WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal migration flows

  1. National and international graduate migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Irene; Wright, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the nature of national and international graduate migration flows in the UK. Migration equations are estimated with microdata from a matched dataset of Students and Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education, information collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The probability of migrating is related to a set of observable characteristics using multinomial logit regression. The analysis suggests that migration is a selective process with graduates with certain characteristics having considerably higher probabilities of migrating, both to other regions of the UK and abroad.

  2. International migration flows. Framework for understanding and current features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colectivo IOÉ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to outline a framework for the understanding of the present international migratory flows as well as to outline their main traits. In order to do this, we first group together the different migratory flows produced since the sixteenth century up to the mid seventies in the twentieth  century, stopping then for a closer look at the present situation which register the impact of economic globalization, translating it into an increase of said flows and, above all, to their enormous diversification. To end, we make a brief balance of the present period and a critical evaluation on the meaning of one of the flows which attracts most attention, economic migrations south-north, because these are the ones which have the most impact on developed countries.

  3. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  4. A STUDY ON THE INTERNAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN TURKEY: LOWRY HYPOTHESIS

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    FERHAT TOPBAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to re-examine Lowry hypothesis that were examined for Turkey in period of 1965–1980 by Gedik (1992 and period of 1985–1990 by Yamak and Küçükkale (2001 by using The Census of Population 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 in Turkey. For this reason, the relationships between in-migration and out-migration and net migration have investigated with population size, net migration rate and per capita income factors. Analysis that involve in all provinces called general model is not considered in social, economic and urban development factors. In addition, estimated restriction models that are considered urban development are involved population, net migration rate and per capita income factors. In conclusion we have exposed comparatively relationship between internal migration flows and urban development frame of estimated models.

  5. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  6. MONITORING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE - TOWARDS A STATISTICAL-DATA BASE COMBINING DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEKENS, F

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent

  7. Comparative Political Economy and International Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Devitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature connecting comparative political economy and international migration in advanced industrialized countries with a focus on the relationship between labour migration, labour markets and welfare institutions. Immigration flows and policies are

  8. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  9. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  10. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  11. International migration and the gender

    OpenAIRE

    Koropecká, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...

  12. Theories of international labor migration: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C W

    1995-01-01

    "Emigration pressures are primarily the result of increasing inequalities between countries which, in turn, are the result of factors internal to less developed countries and their relations with developed countries. Both micro (neoclassical) and macrostructural theories of migration are reviewed. It is argued that the neoclassical theory of migration is often unjustly criticized and is sufficiently robust to incorporate those structural considerations which are at the core of macrostructural theories. Moreover, the neoclassical theory, with slight modification, can incorporate the ¿new economics of migration.' The major empirical problem confronting models of international labor migration is that migration flows are constrained by immigration policy. This policy, in turn, is influenced by various special interest groups. The direction and form of migration flows is conditioned by contemporary and historical relationships between source and destination countries." excerpt

  13. Migration, income redistribution, and international capital mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Meckl, Jürgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies income-redistribution effects from labor migration in a small open economy under alternative assumptions on the international mobility of capital. Our principal result is that induced international capital flows dampen or may even reverse redistribution effects. However, as long as the location of capital is unaffected by migration redistribntion effects may be greater if some of the capital is foreign owned, depending on whether labor and capital are friends or enemies. On...

  14. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  15. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  16. Globalization of international migration: Social challenges and policy implication

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    I A Aleshkovski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XX century, the humankind witnessed the insurmountable and irreversible power of globalization processes, which influence all spheres of social life and establish a global system of interdependency between countries and nations. Globalization within impetuous changes in global political, social and economic systems has determined dramatic shifts in the international migration processes that lead to the new stage of migration history. In nowadays globalized world, international migration has become a reality for almost all corners of the globe. The author considers features of the recent trends of international migration: the unprecedented growth of the international migration flows; the widening geography of international migration that involves nearly all countries of the world; qualitative changes in the structure of international migration flows; the key role of economic migration; the permanent growth and structural intricateness of irregular migration; the increasing scale and geographical widening of forced migration; the growing importance of international migration for the demographic development of the world, countries of both origin and destination. All these trends combined prove that the international migration patterns have become more complex. The author analyzes the legal framework of the international migration processes, and gives recommendations on the ways to improve the control and regulation of migration processes. Specific issues related to the social challenges of international migration are also discussed in the article.

  17. Towards an integrated model of international migration

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    Douglas S. MASSEY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographers have yet to develop a suitable integrated model of international migration and consequently have been very poor at forecasting immigration. This paper outlines the basic elements of an integrated model and surveys recent history to suggest the key challenges to model construction. A comprehensive theory must explain the structural forces that create a supply of people prone to migrate internationally, the structural origins of labour demand in receiving countries, the motivations of those who respond to these forces by choosing to migrate internationally, the growth and structure of transnational networks that arise to support international movement, the behaviour states in response to immigrant flows, and the influence of state actions on the behaviour of migrants. Recent history suggests that a good model needs to respect the salience of markets, recognize the circularity of migrant flows, appreciate the power of feedback effects, and be alert unanticipated consequences of policy actions.

  18. The effect of commercial policy on international migration flows: the case of the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J K; Mendez, J A

    1984-08-01

    "Microeconomic simulations are performed to determine the impact of liberalized commodity trade on Mexican immigrant supply to the United States. The results suggest that a removal of trade barriers will reduce migration flows, but that the reduction will be fairly modest. Specifically, if both countries move from the levels of protection characteristic of the mid-1960s to completely free trade, the ratio of real U.S.-Mexican wages falls by roughly 18 percent. Using an upper bound for the range of empirical estimates of the wage elasticity of immigrant supply, this implies a maximum reduction in migration flows of 35 percent. A unilateral elimination of trade barriers by the United States reduces Mexican immigrant supply by a maximum of 14 percent." excerpt

  19. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till

    2018-01-01

    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil...

  20. International Student Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Bessey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  1. Internal migration: why do Filipinos move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolipa, N

    1980-01-01

    The rapid movement of Filipinos from 1 part of the Philippines to another is not a new phenomenon, but mobility has been increasing. A study conducted by Peter C. Smith revealed that interprovincial lifetime mobility of the national population increased from 15.8% in 1960 to 17.6% in 1970, while interregional mobility increased from 12.7% to 13.4%. People still disagree as to whether the size and rate of growth of the population are excessive, but there seems to be total consensus as regards its spatial imbalance. Because internal migration appears to be an important factor in national development, a need exists to examine different aspects of internal migration, such as the directions taken by migration flows, the migrants' reasons for moving, the migrants' characteristics, the migrants' success or lack of success at their places of destination, the social problems accompanying internal migration, effforts to deal with the problems caused by internal migration, and the implications of migration trends for policy and for the country's development programs. The most dominant migration trend in the Philippines in recent years has been toward the urban, or more accurately the suburban, areas adjacent to Metropolitan Manila. The city of Manila itself suffered a net outflow, further pointing to the trend toward suburbanization. Migration flows are primarily caused by economic reasons. About one half the sample of a Filipinas Foundation Study moved to provinces other than the province of birth in the pursuit of employment and other economic opportunities. A study of the country's migrant population age 15 and older showed that 53% of migrants were female. For male migrants, age ranges from 20-40; it ranges from 15-35 for females. Where cash income is concerned, migrants in Pernia's study of rural urban migration were better off than nonmigrants. Migrants were, on the average, as well off as native urbanites or metropolitanites. Among the more significant points raised by

  2. Reinventing US Internal Migration Studies in the Age of International Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark

    2012-03-01

    I argue that researchers have sidelined attention to issues raised by US internal migration as they shifted focus to the questions posed by the post-1960s rise in US immigration. In this paper, I offer some reasons about why immigration has garnered more attention and why there needs to be greater consideration of US internal migration and its significant and myriad social, economic, political, and cultural impacts. I offer three ideas for motivating more research into US internal geographic mobility that would foreground its empirical and conceptual connections to international migration. First, there should be more work on linked migration systems investigating the connections between internal and international flows. Second, the questions asked about immigrant social, cultural, and economic impacts and adaptations in host societies should also be asked about internal migrants. Third, and more generally, migration researchers should jettison the assumption that the national scale is the pre-eminent delimiter of migration types and processes. Some groups can move easily across borders; others are constrained in their moves within countries. These subnational scales and constraints will become more visible if migration research decentres the national from its theory and empirics.

  3. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have begun intensive recruitment of foreign qualified female healthcare workers, which has led to the point that nurse migration today presents a very intense, and by many accounts specific migration flow. Female migrating work force is often in pursuit of low-wage and lowqualified work. Nurse migration is actually an example of motion of qualified female migrants in pursuit for better employment opportunities. While such a way of filling up the vacant positions works for the “importing” countries as a temporary solution, departure of trained female personnel presents a significant loss for the originating countries. In this paper we pay special attention to the countries who are the main “importers”, but also to those who are “exporters” of nursing personnel, and to specific national strategies these countries have applied.

  4. The future scenario for international labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassello, G

    1989-01-01

    The study of migration helps us to grasp the social evolution and the political and economic strategies required to meet the new economic trends. The issue of permanent or temporary migration, long debated in the 1960s, now tends to disappear. Migrants are compared more to commuters on the international labor markets. Besides the economic out-migration flows, there are also the refugee migrations or the ever present phenomenon of persons uprooted from their home country as a result of natural disasters and famine. The worldwide economic crisis in the 1970s, the recession affecting some industrialized countries which used to be traditional labor-importing countries have barred many potential immigrant workers from entering these countries. If, on 1 hand, the persistent high rate of unemployment due to the transformation of industry and the computerization process has caused the dismissal of numerous unskilled--mainly immigrants--on the other hand, it has created the exigency of highly qualified personnel. The children of the indigenous population are therefore favored because of their better scholastic training. A 2nd generation is now condemned to remain marginal even though they have been brought up to the ideals of social improvement and integration into higher standards of living. A highly dissatisfied category of young people is now an integral part of many labor-importing countries. Many industrial countries are flirting with zero population growth. Considering the demographic, economic, social, and political imbalances which exist and tend to grow, the world now has all the prerequisites for huge and prolonged migration flows originating from the South and moving almost exclusively toward the megacities and the industrial countries in the North. As long as technological as well as social inequalities persist, inner and international migration flows will continue. It is evident that the aim of many highly industrialized countries is the total ceasing of all

  5. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized.

  6. International Elderly Migration in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Illés

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines international elderly migration (IEM related to Hungary. Little effort has been made to investigate this increasingly important element of human migration in Central and Eastern Europe. The general objective of this study is to contribute to filling this gap. IEM is investigated using register-based data on migration flows, stocks and citizenship statistics. The analysis focuses on the time series but the paper also considers the historical context and the recent patterns of IEM. The aim of the research was fourfold. Firstly, we tried to establish when IEM related to Hungary began. Secondly, we detected the accelerating character of this phenomenon. Thirdly, we were able to identify the main macrofactors influencing the level of IEM. Fourthly, the main result of the study was that it allowed exploration of a Hungarian peculiarity. “Pension seeking” is one very distinctive feature of IEM and is in many ways a legacy of the state socialism period. Therefore, its emergence on such a large scale is the result of the transformation period. We suppose that pension-hunting type migration will be temporary in nature. Conclusions about the motivational structure of IEM are discussed with reference to policy implications in the light of the ageing population structure in Hungary.

  7. Migration of South African health workers: the extent to which financial considerations influence internal flows and external movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Atujuna, Millicent; Gow, Jeff

    2013-08-06

    The loss of human resource capacity has had a severe impact on the health system in South Africa. This study investigates the causes of migration focussing on the role of salaries and benefits. Health professionals from public, private and non-governmental (NGO) health facilities located in selected peri-urban and urban areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were surveyed about their current positions and attitudes toward migration. The study uses cross-sectional data collected in 2009. A total of 694 health professionals (430 in the public sector, 133 in the NGO sector and 131 in the private sector) were surveyed. An additional 11 health professionals were purposively selected for in-depth interviews. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine whether salaries influenced HWs decisions to migrate. HWs decision to move was not positively associated with lower salaries. It was found, instead, that the consideration to move was determined by other factors including age, levels of stress experienced and the extent to which they were satisfied at their current place of work. The OSD appears to have lowered the risk of HWs migrating due to low salaries. However, the results also indicate that the South African Department of Health needs to improve working conditions for HWs within the public health sector to assist in retention.

  8. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  9. [International migration in the Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, G

    1985-01-01

    This special issue contains a selection of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of international migration to the Middle East. Papers are included on the impact of migration on socioeconomic development, income distribution, and rural capitalization in Egypt; migration from rural Lebanon; the effect of emigration on Pakistan; Indian workers in Oman; inter-Arab migration and development; the role of the state in migration in the Arab peninsula; the dynamics of manpower in Kuwait; the Iraqi model and Arab unity; and the impact of this migration on the concept of the New Economic Order.

  10. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  11. Internal migration and income of immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Saman

    2004-01-01

    Using a longitudinal dataset from the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, this study examines whether migration within the host country of Sweden generates higher total annual income for (two-earner) immigrant families. The empirical findings indicate that internal migration generates a positive outcome in terms of higher family income for newly arrived refugee-immigrant families. Further, with the length of residence in the host country, the monetary gain accruing from internal migration decr...

  12. Globalisation and international migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1998-03-01

    "The present paper attempts to summarise the major contemporary trends in international migration in Asia and how this is related to the rapid demographic transition occurring across most of the region. The diversity of types of mobility is one of the striking features of Asian international migration and developments in each major type [are] discussed in the paper. It is then argued that there are elements within the Asian migration system that give it a momentum which to some extent operates outside of the influence of economic and political trends. Finally some emerging issues in Asian international migration are briefly addressed. These include the scale and effects of remittances, the feminisation of migration, undocumented migration, increasing government involvement and brain drain issues." (EXCERPT)

  13. Sovereignty, human rights, and international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Rocha Reis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between sovereignty and human rights concerning the elaboration of immigration policies. It deals with the role of the State in international migrations, the effects of the development of an international human rights legislation over the immigration question, and finally discusses the idea that the increasing international migration is leading the State to lose control over its population and territory, two central features of the sovereignty concept.

  14. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of managing labour migration flows are varied, however, and in many cases uncoordinated. ... Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand to undertake joint research on ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  15. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  16. Gender and Internal Migration dynamics in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    Internal migration is an inherent part of the processes of development and structural ... to rural-urban migrants by Government policies and strategies to enhance the ... Several studies globally indicate that migration is a driver of growth and an .... More recent approaches of networks theories and transnational approaches to ...

  17. The determinants of internal migration in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali; Gokhan, Ali; Filiztekin, Alpay

    2008-01-01

    Internal migration has had a great impact on Turkey’s population dynamics for decades. According to the 2000 population census, nearly 28% percent of the population was born in a different province that they now reside in. This ratio goes up to 62% for Istanbul, a major province that has drawn migrants for years. Although, it is claimed in numerous studies that rural-urban migration that centers on a few urban areas seems to be the predominant pattern of internal migration, we aim to investig...

  18. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger bet...

  19. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  20. Internal migration in Mexico and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Varela Llamas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of internal migration in Mexico. Using micro data from the National Survey on Occupation and Employment (enoe, we estimate a multinomial logit model for the case of intrastate and interstate migration. We also conduct estimations for municipalities of different sizes. The results suggest that the probability of migrating increases with the number of weeks spent searching for a job, regardless of whether the search is conducted while the individual is employed or unemployed. In addition, we find that as the number of hours of work per week increases, the probability of migrating rises. The search process does not increase the probability of migrating in rural communities as it does in urban centers.

  1. A Chaos Theory Perspective on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Tănasie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a different approach to international migration analysis, beyond classical models previously proposed by specialized literature. Chaos theory is getting more and more applied into macroeconomics once traditional linear models or even previous dynamic analysis become less suitable. Modern science sees chaos as unpredictable evolution, maybe even disorder. Still, chaos has got its own rules and can describe many dynamic phenomena within our world. Thus, we test whether international migration data falls under the rules of chaos and whether recent developments within the “European migration crisis” (the total daily migration inflows towards the coasts of Italy, by sea, from January 2014 to April 2017 could be described as chaotic.

  2. Cultural values and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Rodríguez Monter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is one of the most controversial social issues debated nowadays. It is an undeniable fact that the phenomenon is lived in Europe with concern because of its consequences. People who live and coexist in Europe represent a huge cultural variety. Therefore, social and cultural gaps that can affect the basic values of the western societies seem to be inevitable due to the dimensions of the current migration phenomenon. The present studies are based on the European Social Survey Questionnaire (2002, and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 2001 and focuses on the relevance of cultural values to explain the acceptance or rejection of the immigrant.. Finally, we emphasize the importance of cultural values -like Harmony or Egalitarianism- for any initiative or social policy which aimes at reducing the problems concerning inmigration in the European context.

  3. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal.

  4. Migration Flows from the Perspective of Sending and Receiving Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    There are two specific phenomena that have had a large influence on the development in international migration during the last decades. First, while labor migration flows were dominating in the past, refugee immigrants and family reunion migrants from less developed non-Western countries have been......, the former communist countries have become a relatively new and large source of immigration. In my PhD thesis I analyze the recent developments in international migration by using a rich dataset, which I collected myself by contacting national statistical offices. I use state-of-art econometric tools in my...... area with the free movement of labor. The results of my analyses show that migrants respond strongly to the interregional differences in wages. On the other hand, the districts' unemployment rates do not seem to play an important role. Further, on average Czechs prefer to move to regions near...

  5. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  6. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  7. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  8. [Internal migration trends and regional dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, M

    1992-01-01

    This study concerns aspects of regional development in Tunisia. It specifically considers how economic factors affect income differentials among regions, and ways in which these in turn influence trends in internal migration. The effect of these trends on urbanization is also explored.

  9. International Student Migration: Outcomes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the possible correlation between six life circumstances of international students (N = 124) admitted entry into the United States for the purpose of academic study and their geographic choice of location upon graduation. This paper improves upon the current literature by offering actual migration outcomes (rather than…

  10. Towards understanding international migration determinants today: Theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of global migration flows and ever increasing mobility of the workforce in the world, the necessity for constant deepening of theoretical knowledge is imposed as a basis for understanding main determinants of this phenomenon, and with an aim of directing the focus of migration researches towards more efficient overcoming of challenges and making use of the advantages which international migrations could bring both to origin, destination and transit countries. The main goal of this paper is to give a critical review on the development of the economic migrations theory, to state the main similarities and differences between various approaches and to point out to the main drawbacks and problems which the theoretical perspective is facing when studying the determinants of contemporary international labor migrations. The focus of the study refers to voluntary labor migrations with reference to migrations of the highly educated population, while the stress is on economic theories, although some of them are closely connected to sociological, geographical and anthropological theories. The development of the theory on international migrations has been started by micro theoretical models, namely, through the conceptualization of theories which place the individual in the focal point of research, who estimates the positive, namely negative sides of moving from one location to another. Economic models on the micro theoretical level cede more space to models of macro structure which research the social and economic structure within and between countries. There are many theoretical models which offer possible answers to the question on what are the main determinants of international migrations on the macro analytical level. Although every one of them tries to give an answer to the same question, they use different concepts, assumptions and frameworks of research. The reasons which bring about the initiation of international migrations can be

  11. IUSSP Committee on International Migration, Workshop on International Migration Systems and Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lin Lean

    1987-01-01

    This mini-workshop sought a framework for examining the dynamics of migration processes, especially the interlinkages between sending and receiving countries. These two focuses emerged as directions for further research: (1) a topology reflecting the concepts underlying international migration; and (2) empirical studies which attempt to apply the…

  12. International migration: The state-sovereignty-migration nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chigudu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, international human migration is blamed for corroding states sovereignty, especially stemming from policy circles, academic literature and citizens of the host countries. This has attracted the attention of the media highlighting hazards of being a migrant, with some countries viewing migrants as enemies; and, Cuba provides a vivid case. Yet in other countries, migrants are viewed as important contributors to social and economic development, with Mexico, the Dominican Republic and India serving as examples. This article locates migrants in the framework of human rights as guided by international law without prejudice to the demands of state sovereignty, but linking the two in the context of developing international standards. Migration is seen as a feature of human history dating back to primordial time. Nothing appears surprising in the movement of people across borders, defining a migrant through emigration and immigration while giving due respect to the sovereignty of states, both sending and receiving. The article discusses the nexus between migrants and state sovereignty in order to highlight the mutual benefit grounded in international law. It attempts to portray a more positive image of the migrant person in light of the global world, socio-economic development and human rights fundamentals. The main challenge remains that of implementing human rights, which appear to be at the crossroads of individual rights and state sovereignty. The paper reveals how the challenge can be overcome while maintaining the structure of rights and freedoms without infringement on states’ sovereignty. It concludes that migrants remain on the periphery of effective protection from the vagaries of the citizens, partly because the state has a tendency to confine certain rights to its citizenry. States possess discretionary authority to control the ingress of foreign nationals into their territories though sometimes they fail to do that as evidenced

  13. International migration and New Zealand labour markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R S

    1986-06-01

    "This paper seeks to assess the value of the overseas-born members of the labour force in ensuring a flexible labour supply in New Zealand since the beginning of the 1970s. Three main issues are considered: first, the role of the labour market in New Zealand's immigration policy; second, international migration trends and the labour market; and third, the evidence on migration and labour market segmentation in New Zealand." Data used are from official external migration statistics, quinquennial censuses, and recent research. The author notes that "in New Zealand immigration measures are currently being taken that emphasize that immigration continues to add to the flexibility of the labour market while uncontrolled emigration is a major cause of labour market instability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  14. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  15. International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert

    Temporary migration, though empirically relevant, is often ignored in formal models. This paper proposes a migration model with heterogeneous agents and persistent cross country income differentials that features temporary migration. In equilibrium there exists a positive relation between the stock...... of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, existing empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows, instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our investigation of the cointegration relationships...... of German migration stocks and flows since 1967. We find that (i) panel-unit root tests reject the hypothesis that migration flows and the explanatory variables are integrated of the same order, while migration stocks and the explanatory variables are all I(1) variables, and (ii) the hypothesis...

