive effect and profile of internal migration in Cuba and the Dominican Republic as Administrative Divisions Major and Minor (DAM and DAME. Different migration indicators: net migration, proportion of non-migrants, net migration rate (TMN, overall intensity (rate of internal mobility, immigration effectiveness index (IEM, and aggregate net migration rate (TAMN are used to explain behavior. Migrant profile analysis are performed by age, sex and educational level and regularities are articulated in the redistributive and intensity of internal migration effect generating attractive specialization of these administrative units. Generally, it can be seen in Cuba, the migration intensity between the two census moments remained constant level DAM, while among DAME a decrease of this intensity is appreciated. In the case of the Dominican Republica, reduction stands.

  12. Human capital on the move: Education as a determinant of internal migration in selected INDEPTH surveillance populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carren Ginsburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban areas at the expense of rural areas. However, there is fragmentary evidence concerning the educational correlates of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study questions whether more precise measures of migration in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS populations support the hypothesis that migrants are self-selected on human capital and more educated people are more likely to leave rural areas or enter urban areas within a geographical region. Methods: Using unique longitudinal data representing approximately 900,000 people living in eight sub-Saharan African HDSS sites that are members of the INDEPTH Network, the paper uses Event History Analysis techniques to examine the relationship between formal educational attainment and in- and out-migration, over the period 2009 to 2011. Results: Between 7Š and 27Š of these local populations are moving in or out of the HDSS area over this period. Education is positively associated with both in- and out-migration in the Kenyan HDSS areas; however, the education effect has no clear pattern in the HDSS sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and South Africa. Conclusions: Empirical results presented in this paper confirm a strong age profile of migration consistent with human capital expectation, yet the results point to variability in the association of education and the propensity to migrate. In particular, the hypothesis of a shift of human capital from rural to urban areas is not universally valid.

  13. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  14. Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.

    1989-01-01

    The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr

  15. Analysis of Migration Flows of the Population of the Vologda Oblast Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Mikhailovich Panov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research on the main directions and scale of migration in municipal districts of the Vologda Oblast and considers the main types of migration and the specifics of their statistical accounting. The data by Rosstat served as a basis upon which a general analysis of migration dynamics in the Vologda Oblast districts was carried out; and the article presents its periodization. Three main periods are defined: the “migration shock” of 1991–1999 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the migration stability of 2000–2008 and the post-crisis rural out-migration that began in 2009 and is increasing year by year. At the same time, gross migration indicators have shown high sensitivity to significant socioeconomic change, in particular, to the economic crises of 1999 and 2008. The article describes the main age and gender characteristics of migrants, it has been determined that the most active migrants are girls aged 15–29, who move from rural to urban settlements. In general, it is the young people aged 15–34 who are most likely to migrate. The author has found out that most of the Vologda Oblast districts are characterized by a higher outflow of the population, which is in some places restrained by a relative migration attractiveness of a number of areas. The author has found out that most districts of the Oblast are characterized by a higher outflow of the population, which is sometimes restrained by relative migration attractiveness of some areas. The author highlights the region’s territories with the highest migration attraction; in the long run they can play the role of “growth points” in the region; these territories comprise Velikoustyugsky and Chagodoshchensky districts, as well as several districts of the central part of the Vologda Oblast – Ust-Kubinsky and Vologodsky. The author also points out the territories that suffered the most from out-migration: Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky, Vashkinsky

  16. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  17. OECD migration, welfare and skill selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    of the immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The comprehensive income support schemes, social safety net and a high tax pressure, may play a role in changing the composition of migration flows. This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows...... into 27 OECD countries over the period of 12 years, 1989-2000. Using a fixed effects panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows during the latest decade. We study whether there are significant selectivity effects in international migration flows, i.e. whether the countries......Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. According to theory, the impact of immigration depends on the skill distribution of immigrants compared to the natives. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion...

  18. International Marriage for Homogeneity? - Evidence from Marriage Migration in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether cultural, racial, and linguistic similarities increase marriage migration. By using marriage migration data from South Korea, I find that the similarities between an origin country and South Korea pull more marriage migration, but the positive effects of the similarities are mainly driven by female marriage migrants from middle and low income countries. The pulling effects of the similarities can be explained by female deficits in the marital age gr...

  19. Migration and environmental change in international governance: the case of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Geddes; William Somerville

    2012-01-01

    With this paper we analyse and assess the role of the European Union (EU) in the governance of migration linked to environmental change. We trace the emergence of migration linked to environmental change as an issue on the EU agenda and examine both issue definition and the institutional location of EU responses. The EU is identified as a particularly significant potential actor in the broader debate about environmental change and migration, as it is the world’s most developed form of regiona...

  20. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  1. Hong Kong and its hinterland: a case of international rural-to-urban migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1986-01-01

    "The historical background of migration to Hong Kong from China is reviewed. The focus is, however, on the 'wave' of migration that occurred in the late 1970s. Two distinct streams of migration are identified, legal and illegal, each with different characteristics." Data are primarily from official Hong Kong sources. The author notes the high levels of education among immigrants and the relative ease with which they have been absorbed into the labor force. "Political conditions in China are seen to be a major factor in explaining fluctuations in the volume of migration to Hong Kong. No relaxation of controls on future movement is seen as Hong Kong becomes part of China." excerpt

  2. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  3. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  4. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  5. Fleeing through the Globalised Education System: The Role of Violence and Conflict in International Student Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Ane Marie Ørbø; Nat-George, Sisse Mari-Louise Wulff

    2016-01-01

    This article connects directly to the globalisation of both education and conflict, and attends to the intersection between these phenomena, by focusing on conflict-induced student migration, an area, which has until recently been neglected in studies of higher education and migration, and peace and conflict research. The focus is on the very…