  16. International Migration and its Effects on Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Constantinescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The crises period that still cross Romania explain, between others, the apparition and development of international migration, after 1990. In a world marked by globalization, migration can not disappear, contrary, it grows bigger ant it remains an interesting subject in future. A study about migration consequences on family, specially on children’s personality left in the country, is justified because migration is a present phenomena in Romanian space at the beginning of the XXIth century. We try to analyse the effects of this phenomenon on family. Related to these goal we offer the conclusions obtained from a research realized in Campulung Muscel municipality, Arges county, on a lot of pupils that have parents left in foreign countries and the results to the investigation made in Pitesti municipality. The research showed that it is a relationship between children’s marks at school and parent’s leaving; children’s perceptions on parent’s leaving; identifies school’s interest level in diminution of the low school performance effects caused by this socio-economical phenomena.

  17. Women Moving Within Borders: Gender and Internal Migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal migration is an inherent part of the processes of development and structural transformation in any region. In Africa, while the focus is often on international migration, internal migration is far more significant for development in terms of the numbers of people moving and their poverty reduction potential and well-being ...

  18. The role of language in shaping international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Adsera, Alicia

    and climate shocks, migrant networks, language and aspects of “cultural distance”. In that regard, the more “foreign” or distant the new culture and the larger the language barriers, the higher the costs are for an individual to migrate to a particular destination. Fluency in destination country’s language...... destination countries from 130 source countries for the years 1985–2006 to study the role of language in shaping international migration. In addition to standard covariates from gravity models, we include a set of indices of language proximity to study their association to the observed flows: (1) a newly...... and destination country, to proxy for the “potential” ease to learn a new language and of adaptation; (3) measures of the diversity of the existing stock and flows of migrants (weighted by languages)....

  19. Domestic and International Climate Migration from Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Runfola, Daniel M; Hunter, Lori M; Riosmena, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico. The stronger climate impact on international migration may be explained by the self-insurance function of international migration, the presence of strong migrant networks, and climate-related changes in wage difference. While a warming in temperature increased international outmigration, higher levels of precipitation declined the odds of an international move.

  20. Domestic and International Climate Migration from Rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Runfola, Daniel M.; Hunter, Lori M.; Riosmena, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico. The stronger climate impact on international migration may be explained by the self-insurance function of international migration, the presence of strong migrant networks, and climate-related changes in wage difference. While a warming in temperature increased international outmigration, higher levels of precipitation declined the odds of an international move. PMID:28439146

  1. Seeing the Hidden Part of the Iceberg: Gauging the Real Dimension of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Oţoiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and comparability of international migration statistics belong to the most important statistical issues due to the importance of correct dimensioning of the migration flows and stocks for effective and timely design of effective policy measures. This paper presents an assessment of the migration statistics provided by Eurostat, reveals the most prominent discrepancies between stock and flow data, prepares a summary of vital issues affecting both quality and completeness of the migration data, and identifies certain solutions in order to improve data comparability, reliability and completeness. There is no one-size-fits-all solution, but an eclectic mix which extends the use of administrative and private data, matches data coming from distinct sources, harmonizes the way in which data is compiled and reported by different countries, matches observed flows with (demographic stock-based estimates, provides consistent estimates of the bilateral migration flows between countries, and improves the measurement of temporary and illegal/undeclared migration.

  2. Determinants of International Migration: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi Darkwah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some determinants of international migration in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning the period 1991–2011. Using ordinary least square regression method, the results indicate that the level of unemployment, migrants’ remittances and population growth are the key determinants of emigration from Nigeria to other countries, statistically significant at 0.01 level.In a country where unemployment rate is very high, this movement is likely to help in reducing pressures on the labour market. Migrants’ remittances might also help in alleviating poverty within households. Migrants’ remittance to Nigeria has surpassed both Foreign Direct Investment and Net Official Development Assistance inflows, making it one amongst the major sources of foreign earnings to Nigeria. Nigerians will continue to migrate to other parts of the world so long as the reasons or causes for their movement are not fully addressed i.e. if political and socioeconomic issues in the country do not improve. The Nigerian government should as a matter of urgency, create better jobs and conducive environment in order to stop people from migrating while at the same time encouraging its skilled labour abroad to return home to help in national development.

  3. Internal Migration and Citizenship Education in China's Shenzhen City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wangbei

    2016-01-01

    Migration's influences on citizenship education were widely discussed in the literature. However, most studies were based on international migration that drew experience from, for example, North America and Europe. Less attention was paid to internal migration or developing areas. This article takes China as an example, which is a country that has…

  4. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fagiolo

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  5. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  6. Nursing shortages and international nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S J; Polsky, D; Sochalski, J

    2005-12-01

    The United Kingdom and the United States are among several developed countries currently experiencing nursing shortages. While the USA has not yet implemented policies to encourage nurse immigration, nursing shortages will likely result in the growth of foreign nurse immigration to the USA. Understanding the factors that drive the migration of nurses is critical as the USA exerts more pull on the foreign nurse workforce. To predict the international migration of nurses to the UK using widely available data on country characteristics. The Nursing and Midwifery Council serves as the source of data on foreign nurse registrations in the UK between 1998 and 2002. We develop and test a regression model that predicts the number of foreign nurse registrants in the UK based on source country characteristics. We collect country-level data from sources such as the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The shortage of nurses in the UK has been accompanied by massive and disproportionate growth in the number of foreign nurses from poor countries. Low-income, English-speaking countries that engage in high levels of bilateral trade experience greater losses of nurses to the UK. Poor countries seeking economic growth through international trade expose themselves to the emigration of skilled labour. This tendency is currently exacerbated by nursing shortages in developed countries. Countries at risk for nurse emigration should adjust health sector planning to account for expected losses in personnel. Moreover, policy makers in host countries should address the impact of recruitment on source country health service delivery.

  7. The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Brücker, Herbert; Bertoli, Simone; Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The European crisis has diverted migration flows away from countries affected by the recession towards Germany. The diversion process creates a challenge for traditional discrete-choice models that assume that only bilateral factors account for dyadic migration rates. This paper shows how taking into account the sequential nature of migration decisions leads to write the bilateral migration rate as a function of expectations about the evolution of economic conditions in alternative destinatio...

  8. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  9. Internal migration, regional labor markets and the role of agglomeration economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2015-01-01

    are indeed key drivers of internal migration flows in Denmark. That is, while we obtain mixed evidence with regard to the role of traditional labor and housing market variables, most of the included proxies for agglomeration economies such as the region’s population density, patent intensity, endowment......We analyze the determinants and regional implications of internal migration flows across Danish municipalities in 2006–2012. Besides assessing the role of labor market and housing market factors in driving a region’s net migration rate, we particularly focus on agglomeration factors identified...... for the role of space–time dynamic adjustment processes and simultaneity among migration and labor market variables and finally test for heterogeneity in the migration response to regional labor market disparities among low- and high-skilled migrants. Our results support the view that agglomeration economies...

  10. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  11. Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate ...

  12. Theoretical foundations of international migration process studies: analysis of key migration theories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska K.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for transformation of Ukraine's migration policy based on globalized world development trends and in response to the challenges of European integration transformations causes the need of researching the theoretical and methodological basis of migration studies, and the regulations of existing theories of international migration. The bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on international migration in cites indexes found that the recent researches on these problems acquire interdisciplinary character. It necessitates the transformation of migration study approaches basing on economic, social, institutional theories and concepts synthesis. The article is devoted to the study of theoretical regulations of existing international migration theories in the context of the evolution of scientists’ views on this phenomenon. The author found that the existing theories of international migration should be divided into three categories (microeconomic, macroeconomic, globalizational that contributes to their understanding in the context of implementation possibilities in migrational public administration practice. It allows to determine the theories which should be used for Ukrainian state migration policy constructing and eliminating or reducing the external migration negative effects.

  13. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  14. Family characteristics of internal migration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D T

    1992-03-01

    Data from the 1986 survey of migration conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) were used to examine family characteristics of internal migrants to urban areas in China. The influence of the family either directly or indirectly is considered as part of life cycle events. .2% of households in 74 cities and towns were surveyed (100,267 persons). Data were analyzed 1) for persons who moved within 10 years of the survey (47%--17,890 out of 38,104 in-migrants), and 2) by last move by age regardless of when (72% between 1966-86). The literature and conditions in China strongly support that family welfare is likely to be a significant underlying influence on patterns and selectivity of migration in China. The CASS survey reveals that the most movers were from nuclear families aged 25-44 years, followed by stem families (a couple plus 1 or more parents). 6 factors are identified for sustaining co-residence within generations. Migrations during 1977-86 showed that 41% of males aged 20-24 years had moved at least once (18% were married), while for females the figure was 25% (50% were married). 56% of males moving at ages 25-29 years were married, and 90% of migrant males aged 30-34 years were married. 78% of married females aged 25-29 years and 94% of those aged 30-34 years moved. 23% of widowed females aged 50-54 years were in-migrants, and 69% were aged 65 years and widowed. The opportunity for 2- and 3- generation households is expected t decline over the next 50 years as the population ages and becomes larger than the supporting population. 44% of young-old women (75-74 years) with no children and 25-33% of young-old women total had moved within the last 10 years. 43% of women aged 75 years or older with 5 or more children moved within 10 years, while only 24% with no children had. Women aged 35-54 years had low rates of movement with high parity, while those aged 25-44 with 1 or no children had higher rates of movement. Parity is increasingly

  15. Migrant nurses in Brazil: demographic characteristics, migration flow and relationship with the training process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Tavares, Tatiana Silva; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Maas, Lucas Wan Der

    2016-01-01

    Objective to analyze the migration of nurses in Brazil, describe the demographic characteristics of migrant nurses, the main migration flows, and establish relationships with the training process. Method a descriptive, exploratory study, based on 2010 Census data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result there were 355,383 nurses in Brazil in 2010. Of these, 36,479 (10.3%) reported having moved compared to the year 2005: 18,073 (5.1%) for intrastate migration, 17,525 (4.8%) interstate migration, and 871 (0.2%) international migration. Females (86.3%), Caucasians (65.2%), and unmarried (48.3%) nurses prevailed in the population, without considerable variation between groups according to migration situation. The findings indicate that the migration flows are driven by the training process for states that concentrate a greater number of courses and positions in undergraduate and graduate studies, and the motivation of employment opportunity in regions of economic expansion in the country. Conclusion it is necessary to deepen the discussion on the movement of nurses in Brazil, their motivations, and international migration. PMID:27027681

  16. Migrant nurses in Brazil: demographic characteristics, migration flow and relationship with the training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Lara Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the migration of nurses in Brazil, describe the demographic characteristics of migrant nurses, the main migration flows, and establish relationships with the training process. Method a descriptive, exploratory study, based on 2010 Census data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result there were 355,383 nurses in Brazil in 2010. Of these, 36,479 (10.3% reported having moved compared to the year 2005: 18,073 (5.1% for intrastate migration, 17,525 (4.8% interstate migration, and 871 (0.2% international migration. Females (86.3%, Caucasians (65.2%, and unmarried (48.3% nurses prevailed in the population, without considerable variation between groups according to migration situation. The findings indicate that the migration flows are driven by the training process for states that concentrate a greater number of courses and positions in undergraduate and graduate studies, and the motivation of employment opportunity in regions of economic expansion in the country. Conclusion it is necessary to deepen the discussion on the movement of nurses in Brazil, their motivations, and international migration.

  17. International Migration, Management of Natural Resources and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Natural Resources and Division of Labour along Gender Lines in Veracruz, Mexico ... Mexico, are experiencing an increased rate of migration to Mexico City and the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  18. Renewable Resources, Environmental Pollution, and International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    KENJI KONDO

    2013-01-01

    We develop a two-country model with two industries: the smokestack manufacturing industry, which generates pollution, and the transboundary renewable resource industry. With no trade, migration occurs from the foreign country, with lower manufacturing productivity, to the home country. If the gap in pollution abatement technology, which is superior in the home country, dominates the productivity gap, both countries gain from migration. Under a free trade equilibrium, we also show that if the ...

  19. International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on the trends and characteristics of international migration within and from East and Southeast Asia, with a focus on the past 25 years. "Five migration systems are described: settler, student, contract labor, skilled labor, and refugee. Settler migration to the U.S., Canada and Australia has consisted primarily of family members.... Contract labor migration, particularly to the Middle East, has provided jobs, foreign currency through remittances and greater participation of women, but also led to illegal migration, skills drain, and labor abuses. The hierarchy of development has led to intra-regional flows: (1) skilled labor mainly from Japan to other countries in the region, and (2) contract labor and illegal migration from the LDCs to the NIEs [newly industrializing economies] and Japan." excerpt

  20. Internal Migration Determinants: Evidence from Northern Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... University for Development Studies, Department of Mathematics, Navrongo, UER ... Keywords: Internal Migration, Determinants, Migrant, Northern Region, Network. Introduction ... origin's income on rural-urban migration (Beals et al., 1976), but a positive effect of a ..... 3 In the case of economic migrants.

  1. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  2. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  3. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.

  4. [International migration and income redistribution: a trade-theoretic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, N; Meckl, J

    1995-05-01

    "We analyze the income-redistribution effects of international migration in the host and source country in a general equilibrium framework. The well-known result that marginal migration leaves the welfare of nonmigrants unaffected is discussed in more detail with regard to shifts in national income distributions. With endogenous goods' prices the consequences for the income distribution are in general ambiguous--we show possibilities for an estimation of their magnitude. As long as wage disparities determine the direction of migration it increases world efficiency. However, redistributive policies may generate migration towards the low-wage country." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, G H

    1995-06-01

    A survey was undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1986 to explore the composition and patterns of rural population movements. 230 villages were selected from 84 townships in 59 counties scattered across 11 regions. Because of incomplete information, only data for 222 villages were used. Population flows were classified into: 1) intramigration or intraflow within the boundaries of their own townships; 2) out-migration, emigration, or outflow involving those who left the townships; and 3) in-migration, immigration, or inflow that affected those who moved into the 222 villages from outside. Age, sex, education, postmigration occupation, and duration of stay details were obtained for every migrant. Some 43,223 persons were involved in intraflows and 26,993 emigrated from the surveyed townships in 1986. The volume of internal migration in China seemed to be related to the distance between the origins and destinations of migrants. Among 70,216 migrants, about 74% were males and only 26% were females. Over 57.38% of the migrants from 222 villages shifted into industrial (34.31%) and construction (23.07%) activities. The service sector (food providers, stall holders, door-to-door retailers, barbers, and small shops) attracted 9.73%. Only 565 were engaged in cropping and 1614 in forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, and fishery. As to age groups, 1688 (2.4%) were aged 17 years or under, 61,530 (88%) were aged 18-45, and 6999 (9.9%) were 46 years old or older. In 1986 seasonal migrants accounted for some 80% of all emigrants from the surveyed villages. Education did not play a significant role in promoting migration in the mid-1980s. 39% of the labor force had received primary education and the same percentage of out-migrants had acquired primary school education. The younger the age group, the more of them tended to move away from home: for those aged 17 or under if 100 persons migrated within the township, 113 moved out of town. A nationwide network

  6. The United Nations recommendations and data efforts: international migration statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data

  7. Demographic and human dimension of international migration in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Duhinets H. V.; Rielina I. Ie.

    2015-01-01

    Modern transformation of the economic system of this country led to structural changes in the social environment. Movement of population and human resources inside and outside the country increased. The growth of the scale of international migration processes, their mixed impact on the development of the countries, qualitative transformation of the specified processes determine the importance of the study of demographic and employment dimension of the international migration processes in Ukra...

  8. The commodification of international migration: findings from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H; Pardthaisong, T

    1999-01-01

    "The organisation of international contract-labour migration within Asia has been increasingly dominated by commercial agencies acting as intermediaries between workers and foreign employers. The principles underpinning the gatekeeping role of such agencies in the East Asian migration system are examined. A consideration of the international labour recruitment system in Thailand is based on survey work among agents, community leaders and recently returned migrants." excerpt

  9. Barriers of Culture, Networks, and Language in International Migration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing pace of globalization, recent decades faced a dramatically increase in international migrant flows as well. Compared to the flows of trade, capital and knowledge, we observe that contemporaneous complex institutional differences, historical backgrounds, and individuals' diverse socio-demographic characteristics make the migrant workers' choice of destination arguably much more uncontrollable. This study shows that migration is in a complex way intertwined with culture, networks and language, (i by reviewing related studies on the barriers of culture, networks and language in international labor mobility, and (ii by exploring missing gaps and prospective avenues for research. Nowadays, the migration pressure on Europe and the United states has created substantial challenges, leading to an urgent need to address the economic assimilation and social integration of migrants. Against this background, we emphasize that these non-economic factors have played an increasingly critical role in shaping international migration and its future socio-economic consequences for destination countries.

  10. [Dentists' workforce in Hungary and international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2012-06-01

    In Hungary, cross-national migration in dental care was performed rather by patients from abroad instead of the domestic dentists' migration for working abroad. Actually, this tacitly realized and so-called dental tourism experienced two basic changes. The National Medical Tourism Ltd. arranged the First Conference for Development of Dental Tourism on 21 April 2011. Hungary's prime minister addressed the meeting and finally signed an agreement with the organizing Ltd. about governmental financial support for development of dental tourism. On the other hand, Germany and Austria deleted all restrictions against the free cross-national workforce migration since 1 May this year. For understanding and prognosis of dentists' future migration, it is inevitable to collect and analyse relevant data of the previous years. This study is presenting data obtained from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. According to the net outcome, the dentists' human resource system was balanced down to the end of 2010. However, this state is unsure even for the near future, thus preventing the deficit of dentists all necessary measures must be taken to keep up the present level of the domestic dentral service.

  11. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  12. Branch migration and the international dispersal of families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, N; Lucas, D; Mok, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the dispersal of facilities where family members migrate to different destination countries. Terminology for internationally dispersed families is proposed, and the term branch migration is suggested for the migration of related people from the same source country to different destination countries. Data from two 1993 surveys of senior secondary students show that 22% of Sydney students and 20% of Hong Kong students have relatives in two or more other countries. The data suggest that many Asian migrant families have branched between the US, Canada, Australia and other migrant-receiving nations. The causes and implications of the international dispersal of families are discussed.

  13. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous selection have led to the following conclusions: migration is a multidimensional phenomenon that requires multidisciplinary research; the heterogeneity of migration flows to the socio-cultural and gender features must be taken into account; the problem of illegal migration requires special solutions; in connection with the emigration of highly skilled professionals and immigration of low-skilled personnel, a professional important indicator of migratory replacement and attracting compatriots from abroad are important. The data obtained can be used for ethnic and cultural planning in order to improve production activities that affect the quality of solving of production tasks and programming adaptation of migrants as the significant impact of intangible factors on the development of society has been noted by economists for a long time. Thus, the economic sustainability requires new thinking based on socio-cultural sustainability determined by such global phenomena as international migration flows.

  14. "International Division of Labour and Migration as a Global Labour Supply---A Theoretical Perspective to Study International Migration---"

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Takenouchi

    2001-01-01

    Why did not mass migration from the Third World to the highly-developed countries occur before the Second World War? This is a simple but important question, since the preponderance of the migration from the "South" to the "North" is a main characteristic of the contemporary international migration. The orthodox explanations of migration based on the concept of the national economy as a unit of analysis do not give us clues to answer this question. Neither do these by the world-system approac...

  15. Semiflexible polymer conformation, distribution and migration in microcapillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G

    2011-01-01

    The flow behavior of a semiflexible polymer in microchannels is studied using multiparticle collision dynamics, a particle-based hydrodynamic simulation technique. Conformations, distributions, and radial cross-streamline migration are investigated for various bending rigidities, with persistence lengths L p in the range 0.5 ≤ L p /L r ≤ 30. The flow behavior is governed by the competition between a hydrodynamic lift force and steric repulsion from the wall, which lead to migration away from the wall, and a locally varying flow induced orientation, which drives the polymer away from the channel center and towards the wall. The different dependences of these effects on the polymer bending rigidity and the flow velocity results in a complex dynamical behavior. However, a generic effect is the appearance of a maximum in the monomer and the center-of-mass distributions, which occurs at the channel center for small flow velocities, but moves off-center at higher velocities.