  6. THE CONTEMPORARY METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND THEORIES EXPLAINING INTERNATIONAL TOURISM FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorina SISCAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the fact that international tourism is in permanent growth the last decades, and contributes signi­ficantly to the development of contemporary national economies, the authors of the article have focused on methodo­logical and theoretical frame that allows deeper understanding of the touristic flows from various aspects. In doing so, the first author has launched some methodological approaches that allow deepening a perspective research on touristic flows while the second author has concentrated upon grouping and analysis of existing theories used to explain touristic flows. As an outcome, the authors recommend a blend of those approaches and theories to be used for an adequate understanding and managing the existing and perspective touristic flows.ABORDDĂRI METODOLOGICE ȘI TEORII CONTEMPORANE CARE EXPLICĂ FLUXURILE DE TURISM INTERNAȚIONALPornind de la faptul că turismul internațional manifestă permanentă creștere în ultimele decenii, precum și contribuie semnificativ la dezvoltarea economiilor naționale contemporane, autorii articolului s-au axat pe cadrul metodologic și teoretic ce ar permite conceperea aprofundată a fluxurilor de turism internațional. Primul autor a lansat unele abordări metodologice care ar contribui la aprofundarea cercetărilor de perspectivă ale fluxurilor turistice, iar cel de-al doilea autor și-a concentrat atenția asupra grupării și analizei teoriilor existente în care se explică natura fluxurilor de turism. Ca rezultat, autorii recomandă utilizarea îmbinării organice a abordărilor și teoriilor considerate pentru perceperea și gestionarea adecvată a fluxurilor de turism existente și de perspectivă.

  7. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  8. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  9. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  10. International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates.

  11. Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sandra S M; Yu, Xin; Caine, Eric D

    2015-04-01

    There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese. We recruited 1,646 rural subjects aged 16-34 years, of whom 756 were migrant workers and 890 non-migrants, from ten representative villages in rural Sichuan Province, the southwestern part of China. To assess subject's depressive symptoms and general psychological quality of life (psycho-QOL), the study protocol included the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and psycho-QOL subscale of the World Health Organization's QOL Questionnaire-Brief Version, in addition to structured questions regarding one-year suicidal thoughts and behaviors (serious ideation, plan, and attempt), socio-demographic, social support, and physical health information. After adjustment for confounders, migrant workers had relative to non-migrant rural residents a decreased risk for depression (OR = 0.69, P = 0.026), but comparable risk for poor psycho-QOL (OR = 0.91, P = 0.557) and one-year suicidal behaviors (OR = 0.59-1.10, P = 0.19-0.90). Migrant status only accounted for 0.5, 2.8, 4.7, 9.8, and 12.6% of the total explainable variance for suicide attempt, poor psycho-QOL, suicide plan, depression and serious suicide ideation, respectively. Our findings suggested that among young rural Chinese there were no significant associations involving migrant status and poor psycho-QOL or one-year suicidal behaviors, while migrant status significantly correlated with a decreased risk of depression. The unique contribution of migrant status to mental health among young rural Chinese participants in this study was very small.

  12. International migration patterns of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) from four breeding populations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Sarah E.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska. On average (± SD) Red-throated Loons underwent long (6,288 ± 1,825 km) fall and spring migrations predominantly along coastlines. The most northern population (Arctic Coastal Plain) migrated westward to East Asia and traveled approximately 2,000 km farther to wintering sites than the three more southerly populations (Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Copper River Delta) which migrated south along the Pacific coast of North America. These migration paths are consistent with the hypothesis that Red-throated Loons from the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to contaminants in East Asia. The three more southerly breeding populations demonstrated a chain migration pattern in which the more northerly breeding populations generally wintered in more northerly latitudes. Collectively, the migration paths observed in this study demonstrate that some geographically distinct breeding populations overlap in wintering distribution while others use highly different wintering areas. Red-throated Loon population trends in Alaska may therefore be driven by a wide range of effects throughout the annual cycle.

  13. Children and adolescents separated from their families by international migration: the case of four states of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, international migration is associated with family separation and dispersion. In this vein, the article analyzes the extension and volume of divided families in Nuevo León, Zacatecas, Puebla, and Jalisco. For achieving this purpose, it uses data provided by representative samples of children and adolescents enrolled in elementary and middle high schools (n = 39 633 of these states. In a context of militarized borders and deportations, the paper offers a contemporary picture of the impact of international migration on family’s separation in Mexico. It shows also interstates and interregional differences. As a conclusion of this comparative analysis, the article gives an idea about the variety of regions in Mexico in terms of family separation. Family division is far to be generalized all over the country.

  14. Evaluation of a flow diversion system for reducing 90Sr migration from SWSA 4 to White Oak Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    Discharge from the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA 4) watershed was studied to determine the extent to which a flow diversion system has reduced the migration of 90 Sr into White Oak Creek. The diversion system was built in 1983 to divert runoff from the SWSA 4 catchment headwaters area (56% of the basin) around buried wastes because an earlier study showed that this would be an effective remedial measure for reducing 90 Sr migration. The results presented here indicate that the diversion system has reduced the average flow in the SWSA 4 tributary by 56% and the flux of 90 Sr by 44%. A second phase of the study was to rank SWSA 4 and its surrounding areas as sources of 90 Sr input to White Oak Creek. Runoff from SWSA 4 contributes about 67% of the local 90 Sr input to White Oak Creek and is therefore the major source of contamination. The remaining 33% could be attributed to either groundwater inflows from adjacent contaminated floodplain areas or computational uncertainty arising mainly from errors in the measurement of flow and 90 Sr concentration. Preliminary results suggest that it is groundwater transport of 90 Sr from adjacent areas that is responsible for the additional inputs. 9 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Transformation of Migration Flows Between the Russian Far East and CIS and non-CIS States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motrich E. L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic trends in the migration processes in the Russian Far East are shown. Special emphasis is placed on the transformation of migration interactions with CIS and non-CIS countries both at the level of the region as a whole, and at the level of the Far Eastern territories of the Russian Federation. An extent of using foreign labor in different periods of the Russian Far East socio-economic development and the regulatory support of this process are shown. Prospects for attracting and utilizing foreign labor are stated