  16. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated "push factors" and actual "pull factors" of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these "migrants" and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees' lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population.

  17. Internal migration in the USSR: 1897-1926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, J W; Lewis, R A

    1967-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and to analyze internal migration in the USSR primarily by the use of data from the 1926 census of the USSR. The article is divided into two parts. The first is devoted to a description of the aggregate and regional migration patterns based on place-of-birth data. The second is an analysis of these migration patterns, primarily in terms of economic differentials by guberniya. Because only limited income data are available for the period around1926 and because other economic data are scarce or unusable owing to boundary changes, census data on labor force distribution, literacy, and urbanization are used as substitute variables to approximate income differences.Migrationis a complex phenomenon related to a host of factors. The present study does not presume fully to explain migration in the USSR, but it does attempt to isolate differences in income and to relate these to the internal migration that occurred during this period. As a result of processing and analyzing an extensive array of data, we have shown that differences in income, derived indirectly from a variety of data, are closely related to internal migration in the USSR in the period prior to the 1926 census. There were striking similarities in respect to internal migration between the period prior to the 1897 census and the period prior to the1926 census. The chief areas of out-migration and in-migration were roughly the same,and migrants in both periods moved primarily to areas of higher income.

  18. International Student Migration to Norway. Who stays and who leaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Lea Nga Thanh

    2014-01-01

    International student migration to Norway has markedly increased during the past 20 years. This inflow has caused the Norwegian authorities to shed light on the topic. Until 2001, it was expected from the Norwegian authorities that international students return home after graduation. After the 21th century several policy changes occurred to attract more international students to Norway, and making it easier for international students to obtain a work permit after their studies. This thesis an...

  19. European Integration, Labour Market Dynamics and Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinoia, Michela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two objectives. Firstly, we wish to evaluate whether a greater economic integration has effects, and of what type, on migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe (New Member States of the EU, NMS towards the fifteen countries of the European Union (EU-15. Secondly, we wish to understand what effect the migration flows from the NMS have on the labour market of the receiving countries in the EU-15. The most suitable theoretical context that seems to summarise European labour market characteristics is that of the insider/outsider model by Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. We have modified the above mentioned model by introducing two innovations. Firstly, we constructed three measures that act as a proxy for economic integration: the Intra Regional Trade Index (IRTI, Global Trade Index (GTI and Financial Market Integration (FMI. Then we placed the three indicators into the insider/outsider model to arrive at a modified version of Layard, Nickell and Jackman (Layard et al., 1991. The second innovative contribution was the introduction of an equation modelling migration flows. The creation of this equation is inspired by the neo-classical approach to migration theory (Harris-Todaro, 1970. The theoretical model, based on rational expectations, has been solved to find the equilibrium solution and the impact multipliers. We then carried out an empirical analysis, which involved estimating a Structural Vector Autoregression Model (SVAR. The aim of this estimation was to evaluate, on the one hand, the effect that greater European integration (a positive shock to the integration indicators has on migration flows, and, on the other, to measure the type of effect that migration flows could have on the labour market of the EU-15 countries, considered as a single entity. The results of our empirical evidence show that economic integration does generate significant effects on migration flows from the enlargement countries

  20. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  1. The Globalisation of migration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mesić

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  2. International Migration, Income Taxes and Transfers: A Welfare Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    An important issue in public policy debates is the effect of international migration on welfare in source and host countries. We address this issue by constructing a general equilibrium model of a two-class source or host country. Each country produces many traded and non-traded goods, uses income taxes and distributes the tax receipts equally to all individuals. The analysis examines the effects of permanent migration on class, and national welfare. We show, among other things, that marginal...

  3. International migration to and from the United Kingdom, 1975-1999: consistency, change and implications for the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, J; McLaughlan, G

    2001-01-01

    This article presents some findings of a recent study carried out for the Home Office by the Migration Research Unit (MRU) in the Department of Geography at UCL. The study was concerned with patterns and trends in international migration to and from the United Kingdom since 1975, with a particular focus on those in employment, and drew on many sources. The statistics analysed here derive from the International Passenger Survey, including hitherto unpublished tables provided by the Office for National Statistics on migration of the employed by citizenship. They indicate remarkable consistency in some aspects of migration flows and major change in others.

  4. International and internal migration measured from the School Census in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ludi; Marquis, Naomi; Jivraj, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The School Census is the only regularly updated dataset covering almost all of the population of a specific age, which records changes of address along with ethnicity and some family economic circumstances. It can be used to measure internal and international family migration as shown in this report. The School Census is suited to identify and quantify new local migration streams between censuses, successfully identifying the local distribution of Eastern European immigration in the decade since 2000. The measures do not provide a complete measure of migration, either internally or internationally. The exclusion of those outside the state school system means that internal migration is under-estimated, and international migration is approximately measured. The advantages of the School Census are its frequent updates, its fine geographical information, and its indicators of ethnicity and low family income, which powerfully complement other sources.

  5. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  6. Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles

  7. Contradictions of international migration in terms of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    political economy approach is faced with the tension between the two approaches. The first proposed regulation and workforce management at the supranational level. The other remains in the framework of “methodological nationalism”: the appropriate starting point is the national state. Given the fact that structural inequalities should be recognized at a global level, and that processes of migration show that there is a certain hierarchical global flow in the context of the dynamics of workforce, the first approach proves to be inadequate. In other words, the second approach could not articulate the relevant tendencies. Accordingly, the political economy approach that intends to include complex determination regarding the migration should integrate the national trends in the supranational framework. But, proper research should take into account that globalization and its complex order consist of a number of interventions and interferences. This means that the aforementioned approach must develop sufficiently complex methodology in order to articulate its selected subject.

  8. Modern Gravity Models of Internal Migration. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BUNEA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal migration, although less investigated than international migration, is a key mechanism for adjustment to regional economic shocks, especially when other tools prove useless. But this process has very complex factors of determination which can be economic, social, demographic, environmental, etc. Based on previous international studies, in the case of Romania the robust variables proved to be the population size, the per capita gross domestic product, the road density, an amenity index and the crime rate from a static perspective, and the previous migration, the population size and the amenity index from a dynamic perspective. The techniques I have employed in making this study are the Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV, or the fixed effects method and the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, or the dynamic method both applied to panel data.

  9. Friendship and Internal Migration in Brazil: Vulnerability and Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been investigated in the context of international migration, but little is known about the subject in relation to internal migration, a phenomenon of great social importance in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to present and discuss data obtained in an investigation on the relations between internal migration and friendship as perceived by citizens from the state of Espírito Santo who were living in other states of Brazil, in the North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast regions. Twenty adults born in the state and who had migrated to another Brazilian state participated in the investigation. The participants have been interviewed about how they perceived the relationship between friendship and migration and the data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Among the results difficulties to maintain friendships with people of the place of origin as well as difficulties in forming new friendships were observed. Friends were considered relevant for adaptation to the new state, affecting the perception of the same. The article also discusses the origin of friends, the perception of cultural differences and difficulties to make friends in another state. It is concluded that friends play a relevant role in the lives of Brazilian internal migrants and further investigations are necessary.

  10. MIGRATE: A FOSS WEB MAPPING APPLICATION FOR EDUCATING AND RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Brovelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a noticeable growth in migration flows from Africa and Middle East to Southern Europe, thus generating a remarkable increase of attention on media and public opinion, sometimes resulting in stereotypes and prejudices. Funded by the European Commission – Joint Research Centre through the MYGEOSS program, MIGRation pATtterns in Europe (MIGRATE aims at educating the citizens about migration fluxes in Europe using a gamification approach based on a trivia game. MIGRATE is completely developed with Free and Open Source Software. On the server-side Django is used to define the models that handle all the required data and tables are created in a PostgreSQL database. Questions and answers are sent in JSON format to the client, while the geospatial layers in GeoJSON format are rendered on the map interface using OpenLayers 3. Bootstrap, HTML5 and CSS3 are used for responsive design, while the jQuery library is used to ease the JavaScript programming. All the data sources used within MIGRATE are available as full and open access with no restrictions for reuse, except for the obligation to mention the source of the input data. Exploited data sources include OpenStreetMap for geospatial information, and UNHCR, IOM, Eurostat and The Migrant’s Files project for non-geospatial information. Overall, data shows how the users’ perceptions change while playing and that players’ awareness of migration-related problems increases with the number of games played. The source code of MIGRATE and the collected data are available respectively under the EU Public License (EUPL and the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. The workforce for health in a globalized context--global shortages and international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W

    2014-01-01

    The 'crisis in human resources' in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010.

  12. The workforce for health in a globalized context – global shortages and international migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Bishaw, Tewabech; Frank, Martina W.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘crisis in human resources’ in the health sector has been described as one of the most pressing global health issues of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the world faces a global shortage of almost 4.3 million doctors, midwives, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. A global undersupply of these threatens the quality and sustainability of health systems worldwide. This undersupply is concurrent with globalization and the resulting liberalization of markets, which allow health workers to offer their services in countries other than those of their origin. The opportunities of health workers to seek employment abroad has led to a complex migration pattern, characterized by a flow of health professionals from low- to high-income countries. This global migration pattern has sparked a broad international debate about the consequences for health systems worldwide, including questions about sustainability, justice, and global social accountabilities. This article provides a review of this phenomenon and gives an overview of the current scope of health workforce migration patterns. It further focuses on the scientific discourse regarding health workforce migration and its effects on both high- and low-income countries in an interdependent world. The article also reviews the internal and external factors that fuel health worker migration and illustrates how health workforce migration is a classic global health issue of our time. Accordingly, it elaborates on the international community's approach to solving the workforce crisis, focusing in particular on the WHO Code of Practice, established in 2010. PMID:24560265

  13. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    International Chinese migration has spanned five periods: 1) an initial period of random and short-term migration dating back to the Qing and Han dynasties; 2) a spontaneous period since the Sui and Tang dynasties along trade routes; 3) a transition period during the Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty with war, poverty, and population growth as push factors; 4) peak migration during the Opium War period due to economic depression, population pressure, and the "coolie" trade; and 5) continuous development between the 1920s and 1949. Migration tended to occur between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and other southeast Asian countries. Four factors were identified as necessary for international migration to occur: the origin of migration, the destination factor, the middle link factor, and the immigrant characteristics. The origins of early Chinese migration appeared in a country of political corruption, population pressure, a backward economy, and social chaos. The pull factors at destination end were demand for labor. The middle link was the short distance between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and southeast Asian countries and longstanding nongovernmental exchanges. Other links were the similarity of climate, similar racial features, cultural lifestyle similarities, and convenient transportation. The people in these two provinces had a history of migration and a personality suitable for the spirit of adventure. Peak migration occurred during the late Qing dynasty and during the continuous development period. Between 1840 and 1911 there were about 10 million Chinese immigrants and during 1911 and 1949 there were about 6 million. In general, over 20 million immigrated prior to 1949, of which about 50% migrated during the peak period, 33% during the continuous period, and 20% before 1840. This amounted to about 33% of European migration and two times African migration. 60% were from Guangdong, and 30% were from Fujian province, of whom most were from counties

  14. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  15. Inertial migration of particles in Taylor-Couette flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majji, Madhu V.; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental study of inertial migration of neutrally buoyant particles in the circular Couette flow (CCF), Taylor vortex flow (TVF) and wavy vortex flow (WVF) is reported. This work considers a concentric cylinder Taylor-Couette device with a stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner cylinder. The device has a radius ratio of η = ri/ro = 0.877, where ri and ro are the inner and outer radii of the flow annulus. The ratio of the annular width between the cylinders (δ = ro - ri) and the particle diameter (dp) is α = δ/dp = 20. For η = 0.877, the flow of a Newtonian fluid undergoes transitions from CCF to TVF and TVF to WVF at Reynolds numbers Re = 120 and 151, respectively, and for the dilute suspensions studied here, these critical Reynolds numbers are almost unchanged. In CCF, particles were observed to migrate, due to the competition between the shear gradient of the flow and the wall interactions, to an equilibrium location near the middle of the annulus with an offset toward the inner cylinder. In TVF, the vortex motion causes the particles to be exposed to the shear gradient and wall interactions in a different manner, resulting in a circular equilibrium region in each vortex. The radius of this circular region grows with increase in Re. In WVF, the azimuthal waviness results in fairly well-distributed particles across the annulus.

  16. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  17. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  18. The influence of attitudes toward immigrants on international migration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinas, C.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 416-451 ISSN 0197-9183 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international migration * attitudes toward immigrants Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016

  19. International Student Migration and Social Stratification in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Biao; Shen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    During the late 1990s China moved from a period of "wealth creation" that benefited the majority of the population to a period of "wealth concentration" that benefited a minority. This essay focuses on the role of international student migration from China to other countries in this process. In particular the authors delineate…

  20. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.

  1. Peculiarities of International Migration of Population in Europe at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of globalization, international migration of population is steadily growing and significantly affects the socio-economic development of countries and regions. The aim of the article is to identify the features of international migration of population in Europe. The migration trends in the region and its subregions are analyzed. It is shown that Western Europe is leading according to the number of migrants residing on its territory, but the maximum growth of migrants for the period of 1990-2015 is observed in Southern Europe. The proportion of women and population of active age groups is increasing in the structure of migrants. In recent years the flow of refugees has increased. The impact of the migration crisis on the economies of the host countries is analyzed. Calculations of coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated the level of dependence between the indicators of migration and GDP, population size, share of urban population. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop migration policies at different hierarchical levels.

  2. Semiflexible polymer conformation, distribution and migration in microcapillary flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Gompper, Gerhard [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Winkler, Roland G [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    The flow behavior of a semiflexible polymer in microchannels is studied using multiparticle collision dynamics, a particle-based hydrodynamic simulation technique. Conformations, distributions, and radial cross-streamline migration are investigated for various bending rigidities, with persistence lengths L{sub p} in the range 0.5 {<=} L{sub p}/L{sub r} {<=} 30. The flow behavior is governed by the competition between a hydrodynamic lift force and steric repulsion from the wall, which lead to migration away from the wall, and a locally varying flow induced orientation, which drives the polymer away from the channel center and towards the wall. The different dependences of these effects on the polymer bending rigidity and the flow velocity results in a complex dynamical behavior. However, a generic effect is the appearance of a maximum in the monomer and the center-of-mass distributions, which occurs at the channel center for small flow velocities, but moves off-center at higher velocities.

  3. "International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2011-05-01

    This paper considers how international migration of the head of household affects the allocation of resources toward boys relative to girls within households remaining in the home country. I address the endogeneity of migration with a differences-in-differences style regression model that compares those households in which migrants have already returned home with those in which migrants are still away. The evidence suggests that while the head of household is away a greater fraction of resources are spent on girls relative to boys, but upon his return, this pattern is reversed.

  4. THE DETERMINANTS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OFTURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciler Sigeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of the net migration statistics at regionallevel-1, consisting 12 regions, according to the Nomenclature of Units forTerritorial Statistics (NUTS of Turkey during the period 2008-2014 utilizingFeasible Generalized Least Squares. The results show that the coefficient ofpoverty variable found negative as consistent with literature. This finding suggeststhat migration movements are still one of the important strategies against poverty.In the study, the amount of exports and electricity per person used as a proxy forthe level of development of the regions foundsignificant and positive on the netmigration rate of the region. This result shows that the level of development of aregion is related to the net migration of that region in the same direction.Therefore, policy makers should implement policies on internal migrationmovements todecrease differences in income inequality and development levelsbetween regions.

  5. International migration, 1995: some reflections on an exceptional year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, R

    1996-10-01

    "This paper examines the 1995 international migration statistics in the context of New Zealand's immigration policy, and with reference to the impact of migration on population change in 1995. Particular attention is focused on trying to unravel and interpret the statistics relating to net migration. Considerable confusion has arisen in the public debate about immigration because of uniformed and, at times, quite misleading use of information supplied by Statistics New Zealand and the Department of Labour.... This is a reprinted version of an article originally published in the New Zealand Journal of Geography in April 1996. The article has been reprinted because a number of tables in the earlier version were incorrectly reproduced. Any inconvenience caused by this problem is regretted." excerpt

  6. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  7. Cubans abroad: a gendered case study on international migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sarmiento, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cubans who have migrated since the 1990s after living for two decades or more in their country of origin left with an embedded gender ideology that they acquired in a society where gender relations were undergoing radical transformations. As a result, Cuban feminization of migrations has its peculiarities. In this context, there are three issues to consider: explaining how gender relations attained in Cuba, as part of the overall attitudes gained since childhood, influenced Cuban migrants who have left the island permanently since 1990, introduced uniqueness in their migration processes, and made up a different feminization of migration; identifying the features of Cuban social structure that shaped the gender ideology of Cuban migrants; and producing new knowledge about Cuban international migration processes by using a gender perspective and by analyzing the gender relations prevailing in the years before the crisis of the 1990s, as well as since the beginning of the twenty-first century. The first part of this article focuses on gender distinctiveness of recent Cuban migrants, and the second summarizes some traits of the Cuban social structure—mainly referred to female employment—that could explain the gender training of the migrants.

  8. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  9. International labor migration and the family: some observations from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses two dimensions of the complex interrelationship between the family and international labor migration in Indonesia: the role of the family in influencing labor movements out of Indonesia; and the consequences of this movement on family well-being, structure, and functioning. Research on this topic in Indonesia is highly limited due mainly to the recency of large scale international labor migration, inadequate data collection systems, a high incidence of undocumented migration, and failure of available research to be sensitive to family related issues. Against a rapidly changing economic and social situation, two major overlapping systems of migration have developed. The official system is focused strongly on the Middle East (although other Asian destinations are increasing in significance) and is dominated by female migrants. The undocumented system is much larger in volume, is focused upon Malaysia, involves more males than females, and is becoming permanent in some cases. The role, status, and experiences of women migrants in relation to their families (decision making, networks, remittances) are discussed with recommendations for other areas needing further research attention.

  10. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  11. Construction of the migration flows forecasting into Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Tarasyev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model that can predict the dynamics of migration flows between source countries and host regions, as well as the dynamics of wage levels there. The model is constructed within the framework of neoclassical economics and human capital theory in continuous time. Thanks to liberalization of migration policy in Russia in 2007, the model could be successfully employed to Russian regions and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, which have visa-free entry regulations with the Russian Federation. Employing the model on statistical data, we forecast the number and origin composition of foreign labor force from the CIS into Russian regions for 2010-2016. The purpose of our further research is to classify migrants by skills

  12. Two-Way Outsourcing, International Migration, and Wage Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Morihiro Yomogida; Laixun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium model with a vertical production structure to examine the relationship between offshore outsourcing and international migration,especially emphasizing their effects on the wages of skilled and unskilled workers. Two-way outsourcing (simultaneous insourcing and outsourcing) in skilled-labor intensive services arises due to product differentiation and scale economies, and outsourcing in unskilled-labor intensive processing occurs because of factor endow...

  13. E.U. VERSUS O.E.C.D. - MIGRATION FLOW UNDER THE LABOUR TAXATION IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZAR PAULA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a world governed by the freedom of movement, production factors – capital, labour and consumption – can “run” from on territory to another bringing along positive and negative effects, just as well. Labour, the second in line of “run away” production factors, has a great impact upon a state economy generating sustainable growth or increasing budgetary revenues This paper presents for a period of 7 years, for both European (UE-28 and international (OECD level, the migration flow under the labour taxation impact (it is well known that more than 75% of the migration flow is work force related. The authors found that even if both areas are attracting labour force the reasons for doing that are completely different – while for the OECD member states and non-EU member states there will always be the “occident fascination” in the Europeans are “voting with their feet”.

  14. International migration as a determinant of emergency caesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Lisa; Semenic, Sonia; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Fraser, William; Small, Rhonda; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-10-01

    High caesarean rates are of concern given associated risks. International migrant women (women born abroad) represent a substantial proportion of women giving birth in high-income countries (HICs) and face social conditions that may exacerbate childbearing health risks. Among migrant women, emergency rather than planned caesareans, tend to be more prevalent. This method of delivery can be stressful, physically harmful and result in an overall negative birth experience. Research establishing evidence of risk factors for emergency caesareans in migrants is insufficient. (1) Describe potential pathways (with a focus on modifiable factors) by which migration, using internationally recommended migration indicators: country of birth, length of time in country, fluency in receiving-country language, migration classification and ethnicity, may lead to emergency caesarean; and (2) propose a framework to guide future research for understanding "potentially preventable" emergency caesareans in migrant women living in HICs. "Potentially preventable" emergency caesareans in migrant women are likely due to several modifiable, interrelated factors pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy and during labour. Migration itself is a determinant and also shapes other determinants. Complications and ineffective labour progress and/or foetal distress and ultimately the decision to perform an emergency caesarean may be the result of poor health (i.e., physiological effects), lack of support and disempowerment (i.e., psychological effects) and sub-optimal care. Understanding the direct and indirect effects of migration on emergency caesarean is crucial so that targeted strategies can be developed and implemented for reducing unnecessary caesareans in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence for Germany, 1967-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Temporary migration, though empirically relevant, is often ignored in formal models. This paper proposes a migration model with heterogeneous agents and persistent cross country income differentials that features temporary migration. In equilibrium there exists a positive relation between the stock...... of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, existing empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows, instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our investigation of the cointegration relationships...... of German migration stocks and flows since 1967. We find that (i) panel-unit root tests reject the hypothesis that migration flows and the explanatory variables are integrated of the same order, while migration stocks and the explanatory variables are all I(1) variables, and (ii) the hypothesis...

  16. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - II. Flow-locked and runaway migration, and a torque prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2018-04-01

    We examine the migration of low mass planets in laminar protoplanetary discs, threaded by large scale magnetic fields in the dead zone that drive radial gas flows. As shown in Paper I, a dynamical corotation torque arises due to the flow-induced asymmetric distortion of the corotation region and the evolving vortensity contrast between the librating horseshoe material and background disc flow. Using simulations of laminar torqued discs containing migrating planets, we demonstrate the existence of the four distinct migration regimes predicted in Paper I. In two regimes, the migration is approximately locked to the inward or outward radial gas flow, and in the other regimes the planet undergoes outward runaway migration that eventually settles to fast steady migration. In addition, we demonstrate torque and migration reversals induced by midplane magnetic stresses, with a bifurcation dependent on the disc surface density. We develop a model for fast migration, and show why the outward runaway saturates to a steady speed, and examine phenomenologically its termination due to changing local disc conditions. We also develop an analytical model for the corotation torque at late times that includes viscosity, for application to discs that sustain modest turbulence. Finally, we use the simulation results to develop torque prescriptions for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation.

  17. STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR THE INTERNAL MIGRATION PROCESSES REGULATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Balueva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the annexation of the Crimea and Donbass military conflict, there was an emergence of forced migration. It ought to be emphasized that today issues related to addressing problems of internally displaced persons (IDPs, are relevant and require an integrated approach. The increase in the number of IDPs in the country raises the issue of identifying the strategic priorities of the state policy. The purpose of this research is to formulate strategic priorities of the state policy of support for IDPs’. The subject of the study is theoretical and methodological principles of the state policy to support IDPs. The research methodology includes a set of scientific research methods that provide identifying the strategic priorities of the state policy for IDPs’ support, developing effective mechanisms for these priorities achievement, and conceptual vision of solving IDPs’ problems. In the course of investigations, the following methods are used: analysis while studying the main problems of internally displaced persons; logical synthesis and synthesis while drawing conclusions. Results. Scientific novelty of the article. In the article, the conceptual foundations of the IDPs support have been formed, an attention has been focused on the feasibility of using a strategic approach, which involves the formation and implementation of a set of strategically oriented measures aimed at solving the most acute issues and matters related to internal forced migration, directing the IDPs potential and internally displaced businesses to strengthen local communities and social and economic development of the resettlement territories. The main stages and conceptual foundations for the Strategy formation on the IDPs support have been proposed. The strategy is based on an integrated approach to addressing IDPs and internally displaced businesses, taking into account the interests of host communities. Practical implications. The result of the Strategy

  18. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PHENOMENON IN ROMANIA BETWEEN 1991 AND 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration represented and represents a very important phenomenon at global level, taking into consideration besides its demographic implications, its extremely diverse implications such as socio-economic, socio-cultural, territorial, or environmental. This represents, probably, the main reason why the research on migration is interdisciplinary, having strong connections with sociology, political sciences, history, economics, geography, demography, psychology, or low, among others. All these disciplines target different aspects of population migration, and a proper comprehension of the phenomenon implies a contribution from the part of all of them. Although migration represents a phenomenon manifested since ancient times, it has never been such an universal or significant phenomenon from the socio-economical or political perspective, as it is in present times. International migration has both a negative and positive impact on both provider and receiving countries, in general playing a very important role in the structure and dimension of the population of a country. Romania is not an exception to the previously expressed statement; furthermore, after the fall of the communist regime, migration became for Romania one of the most important socio-economical phenomena. The present paper aims at analyzing in a descriptive manner the international migration phenomenon in Romania between 1991 and 2008, from quantitative perspective. Based on data identified in the "Statistical Yearbook of Romania - 2008 and 2009 editions - the analysis revealed the fact that both immigration and emigration flows registered oscillatory evolutions in the analysed period, but the general trend of immigration was of increasing, while the one of emigration was of decreasing. Immigration was dominated by the presence of males, of persons aged between 26 and 40 and of persons coming from the Republic of Moldova. On the other side, in the case of emigration the significant

  19. Migration and Adult Language Learning: Global Flows and Local Transpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne; Roberts, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century, global flows politically, socially, economically, and environmentally are creating widespread movements of people around the world and giving rise to increased resettlements of immigrants and refugees internationally. The reality in most countries worldwide is that contemporary populations are multifaceted, multicultural,…

  20. A Special Case of International Migration: Ethnic Hungarians Migrating from Transylvania to Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Gödri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a special case of international migration, when the ethnicity, mother tongue, historical and cultural traditions of the immigrants are identical with those of the receiving population. This is also a fundamental feature of immigration to Hungary in the last decade and a half and could be observed primarily in the migratory wave from neighboring countries (most of all from Transylvania in Romania. After presenting the historical background we will review the development of the present-day migratory processes as well as their social and economical conditions, relying on statistics based on various sources. The socio-demographic composition of the immigrants and their selection from the population of origin indicate that migration is more frequent among younger, better-educated people living in an ethnically heterogeneous urban environment. At the same time, the rising proportion of older people and pensioners among the immigrants suggests the commencement of the so-called secondary migration. This is con? rmed by a questionnaire-based survey conducted among immigrants, which showed that family reuni? cation is a migratory motivation for a signi? cant group of people, primarily for the older generation. Among younger people economic considerations are decisive in the migrants decision-making. Our analysis underscores the roles of ethnicity and network of connections in the processes under examination.

  1. The influence of attitudes toward immigrants on international migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether anti-immigrant attitudes reduce migrant inflows in OECD countries. Using comprehensive data on international migration and natives’ attitudes, we find that natives’ hostility, when captured with natives’ propensity to discriminate against immigrants on the labor market......, reduces immigration. This effect persists after we control for changes in immigration policies and is stronger for immigrants from OECD countries. Further we show that knowledge of the destination country’s language reinforces the effect. Our results raise a challenge for policy makers in times when...

  2. Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.; Van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.; Gayle, V.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of modelling studies on consequences of internal migration focus almost exclusively on the labour market outcomes and the material well-being of migrants. We investigate whether individuals who migrate within the UK become happier after the move than they were before it and whether the

  3. Internal migration, earnings, and the importance of self-selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Sirageldin, I

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of internal migration on earnings within the human capital model framework. Since migrants constitute a non-random sample of population, the endogenous nature of migration decision warrants necessary correction for the selectivity bias in their earnings function. The Mincer-type earnings model is thus augmented to determine the extent of this bias. Besides estimating the standard Mincerian earnings model, the paper also attempts to verify the learn-as-you-go proposition by introducing migration duration variables in the earnings model. Based on the household level Population, Labor Force, and Migration (1979-80) survey data, the analysis yields the following important conclusions: (i) the data allowed a meaningful estimation of Mincerian earnings function for migrants and non-migrants; (ii) the level of schooling was one of the important determinants of the distribution of income both for migrants and nonmigrants--the four categorical variables of education were in general statistically significant with expected signs, implying that the hypothesis of a positive relationship between income and education was accepted; (iii) the rates of return to education improved systematically with higher levels of education, thus confirming the notion that education serves as a signalling device; (iv) the age-income profile was almost linear for migrants but showed concavity for nonmigrants; (v) the presence of sample-selection was observed for migrants; and (vi) even after controlling for the influence of personal characteristics, i.e., education and experience, the long-standing migrants earned relatively more at the destination than the more recent migrants.

  4. Internal migration in West Germany and implications for east-west salary convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decressin, J W

    1994-01-01

    "Using a simple model of gross migration [in West Germany], the paper shows that provided economic agents are sufficiently risk averse, migrational flows are likely to be procyclical. The econometric results confirm that flows are highly procyclical. They further indicate that changes in regional economic disparities significantly affect migrational flows. However, given the widening of regional disparities in the 1980s accompanied by a worsening in aggregate conditions, migration seems least effective in offsetting the differentiated impact of labor market shocks when it would be most useful. The paper concludes by applying the results to the issue of east-west migration and salary convergence." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  5. Disentangling fathers' absences from household remittances in international migration: The case of educational attainment in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli

    2016-09-01

    Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children's educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers' absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children's human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers' international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers' absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers' absences on grade progression.

  6. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  7. Underestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmann, Angela; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is among the first to link internal migration and subjective well-being in developed countries. Economic theory predicts that individuals migrate towards urban agglomerations, if the potential gain in income is sufficient to cover costs. However, this narrow view cannot explain why migration exists also to the rural periphery. In our analysis, we investigate non-monetary benefits beyond economics from internal migration. Using highly disaggregated spatial information on people s mi...

  8. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  9. Embedding international migration: the response of Bolivian local governments and NGOs to international migraton.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, G.

    2010-01-01

    International migration is an integral part of the lives of many people in the South, and many households add remittances to their income in order to finance the daily costs of living that cannot be met by their traditional source of income. In the literature, a debate has emerged on the impacts

  10. International migration data: their problems and usefulness in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1987-01-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s Venezuela was an important destination for migrants from Southern Europe, a flow that disappeared almost entirely during the 1960s, to be replaced by border movements and the largely illegal migration of Colombians. The oil boom of the 1970s saw an increase of the latter, which may have subsided during the 1980s due to the more difficult economic conditions that have also led to significant emigration levels of Venezuelans and former immigrants. Methods of data collection systems that provide information on migrants include the National Population and Housing Census, the National Household Survey, migration surveys, arrival and departure statistics, registration systems operated by the Direccion General Sectorial de identificacion y Control de Extranjeros, the 1980 regularization drive, statistics gathered by the Ministry of Labor, and vital and civil registration statistics. The lack of effective coordination among the different government agencies gathering information and the administrative nature of the data collected give rise to problems of comparability. Mechanisms to publish and disseminate the data available are not well developed, so that researchers often have no access to potentially useful sources of information. Problems of timeliness in the publication of the most widely used information are also present, as is the large gap existing in data pertaining to emigration, be it of Venezuelan nationals or of immigrants leaving the country.

  11. Responding to flow: How phytoplankton adapt migration strategies to tackle turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Phytoplankton are among the ocean's most important organisms and it has long been recognized that turbulence is a primary determinant of their fitness. Yet, mechanisms by which phytoplankton may adapt to turbulence have remained unknown. We present experiments that demonstrate how phytoplankton are capable of rapid adaptive behavior in response to fluid flow disturbances that mimic turbulence. Our study organism was the toxic marine alga Heterosigma akashiwo, known to exhibit ``negative gravitaxis,'' i . e . , to frequently migrate upwards against gravity. To mimic the effect of Kolmogorov-scale turbulent eddies, which expose cells to repeated reorientations, we observed H. akashiwo in a ``flip chamber,'' whose orientation was periodically flipped. Tracking of single cells revealed a striking, robust behavioral adaptation, whereby within tens of minutes half of the population reversed its direction of migration to swim downwards, demonstrating an active response to fluid flow. Using confocal microscopy, we provide a physiological rationalization of this behavior in terms of the redistribution of internal organelles, and speculate on the motives for this bet-hedging-type strategy. This work suggests that the effects of fluid flow - not just passive but also active - on plankton represents a rich area of investigation with considerable implications for some of earth's most important organisms.

  12. Migrating to learn and learning to migrate: a study of the experiences and intentions of international student migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F L; Findlay, A M; Jowett, A J; Skeldon, R

    1996-03-01

    "The research reported here evaluates whether students come to the UK mainly for educational reasons, and therefore perceive their stay as temporary, or whether emigration for study is being used as part of a conscious strategy by people intending to become future labour migrants.... The simplest interpretation of the results appears to be that migration, experienced as a result of international moves for study purposes, does not influence planning of further migration moves. But the research also indicates that migration for education is closely tied to other types of population redistribution and should be treated by population geographers as an integral part of international migration systems." Data were collected by questionnaire survey from 349 engineering students at Hong Kong universities and 82 Hong Kong students studying engineering in the UK. excerpt

  13. Networks and Selection in International Migration to Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubecker, Nina; Smolka, Marcel; Steinbacher, Anne

    This paper provides new evidence on migrant networks as determinants of the scale and skill structure of migration, using aggregate data from a recent migration boom to Spain. We develop a three-level nested multinomial logit migration model. Our model accommodates varying degrees of similarity...

  14. Thermodilution-determined Internal Jugular Venous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Widmer, Mario; Hilty, Matthias P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test...

  15. The role of family decision in internal migration: the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of family decisions and individual decisions on rural-urban migration in India under 2 different rural institutions--family farm and wage labor systems. An analytical framework for explaining family migration decisions reveals that whenever a member of the extended family migrates, he gives up his share in the produce of the family farm. When this happens, the number of adult members on the farm goes down and the total product is affected. 3 case studies of Indian villages are analyzed for this study. 2 empirical relations are examined: 1) if individual migration decisions are predominant, and 2) if family decisions are important in determining the overall flow of migration. Relationships between migration decisions and other variables, such as: 1) number of males in urban areas; 2) urban wages; 3) daily wage rate; 4) average agricultural income; 5) railway distance between rural and urban areas; 6) size of the labor market in destination region; 7) probability that a migrant arriving in an urban area will find a job; and 8) comsumption expenditure, in urban areas estimated by working class consumer price index, are determined. Results show that: 1) the market determined wage variable does not play a very significant role in migration decisions; 2) distance is one of the most important variables in analyzing migration; and 3) the aggregate flow of migration is affected if migration decisions are predominantly family decisions. These findings have relevant policy implications for less developed countries (LDCs), especially because large flows of rural-urban migration in recent years have forced governments to adopt policies for controlling the flows to reduce the burden of unemployment in the urban areas. Government policies affecting rural institutions will have an impact on migration flow; those that lead to a reduction of uncertainty in agriculture will affect average per-capita consumption levels in family farms and hence

  16. Levels and patterns of internal migration in Europe: A cohort perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-11-01

    Europe displays important variations in the level of internal migration, with a clear spatial gradient of high mobility in northern and western Europe but lower mobility in the south and east. However, cross-national variation in levels of internal migration remains poorly understood, because it is analysed almost exclusively using cross-sectional data and period measures. This paper seeks to advance understanding of cross-national variation in migration levels in 14 European countries by drawing on a recently proposed suite of migration cohort measures, coupled with internationally comparable retrospective residential histories. It shows that differences in migration levels are mainly attributable to variation in the extent of repeat movement, which is underpinned by the differences in mean ages at first and last move that together delineate the average length of migration careers. Cohort analysis provides a robust foundation for exploring the demographic mechanisms underpinning variation in migration levels across countries and over time.

  17. Costs and benefits of the international labor migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Hagiu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration has been an important part of the transition process and it's effects are complex including significant changes in attitudes and norms that are relevant for democratic processes. Migration changes the way of life, leads to social-economical and cultural modification, at a continuous readjustment of social organization and assimilation and rejection problems.The amplitude and intensity of migrating fluxes, its dynamic as well as the peculiarity of migrating persons (social level, professional preparation, age, sex is different according with the scope of migration ( work, obliged change of home, refugee, making or gathering the family.

  18. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  19. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  20. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  1. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Klevjer, TA; Aksnes, Dag L.

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending

  2. Does Access to Foreign Markets shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hering; Rodrigo Paillacar

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how internal migration is affected by Brazil’s increased integration into the world economy. It analyzes the impact of regional differences in access to foreign demand on sector-specific bilateral migration rates between the Brazilian states for the years 1995 to 2003. Using international trade data, a foreign market access measure is computed at the sectoral level,...

  3. Emerging migration flows in a changing climate in dryland Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniveton, Dominic R.; Smith, Christopher D.; Black, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Fears of the movement of large numbers of people as a result of changes in the environment were first voiced in the 1980s (ref. ). Nearly thirty years later the numbers likely to migrate as a result of the impacts of climate change are still, at best, guesswork. Owing to the high prevalence of rainfed agriculture, many livelihoods in sub-Saharan African drylands are particularly vulnerable to changes in climate. One commonly adopted response strategy used by populations to deal with the resulting livelihood stress is migration. Here, we use an agent-based model developed around the theory of planned behaviour to explore how climate and demographic change, defined by the ENSEMBLES project and the United Nations Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, combine to influence migration within and from Burkina Faso. The emergent migration patterns modelled support framing the nexus of climate change and migration as a complex adaptive system. Using this conceptual framework, we show that the extent of climate-change-related migration is likely to be highly nonlinear and the extent of this nonlinearity is dependent on population growth; therefore supporting migration policy interventions based on both demographic and climate change adaptation.

  4. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  5. Internal Migration, Regional Labour Market Dynamics and Implications for German East-West Disparities – Results from a Panel VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Mitze, Timo; Untiedt, Gerhard

    This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through impulser......This paper analyses the causal linkages between regional labour market variables and internal migration flows among German states between 1991–2006. We adopt a Panel VAR approach to identify the feedback effects among the variables and analyse the dynamic properties of the system through...... impulseresponse functions.We also use the model to track the evolution of the particular East-West migration since re-unification aiming to shed more light on the East German “empirical puzzle”, characterized by lower migration responses than expected from the regional labour market position relative to the West......:That is, along with a second wave of East-West movements around 2001 net flows out of East Germany were much higher than expected after controlling for its weak labour market and macroeconomic performance. Since this second wave is also accompanied by a gradual fading out of economic distortions...

  6. The benefits and caveats of international nurse migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is a dramatic shortage of nurses. An increase in the migration of nurses from their home countries to recipient countries is having a global effect on the healthcare system. This global phenomenon stems from historical, economical, social, and political factors. Migration has a significant impact on both the individual and national level. This article summarizes the factors that contribute to nurse migration form the perspective of the source and recipient countries. Additionally, the impacts and issues surrounding nurse migration were also analyzed.

  7. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  8. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  9. The national and international implications of a decade of doctor migration in the Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bidwell, Posy

    2012-12-17

    BACKGROUND: Between 2000 and 2010, Ireland became increasingly dependent on foreign-trained doctors to staff its health system. An inability to train and retain sufficient doctors to meet demand is the primary reason for the dependence on foreign-trained doctors. By 2008 the proportion of foreign-trained doctors was the second highest in the OECD. This increased dependence on international medical migration has both national and international policy implications. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) for a 10-year period: 2000-2010. Data indicate country of qualification but not nationality. The total number of registrants and entrants (n) was determined for each year. Immigration data were also obtained on the number of work visas issued to doctors. Registration and visa data were then compared in order to estimate doctor migration to Ireland 2000-2010. RESULTS: The proportion of foreign-trained doctors rose from 13.4% of all registered doctors in 2000 to 33.4% by 2010. The largest increase was in foreign-trained doctors from outside the EU, rising from 972 (7.4%) in 2000 to 4740 (25.3%) of registered doctors in 2010. The biggest source country in 2000 was Pakistan. By 2010, South Africa had become the biggest source country. The number of foreign-trained doctors from other EU countries doubled from 780 in 2000 to 1521 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Registration data are likely to over-estimate and visa data under-estimate the numbers of doctors actively working in Ireland. However, they serve to illustrate Ireland\\'s rapidly increasing and potentially unsustainable reliance on foreign-trained doctors; and to highlight the need for better data to measure migratory flows. Improved measurement of health worker migration is necessary both for national workforce planning and to fulfil the requirements of the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel.

  10. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  11. International Migration and Transnational Ethics of Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees

  12. International migration and related policies in europe 1950-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a) its particular development in time; b) the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c) the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in

  13. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  14. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  15. Ligand-Occupied Integrin Internalization Links Nutrient Signaling to Invasive Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rainero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrin trafficking is key to cell migration, but little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of integrin endocytosis. Here, we show that α5β1 integrin undergoes tensin-dependent centripetal movement from the cell periphery to populate adhesions located under the nucleus. From here, ligand-engaged α5β1 integrins are internalized under control of the Arf subfamily GTPase, Arf4, and are trafficked to nearby late endosomes/lysosomes. Suppression of centripetal movement or Arf4-dependent endocytosis disrupts flow of ligand-bound integrins to late endosomes/lysosomes and their degradation within this compartment. Arf4-dependent integrin internalization is required for proper lysosome positioning and for recruitment and activation of mTOR at this cellular subcompartment. Furthermore, nutrient depletion promotes subnuclear accumulation and endocytosis of ligand-engaged α5β1 integrins via inhibition of mTORC1. This two-way regulatory interaction between mTORC1 and integrin trafficking in combination with data describing a role for tensin in invasive cell migration indicate interesting links between nutrient signaling and metastasis.