  16. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." excerpt

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND MIGRATION FLOWS OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Викторовна Ерёменко

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the dynamics of the population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, as well as migration processes, which negatively influence on formation of labor resources of the Republic. Socio-political, socio-economic transformations in recent years, could not affect the demographic situation of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. In the Republic, as in other regions of Russia the demographic situation deteriorated over the past decades. Deformed main functions of the family, its structure, the increased number of divorces, the growing number of single-parent families, decreased fertility. Fertility decline led to reduction of the share of children and adolescents under the age of 16 years and intensified the process of population aging. The ageing of the population, gives rise to a number of demographic, economic and social problems. An important role is also being played outflow from the Republic of working-age people. Issues of internal and external migration represent a very large layer of problems, both economic and social interaction of people from different cultures and walks of life in the majority is not without conflict. Organization of civilized (adjustable migration, i.e. the creation of conditions for improvement of the migration attractiveness of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, on the one hand, and combating illegal migration, on the other, should be directed on realization of the strategic course of the Government of the Russian Federation of the stabilization of the total population and promote sustainable socio-economic development of the country in General and of the Republic in particular.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-9

  18. The Determinants and the Size of International Migration in Central and Eastern Europe After 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Organiściak-Krzykowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a very important socio‑economic issue in the contemporary world. One of the interesting and pertinent research problems worth considering concerns the scale and nature of migration from countries which entered the European Union in 2004 and in the subsequent years. As a result of integration within the European Community, the citizens of member states acquired citizenship within the entire European Union (which is complementary to citizenship in the country of origin. The right of free movement led to the emergence of the migration phenomenon within the territory of the European Union. A well educated and young labour force may be an influential factor in the social and economic development of the European Union members. The enlargement of the EU led to a significant increase in the number of part‑time/temporary migrants. According to statistical data, the number of emigrants from the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEE to the more prosperous European countries increased from 1,66 million in 2004 to 7,3 million in 2016. Within the context of the scale of economic migration from the CEE, questions should be asked about the determinants and economic consequences of this mobility. The main objective of this article is a diagnosis and evaluation of the determinants and size of migration from the CEE. The analyses are based on Eurostat data. The determinants of migration are presented from the point of view of the push and pull factors theory and related to the situation in the European labour market. An analysis of the size of migration outflow from the CEE countries made it possible to classify them into three groups: countries with a high emigration potential (Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, a moderate emigration potential (Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Estonia, Slovakia and a low emigration potential (the Czech Republic, Slovenia. The economic consequences of migration are shown from the perspective of remittances received from

  19. Determinants and consequences of internal and international migration: The case of rural populations in the south of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto del Rey Poveda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the current migration in rural population in the south of Veracruz state (Mexico. We identify three different spaces of migration, traditional markets, the northern border and the United States. Applying a multinomial logistic model and taking into account individual, family, and local characteristics of the migrants, we find different determinants in each space. These determinants are related to the objectives, needs and means of the migrants and their families. Otherwise, each space involves different consequences to the family in terms of the relationships between migrants and the rest of their relatives.

  20. Migration of gluten under shear flow: influence of process parameters on separation behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of processing conditions on the shear-induced migration of starch and gluten was described. A shearing device was used to induce a separation of wheat dough into a gluten rich fraction and a starch phase. A two-stage mechanism for separation was observed: first local aggregation of

  1. Migration, financial flows and development in the Euro-Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    as to the conclusions: that by the turn of the twenty-first century migration would become an explosive issue for the Mediterranean region, and that today we are facing the consequences. The risk described as a ‘demographic bomb’ is no longer a risk; it has exploded and can be seen in the daily dramas along the Italian...

  2. All projects related to | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Project. In West Africa, notably Mali and Sénégal, the flow of women's migration takes place mainly within and between countries. Start Date: February 15, 2008. End Date: August 26, 2011. Topic: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RURAL URBAN MIGRATION, MIGRANT ...

  3. International Scientific Migration: Progress or a Threat to Russia’s Scientific and Technological Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus on the issues of scientific migration. This trend is relevant from both an academic perspective — studying the individual’s economic behaviour, as well as practical one, because competition for talent has a significant impact on innovation policy initiatives around the world. Most Russian and foreign researchers are unanimous about the main complication for these studies: the lack of reliable information about scientific researchers’ migration. To search for these data, we have developed a methodology implemented in software based on the big data technology. This software allows to analyse data sets from leading scientific citation bases. The information on scientific migration resulted from the analysis of changes in affiliation. We have collected the data on the scientific migration of researchers employed by the Ural Federal University from the Scopus database. The verification of the obtained data showed their high reliability. Most researchers move to Western European countries and the United States (up to 72 %. The main areas of emigrating researchers’ scientific interests are natural and technical sciences. The optimal approach to minimizing the negative impact of scientific migration on Russia’s scientific and technological security is the practical application of the theory of brain sharing. According to this theory, a large scientific diaspora abroad is an essential resource for the development of science and innovation.

  4. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  5. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepeau, John; Mcllroy, Hugh M. Jr.; McEligot, Donald M.; Condie, Keith G.; McCreery, Glenn; Clarsean, Randy; Brodkey, Robert S.; Guezennec, Yann G.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated

  6. The importance of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy in the context of international migration of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, M; Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Watkins, K; Short, S D

    2015-03-01

    The international migration of dentists is an issue of pressing significance that poses several complex policy challenges. Policy-making is mainly constrained by the lack of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy - all three are required to work together, yet with different purposes. We first discuss the inconsistencies in migrant dentist surveillance in major country-level governmental systems (immigration departments, dentist registration authorities and workforce agencies). We argue that the limitations in surveillance collections affect independent research and in turn scholarly contributions to dental workforce policy. Differences in country-level surveillance collections also hinder valid cross-country comparisons on migrant dentist data, impeding global policy efforts. Due to these limitations, advocacy, or the political process to influence health policy, suffers, but is integral to future challenges on dentist migration. Country-level advocacy is best targeted at improving migrant dentist surveillance systems. Research interest can be invigorated through targeted funding allocations for migration research and by improving the availability of dentist surveillance data for research purposes. At the global level, the WHOs global code of practice for international recruitment of health personnel (a crucial advocacy tool) needs to be strengthened. Global organisations such as the FDI World Dental Federation have an important role to play in advocating for improved migrant dentist workforce surveillance and research evidence, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Economy, Ethnicity and International Migration. The Comparison of Finland, Hungary and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Forsander