  16. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  18. Disentangling fathers’ absences from household remittances in international migration: The case of educational attainment in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the effects of international migration on left-behind children’s educational attainment is complicated by the potential offsetting effects of fathers’ absences and household remittances. Most research has not separated these aspects of international migration on children’s human capital outcomes. We address this deficiency by using instrumental variables to isolate the effects of fathers’ international migration absences from international household remittances on student enrollment and grade progression in Guatemala. Results indicate that fathers’ absences and household international remittances are negatively related to enrollment, providing evidence for a culture of migration effect. For students who remain in school, household international remittances neutralize the harmful influence of fathers’ absences on grade progression. PMID:27293309

  19. Macro patterns of internal migration in Indonesia, 1971-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatas, S

    1993-12-01

    Indonesia's population mobility rate is still relatively low. In 1990 only 8.25% of Indonesians lived outside the provinces where they were born. In contrast, according to the US censuses, since the 1870s no fewer than 20% of Americans did. The level of population mobility is even lower for inter-island and interregional migration. In 1990 only 4.29% of Indonesians lived outside their home islands or regions. The level of urbanization has also had an impact, with rural-urban migration increasing from 17.18% in 1971 to 22.38% in 1980, and to 30.93% in 1990. Between 1971 and 1990 the increase amounted to 20.34% in Jakarta, Surbaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang. Migration occurs because people want to improve their lives. The reasons for migration include: 1) to continue education, 2) to search for a better job, 3) to obtain better wages or income, 4) to accompany parents or spouse, 5) to secure political support, and 6) to escape from unpleasant conditions. The 1990 census data on migration were derived from 1) province of birth, 2) province of previous residence, 3) duration of residence at the current province, and 4) province of residence 5 years prior to the census. Interprovincial life time migration increased in Indonesia from 5.8 million in 1971 to 10.2 million in 1980 and to 14.8 million in 1990. Most of the provinces of Sumatra and Kalimantan experienced net positive migration in which in-migration exceeded out-migration. On the other hand, migrants from Jakarta to West Java accounted for 75.6% or 794,987 out of the 1,052,234 people who moved out of the capital city. In 1971 as much as 31.18% of migration across provincial borders headed for DKI Jakarta. In 1990 DKI Jakarta and West Java accommodated 37.75% of the interprovincial migrants. Recent in, out, and net migration declined 2.8 million between 1980 and 1985, but it went up to 5.3 million between 1985 and 1990. Between 1985 and 1990 interprovincial migration towards urban areas amounted to 3.2 million

  20. Developments in Education and International Migrations in New Member States of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kultalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the development of education systems and international migrations in selected new Member States. The countries are Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The paper focuses on various elements in the development of education systems making people able to cope with competition on global labour markets. The outcomes of these developments largely regulate the supply of labour and consequently its international demand. Some statistics on international migration and integratio...

  1. State and legal regulation of refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migration in EU as institutional basis of management of international migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ievdokymov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of World Bank data on the dynamics of migration indicators in Europe and Fragile State Index data the authors determine the groups of EU countries in geo-economic risk, which forms the pushing factors in the refugee flow formation. The geographic structure of refugees’ migratory flows to the EU is analyzed and the migration corridor dynamics is determined, in particular, it is found out that the overwhelming majority of refugees arrive to the EU through the Central and Eastern Mediterranean channels. In addition, It is determined that strengthening military and political instability in Africa and the Middle East, the tight policies and institutional mechanisms for crossing the EU's borders cause the increased flows of illegal migrants entering the EU in dangerous ways, in particular through the Mediterranean Sea, where a significant number of such persons, especially women and children, die. In addition, EU countries are structured by their migration policies (views on immigration, using of quantitative restrictions on immigration including highly skilled workers. As a result of the legal document study, the authors establish the system of documents identifying the institutional frameworks for the refugees’ and asylum seekers’ migratory flow management.

  2. Religion and International Migration: A Case Study of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationships between religion and migration in modern-day Ukraine. We focus on Ukraine’s numerous churches and their attitude toward the phenomenon of emigration, their relevant activities with regard to the outward migration from the country, and the migration experiences and intentions of the believers. We find that the Greek Catholic Church has put special attention on the emigration phenomenon in its social doctrine, while the doctrines of other churches have been less elaborate, both in general terms and with regard to the issue of external migration in particular. Moreover, we demonstrate that worshippers belonging to the different churches have very similar growing concerns about the negative effects of Ukraine’s economic development—social divide and unemployment in particular.

  3. Understanding how emergencies affect internal migration in Costa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-08

    Jun 8, 2016 ... ... under the Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ... and, as this research found, will in turn have an impact on migration patterns. ... Balancing trade-offs for wastewater treatment in Mexico City.

  4. Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    term migration of (usually skilled) workers and the second is the high-frequency short-term cross-border movement of (mostly unskilled) workers. The two streams have different policy implications and require different management arrangements.

  5. Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Hirvonen

    2015-01-01

    Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...

  6. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ...dynamics of migration.”22 Whether migration during these times was pushed by the regime for increased industrialization or an increase in food ...to ensure there was enough food to feed the growing industrial centers and urban population.49 It was during the first five-year plan that this policy

  7. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  8. Internal Migration and Life Satisfaction: Well-Being Effects of Moving as a Young Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Switek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Migration typically leads to higher income, but its association with life satisfaction remains unclear. Is migration accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction? If it is, is the increase in income responsible or are other life domains driving the satisfaction changes? These two questions are addressed using longitudinal data from a Swedish Young Adult Panel Study for 1999 and 2009. Comparing migrants to non-migrants, it is found that internal migration is accompanied by an increase in li...

  9. First wide-angle view of channelized turbidity currents links migrating cyclic steps to flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Clarke, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Field observations of turbidity currents remain scarce, and thus there is continued debate about their internal structure and how they modify underlying bedforms. Here, I present the results of a new imaging method that examines multiple surge-like turbidity currents within a delta front channel, as they pass over crescent-shaped bedforms. Seven discrete flows over a 2-h period vary in speed from 0.5 to 3.0 ms−1. Only flows that exhibit a distinct acoustically attenuating layer at the base, appear to cause bedform migration. That layer thickens abruptly downstream of the bottom of the lee slope of the bedform, and the upper surface of the layer fluctuates rapidly at that point. The basal layer is inferred to reflect a strong near-bed gradient in density and the thickening is interpreted as a hydraulic jump. These results represent field-scale flow observations in support of a cyclic step origin of crescent-shaped bedforms. PMID:27283503

  10. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future

  11. MIGRATION '03: 9th International Conference on Chemistry and Migration Behavior of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Young; Hahn, Pil Soo; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Kim, Seung

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of this report are overview of the chemistry and migration behavior of actinide for the HLW disposal safety assessment and to summarise the present status of actinide science and future developments. Actinides in HLW are very toxic and long-life time radionuclides. Therefore, the understanding of their characteristics and reaction behaviors in the deep subsurface environment is necessary for improving the reliability of HLW disposal safety assessment. This report presents an overview of the recent developments in the fundamental chemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems, their interactions and migration in the geosphere, and the processes involved in modeling their geochemical behavior for the high level radioactive waste management. In addition, the thesis presented in MIGRATION '03 conference were described briefly. Actinide science in relation to the HLW disposal management can be classified into three main subjects; aquatic chemistry of actinides and fission products, migration behavior of radionuclides and geochemical and transport modeling. The radionuclides leached from waste forms are intruded into human environment along the groundwater flowing in the fracture around the waster disposal facility. To analyze and predict such radionuclide migration phenomena, the data that were obtained from well defined condition are required. Data obtained from studies on the chemical behaviors of actinide elements and fission products in the groundwater are essential in the safety assessment of HLW management. This report is intended to suggest the direction of R and D in actinide chemistry for the national program of HLW management in future.

  12. Internal migration and unemployment in Germany: an Anglo-Irish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, M; Newell, A

    1993-01-01

    "The paper analyzes the effect on the migration rate of a number of labour market variables; in particular, relative wage levels and growth rates, and the relative unemployment rates in the home and foreign country. We study the Ireland-U.K. migration rate and use the estimates to predict migration between the two parts of unified Germany. We conclude that magnitudes of unemployment differences and wage differentials are such that currently observed substantial migration flows will not slow down for the forseeable future." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  13. The possibilities of least-squares migration of internally scattered seismic energy

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Approximate images of the earth’s subsurface structures are usually obtained by migrating surface seismic data. Least-squares migration, under the single-scattering assumption, is used as an iterative linearized inversion scheme to suppress migration artifacts, deconvolve the source signature, mitigate the acquisition fingerprint, and enhance the spatial resolution of migrated images. The problem with least-squares migration of primaries, however, is that it may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples, such as vertical and nearly vertical faults or salt flanks. To alleviate this problem, we adopted a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally scattered energy. We apply the least-squares migration of first-order internal multiples to image subsurface vertical fault planes. Tests on synthetic data demonstrated the ability of the proposed method to resolve vertical fault planes, which are poorly illuminated by the least-squares migration of primaries only. The proposed scheme is robust in the presence of white Gaussian observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault planes using inaccurate migration velocities. Our results suggested that the proposed least-squares imaging, under the double-scattering assumption, still retrieved the vertical fault planes when imaging the scattered data despite a slight defocusing of these events due to the presence of noise or velocity errors.

  14. The possibilities of least-squares migration of internally scattered seismic energy

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad; Turkiyyah, George; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Approximate images of the earth’s subsurface structures are usually obtained by migrating surface seismic data. Least-squares migration, under the single-scattering assumption, is used as an iterative linearized inversion scheme to suppress migration artifacts, deconvolve the source signature, mitigate the acquisition fingerprint, and enhance the spatial resolution of migrated images. The problem with least-squares migration of primaries, however, is that it may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples, such as vertical and nearly vertical faults or salt flanks. To alleviate this problem, we adopted a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally scattered energy. We apply the least-squares migration of first-order internal multiples to image subsurface vertical fault planes. Tests on synthetic data demonstrated the ability of the proposed method to resolve vertical fault planes, which are poorly illuminated by the least-squares migration of primaries only. The proposed scheme is robust in the presence of white Gaussian observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault planes using inaccurate migration velocities. Our results suggested that the proposed least-squares imaging, under the double-scattering assumption, still retrieved the vertical fault planes when imaging the scattered data despite a slight defocusing of these events due to the presence of noise or velocity errors.

  15. Migration Studies and Academic Research on International Migration Policies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the historical development of the field of migratory studies in Argentina and makes a review of the academic production around the so - called "migratory policies." The systematization of these studies, historically placed on migration policies, aims to highlight some of the most significant contributions of the research during the last 30 years, to understand or explain various aspects and dimensions of the Argentinean migration policy. To achieve this, texts were selected that derived from empirical research that explicitly assume the migratory policies as the object of study, or whose themes and research problems adopt as a framework for discussion the policies and practices aimed at regulating migration and mobility in Argentina. The organization and presentation of these selected texts consider issues related to the interests and thematic concerns, disciplinary and analytical approaches, distinct periods, scales of analysis and sources of information.

  16. International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: a cross-national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the dynamics of physician international migration patterns and identify the countries deviating most from expected migration rates. A negative binomial log-linear model of physician migration to the United States from every other country was constructed using a panel of country-level data for years 1994-2000. The model was used to identify factors associated with physician migration and to identify countries with higher or lower rates of physician migration than expected. Physician migration varied with a country's GDP per capita in an inverse-U pattern, with highest migration rates from middle-income countries. The absence of medical schools, immigrant networks in the United States, medical instruction in English, proximity to the United States, and the lack of political and civil liberties were also associated with higher migration rates. Countries with higher-than-predicted migration rates included Iceland, Albania, Armenia, Dominica, Lebanon, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Bulgaria. Countries with lower-than-predicted migration rates included Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Portugal, Senegal, and France. This analysis shows that many of the most powerful factors associated with physician migration are difficult or impossible for countries to change through public policy. GDP per capita and proximity to the U.S. are two of the most powerful predictors of physician migration. Networks of immigrants in the U.S. and fewer political and civil liberties also put countries at higher risk for physician emigration. Several other factors that were associated with physician migration might be more easily amenable to policy intervention. These factors include the absence of a medical school and medical instruction in English. Policies addressing these factors would involve making several difficult tradeoffs, however. Other examples of policies that are effective in minimizing physician migration might be found by examining countries with lower

  17. International migration in Asia and the Pacific: trends, problems, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Diaz, C

    1986-01-01

    Like other parts of the world, the Asia and Pacific region has experienced mass movements of the population within and across countries. This report presents the issues and problems discussed, and the recommendations given at the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific, held in 1984 in Manila. The 9 issues discussed include: 1) available data on international migration are often inconsistent, incomplete, and inadequate for a thorough analysis of the migration situation; 2) the conventional economic theory of migration, and the modern view are different, but related; 3) are internal and international migration 2 distinct phenomena, or are they simply opposite ends of a continuum ranging from short-distance moves within a country to long-distance moves across national boundaries?; 4) permanent migration from Asia and the Pacific to the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand has risen sharply over the the past few years; 5) international migration could have considerable effects on the size, composition, growth, and structure of the populations of both sending and receiving countries; 6) temporary labor migration to the Middle East increased rapidly in the recent past; 7) temporary labor migration has benefits and costs to the home country and to the returning workers and their families; 8) refugee movements within and from Asia have had significant repercussions, not only in the lives of the migrants themselves, but also in the national policies and social structures of the asylum countries; and 9) international migration, if properly controlled and organized, could work for the benefit of every country involved.

  18. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  19. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-10-14

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  20. Invisible barriers in international labour migration: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Why is labour mobility in the European Union so low? To shed light on this issue we focus and examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended labour migration of the Dutch is that its low level and the fact that it is strongly

  1. Invisible barriers in international labour migration : The case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Why is labour mobility in the European Union so low? To shed light on this issue we focus and examine international labour migration intentions of the Dutch potential labour force. A key characteristic of intended labour migration of the Dutch is that its low level and the fact that it is strongly

  2. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  3. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  4. Labor Market Determinants of Migration Flows in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.

  5. Impacts and Risks of Migration and Refugee Flows in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    sparsely forested hillsides. Such development not only accelerate deforestation and soil erosion, they also limit the water drainage capacity of...peace will indeed depend on addressing the underlying competition for water and fertile land,”12 Linking Migration, and Enviroment to Conflict13 The...An expanding population increases the demand on soils and intensifies deforestation as 17 inhabitants clear forest land for fuel wood and shelter

  6. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble. PMID:26958103

  7. Dateline Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  8. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  9. The causes of international labor migrations--a demand-determined approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, T

    1986-01-01

    The author first studies the reasons why people migrate using a neoclassical approach concerning income differentials. He tests this approach empirically and demonstrates its limits. A demand-determination approach based on human capital theory is then outlined to overcome these limits and to take into account restrictive immigration controls. Migration from Italy, Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Turkey to the European Community destination countries is examined. It is concluded that "the demand for immigrants in the destination country is the decisive condition for the phenomenon of international labor migration, and the supply of migration-willing workers is only a necessary condition." excerpt

  10. Human Capital Theory and Internal Migration: Do Average Outcomes Distort Our View of Migrant Motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W

    2017-05-01

    By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.

  11. Population turnover and churn: enhancing understanding of internal migration in Britain through measures of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Stillwell, John

    2008-01-01

    Net migration measures take account of the direction of migration flows, but our understanding of migration can be extended using population turnover and churn as measures of population stability. Turnover is a measure of the intensity of migration into and out of a district, whereas churn incorporates these flows and also includes the flows that take place within each district. Using districts of Britain and their type-based groupings, the highest levels of turnover and churn are found in London and some of the more dynamic urban areas, whereas the lowest levels are found in rural and previously industrial areas. Age has a significant effect on these measures with the population in their late teens and early twenties being the least stable and older populations being more stable.

  12. A comparative study of species migration and diffusion mechanisms in all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyeongmin; Won, Seongyeon; Ju, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Migration effects on crossover phenomena is examined. • Crossover and migration model is newly implemented. • Totally opposite crossover trend is observed with migration during charging. • During discharging, the crossover is enhanced due to migration. - ABSTRACT: According to the Nernst–Planck equation, the transport of charged species in porous electrodes is mainly driven by diffusion and migration. Although a number of all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) models have been developed by several VRFB modeling groups, a comparative study of these two ion transport mechanisms has not been clearly reported in the literature. In this study, we develop a three-dimensional (3-D), transient VRFB model that rigorously accounts for both diffusion and migration mechanisms of charged species, including V 2+ , V 3+ , VO 2+ ,VO 2 + and H + . The VRFB model relies upon five principles of conservation: mass, momentum, species, electric charge, and thermal energy. Due to the general form of the conservation equations, both species migration effects on species transport and species diffusion effects on charge transport are considered in the source terms of the model equations. The model calculates species migration and diffusion fluxes through the membrane and compares their relative magnitudes under various charging and discharging stages. This paper clearly elucidates the role of species migration on vanadium crossover and the subsequent capacity losses, demonstrating that the present VRFB model is a valuable tool for optimizing the component design and operation of VRFBs.

  13. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  14. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  15. The European Refugee Crisis from the Perspective of International Migration Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Tingting

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influx of refugees in Europe in 2015 has greatly increased, which not only affects the stability and unity of European society, but also exerts certain pressure on its economic development. In the face of the refugee crisis, it is a dilemma for the European countries to choose either humanitarian or national interests. Starting from the impact and challenge that international migration has had on effective governance within national boundaries, this paper uses the theories of international migration to analyze the three basic choices. Further, the authors provide a new way of thinking about the European refugee crisis from the perspective of international migration governance mechanisms. Of course, China should seize the opportunity to become an advocate of the international migration governance mechanism and rule maker of the global governance.

  16. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  17. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  18. Policy Options for Managing International Student Migration: The Sending Country's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Cate

    2008-01-01

    A consequence of the dramatic rise in international student mobility is the trend for international students to remain in the country in which they study after graduation. Countries such as Australia, the UK and Canada stand to benefit from international student migration, as they are able to fill skill shortages with locally trained foreign…

  19. Feminist Ethnography on International Migration: From Acculturation Studies to Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel V. Kosminsky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the book Italianos no mundo rural paulista, by João Baptista Borges Pereira (1974, one of the earliest Brazilian ethnographic international migration researches, based on the acculturation theory, in order to corroborate its contribution to the feminist ethnography. We focus on the use of gender as a central category on the international migration studies, thus empowering the Feminist Ethnography.

  20. The nexus between cross-border migration and international trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempted to unlock the conundrum of migration-trade relationship in Tanzania, using the country's migrant stock (diaspora) in the parts of the world. It also aimed to investigate how this effect, if at all exist, differs between developing and developed countries. The augmented gravity model of trade has been ...

  1. International Migration: The Search for Work. Worldwatch Paper 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Kathleen

    Approximately 20 million workers are presently living in countries other than their homelands in order to find better job opportunities. This labor migration is determined mainly by an income gap between the sending and receiving countries. Less important determinants are historical ties, cultural or linguistic affinity, and proximity. Emigrants…

  2. An Introduction to International Migration Studies: European Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniello, M.; Rath, J.; Martiniello, M.; Rath, J.

    2012-01-01

    No country in Europe is unaffected by migration, although its impact varies from place to place. Immigration is often associated with undermined social cohesion, urban crime, domestic insecurity and public health issues. Immigrants are increasingly regarded as a liability for the welfare state, for

  3. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J K

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a random sample of 431 temporary migrant workers from developing countries in Korea. Interviews were conducted from mid-October 1995 to mid-March 1996 with 105 Pakistanis, 77 Filipinos, 71 Sri Lankans, 67 Bangladeshi, 40 Indonesians, 26 individuals from Myanmar, 22 Chinese, 16 Nepalese, 2 Iranians, 2 Kazakstanians, 1 Malaysian, 1 Vietnamese, and 1 Ghanaian. Migration follows legal and illegal patterns. Legal trainee migrants leave before their contract time due to low pay, inadequate living conditions, forced overtime work, and lack of freedom. Trainees tend to be ethnic Koreans born in China and Chinese nationals. The number of illegal migrants is increasing. Foreign workers gain entry illegally through smuggling networks and legally through industrial work or tourist visas. Sample data reveal that the average age ranged from 26 to 32 years. Almost 70% were unmarried, and most were males. Filipinos tended to be older and show gender and marital balance. Age, marital status, religion, and education varied widely by ethnic group. Indonesians and Sri Lankans had lower household income than Pakistanis and Filipinos. Pakistanis tended to come from larger families. Total travel costs ranged from $3000 to $5000. Korea is one of four rapidly developing countries that shifted from being a major exporter of labor to a major importer of workers. Shortages of workers accompanied the shift. This case study illustrates that the traditional structural paradigm does not explain some unique features of international labor migration (ILM) in Asia, including the encouragement of illegal migration. The clandestine networks are different from those in developed countries. State policies mediate the flow of ILM.

  4. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  5. RISKS AND CONTRADICTORY OF INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL FLOWS IN BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of the international capital flows are studied, its contradictor influence on global and national processes. Some theoretical approaches on contradictory impact of capital flows. The major risks of international capital flows in banking sector are determined including financial, currency, assets value decrease, credit rating etc. The capital flows reversal flows are explained. The modern changes of international capital flows to banking sector of Ukraine are discovered.

  6. Smoothing internal migration age profiles for comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age patterns are a key dimension to compare migration between countries and over time. Comparative metrics can be reliably computed only if data capture the underlying age distribution of migration. Model schedules, the prevailing smoothing method, fit a composite exponential function, but are sensitive to function selection and initial parameter setting. Although non-parametric alternatives exist, their performance is yet to be established. Objective: We compare cubic splines and kernel regressions against model schedules by assessingwhich method provides an accurate representation of the age profile and best performs on metrics for comparing aggregate age patterns. Methods: We use full population microdata for Chile to perform 1,000 Monte-Carlo simulations for nine sample sizes and two spatial scales. We use residual and graphic analysis to assess model performance on the age and intensity at which migration peaks and the evolution of migration age patterns. Results: Model schedules generate a better fit when (1 the expected distribution of the age profile is known a priori, (2 the pre-determined shape of the model schedule adequately describes the true age distribution, and (3 the component curves and initial parameter values can be correctly set. When any of these conditions is not met, kernel regressions and cubic splines offer more reliable alternatives. Conclusions: Smoothing models should be selected according to research aims, age profile characteristics, and sample size. Kernel regressions and cubic splines enable a precise representation of aggregate migration age profiles for most sample sizes, without requiring parameter setting or imposing a pre-determined distribution, and therefore facilitate objective comparison.

  7. International migration and sustainable human development in eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oucho, J O

    1995-01-01

    International migration in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) is rarely addressed in population and development policies or regional organizations, and regional organizations must in the articulation of sustainable shared development identify the role of international migration. Poor quality data on international migration hampers analysis. Sustainable, shared, and human development within the region are subregional issues. Permanent migration is characterized among ESA countries as increasing demographic ethnic pluralism that may result in redrawing of territorial boundaries and further population movement. Portuguese and Arab settlement and integration in eastern areas resulted in coexistence, while European immigration to South Africa resulted in racial segregation. Modern colonial settlement and the aftermath of political conflict resulted in independent countries after the 1960s and outmigration of nonAfrican groups. Much of the labor migration in ESA is unskilled workers moving to South African mining regions. Labor migration to Zimbabwe and Zambia declined after the 1960s. The formation of the Common Market for ESA and the potential merger with the Preferential Trade Area and South African Development Community is a key approach to integration of migration into regional cooperation and shared development. Refugee movements create the most problems. Prior to 1992 ESA countries accounted for 83.4% of refugees, particularly in Mozambique, Ethiopia, and Somalia. Some countries blame poor economic performance on the deluge of refugees. Illegal migration is currently detected because of the required work permits, but the adoption of the Common Market would obscure this phenomenon. Human development is affected most by migrations related to drought, labor migration to strong economic areas, and return migration. The Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development needs to become more active and establish better policies on nomadic and refugee movements and

  8. Internal migration of physicians who graduated in Brazil between 1980 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mario Cesar; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Dal Poz, Mario Roberto

    2018-05-02

    The internal migration of physicians from one place to another in the same country can unbalance the supply and distribution of these professionals in national health systems. In addition to economic, social and demographic issues, there are individual and professional factors associated with a physician's decision to migrate. In Brazil, there is an ongoing debate as to whether opening medicine programmes in the interior of the country can induce physicians to stay in these locations. This article examines the migration of physicians in Brazil based on the location of the medical schools from which they graduated. A cross-sectional design based on secondary data of 275,801 physicians registered in the Regional Councils of Medicine (Conselhos Regionais de Medicina-CRMs) who graduated between 1980 and 2014. The evaluated outcome was migration, which was defined as moving away from the state where they completed the medicine programme to another state where they currently work or live. 57.3% of the physicians in the study migrated. The probability of migration ratio was greater in small grouped municipalities and lower in state capitals. 93.4% of the physicians who trained in schools located in cities with less than 100,000 inhabitants migrated. Fewer women (54.2%) migrated than men (60.0%). More than half of the physicians who graduated between 1980 and 2014 are in federative units different from the unit in which they graduated. Individual factors, such as age, gender, time of graduation and specialty, vary between the physicians who did or did not migrate. The probability of migration ratio was greater in small municipalities of the Southeast region and strong in the states of Tocantins, Acre and Santa Catarina. New studies are recommended to deepen understanding of the factors related to the internal migration and non-migration of physicians to improve human resource for health policies.

  9. Selection and network effects - Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on immigration flows into the OECD countries during the period 1990-2000. Our results indicate that network effects are strong, but vary between different groups of welfare states and between countries according to the type of immigration policy being applie...... a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  10. The International Migration of Population in the Current Phase: Tendencies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the characteristics of contemporary international migration of population. It has been shown that international migration encompasses all countries over the world and is an important constituent of the globalization of the world-wide economy. Tendencies in the international migration have been described by regions of the world and by type of country. It has been shown that a concentration of international migrants is present in a relatively small number of world countries, while the developed world is more attractive to migrants than the developing countries. The structure of migrants by sex and age has been considered and the most attractive regions for the migration of women and men have been identified. The problems and tendencies of the forced migration of population have been identified. It has been determined that, in many developed countries, the migration inflow of population will increase in importance in the demographic situation. The need to develop a migration policy in the regions of different hierarchical levels and to implement it in practice has been indicated.

  11. Migration Flow and Its Impact on Tuberculosis Notification in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana; Gaio, Rita; Sousa, Pedro; Gomes, Marta; Oliveira, Olena; Duarte, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis notification in Portugal has decreased in the last few years. As a consequence of the economic crisis, emigration has increased and immigration has decreased. Immigrants are a risk group for tuberculosis. Most emigrants are 20-44 years old and belong to the age group most affected by tuberculosis. To describe the decrease in tuberculosis notification in Portugal over the last years from a demographical point of view. Mathematical analysis was performed to quantify the effect of the migration movements (separately and simultaneously) on tuberculosis notification in Portugal from 2008 to 2014. We calculated the estimated tuberculosis notification for each year during the period of study: 1) fixing immigration rate and tuberculosis rate in immigrants at 2008 values; 2) fixing emigration rate and tuberculosis rate in emigrants at 2008 values; 3) fixing both phenomenons at 2008 values. The differences between the observed and the estimated numbers were small (≤0.5 cases/100000 inhabitants). Impact of the migration movements on tuberculosis notification rate does not seem to be significant when analyzed for each phenomenon individually and simultaneously, by our model. This might mean that we have to concentrate our efforts in other risk factors for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  13. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migrat...

  14. Modelling of flow and contaminant migration in single rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.; Joensson, L.

    1990-03-01

    The report deals with flow and hydrodynamic dispersion of a nonreactive contaminant in a single, irregularly shaped fracture. The main purpose of the report is to describe the basis and development of a computational 'tool' for simulating the aperture geometry of a single fracture and the detailed flow in it. On the basis of this flow information further properties of the fracture can be studied. Some initial application to dispersion of a nonreactive contaminant are thus discussed. The spatial pattern of variation of the fracture aperture is considered as a two-dimensional stochastic process. A method for simulation of such a process is described. The stochastic properties can be chosen arbitrarily. It is assumed that the fracture aperture belongs to a log-normal distribution. For calculation of the flow pattern, the Navier-Stokes equations are simplified to describe low velocity and steady-state flow. These equations, and the continuity equation are integrated in the direction across the fracture plane. A stream function, which describes the integrated flow in the fracture, is defined. A second order partial differential equation, with respect to the stream function, is established and solved by the finite difference method. Isolines for the stream function define boundaries between channels with equal flow rates. The travel time for each channel can be calculated to achieve a measure of the dispersion. The impact of the aperture distribution on the ratio between the mass balance fracture aperture and the cubic law fracture aperture is shown by simple examples. (28 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.)

  15. Bending the urban flow: a construction-migration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1980-01-01

    The excess rate of migration to urban centers is a problem affecting over 50 developing countries and 18 developed ones (68% of the world's population). Policies that rely on compulsion or disincentives have mostly failed because they do not deal with the cause of the problem. This paper proposes a strategy of increasing or decreasing the rate of housing construction in different urban areas as a means of stimulating or reducing migration to those areas; in most developing areas priority is given to residential construction in already congested metropolitan areas. 5 assumptions are the basis for this approach: 1) migrants tend to gravitate to the most powerful growth poles; 2) residential construction is a leading sector of regional and urban economies; 3) the encouragement of construction activity will make itself felt indirectly via its effect on construction-related employment; 4) rates of residential construction may be manipulated through government policy affecting the cost of materials, availability of loans, level of unionization, and price of housing; and 5) residential construction is amenable to quick policy action. The central idea of the strategy is that an increase in residential construction will exercise a pull on migrants, increasing job opportunities, raising incomes, lowering housing costs, and improving the chances of home ownership. This idea has been verified by various projects in Hong Kong, Ghana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bahrain, Mexico, Colombia, Poland, USSR, and the UK. In Bahrain low-income housing programs have been used to relocate Bahraini nationals in new outlying suburbs and to promote population growth in rural villages. In Mexico self-help and low-income housing programs have helped to redirect migrants headed for small towns toward smaller communities. There is also evidence to show that building construction has the potential to expand and contribute to economic growth. Some problems of implementation might be finding an adequate

  16. An integrative review of the role of remittances in international nurse migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allison Squires,1 Angela Amico2 1College of Nursing, 2Global Institute of Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: This review seeks to understand the role of remittances in international nurse migration within the context of three theories of international migration: equilibrium approaches, social networks, and globalization. To analyze the phenomenon, an integrative review of the literature was conducted. Search terms sought articles discussing, either directly or indirectly, remittances and international nurse migration. The initial search returned 369 articles, and further screening decreased the total to 65. Full text screening reduced the final number for the analysis to 48. A directed content analysis structured the analytic approach by examining how authors discussed remittances in the content and context of the paper. The final analysis showed the majority of papers were policy analyses (five; opinion papers, reviews, or editorials that indirectly discussed remittances (27; or were qualitative and quantitative studies (16, either with primary data collection (14 or secondary data analyses (two. Overall, a nurse’s individual motivation for sending remittances home stemmed from familial factors but was never a primary driver of migration. Domestic labor market factors were more likely to drive nurses to migrate. The nurse’s country of origin also was a factor in the remittance dynamic. The identity of the author of the paper played a role in how they discussed remittances in the context of international nurse migration. The three theories of migration helped explain various aspects of the role of remittances in international nursing migration. While the phenomenon has changed since the 2008 global economic crisis and the passing of the World Health Organization’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel in 2010, future research around the role of remittances needs to

  17. Migrants' dreams and planners' nightmares: international labour migration in the Arab world and the growth of two sets of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, A M

    1985-11-01

    "The author investigates how trends in international labour migration in the Arab world have been paralleled by new directions in migration research....[She] seeks to evaluate why the urban impact of international migration is so great and outlines the considerable potential which exists for pursuing research on this aspect of urban development." excerpt

  18. From east to west. Enlargement and migration flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ferrero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold produced migratory flows of an economic type in the direction East-West Although the exchange and movement of populations in Europe is nothing new, what was new was the change in the underlying philosophy. The change of paradigm from a world with two opposing poles to one with an hegemonic power, shattered all the schemes that until then were taken for granted. Since the fall of the Berlin wall the issue was no longer to take in political refugies coming from the soviet block, butrather to regulate the flows coming from those countries in more and more numbers. In this paper we try to reconstruct the history of the development of control of the migratory flows coming from Central and Easter Europe towards the European Union before,during and after the enlowgement processes which have taken place in 2004 and 2007.

  19. Internal migration and the health of the returned population: a nationally representative study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Guoying; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-07-28

    China had 236 million internal migrants in 2012 and the majority of them migrated from rural to urban areas. The research based on medical and epidemical records found that the migrants had worse health than the urban residents, but the household and working place investigations reported better health status. The sick or unhealthy migrants are likely to return to their hometowns, which in turn may cause a report bias or over-estimation of the health status of rural-to-urban migrants in China. This paper explores the association of migration status and the physical and psychological health of Chinese internal migrants. Nationally representative household survey data from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2012 (CLDS) were used to analyze the association between the migration status and the health status of internal migrants in China. Migration status of the respondents was measured by hukou status and migration experience and all respondents were divided into four groups: returned population, migrant population, urban residents, and rural residents. Health status of respondents was measured by self-reported physical and psychological health. Migration experience was associated with the physical health of the returned population. The physical health of the returned population was worse than the migrant population and was distinguished by age and sex. The physical health status of migrant population was significantly better than rural residents, but not significantly better than urban residents. However, the association between migration status and psychological health was not statistically significant. Besides migration status, the socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive correlation with both physical and psychological health status, while occupational hazards exerted negative influence. The results indicate a tight association between migration experience and health status. The internal unhealthy migrants were more likely to return to their hometown and the

  20. Optimization of internal migration as a mechanism for solving the problems of monotowns in Sverdlovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Vladimirovna Nekrasova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of single-industry towns and their solutions are reviewed in this paper. The analysis of internal mobility of the population of Russia on the basis of sociological research and Gallup International Research Institute of the family is made. The necessity of optimization of commuting between the territories of the municipal level to address the one-company towns is underlined. A mathematical model for the optimization of the problem of migration flows between the territories of the municipal level for commuting by road was developed. Testing was conducted on a model example of the six type-representative singleindustry towns of Sverdlovsk region (Revdinskiy district, VerkhnyayaPyshma, towns of Krasnoturinsk, Krasnouralsk, Serov and Sukhoi Log. Taking into account the current situation on the labor market and future labor requirements, a division of municipalities in the territory of employment and departure of migrants was performed under consideration. An optimal plan was constructed in areas of employment in company towns of Sverdlovsk region, which is designed to implement the scheme of traffic from the north to the south of Sverdlovsk region with the organization of interchange hub in the city of Yekaterinburg.

  1. CFD investigation of flow through internally riffled boiler tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian; Houbak, Niels; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements.......In this paper we show how to model the swirling flow in an internally riffled boiler tube. The flow field is visualized and the results are compared with measurements....

  2. The Determinants of International News Flow: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmo; Barnett, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure of international news flow and its determinants. Reveals inequality of international news flow between core and periphery, with Western industrialized countries at the center. Finds that the news flow network is structured into eight geographic-linguistic groups. Indicates flow is influenced by a country's economic…

  3. Leading tip drives soma translocation via forward F-actin flow during neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhang, Zheng-hong; Guan, Chen-bing; Xia, Di; Yuan, Xiao-bing

    2010-08-11

    Neuronal migration involves coordinated extension of the leading process and translocation of the soma, but the relative contribution of different subcellular regions, including the leading process and cell rear, in driving soma translocation remains unclear. By local manipulation of cytoskeletal components in restricted regions of cultured neurons, we examined the molecular machinery underlying the generation of traction force for soma translocation during neuronal migration. In actively migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture, a growth cone (GC)-like structure at the leading tip exhibits high dynamics, and severing the tip or disrupting its dynamics suppressed soma translocation within minutes. Soma translocation was also suppressed by local disruption of F-actin along the leading process but not at the soma, whereas disrupting microtubules along the leading process or at the soma accelerated soma translocation. Fluorescent speckle microscopy using GFP-alpha-actinin showed that a forward F-actin flow along the leading process correlated with and was required for soma translocation, and such F-actin flow depended on myosin II activity. In migrating neurons, myosin II activity was high at the leading tip but low at the soma, and increasing or decreasing this front-to-rear difference accelerated or impeded soma advance. Thus, the tip of the leading process actively pulls the soma forward during neuronal migration through a myosin II-dependent forward F-actin flow along the leading process.

  4. Internal migration and occupational achievement in Mexico city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Santiago Hernández

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect of migration status on labor market insertion and occupational achievement. It is of interest to know whether the observed differences between people with a different migration status (from first-generation rural migrants to natives are due to their migratory condition per se or other sociodemographic variables associated with their status that could put migrants at disadvantage in the labor market of Mexico City. We elaborate on this by using data from the Survey on Inequality and Social Mobility in Mexico City, 2009. Unlike studies of major Mexican cities during the import substitution model, wich as sumed that upward occupational mobility rates benefited almost equally the born and raised in the city and the rural migrants our results suggest the opposite: that migrants do poorly, but not for the fact that they are migrants, but because they tend to have lower economic, cultural and social capital attributes in their families of origin due to certain factors that leave them unable to capitalize on their efforts to achieve an educational and occupational performance similar or superior to that of the natives. A suggestive finding is that, even after controlling for the disadvantageous social background, female rural migrants show a consistently unfavorable performance when compared to the native women of Mexico City.

  5. Internal migration of Canadian immigrants, 1993–2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. King; K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs). Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion acr...

  6. Lived Experiences of Indian International Students: Migration, Acculturation, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukthyala, Suguna

    2013-01-01

    The student demographics in American universities have been changing in recent years and the result is a rapidly increasing enrollment of international students. In particular, the Indian international student population has grown to be the second largest, with over 100,000 students enrolling at post-secondary educational institutions across the…

  7. International migration among Egyptian elites: where they've been; where they're going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, R R

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of the international migration of Egypt's urban educated elite are examined using data from a 1987 survey of 874 Egyptian university students. "Specific questions considered are: What has been the migration experience of these elites? In what ways has this experience changed over time and what changes are likely to occur in the future? What are some of the characteristics of the potential participants in these changes? How do answers to these questions vary among different segments of this elite and what can be inferred about the class nature of Egyptian migration processes?" excerpt

  8. FROM EXCLUSION TO INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OF LATINO YOUTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez R, Magaly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I refer to structural tendencies reflected in the responses of excluded Latinos youths, who range from street children to radical youths (gangs or not) and finally to migrants. The latter, face unusual challenges as a result of being undocumented, forcing them to pursue mobility within a formal system that blocks their way. I review these tendencies through a "positive" lens, focusing mainly on Latino youth who are using different strategies to fight social exclusion. I aim to raise the paradoxical temporality , which indicates that as we learn and analyze more, we tend to move further away from the possibility of transforming pressing problems in society. I raise the question of how to intervene using more knowledge in the alarming situation of one of the most excluded social groups, Latino Youth and also of how to alert and visualize ways of integrating those youth who migrate and become undocumented.

  9. Groundwater flow and tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground to Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.; Harris, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation are twofold. The initial goal is to devise and demonstrate a technique for directly incorporating fine-scale lithologic data into heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, for improved groundwater flow and contaminant transport model accuracy. The ultimate goal is to rigorously simulate past and future tritium migration from the SRS Old Burial Ground towards Fourmile Branch, to better understand the effects of various remediation alternatives such as no action and capping. Large-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity is usually the main influence on field-scale groundwater flow patterns and dispersive transport, following the relative locations of recharge and discharge areas. Incorporating realistic hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity into flow and transport models is paramount to accurate simulations, particularly for contaminant migration. Sediment lithologic descriptions and geophysical logs typically offer finer spatial resolution, and therefore more potential information about heterogeneity, than other site characterization data

  10. Modelling internal migration in Kenya: an econometric analysis with limited data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, G M; Milne, W J

    1988-09-01

    "In this paper the determinants of internal migration in Kenya are analyzed on the basis of a human capital model. Explanatory variables included in the specification are both economic (wage rates and employment rates) and noneconomic (for example, population density and educational attainment). Also incorporated are variables which reflect intervening opportunities.... The econometric results show that destination variables are important determinants of internal migration, as is distance between the districts. Further, the variables for the intervening opportunities add significantly to the explanatory power of the model." excerpt

  11. Internal migration of Canadian immigrants, 1993–2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. King

    2011-12-01

    migration modeling results may differ when pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion across Canada, with the foreign-born primarily choosing one of the three immigrant gateway cities of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, or moving to other relatively large CMAs.

  12. Trends in the International Academic Migration: A Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mihi-Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyses how undergraduate students’ mobility has changed after the last economics recession. Research Design & Methods: The study analysed the last data about public and private Universities of higher education system of Spain comparing it at international level in order to find the problems and challenges of the last few years. Findings: The results showed significant imbalances in mobile students’ trends by home and host region, especially after a deep restructuration of the higher education system of Spain due to the last crisis. In particular there are substantial differences in tuition fees, scholarships, number of teachers and their skills according to the region and type of university. Consequently international inflows and international study programs and agreements became very important. Implications & Recommendations: A growing number of students who study abroad, especially after the economic collapse of 2008, represents an excellent opportunity for the host countries due to an incomes growth and recruitment opportunities of highly skilled workers. Therefore to adapt the academic offer taking in account the language, needs and diversity of mobile students would increase their number. Also to increase the highly skilled teachers could help to attract these mobile students, and it would improve the quality of higher education system too. Contribution & Value Added: This research provided a value information to understand the current problems, challenges, changes and opportunities of the higher education mobility through the analysis of the case of Spain and international comparisons.