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to compare present migration situation, history, economy and migration regulation in an European Union country (Finland, and, an EU accessing country (Hungary and a major non - EU country (Russia. Our material and methods base on literature survey, policy analysis and analysis of the existing statistics and legislation. The results show that even in the era of globalisation that is often claimed to erode states regulatory power over the ? ows of capital and people, some regulatory power still exists. Instead of developing their policies in accordance with the largely self-regulating migration process, according to our data, the countries sought to regain political control through reproducing economic, ethnic and national hierarchies.

  8. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU AND THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive, liberal, migration policies and consequent penetration with foreign, inherently contradictory ideology. Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent, indispensable, paterfamilias of realism, Niccolo Machiavelli, explicitly confirm that, if any state fails to adequately restrict the migration of people and ideas across its borders, then that state will inevitably become penetrated by a foreign, inherently contradictory, ideology, and, consequently, eviscerated by an unrelenting insecurity.

  9. [The southern border and international migration from the perspective of NAFTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C

    1993-01-01

    "Constitution of a trade bloc between Mexico, the United States and Canada through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in this decade has called attention to...the role of Mexico's southern border, Central American conflicts and migrations from that era. Relevant adjustments have been made to Mexico's policy in approaching problems regarding its southern neighbors. These changes respond largely to the perception held by larger economic blocs and migration generated by unequal development levels within these regions and countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. A Model of Secondary Hydrocarbon Migration As a Buoyancy-Driven Separate Phase Flow Un modèle de migration secondaire des hydrocarbures considéré comme un écoulement en phases séparées régi par la poussée d'Archimède

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner F. K.; Marsal D.; Hermans L.; Van Kuyk A.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of secondary migration is described which permits the prediction of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation patterns in a sedimentary basin, if source rock expulsion rates and geometrical and hydraulic properties of major carrier systems are known through geological time. In this model, secondary migration is treated as buoyancy-driven, segregated flow of hydrocarbons in hydrostatic aquifers. Lateral, updip migration is conceived as a Boussinesq-type, free-surface flow, wi...

  11. Performance and Internal Flow of a Dental Air Turbine Handpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An air turbine handpiece is a dental abrasive device that rotates at high speed and uses compressed air as the driving force. It is characterized by its small size, light weight, and painless abrading due to its high-speed rotation, but its torque is small and noise level is high. Thus, to improve the performance of the air turbine handpiece, we conducted a performance test of an actual handpiece and a numerical analysis that modeled the whole handpiece; we also analyzed the internal flow of the handpiece. Results show that experimental and calculated values were consistent for a constant speed load method with the descending speed of 1 mm/min for torque and turbine output. When the tip of the blade was at the center of the nozzle, the torque was at its highest. This is likely because the jet from the nozzle entered the tip of the blade from a close distance that would not reduce the speed and exited along the blade.

  12. International migration of doctors, and its impact on availability of psychiatrists in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of health professionals from low and middle income countries to rich countries is a large scale and long-standing phenomenon, which is detrimental to the health systems in the donor countries. We sought to explore the extent of psychiatric migration. METHODS: In our study, we use the respective professional databases in each country to establish the numbers of psychiatrists currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand, and Australia who originate from other countries. We also estimate the impact of this migration on the psychiatrist population ratios in the donor countries. FINDINGS: We document large numbers of psychiatrists currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand and Australia originating from India (4687 psychiatrists, Pakistan (1158, Bangladesh (149, Nigeria (384, Egypt (484, Sri Lanka (142, Philippines (1593. For some countries of origin, the numbers of psychiatrists currently registered within high-income countries' professional databases are very small (e.g., 5 psychiatrists of Tanzanian origin registered in the 4 high-income countries we studied, but this number is very significant compared to the 15 psychiatrists currently registered in Tanzania. Without such emigration, many countries would have more than double the number of psychiatrists per 100,000 population (e.g. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon; and some countries would have had five to eight times more psychiatrists per 100,000 (e.g. Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Liberia, Nigeria and Zambia. CONCLUSIONS: Large numbers of psychiatrists originating from key low and middle income countries are currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand and Australia, with concomitant impact on the psychiatrist/population ratio n the originating countries. We suggest that creative international policy approaches are needed to ensure the individual migration rights of health professionals do not compromise societal population rights to

  13. International migration of doctors, and its impact on availability of psychiatrists in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Kydd, Robert; Mullen, Paul; Thomson, Kenneth; Sculley, James; Kuper, Susan; Carroll, Joanna; Gureje, Oye; Hatcher, Simon; Brownie, Sharon; Carroll, Christopher; Hollins, Sheila; Wong, Mai Luen

    2010-02-04

    Migration of health professionals from low and middle income countries to rich countries is a large scale and long-standing phenomenon, which is detrimental to the health systems in the donor countries. We sought to explore the extent of psychiatric migration. In our study, we use the respective professional databases in each country to establish the numbers of psychiatrists currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand, and Australia who originate from other countries. We also estimate the impact of this migration on the psychiatrist population ratios in the donor countries. We document large numbers of psychiatrists currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand and Australia originating from India (4687 psychiatrists), Pakistan (1158), Bangladesh (149), Nigeria (384), Egypt (484), Sri Lanka (142), Philippines (1593). For some countries of origin, the numbers of psychiatrists currently registered within high-income countries' professional databases are very small (e.g., 5 psychiatrists of Tanzanian origin registered in the 4 high-income countries we studied), but this number is very significant compared to the 15 psychiatrists currently registered in Tanzania). Without such emigration, many countries would have more than double the number of psychiatrists per 100,000 population (e.g. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon); and some countries would have had five to eight times more psychiatrists per 100,000 (e.g. Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Liberia, Nigeria and Zambia). Large numbers of psychiatrists originating from key low and middle income countries are currently registered in the UK, US, New Zealand and Australia, with concomitant impact on the psychiatrist/population ratio n the originating countries. We suggest that creative international policy approaches are needed to ensure the individual migration rights of health professionals do not compromise societal population rights to health, and that there are public and fair agreements

  14. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the

  15. The governance of international migration in Turkey and Morocco: Irregular migrants’ access to right to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstübici Önay, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses migrant experiences of illegality in Turkey and Morocco by taking into account how both countries responded to increasing pressure by the European Union to govern irregular migration within their territories. In dialogue with literatures on the legal production of migrant

  16. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S.F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives [1]. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the planets’ life. We find no reason, however, to exclude the explanation that a small number of planets are continuously sent migrating inwards such that these planets indeed are in the last fraction of their lives. Following the observation that the distribution of medium planets disfavors tidal dissipation being significantly weaker than has been found from observations of binary stars [2], we now show that the numbers of planets in such a “flow” of excess planets migrating inwards is low enough that even depletion of the three-day pileup is a plausible source. Then the shortest period occurrence distribution would be shaped by planets continuously being sent into the star, which may explain the depletion of the pileup in the Kepler field relative to the solar neighborhood [3]. Because Kepler observes above the galactic plan, [3] suggested the Kepler field may include an older population of stars. The tidal dissipation strength in stars due to giant planets may be not greatly weaker than it is in binary stars.

  17. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  18. Internal Migration Patterns of Foreign-Born Immigrants in Spain. A study based on the National Immigrant Survey (ENI-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the existing literature on the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born in Spain. We analyze the spatial distribution of immigrants and their patterns of mobility at different levels. Socio-demographic characteristics of immigrants and characteristics of places of origin and destination are considered. We also examine repeat migration, duration of residence in each destination, as well as return migration within Spain. To this end, we make use of a new micro database corresponding to the National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

    Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre la migración interna de los inmigrantes nacidos fuera de España. En él se analiza la distribución espacial y las pautas de movilidad de los inmigrantes, considerando aspectos como las características sociodemográficas de los individuos y las características de los orígenes y destinos dentro de España. También se analiza la emigración repetida, la duración de la residencia en cada destino y la emigración de retorno (dentro de España. Para todo ello, se utiliza la nueva base de datos micro derivada de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

  19. Re-creating the Rural, Reconstructing Nature: An International Literature Review of the Environmental Implications of Amenity Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B Abrams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ′amenity migration′ describes a broad diversity of patterns of human movement to rural places in search of particular lifestyle attributes. This review of international literature, drawn from the authors′ own prior research and searches on relevant databases, synthesises findings on the implications of amenity migration for the creation and distribution of environmental harms and benefits. Further, we critique common framings of amenity migration-related environmental transformations and offer suggestions for future research. Analysis is positioned within a review of five common themes reflected in the cases we consider: land subdivision and residential development; changes in private land use; cross-boundary effects; effects on local governance institutions; and displacement of impacts. Within each of these themes, we discuss the uneven geographies of environmental transformation formed by diverse conceptions of ′nature′, patterns of local management of amenity-driven transformations, and ecological contexts. We conclude that, through both intended and unintended environmental consequences of dominant activities and land uses, amenity migration results in a redistribution of environmental harms and benefits at multiple scales, as rural landscapes are (partially and incompletely re-created in line with the ideals and expectations of amenity migrant populations.

  20. Development of a conceptual flow-path model of nuclide migration in crystalline rock -- A case study at the Kamaishi In-Situ Test Site, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, H.; Ota, K.; Yoshida, H.; Sasamoto, H.; Nohara, T.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual flow-path model for nuclide migration in fractured crystalline rock at the Kamaishi In-Situ Test Site (KITS) because improvement of existing models of matrix diffusion, based on realistic geological data, is necessary for a better understanding of nuclide migration into rock matrix. Data from field observations indicate that fractures at the KITS can be classified into three types; type A with a zone of fracture fillings, type B with a zone of fracture fillings and an altered zone, type C consisting of several fractures with a zone of fracture fillings and an altered zone. Fracture type B was studied in detail by laboratory experiments because type B is predominant in the studied area with more than 60% of a total of 400 fractures observed in the fracture mapping. Data from laboratory experiments on core, crosscutting a water-bearing fracture and the surrounding rock, indicate that the zone of fracture fillings and the altered zone in the vicinity of the fracture contain flow-paths in which nuclides can migrate and be trapped. The fracture fillings contain more interconnected and permeable flow-paths than the altered and unaltered zones. This implies that migrating nuclides can access flow-paths in the altered zone. The altered zone adjacent to the zone of the fracture fillings contains flow-paths such as microfractures, cracks within quartz, and grain boundaries between altered minerals, through which nuclides will migrate from the fracture fillings into the altered zone and be trapped. The fracture fillings and the specimen of the altered zone have higher sorption capacity than the specimen of the unaltered zone. These data suggest that retention of nuclides can be expected in the vicinity of the fracture. A conceptual flow-path model consisting of zone of fracture fillings, an altered zone, and an unaltered zone has been developed for a better understanding of nuclide migration in fracture type B

  1. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  2. Morocco: The new migration flows / Le Maroc face aux nouveaux flux migratoires / Marruecos frente a los nuevos flujos migratorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Benamar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration, fueled in recent years by a massive influx of sub-Saharans who leave North Africa, where Morocco is included as destination in Europe (Spain and Italy as privileged points of entry is taking alarming dimensions and repeatedly dramatic, taking into account the price paid in lives to cross the Mediterranean. Faced with this new reality, Morocco raises revise its immigration policy and take legislative, institutional and even operational to respond to this new situation for the country measures. We analyze this situation based on a survey (ETF et AMERM, 2012, covering the entire national territory, although we will focus especially in the north of Morocco, who was interested returnees immigrants, candidates for illegal immigration and our experience in a European project POCTEFEX 2011-2013 program to which you have participated as a partner (Czech, 2014, were studied: the evolution of process control and management of migration flows; the main challenges of sub-Saharan immigration to Morocco, and the challenges and opportunities for Morocco as new host country of immigrants.