  13. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-04-25

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending ~20 m towards the wave trough and descending from the wave crest. At the trough, the downward displacement of upper waters and the upward migration of fish created an overlapping zone. Near-bottom fish correspondingly left the benthic boundary zone at the wave trough, ascending into an acoustic scattering layer likely consisting of zooplankton and then descending to the benthic boundary zone at the wave crest. We suggest that this vertical fish migration is a response to fluctuations in light intensity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude caused by shading from a turbid surface layer that had chlorophyll a values of 3 to 4 mg m−3 and varied in thickness from ~15 to 50 m at a temporal scale corresponding to the internal wave period (30 min). This migration frequency thus is much higher than that of the common and widespread light-associated diel vertical migration. Vertical movements affect prey encounters, growth, and survival. We hypothesize that FVM increase the likelihood of prey encounters and the time for safe visual foraging among planktivorous fish, thereby contributing to efficient trophic transfer in major upwelling areas.

  14. Route optimisation and solving Zermelo’s navigation problem during long distance migration in cross flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hays, Graeme C.; Christensen, Asbjørn; Fossette, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The optimum path to follow when subjected to cross flows was first considered over 80 years ago by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo, in the context of a boat being displaced by ocean currents, and has become known as the ‘Zermelo navigation problem’. However, the ability of migrating animals...... to solve this problem has received limited consideration, even though wind and ocean currents cause the lateral displacement of flyers and swimmers, respectively, particularly during long-distance journeys of 1000s of kilometres. Here, we examine this problem by combining long-distance, open-ocean marine...... not follow the optimum (Zermelo's) route. Even though adult marine turtles regularly complete incredible long-distance migrations, these vertebrates primarily rely on course corrections when entering neritic waters during the final stages of migration. Our work introduces a new perspective in the analysis...

  15. Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z d /r p = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively

  16. Post war migration flows and disparities in mortality from age 50 onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    are an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepen the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality by socioeconomic...... status, from age 50 onwards, in Turin, one of the main industrial areas of the country, where many low educated individuals from the southern regions migrated to Turin with seeking jobs in the car factories. Migrants might be selected in terms of robustness because of the healthy migrant effect. However...

  17. LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN TERMS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUNEA DANIELA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies have a high dynamics because of the rapid fluctuations of macroeconomic variables and parameters. Moreover, globalization emphasises the interdependencies among national economies, increasing their production capacities but, at the same time, making them more vulnerable to external perturbations. Shocks resulting from this turmoil can be absorbed depending on the degree of macromarket flexibility: goods market, labour market and money market. This flexibility becomes even more important for the member states of some optimal currency areas (OCA because it considers both the mobility of production factors and the symmetry of business cycle transmission; i.e. the correlation of macroeconomic policies. The authors of this paper intend to analyse the situation of the internal mobility of workers as a basis for labour market flexibility.

  18. Harmonization by simulation: a contribution to comparable international migration statistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.

    2010-01-01

    In today's globalized world, there is increasing demand for reliable and comparable statistics on international migration. This book contributes to a more profound understanding of the effect of definitional variations on the figures that are reported.The framework developed here for the

  19. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  20. Internal Migration and Depressive Symptoms among Migrant Factory Workers in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Cheng, Jinquan; Griffiths, Sian M.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Hillier, Sheila; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in rural-urban migration in China over the last two decades but there are few studies on the mental health of Chinese internal migrants. This study assesses the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and their associated factors among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A questionnaire survey was sent to…

  1. Entry into working life : Internal migration and the job match quality of higher-educated graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, Viktor; Cörvers, Frank

    We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and

  2. Rethinking International Migration of Human Capital and Brain Circulation: The Case of Chinese-Canadian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachford, Dongyan Ru; Zhang, Bailing

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of brain circulation through a historical review of the debates over international migration of human capital and a case study on Chinese-Canadian academics. Interviews with 22 Chinese-Canadian professors who originally came from China provide rich data regarding the possibilities and problems of the contemporary…

  3. International Climate Migration: Evidence for the Climate Inhibitor Mechanism and the Agricultural Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia

    2017-05-01

    Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season.

  4. International Climate Migration: Evidence for the Climate Inhibitor Mechanism and the Agricultural Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia

    2016-01-01

    Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season. PMID:28943813

  5. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  6. Internal Migration and Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Middle Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana KC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The movement of rural households from remote uplands to valley floors and to semiurban and urban areas (internal migration is a common phenomenon in the middle mountain districts of Nepal. Understanding the causes and effects of internal migration is critical to the development and implementation of policies that promote land use planning and sustainable resource management. Using geospatial information technologies and social research methods, we investigated the causes and effects of internal migration on land use and land cover patterns in a western mountain district of Nepal between 1998 and 2013. The results show a decreasing number of households at high elevations (above 1400 m, where an increase in forest cover has been observed with a consequent decrease in agricultural land and shrub- or grassland. At lower elevations (below 1400 m, forest cover has remained constant over the last 25 years, and the agricultural land area has increased but has become geometrically complex to meet the diverse needs and living requirements of the growing population. Our findings indicate that internal migration plays an important role in shaping land use and land cover change in the middle mountains of Nepal and largely determines the resource management, utilization, and distribution patterns within a small geographic unit. Therefore, land use planning must take an integrated and interdisciplinary approach rather than considering social, environmental, and demographic information in isolation.

  7. Migration of international students and mobilizing skills in the MENA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses both the descriptive and comparative approaches to provide an overview of migration of international students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and mobilizing skills in the MENA Region. We fill the gap in the MENA literature and present a more comprehensive and

  8. Entry into working life: internal migration and the job match quality of higher-educated graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, V.; Cörvers, Frank

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and

  9. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Coulthard

    Full Text Available Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  10. Temporary International Labor Migration and Development in South and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosewarne, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Growing migrant worker remittances are regarded as an important and more reliable source of capital to finance development in South and Southeast Asia than international aid and foreign direct investment. International financial institutions (IFIs) have proselytized based on this promise and have represented the feminization of labor migration as injecting more momentum into developmental potential. Many Asian governments have been won over by this promise, establishing labor-export policies ...

  11. Economic, social and gender aspects of the international migration in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin VACULOVSCHI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International labor migration is one of the most marked phenomenon that characterize the current situation on the Moldovan labor market. Geographical and gender distribution in labor migration is largely determined by the type of work that provide migrant workers. Women migrate to provide domestic and care services abroad, delegating in the same time their responsibilities in this area to other people, leads to the constitution of so-called global care chains. Migration with the purpose of study in Moldova is accompanied by a negative phenomenon, of the departure of highly qualified specialists. International migration of highly skilled labor, known as "brain drain"clearly evokes a loss of intellectual capital. Moldova continues to be characterized as an origin country of human beings trafficking, being at lesser extent a country of transit of human trafficking victims from NIS countries to Europe. The lack of some measures from the Government on “human capital loss” problem will essentially reduce the chances of exit from the crisis.

  12. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr; Masbernat, O. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Laboratoire de Génie Chimique and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France); Climent, E. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France)

    2015-12-15

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.

  13. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M.; Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.

    2015-01-01

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section

  14. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  15. International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers how international migration of the head of household affects the allocation of resources toward boys relative to girls within households remaining in the home country. I address the endogeneity of migration with a differences-in-differences style regression model that compares those households in which migrants have already returned home with those in which migrants are still away. The evidence suggests that while the head of household is away a greater fraction of resources are spent on girls relative to boys, but upon his return, this pattern is reversed. PMID:23239896

  16. Taikongs and Calos: the role of middlemen and brokers in Javanese international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, E

    1994-01-01

    "This article discusses international migration from Java in the past and present and the role brokers have played in stimulating this movement. It describes legal and clandestine labor migration to Singapore, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia, the influence of employment brokers on the process, and the organization of the recruitment networks. The involvement of brokers is crucial but not always beneficial for the migrants. Migrants are dependent on the brokers and risk exploitation. In the case of movement to Saudi Arabia, there is a linkage with religious institutions and the Islamic pilgrimage." excerpt

  17. The macrodynamics of international migration as a socio-cultural diffusion process. Part B: applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantides, N D

    1992-12-01

    "This study formulates a model of the macrodynamics of international migration using a differential equation to capture the push-pull forces that propel it. The model's architecture rests on the functioning of information feedback between settled friends and family at the destination and potential emigrants at the origin.... Two specific paradigms of diverse nature serve to demonstrate the model's tenets and pertinence, one being Greek emigration to the United States since 1820, and the other total out-migration from Cyprus since statehood (1946)." excerpt

  18. μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J; Gaver, Donald P

    2009-08-01

    Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method.

  19. μ-PIV measurements of the ensemble flow fields surrounding a migrating semi-infinite bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Smith, Bradford J.; Gaver, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) measurements of ensemble flow fields surrounding a steadily-migrating semi-infinite bubble through the novel adaptation of a computer controlled linear motor flow control system. The system was programmed to generate a square wave velocity input in order to produce accurate constant bubble propagation repeatedly and effectively through a fused glass capillary tube. We present a novel technique for re-positioning of the coordinate axis to the bubble tip frame of reference in each instantaneous field through the analysis of the sudden change of standard deviation of centerline velocity profiles across the bubble interface. Ensemble averages were then computed in this bubble tip frame of reference. Combined fluid systems of water/air, glycerol/air, and glycerol/Si-oil were used to investigate flows comparable to computational simulations described in Smith and Gaver (2008) and to past experimental observations of interfacial shape. Fluorescent particle images were also analyzed to measure the residual film thickness trailing behind the bubble. The flow fields and film thickness agree very well with the computational simulations as well as existing experimental and analytical results. Particle accumulation and migration associated with the flow patterns near the bubble tip after long experimental durations are discussed as potential sources of error in the experimental method. PMID:23049158

  20. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  1. Time-dependent particle migration and margination in the pressure-driven channel flow of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qin M.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2018-03-01

    We present a theory to describe the time evolution of the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet concentration distributions in pressure-driven flow through a straight channel. This model is based on our previous theory for the steady-state distributions [Qi and Shaqfeh, Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093102 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093102] and captures the flow-induced nonuniformity of the concentrations of RBCs and platelets in the cross-flow direction. Starting with a uniform concentration, RBCs migrate away from the channel walls due to a shear-induced lift force and eventually reach steady state due to shear-induced diffusion, i.e., hydrodynamic "collisions" with other RBCs. On the other hand, platelets exit the cell-laden region due to RBC-platelet interactions and enter the cell-free layer, resulting in margination. To validate the theory, we also perform boundary integral simulations of blood flow in microchannels and directly compare various measureables between theory and simulation. The timescales associated with RBC migration and platelet margination are discussed in the context of the simulation and theory, and their importance in the function of microfluidic devices as well as the vascular network are elucidated. Due to the varying shear rate in pressure-driven flow and the wall-induced RBC lift, we report a separation of timescales for the transport in the near-wall region and in the bulk region. We also relate the transient problem to the axial variation of migration and margination, and we demonstrate how the relevant timescales can be used to predict corresponding entrance lengths. Our theory can serve as a fast and convenient alternative to large-scale simulations of these phenomena.

  2. Flow column experiments on the 152Eu migration in systems of loose sediments and water containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Wolf, M.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid transport of 152 in non-binding loose sediments of different grain sizes was investigated using a groundwater of the tertiary lignite of Northern Germany with a high humic acid concentration. The migration experiments were carried out in flow columns at natural filter flow rates and natural flow lengths [de

  3. Flow induced particle migration in fresh concrete: Theoretical frame, numerical simulations and experimental results on model fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, J.; Roussel, N.; Hattel, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare the various physical phenomena which potentially lead to flow induced particle migration in concrete. We show that, in the case of industrial casting of concrete, gravity induced particle migration dominates all other potential sources of heterogeneities ind...

  4. Parallel genetic algorithms with migration for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Belkadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses scheduling problems in hybrid flow shop-like systems with a migration parallel genetic algorithm (PGA_MIG. This parallel genetic algorithm model allows genetic diversity by the application of selection and reproduction mechanisms nearer to nature. The space structure of the population is modified by dividing it into disjoined subpopulations. From time to time, individuals are exchanged between the different subpopulations (migration. Influence of parameters and dedicated strategies are studied. These parameters are the number of independent subpopulations, the interconnection topology between subpopulations, the choice/replacement strategy of the migrant individuals, and the migration frequency. A comparison between the sequential and parallel version of genetic algorithm (GA is provided. This comparison relates to the quality of the solution and the execution time of the two versions. The efficiency of the parallel model highly depends on the parameters and especially on the migration frequency. In the same way this parallel model gives a significant improvement of computational time if it is implemented on a parallel architecture which offers an acceptable number of processors (as many processors as subpopulations.

  5. The Impact of International Migration on the Labor Market – A Case Study from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Oláh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political and social changes experienced globally in recent years have influenced international migration in various countries. The aim of our study is to present the economic and non-economic aspects which determine the quantitative evaluation of migration and to reveal which of the two main factor groups is more dominant. In January 2017, an online questionnaire survey was conducted on the subject of migration. The group of respondents consisted of 438 full-time BSc, MSc and PhD students in Hungarian higher education institutions. Based on these questionnaires, two independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA, factor analysis and binary logistic regression procedures were performed. Based on the findings obtained, it was concluded that anti-migration behaviour cannot be explicitly explained by its economic impacts on the labour market. The rejecting attitudes observed on behalf of certain respondents were not in significant correlation with their highest educational levels or their given social class. As a result of the statistical analysis performed, it was concluded that the integration of foreigners is hindered by the so-called socio-cultural barriers, which cannot be removed solely by economic policy measures. Social conflicts of interest have to be eliminated in order for migration to have an active and permanently positive impact on the economy.

  6. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  7. Internal Migration of Canadian Immigrants, 1993-2004: Evidence from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Newbold

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the 1993, 1996, and 1999 six-year panels of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics Master Files, the purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it examines the migration and distribution patterns of the foreign-born across Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs. Second, it examines how internal migration modeling results may differ whether pre- and post-migration measures are used. Results suggest that internal migration of the foreign-born generally does not increase their dispersion across Canada, with the foreign-born primarily choosing one of the three immigrant gateway cities of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, or moving to other relatively large CMAs.

  8. Internal flow measurement in transonic compressor by PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongqing; Wu, Huaiyu; Liu, Yin

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents some research works conducted in National Key Laboratory of Aircraft Engine of China on the shock containing supersonic flow measurement as well as the internal flow measurement of transoijc compressor by PIC technique. A kind of oil particles in diameter about 0.3 micrometers containing in the flow was discovered to be a very good seed for the PIV measurement of supersonic jet flow. The PIV measurement in over-expanded supersonic free jet and in the flow over wages show a very clear shock wave structure. In the PIV internal flow measurement of transonic compressor a kind of liquid particle of glycol was successful to be used as the seed. An illumination periscope with sheet forming optics was designed and manufactured, it leaded the laser shot generated from an integrate dual- cavity Nd:YAG laser of TSI PIV results of internal flow of an advanced low aspect ratio transonic compressor were shown and discussed briefly.

  9. 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    reduction in reacting flow . Registration DateRegistration TypeFirst Name Middle NameLast Name Affiliation US State /Canadian ProvinceState/Province/R gion...Report: 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...Agreement Number: W911NF-17-1-0121 Organization: Princeton University Title: 6th International Workshop on Model Reduction in Reactive Flow Report Term

  10. Network Dependency in Migration Flows – A Space-time Analysis for Germany since Re-unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    The contribution of this paper is to analyse the role of network interdependencies in a dynamic panel data model for German internal migration fl ows since re-unification. So far, a capacious account of spatial patterns in German migration data is still missing in the empirical literature. In the...

  11. [The migration crisis of the summer of 1994. Balance and perspectives of Cuban emigration flows: 1984-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Chavez, E

    1996-01-01

    "The article argues that the rafters crisis of 1994 and the resulting migration agreements between the United States and Cuba in 1994 and 1995 were a radical turn in policies and migration flows between the two countries. The article also describes the general evolution of Cuban migration flows towards the U.S. from the 1984 bilateral agreement up to 1996. As a context, it describes the structural elements of recent Cuban emigration and the place Cubans occupy in the general immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean." (EXCERPT)

  12. Peran International Organization for Migration (Iom) Dalam Mengatasi Perdagangan Manusia Di Indonesia Tahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    ", Afrizal; Arif, Ghani Wal

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of international organization for migration in antisipated human trafficking in Indonesia in 2010-2014. The growth of human trafficking case in Indonesia has incerase a significant, nowdays Indonesia as a state from and to a human trafficking. So the government of Indonesia have to do action to antisipation a case of human trafficking..The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects data from books, enc...

  13. The macrodynamics of international migration as a sociocultural diffusion process. Part A: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantides, N D

    1992-11-01

    "This study formulates a model of the macrodynamics of international migration using a differential equation to capture the push-pull forces that propel it. The model's architecture rests on the functioning of information feedback between settled friends and family at the destination and potential emigrants at the origin." The author tests the model using data on Greek emigration to the United States since 1820 and on total emigration from Cyprus since 1946. excerpt

  14. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHANGE IN LAND USE IN BELLA ESPERANZA, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An increase in international migration from the State of Veracruz, Mexico, in the decade of the 1990s, mostly occurred as a result of the agricultural crisis in the rural sector. The state coffee producing sector proved to be no exception to the impact of the recurring crises, caused by the fall in the price of coffee grain in the international market. Many coffee growers migrated to the USA to stave off their own economic collapse. This investigation aimed to analyze the relationship between the process of international migration and change in land use in the communal landholding of Bella Esperanza, Veracruz. For this purpose, historic documentation, interviews with 21 coffee producing families -some of which included migrants-, interviews with key informants and geographical information systems were all used. The main change in land use entailed the substitution of shaded coffee plantations for sugarcane monoculture, implying deforestation. Urban expansion was shown to be incipient, in spite of the significant amount of money transfers directed towards housing construction and the proximity of this “ejido” or communal landholding to the cities of Xalapa and Coatepec. These changes are mainly associated with the crisis involving this commodity, but they have been exacerbated by emigration of family members, who were once in charge of coffee production.

  15. Challenges faced by international nurses when migrating: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, L-X; Goh, Y-S

    2017-03-01

    Results from this literature review were used to identify the challenges faced by international nurses in their host countries following migration. The increasing strain of nursing shortages in the healthcare system has led to the recruitment of international nurses among many countries. However, following migration, international nurses are faced with challenges that may result in poor integration with their host countries. Using Cooper's five stages for integrative research reviews, a literature search was conducted across seven databases using a PRISMA search strategy. Additional manual searches were also conducted on the end-references of the retrieved articles. The authors then independently reviewed the selected articles using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal form to extract and generate the themes for the review. Twenty-four articles were selected for the review. The themes generated included: (i) difficulty orientating; (ii) a longing for what is missing; (iii) professional development and devaluing; (iv) communication barriers; (v) discrimination and marginalization; (vi) personal and professional differences; and (vii) a meaningful support system. By identifying the challenges faced by international nurses, interventions that ensure equal treatment (e.g. multifaceted transition programmes and culturally sensitive 'buddy' systems) can be implemented to help international nurses adapt to their new environments. Adequate communication can be achieved by encouraging international nurses to speak English and learn the colloquial language and non-verbal behaviours used by native nurses. With good integration international nurses may be able to reach their full career potential as professional nurses in their host countries. The adaptation process is a dynamic process that requires effort from both international and native nurses. Thus, any strategies that are developed and implemented must be multifaceted. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  16. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  17. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  18. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  19. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  20. Size-selective sorting in bubble streaming flows: Particle migration on fast time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    Steady streaming from ultrasonically driven microbubbles is an increasingly popular technique in microfluidics because such devices are easily manufactured and generate powerful and highly controllable flows. Combining streaming and Poiseuille transport flows allows for passive size-sensitive sorting at particle sizes and selectivities much smaller than the bubble radius. The crucial particle deflection and separation takes place over very small times (milliseconds) and length scales (20-30 microns) and can be rationalized using a simplified geometric mechanism. A quantitative theoretical description is achieved through the application of recent results on three-dimensional streaming flow field contributions. To develop a more fundamental understanding of the particle dynamics, we use high-speed photography of trajectories in polydisperse particle suspensions, recording the particle motion on the time scale of the bubble oscillation. Our data reveal the dependence of particle displacement on driving phase, particle size, oscillatory flow speed, and streaming speed. With this information, the effective repulsive force exerted by the bubble on the particle can be quantified, showing for the first time how fast, selective particle migration is effected in a streaming flow. We acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-1236141.