  3. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  4. Migration, financial flows and development in the Euro-Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    from southern Mediterranean countries are the results of both push marginalisation and destabilisation) and pull (economic concentration and wealth in the North) factors. This paper is part of a larger research project exploring the establishment of new economic–financial links through the actions......The migration issue in the Mediterranean region has been widely monitored and assessed in the last decade. Its various socioeconomic causes and impacts—demographic, social, political and economic—have been largely analysed, and, despite differences in the approaches, there has been broad consensus...... and Spanish coasts of the Mediterranean basin. The root of the issue can be mainly attributed to the impacts of globalisation: economic marginalisation of the peripheral areas and the political destabilisation of both the countries and the region at large. The failure of the Barcelona Process, followed...

  5. Mountain scale modeling of transient, coupled gas flow, heat transfer and carbon-14 migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ning; Ross, B.

    1993-01-01

    We simulate mountain-scale coupled heat transfer and gas flow at Yucca Mountain. A coupled rock-gas flow and heat transfer model, TGIF2, is used to simulate mountain-scale two-dimensional transient heat transfer and gas flow. The model is first verified against an analytical solution for the problem of an infinite horizontal layer of fluid heated from below. Our numerical results match very well with the analytical solution. Then, we obtain transient temperature and gas flow distributions inside the mountain. These distributions are used by a transient semianalytical particle tracker to obtain carbon-14 travel times for particles starting at different locations within the repository. Assuming that the repository is filled with 30-year-old waste at an initial areal power density of 57 kw/acre, we find that repository temperatures remain above 60 degrees C for more than 10,000 years. Carbon-14 travel times to the surface are mostly less than 1000 years, for particles starting at any time within the first 10,000 years

  6. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Migrações internacionais: teorias, políticas e movimentos sociais International migrations: theories, policies and social movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Lopes Patarra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available APRESENTAM-SE subsídios para o debate sobre políticas de migração internacional que já se estende para movimentos sociais de expressivos contingentes documentados e não-documentados nos principais países de destino. Recomendações de organismos internacionais defendem políticas migratórias em termos de direitos humanos e na supervisão de remessas, consideradas um dos aspectos positivos das migrações e auxílio no combate à pobreza dos países de origem. O contraponto com formulações teóricas sobre o fenômeno evidencia incoerências e inviabilidades dessas propostas se não forem articuladas com esforços para o desenvolvimento econômico e social dos países envolvidos.THE TEXT presents arguments for the debate concerning international migration policies; this debate, nowadays, involve social movements of increasing number of documented and undocumented migrants in the main destination countries. International organisms recommend migration policies based on human rights and remittances, considered as a way of reducing poverty in origin countries. Nevertheless, considering theoretical approaches and recent mass movements we can argue about the viability of the propositions as well as the necessity of also considering the structural conditions for the development efforts in these countries as a fundamental manner of combating poverty and improving their level of life.

  8. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  9. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  10. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jet energy resolution. It is widely believed that the particle flow approach to calorimetry is the key to achieving the goal of 0.3/. √. E(GeV). This paper describes the current performance of the PandoraPFA particle flow algorithm. For 45GeV jets in the Tesla. TDR detector concept, the ILC jet energy resolution goal is reached.

  11. Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygnanski, I.

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting instabilities rather than forcing the flow is advantageous. Simple 2D concepts may not always work. Nonlinear effects may result in first order effect. Interaction between spanwise and streamwise vortices may have a paramount effect on the mean flow, but this interaction may not always be beneficial.

  12. Diaspora in the migration – development binomial: international and national aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica RUSU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the role of migrants and members of diaspora as agents of development. Migration is considered as one of the catalysts to reduce global inequality. Citizens residing abroad and organized in diaspora communities are seen as possible partners for economic, political, social and cultural development. The degree of integration and success in the host society contributes to the diaspora’s ability to also contribute and influence the feeling of efficacy of diaspora members. Engagement can grow over time once diaspora members become integrated into the host society and further develop their abilities and knowledge.

  13. Does fragmentation of wetlands affect gene flow in sympatric Acrocephalus warblers with different migration strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresa, Francesco; Belda, E.J.; Kvist, Laura; Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid; Monrós González, Juan Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are naturally patchy habitats, but patchiness has been accentuated by the extensive wetlands loss due to human activities. In such a fragmented habitat, dispersal ability is especially important to maintain gene flow between populations. Here we studied population structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of Iberian and North African populations of two wetland passerines, the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon....

  14. Theory to predict particle migration and margination in the pressure-driven channel flow of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qin M.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2017-09-01

    The inhomogeneous concentration distribution of erythrocytes and platelets in microchannel flows particularly in directions normal to the mean flow plays a significant role in hemostasis, drug delivery, and microfluidic applications. In this paper, we develop a coarse-grained theory to predict these distributions in pressure-driven channel flow at zero Reynolds number and compare them to experiments and simulations. We demonstrate that the balance between the deformability-induced lift force and the shear-induced diffusion created by hydrodynamic interactions in the suspension results in both a peak concentration of red blood cells at the channel center and a cell-free or Fahraeus-Lindqvist layer near the walls. On the other hand, the absence of a lift force and the strong red blood cell-platelet interactions result in an excess concentration of platelets in the cell-free layer. We demonstrate a strong role of hematocrit (i.e., erythrocyte volume fraction) in determining the cell-free layer thickness and the degree of platelet margination. We also demonstrate that the capillary number of the erythrocytes, based on the membrane shear modulus, plays a relatively insignificant role in the regimes that we have studied. Our theory serves as a good and simple alternative to large-scale computer simulations of the cross-stream transport processes in these mixtures.

  15. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  16. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  17. Remifentanil decreases oral tissue blood flow while maintaining internal carotid artery blood flow during sevoflurane anesthesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Atsushi; Kasahara, Masataka; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remifentanil infusion on oral tissue blood flow including submandibular gland tissue blood flow (SBF) and internal carotid artery blood flow (ICBF) in rabbits during sevoflurane anesthesia. Twelve male Japan White rabbits were anesthetized with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil was infused at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/kg/min. Measurements included circulatory variables, common and external carotid artery blood flow (CCBF, ECBF), ICBF, tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), mandibular bone marrow tissue blood flow (BBF), tongue muscle tissue blood flow (TBF) and SBF. Vascular resistances for each tissue, including the tongue mucosa, masseter muscle, mandibular bone marrow, tongue muscle and submandibular gland, were calculated by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the respective tissue blood flow. Remifentanil infusion decreased oral tissue blood flow and circulatory variables. CCBF, ECBF and ICBF did not change. The calculated vascular resistance in each oral tissue, except for the tongue mucosa, increased in an infusion-rate-dependent manner. These results showed that remifentanil infusion reduced TMBF, MBF, BBF, TBF and SBF in an infusion-rate-dependent manner without affecting ICBF under sevoflurane anesthesia.

  18. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  19. Design solutions to interface flow problems. A review of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration along sealed radioactive waste repository tunnels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermeability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation. (author)

  20. Mathematical model for the calculation of internal turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, V. de P.; Valle Pereira Filho, H. do

    1981-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes and the turbulent kinetic energy equations for the incompressible, turbulent and fully developed pipe flow, were solved by a finite difference procedure. The distributions of the mean velocity, turbulent shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were obtained at different Reynolds numbers. Those numerical results were compared with experimental data and the agreement was good in whole cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt

  1. Review of Andrés Solimano, International Migration in the Age of Crisis and Globalisation. Historical and Recent Experiences, Cambridge University Press, 2010. 223 Pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirina Claudiu – Ciprian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “International Migration in the Age of Crisis and Globalization. Historical and Recent Experiences” represents a work of major interest in the field of migration and globalization. Apparently two concepts that relate one to another, on a background of major population dynamics, the two notions are the two important pillars in what might perfectly be described as a complex analysis of migration, starting from the elements that have initiated it, and culminating with a fine comparison of positive and negative aspects of this phenomenon.

  2. Internal and External Flow over Laser-Textured Superhydrophobic Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, K M Tanvir; Patience, Christian; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-12

    In this work, internal and external flows over superhydrophobic (SH) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. The SH surface was fabricated by a one-step femtosecond laser micromachining process. The drag reduction ability of the textured surface was studied experimentally both in microscale and macroscale internal flows. The slip length, which indicates drag reduction in fluid flow, was determined in microscale fluid flow with a cone-and-plate rheometer, whereas a pressure channel setup was used for macroscale flow experiments. The textured PTFE surface reduced drag in both experiments yielding comparable slip lengths. Moreover, the experimentally obtained slip lengths correspond well to the result obtained applying a semianalytical model, which considers the solid fraction of the textured surface. In addition to the internal flow studies, we fabricated SH PTFE spheres to test their drag reduction abilities in an external flow experiment, where the terminal velocities of the falling spheres were measured. These experiments were conducted at three different Reynolds numbers in both viscous and inertial flow regimes with pure glycerol, a 30% glycerol solution, and water. Surprisingly, the drag on the SH spheres was higher than the measured drag on the non-SH spheres. We hypothesize that the increase in form drag outweighs the decrease in friction drag on the SH sphere. Thus, the overall drag increased. These experiments demonstrate that a superhydrophobic surface that reduces drag in internal flow might not reduce drag in external flow.

  3. International Flows in the Education Sector: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an analysis of global trends in import and export of education services mainly using the international fl ow of students and highlights their implications on sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that the international fl ow of students is on a continuous increase. However, participation in provision of

  4. Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, S

    1993-01-01

    This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity.

  5. Internal Flow Field Uniformity Study of Dust Collector for A Street Vacuum Sweeper Based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yuan; Dai, Yan; Xiao, Yonghou; Cheng, Kai; Xiao, Tao; Zhao, Shixiang

    2017-12-01

    Internal flow field of dust collector for a street vacuum is studied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The causes of uneven distribution of flow field were diagnosed by simulation, and an improvement measure was put forward. The result shows that flow ratce distribution of dust collector is uneven, the reason for which is the higher wind velocity at the Inlet. A baffle plate was added at the Inlet to improve the uniformity of internal flow field. The main technical parameters, maximum flow rate uneven amplitude Δk i and overall flow rate uneven amplitude Δ \\bar{{k}i} and overall flow rate uneven amplitude, are decreased in this way. Δk is reduced from 0.3429 to 0.1308. While Δ \\bar{{k}i} is reduced from 0.1012 to 0.0402.

  6. [International migration in Central America in the 1990s: causes, implications, and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Umanzor, R A

    1993-04-01

    "After [reviewing] the demographic and historical backgrounds as well as the situation in each individual country in the area, the author concludes that migrations in Central America have been originated and influenced mainly by social and economic causes, as well as by social-political conflicts in the area, the latter affecting especially El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Panama. Although bringing some relief to the families through remittances of money earned abroad, the general effects are negative for countries of origin, due to the loss of labor [and] ruptures in family relations. On the other hand, they significantly influence labor markets in the countries of destination, such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico and the United States. The countries in the area must now prepare themselves to receive many of those migrants back home." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  7. Marriage Migration, Citizenship, and Vulnerability: The International Marriage Broker Regulation Act (IMBRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Laura Anne

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, following the deaths of several marriage migrants known as â mail-order bridesâ , the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act was created. Designed to regulate the international matchmaking industry and provide women with the information to make informed, safe decisions about their future partnership in an attempt to decrease instances of violence, this law was the result of an increase in awareness, collaboration between interested parties, and incorporation into a broader bi...

  8. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  9. Changes in the epidemiology of tuberculosis: the influence of international migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortún, Jesús; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Navas, Enrique; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Pintado, Vicente; Cobo, Javier; González, Andrés; Bonilla, María; Aneiros, Victoria; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique; Moreno, Santiago

    2011-11-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in European hospitals have changed in recent years. A prospective study of patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB admitted to our institution from 1997 to 2008 is shown. We analyzed 661 patients with pulmonary TB. An increase in the incidence of TB was confirmed during the study period (P40 years old) and foreign-born patients increased significantly, from 37% to 59% and from 12% to 35%, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed previous antituberculous therapy and immigration as factors associated with resistance to isoniazid and to isoniazid+rifampin. After the year 2000, mortality was independently associated with extrapulmonary TB (OR: 3.1; CI 95%: 1.4-7.2), hepatitis C virus infection (OR: 6.0; CI 95%: 2.2-16.3), and diabetes (OR: 6.4; CI 95%: 2.4-16.8). Immigration from countries with high rates of TB infection has replaced HIV infection as the most relevant risk factor associated with TB. The increase in the number of older patients with TB and the presence of specific comorbid conditions, especially chronic liver dysfunction, could explain the more difficult management and increased mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  11. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-15

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  12. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  13. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN COFFEE PRODUCTION IN TWO COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF VERACRUZ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production; however this sector is facing a crisis because of the fall in prices in the international market which has resulted amongst other things in increased emigration to the United States. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU. In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in the United States and receive greater remittances; investing 14% more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This may be because 83% of the FPUs cultivate solely coffee and are beholden to the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86% of remittances are directed towards family sustenance; with only 7% directed towards agricultural investment.

  14. Does migration affect asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema prevalence? Global findings from the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Robertson, Colin F; Ross Anderson, H; Ellwood, Philippa; Williams, Hywel C; Wong, Gary Wk

    2014-12-01

    Immigrants to Westernized countries adopt the prevalence of allergic diseases of native populations, yet no data are available on immigrants to low-income or low-disease prevalence countries. We investigated these questions using data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Standardized questionnaires were completed by 13-14-year-old adolescents and by the parent/guardians of 6-7-year-old children. Questions on the symptom prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and a wide range of factors postulated to be associated with these conditions, including birth in or not in the country and age at immigration, were asked. Odds ratios for risk of the three diseases according to immigration status were calculated using generalized linear mixed models. These were adjusted for: world region; language and gross national income; and individual risk factors including gender, maternal education, antibiotic and paracetamol use, maternal smoking, and diet. Effect modification by gross national income and by prevalence was examined. There were 326 691 adolescents from 48 countries and 208 523 children from 31 countries. Immigration was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in both age groups than among those born in the country studied, and this association was mainly confined to high-prevalence/affluent countries. This reduced risk was greater in those who had lived fewer years in the host country. Recent migration to high prevalence/affluent countries is associated with a lower prevalence of allergic diseases. The protective pre-migration environment quickly decreases with increasing time in the host country. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Global Connectedness and Global Migration: Insights from the International Changing Academic Profession Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Michelle K.; Ratkovic, Snežana; Wolhunter, Charl C.

    2013-01-01

    The Changing Academic Profession (CAP) international survey was designed in part to consider the effects of globalization on the work context and activities of academics in 19 countries or regions around the world. This paper draws from a subset of these data to explore the extent to which academics are globally connected in their research and…

  16. The Growth in International Enrolments in Accounting: Implications for an Established Nexus between Education and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Dimuthu; Jackling, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    International student enrolments globally have grown substantially over the first decade of the twenty-first century. In the context of Australia, the higher education (HE) sector and specifically the accounting discipline grew during this time, together with the growth in the demand for qualified accountants. Australia was attractive to…

  17. The Impact of Internal Migration on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Similar to the relation between the inflows of immigrants and educational outcomes that are found in immigration studies, the spatial distribution of internal migrants within a given country also may influence educational outcomes, at least in the short run. This could be particularly true in Turkey, where inter-provincial mobility is high and…

  18. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y Y; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  19. LES of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using Cartesian Overset Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computations of turbulent flows using the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES technique with an appropriate SubFilter Scale (SFS model require low artificial dissipation such that the physical energy cascade process is not perturbed by numerical artifacts. To realize this in practical simulations, energy-conserving numerical schemes and high-quality computational grids are needed. If unstructured meshes are used, the latter requirement often makes grid generation for complex geometries very difficult. Structured Cartesian grids offer the advantage that uncertainties in mesh quality are reduced to choosing appropriate resolution. However, two intrinsic challenges of the structured approach are local mesh refinement and representation of complex geometries. In this work, the effectiveness of numerical methods which can be expected to reduce both drawbacks is assessed in engine flows, using a multi-physics inhouse code. The overset grid approach is utilized to arbitrarily combine grid patches of different spacing to a flow domain of complex shape during mesh generation. Walls are handled by an Immersed Boundary (IB method, which is combined with a wall function to treat underresolved boundary layers. A statistically stationary Spark Ignition (SI engine port flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers typical for engine operation. Good agreement of computed and measured integral flow quantities like overall pressure loss and tumble number is found. A comparison of simulated velocity fields to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurement data concludes the validation of the enhanced numerical framework for both mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations. The performance of two SFS models, the dynamic Smagorinsky model with Lagrangian averaging along pathlines and the coherent structure model, is tested on different grids. Sensitivity of pressure loss and tumble ratio to the wall treatment and mesh refinement is presented. It is shown that increased wall

  20. Finite element simulation of internal flows with heat transfer using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    accuracy. However, for high technology applications, more precise tools and procedures are highly essential. Internal flows such as the flow through straight ... frustration largely stems from the lack of clear choice for a general turbulence model. ...... memory effects etc. are essentially the sources, which play the same role.