  1. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  2. Post-War Migration Flows and Disparities in Mortality from Age 50 Years Onwards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    these inequalities being an important social and geopolitical feature of an area, there is still little empirical evidence on this effect. This paper contributes to deepening the knowledge about this phenomenon by investigating whether post-war internal migration in Italy affected the pattern of mortality inequality...... effect. However, low-educated individuals are employed in heavier and riskier jobs. They thus undergo a faster health selection due to exposure to a higher mortality risk that selects the most robust individuals. This paper hypothesised that the interplay of these mechanisms might have produced...

  3. International Migration, US Immigration Law and Civil Society: From the Pre-Colonial Era to the 113th Congress (Edited by Leonir Mario Chiarello and Donald Kerwin, Scalabrini International Migration Network, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breana George

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available International Migration, US Immigration Law and Civil Society: From the Pre-Colonial Era to the 113th Congress, published by the Scalabrini International Migration Network in collaboration with the Center for Migration Studies of New York, offers an overview of immigration law and policy that contextualizes the present challenges in reaching policy consensus in the immigration debate. This book review highlights the debate on executive action in relation to a chapter on the evolution of US immigration laws by Charles Wheeler and a chapter on the role of civil society in immigration policymaking by Sara Campos. 

  4. OECD migration, welfare and skill selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    into 27 OECD countries over the period of 12 years, 1989-2000. Using a fixed effects panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows during the latest decade. We study whether there are significant selectivity effects in international migration flows, i.e. whether the countries...

  5. Prediction of radionuclide migration in the geosphere: is the porous-flow model adequate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Practically all models used today to describe radionuclide migration in geologic media are based on the concept of flow in porous media. Recently it has been questioned if Fickian dispersion is the most important dispersion mechanism. Field observations of dispersion indicate that the dispersion coefficient increases with observation distance. This should not be the case in a homogeneous porous medium. For a medium with essentially independent channels, on the other hand, such an effect can be predicted. In some calculated examples it is shown that the use of the Fickian dispersion mechanism will very seriously underestimate the radionuclide concentration at a point downstream if the spreading mechanism in reality is channelling. The consequences of the often-used assumption that the interaction between the radionuclides and the rock is instantaneous is also discussed. It has been shown that in sparsely fissured crystalline rock the whole rock mass will not be able to participate in the sorption reactions, because the radionuclides will not have time to penetrate all through the large blocks. On the other hand, the assumption that only the surface of the fissures interacts with the radionuclides is likely to be an extremely conservative assumption in view of some recent diffusion experiments in crystalline rocks performed in our laboratories and at the Canadian Geologic Survey. Some experimental results on radionuclide migration in a single natural fissure under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory are also presented and interpreted using a model which includes channelling, surface sorption, diffusion in the rock matrix and sorption in the rock matrix. Some implications of these mechanisms in predicting radionuclide migration in the geosphere are discussed and compared with what a porous-flow model would predict

  6. Internal causes of radon and its daughters upward migration and cluster phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Qiu Yuande; Hou Xinsheng; Wu Yunping; Zu Xiulan; Wang Xiaoqin

    1999-01-01

    Radon and its daughters have a very big specific gravity. But under laboratory conditions, they have the ability to migrate upward. The phenomenon can't be interpreted by an external cause but by an internal cause. The mechanism is that radon and most of its daughters and parents are decaying bodies able to radiate α-particles. After deceleration, 4He can combine with radon and its daughters and parents to form clusters. When the buoyancy of air is greater than the gravity of the clusters, self-ascending occurs. Accordingly, the distance that Rn covered during 3.825 days (Rn half-life) should not be regarded as Rn and its daughters migrating distance, but should be calculated according to all effects. That clusters can be formed by 4He, Rn and its daughters are valuable to study because of the similarity between Rn and heavy metal particles

  7. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  8. Mathematics of flexible risers including pressure and internal flow affects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyed, F.B. (John Brown Engineers and Constructors Ltd., London (GB)); Patel, M.H. (University Coll., London (GB). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Derivations are presented for calculation of pressure and internal flow induced forces on flexible risers and other curved pipes using a mathematically rigorous approach. Approximate and exact methods are presented for calculation of pressure forces on straight and curved pipes in two dimensions. The mathematical identity of these equations with those for effective tension is illustrated. The force arising from the flow of an internal fluid of constant density is then calculated and combined with those for pressure forces in derivation of the catenary equations including pressure and internal flow terms. It is shown that internal flow contributes a new term to the expression for effective tension. These governing equations are then reduced for the specific cases of simple catenary, steep-S, lazy-S, steep-wave and lazy-wave risers. In each case, the solution method has been presented and the governing equilibrium and geometric compatability conditions cited. (author).

  9. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  10. Performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z M; Choi, Y D

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle. In order to improve the performance of a cross flow turbine, the paper presents a numerical investigation of the turbine with air supply and discusses the influence of variable guide vane angle on the internal flow. A newly developed air supply from air suction Hole is adopted. To investigate the performance and internal flow of the cross-flow turbine, the CFD software based on the two-phase flow model is utilized. The numerical grids are made in two-dimensional geometry in order to shorten the time of two-phase calculations. Then a series of CFD analysis has been conducted in the range of different guide vane angle. Moreover, local output power is divided at different stages and the effect of air layer in each stage is examined

  11. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  12. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  13. Migration and religious (intolerance: Contribution to the studies regarding the impact of international migration and the perception of religious diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Odgers Ortiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.

  14. Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016, Third Edition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 attempts to present numbers and facts behind the stories of international migration and remittances, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. It provides a snapshot of statistics on immigration, emigration, skilled emigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 regional and income groups. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 updates the 2011 edition of the Factbook with additional data on bilateral migration and remittanc...

  15. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  16. Portal vein blood flow is related to characteristics of the migrating motor complex of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Troensegaard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To measure variation in portal blood flow during the interdigestive state in relation to the migrating motor complex (MMC) in healthy volunteers. Design: Portal blood flow was measured by a duplex and colour Doppler technique with 5-min intervals during an entire MMC cycle. Total....... Conclusion: Blood flow in the portal vein varies with the characteristics of the MMC, a relationship which must be considered in future studies in health and disease....

  17. The role of international migration in infectious diseases: the HIV epidemic and its trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sawada, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and its associated international migrations facilitate the spread of infectious diseases. This article reports trends in and discusses the relation between international migration and HIV infection in Japan. The authors analyze relevant literature, drawing on government and other sources. Among foreigners in Japan, there were 27.0 reported HIV and 9.3 reported AIDS cases per million in 1990, and 52.9 HIV and 38.8 AIDS cases per million in 2000. These rates were initially 45 to 90 times the population prevalence of HIV and AIDS among Japanese, but are now only 10 to 20 times the prevalence among Japanese, as HIV becomes an increasing problem for the Japanese population. HIV-infected foreigners who are uninsured are at a disadvantage for diagnosis, counseling, and treatment compared with insured persons, and at a significantly higher risk for low CD4 counts. For all sections of Japan's population, counseling and testing are inadequate, and surveillance of behavioral risk, infection, and disease is limited. International migrants are at increased risk for HIV transmission and at a disadvantage for care and treatment. Japan needs both to develop policies that assist migrants and to respond to the growing threat among its nonmigrant population.

  18. South Korea's Experience with International Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Noland

    2005-01-01

    South Korea%u2019s experience is unparalleled in its combination of sustained prosperity, capital controls, and financial crisis. Over several decades, South Korea experienced rapid sustained growth in the presence of capital controls. These controls and the de-linking of domestic and international financial markets were an essential component of the country's state-led development strategy. As the country developed, opportunities for easy technological catch-up eroded, requiring more sophist...

  19. Migration and self-esteem: a qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored educational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed that students encountered a variety of challenges in their new school environment including adaptation, language, low socioeconomic background, peer relations, discrimination, and bullying. These challenges seemed to have a direct or indirect influence on the educational experiences of migrant girls, undermining their self-esteem in multiple and complex ways.

  20. The Lewisian turning point and international migration: the case of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article critically examines the Lewisian turning point [concerning the availability of unlimited manpower resources] in light of Japan's experience since the mid-1800s. Japan reached its Lewisian turning point around 1960. Contrary to the assumptions of the theory however, the findings for Japan indicate that political factors have been more determinative of the rate of migration than purely economic ones. Prior to its turning point in 1960, international relations, war and forced repatriation were the decisive factors. Recently, though the inflow of foreign workers to fill labor shortages has increased, so also has the outflow of Japanese to accompany direct foreign investment." excerpt

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted/intact systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-03-01

    The international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted / intact systems was held at ENTRY, JAEA, Tokai on 21st - 23rd January, 2009. This workshop was hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as part of the project on the mechanistic model/database development for radionuclide sorption and diffusion behavior in compacted / intact systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop the mechanistic model / database for a consistent understanding and prediction of migration parameters and its uncertainties for performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The objective of the workshop is to integrate the state-of-the-art of mechanistic sorption and diffusion model in compacted / intact systems, especially in bentonite / clay systems, and discuss the JAEA's mechanistic approaches and future challenges, especially the following discussions points; 1) What's the status and difficulties for mechanistic model/database development? 2) What's the status and difficulties for applicability of mechanistic model to the compacted/intact system? 3) What's the status and difficulties for obtaining evidences for mechanistic model? 4) What's the status and difficulties for standardization of experimental methodology for batch sorption and diffusion? 5) What's the uncertainties of transport parameters in radionuclides migration analysis due to a lack of understanding/experimental methodologies, and how do we derive them? This report includes workshop program, overview and materials of each presentation, summary of discussions. (author)

  2. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.

  3. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented

  4. Internal flow of acoustically levitated drops undergoing sectorial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Yan, Z.L.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of fluid flow in acoustically levitated water drop undergoing sectorial oscillations. The fluid always flows between the extended sections and the compressed sections. The magnitude of fluid velocity decreases from the equatorial fringe to the centre of levitated drop. The maximum fluid velocity is 60-160 mm/s and the Reynolds number of the oscillations is estimated to be 137-367. The internal flow of the drop is analyzed as potential flow, and the fluid velocity is found to be horizontal. In the equatorial plane, the calculated stream lines and velocity profiles agree well with the experimental observations.

  5. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  6. Rapid grounding line migration induced by internal variability of a marine-terminating ice stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, A.; Schoof, C.; Tziperman, E.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have found significant variability in the velocity of ice streams to be a prominent feature of geomorphologic records in the Siple Coast (Catania et al. 2012) and other regions in West Antarctica (Dowdeswell et al. 2008). Observations indicate that grounding line position is strongly influenced by ice stream variability, producing rapid grounding line migration in the recent past (Catania et al. 2006) and the modern (Joughin & Tulaczyk 2002). We analyze the interaction of grounding line mass flux and position in a marine-terminating ice stream using a stretch-coordinate flowline model. This model is based on that described in Schoof (2007), with a mesh refined near the grounding line to ensure accurate resolution of the mechanical transition zone. Here we have added lateral shear stress (Dupont & Alley 2005) and an undrained plastic bed (Tulaczyk et al. 2000). The parameter dependence of ice stream variability seen in this model compares favorably to both simpler (Robel et al. 2013) and more complex (van der Wel et al. 2013) models, though with some key differences. We find that thermally-induced internal ice stream variability can cause very rapid grounding line migration even in the absence of retrograde bed slopes or external forcing. Activation waves propagate along the ice stream length and trigger periods of rapid grounding line migration. We compare the behavior of the grounding line due to internal ice stream variability to changes triggered externally at the grounding line such as the rapid disintegration of buttressing ice shelves. Implications for Heinrich events and the Marine Ice Sheet Instability are discussed.

  7. Selection or network effects? Migration flows into 27 OECD countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  8. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  9. Impact of kinetics and flow path heterogeneity on nanoparticle/radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Florian M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing PhD thesis experimentally investigates the impact of both sorption/desorption (reversibility) and reduction kinetics on radionuclide migration in synthetic and natural systems from the nano-to the centimeter scale. Furthermore, the impact of fracture heterogeneity on flow and solute/nanoparticle transport as a potential additional retardation mechanism is examined both on an experimental and numerical basis. The process of sorptive reduction of U(VI) to sparingly soluble tetravalent uranium by structural bound Fe(II) in magnetite shows fast kinetics (hours to a few days contact time). A clear correlation between the Fe(II) content on the magnetite surface and the amount of U(VI) was observed, that is, increasing U(IV) with increasing Fe(II). Moreover, a congruency between the measured Eh(SHE) and the U valence state can partly been derived within the analytical uncertainties of the redox potential measurements. Thus, secondary phases as the stainless steel corrosion product magnetite can have beneficial effects on radionuclide migration as an effective retardation pathway for redox sensitive radionuclides. Beside, the studies on U(VI) maghemite sorption show that oxidized surfaces can possess long-term reduction capacities further enhancing radionuclide retention. Concerning the colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport, the batch sorption reversibility studies revealed the significance of kinetically controlled radionuclide desorption from the colloidal phase and subsequent sorption to the fracture filling materials (independent of the mineralogy and/or size fraction). By this process, initially colloidal associated radionuclides like the tri-and tetravalent radionuclides Th, Pu and Am are effectively retarded leading to an increase in the residence time. These reversibility results need to be included in codes for simulating colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport to reduce the conservatism and degree of uncertainties in input parameters

  10. Impact of kinetics and flow path heterogeneity on nanoparticle/radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Florian M.

    2011-11-29

    The prevailing PhD thesis experimentally investigates the impact of both sorption/desorption (reversibility) and reduction kinetics on radionuclide migration in synthetic and natural systems from the nano-to the centimeter scale. Furthermore, the impact of fracture heterogeneity on flow and solute/nanoparticle transport as a potential additional retardation mechanism is examined both on an experimental and numerical basis. The process of sorptive reduction of U(VI) to sparingly soluble tetravalent uranium by structural bound Fe(II) in magnetite shows fast kinetics (hours to a few days contact time). A clear correlation between the Fe(II) content on the magnetite surface and the amount of U(VI) was observed, that is, increasing U(IV) with increasing Fe(II). Moreover, a congruency between the measured Eh(SHE) and the U valence state can partly been derived within the analytical uncertainties of the redox potential measurements. Thus, secondary phases as the stainless steel corrosion product magnetite can have beneficial effects on radionuclide migration as an effective retardation pathway for redox sensitive radionuclides. Beside, the studies on U(VI) maghemite sorption show that oxidized surfaces can possess long-term reduction capacities further enhancing radionuclide retention. Concerning the colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport, the batch sorption reversibility studies revealed the significance of kinetically controlled radionuclide desorption from the colloidal phase and subsequent sorption to the fracture filling materials (independent of the mineralogy and/or size fraction). By this process, initially colloidal associated radionuclides like the tri-and tetravalent radionuclides Th, Pu and Am are effectively retarded leading to an increase in the residence time. These reversibility results need to be included in codes for simulating colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport to reduce the conservatism and degree of uncertainties in input parameters

  11. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  12. International medical migration: a critical conceptual review of the global movements of doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradby, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    This paper critically appraises the discourse around international medical migration at the turn of the 21st century. A critical narrative review of a range of English-language sources, including grey literature, books and research reports, traces the development and spread of specific causative models. The attribution of causative relations between the movement of skilled medical workers, the provision of health care and population health outcomes illustrates how the global reach of biomedicine has to be understood in the context of local conditions. The need to understand migration as an aspect of uneven global development, rather than a delimited issue of manpower services management, is illustrated with reference to debates about 'brain drain' of Africa's health-care professionals, task-shifting and the crisis in health-care human resources. The widespread presumed cause of shortages of skilled health-care staff in sub-Saharan Africa was overdetermined by a compelling narrative of rich countries stealing poor countries' trained health-care professionals. This narrative promotes medical professional interests and ignores historical patterns of underinvestment in health-care systems and structures. Sociological theories of medicalization suggest that the international marketization of medical recruitment is a key site where the uneven global development of capital is at work. A radical reconfiguration of medical staffing along the lines of 'task-shifting' in rich and poor countries' health-care systems alike offers one means of thinking about global equity in access to quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. International medical students and migration: the missing dimension in Australian workforce planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Lesleyanne; Hamilton, Jan

    2010-09-06

    To investigate the potential contribution of international medical students at Australian universities to the Australian medical workforce. A prospective survey in 2006-2007 of 619 international medical students in their final 2 years of undergraduate- and graduate-entry medical courses across eight Australian universities, followed by a 2009 survey of 88 international medical graduates of the University of Melbourne (most of whom were respondents of the earlier survey), assessing the correlation between students' intended place of internship and their actual place of internship. The survey respondents' preferred internship location; the proportion of respondents who intended to remain in practice in Australia long term; and correlation between respondents' intended internship locations and actual placements in their first postgraduate year. Of the 619 international medical students surveyed in 2006, 358 (58%) responded. Most planned to undertake Australian internships and seek permanent-resident status, although a third were undecided about their long-term plans. Nationality was a highly significant variable. Most preferred city rather than regional or rural training locations and expressed interest in migrating to Australia. The 2009 survey of the University of Melbourne's 2008 medical graduates showed a high correlation between students' plans in their last two years of study and outcomes in their first postgraduate year, with 73% accepting Victorian internships for 2009. International medical students studying at Australian universities represent a substantial and highly acceptable medical workforce resource for Australia. Their requirement for internships needs to be considered in, and should influence, infrastructure planning.

  14. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  15. Globalization and migration: A "unified brain drain" model

    OpenAIRE

    Brezis, Elise S.; Soueri, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has led to a vast flow of migration of workers but also of students. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the migration of individuals encompassing decisions already at the level of education. We develop a unified brain drain model that incorporates the decisions of an individual vis - à - vis both education and migration. In the empirical part, this paper addresses international flows of migration within the EU and presents strong evidence of concentration of students in cou...

  16. Numerical simulation of internal flow in mixed-flow waterjet propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T T; Pan, Z Y; Zhang, D Q; Jia, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the internal flow characteristic of a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion, a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion under different conditions was simulated based on multi-reference frame(MRF), the standard k − ε turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The relationship between pump performance instability and internal flow was obtained. The numerical results showed that characteristic instability occurred at 0.65-0.67Q BEP , the reason is that the backflow on the vaned diffuser hub-side blocks the downstream flow from the impeller. Therefore, the flow separates on the pressure surface of the impeller outlet and a strong vortex is generated, then the characteristic instability appeared due to the instability of internal flow. Backflow was found in diffuser passage at 0.65 Q BEP and 0.85 Q BEP , as flow rate decreases, the backflow region and velocity increases. Pressure fluctuation at diffuser inlet and diffuser passages was severe at at 0.65 Q BEP . According to the numerical simulation, the mixed-flow waterjet propulsion has characteristic instability at partial flow rate condition.

  17. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  18. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  19. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  20. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer is control......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...

  1. Laboratory and field tests for radionuclide migration and high flow paths in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Nesirky, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two investigations have been undertaken in this programme. The principal investigation was at Culham Laboratory, England, where water flow within the Kimmeridge clay was measured. A subsidiary investigation at SCK/CEN was undertaken at the Underground Research Laboratory SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, where an in situ measurement of solute transport by diffusion was attempted. The in situ migration experiment at the Underground Research Laboratory at SCK/CEN Mol, Belgium, was unsuccessful, due to problems with the engineering installation. These difficulties caused significant disturbance to the Boom clay which was to be tested. Nevertheless the laboratory test proved the feasibility of the experiment. The field measurements at Culham Laboratory, Oxfordshire, were completed with the flow testing of a very silty clay horizon in the Kimmeridge clay. This layer was proved to be laterally continuous after drilling three exploratory boreholes. The hydraulic conductivity of the layer was ≥ 10 -8 ms -1 and comparative tests in the clay showed the conductivity of the clay to be at least 50 times less. 12 figs

  2. A porous flow approach to model thermal non-equilibrium applicable to melt migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Marquart, Gabriele; Grebe, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We develop an approach for heat exchange between a fluid and a solid phase of a porous medium where the temperatures of the fluid and matrix are not in thermal equilibrium. The formulation considers moving of the fluid within a resting or deforming porous matrix in an Eulerian coordinate system. The approach can be applied, for example, to partially molten systems or to brine transport in porous rocks. We start from an existing theory for heat exchange where the energy conservation equations for the fluid and the solid phases are separated and coupled by a heat exchange term. This term is extended to account for the full history of heat exchange. It depends on the microscopic geometry of the fluid phase. For the case of solid containing hot, fluid-filled channels, we derive an expression based on a time-dependent Fourier approach for periodic half-waves. On the macroscopic scale, the temporal evolution of the heat exchange leads to a convolution integral along the flow path of the solid, which simplifies considerably in case of a resting matrix. The evolution of the temperature in both phases with time is derived by inserting the heat exchange term into the energy equations. We explore the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between fluid and solid by considering simple cases with sudden temperature differences between fluid and solid as initial or boundary conditions, and by varying the fluid velocity with respect to the resting porous solid. Our results agree well with an analytical solution for non-moving fluid and solid. The temperature difference between solid and fluid depends on the Peclet number based on the Darcy velocity. For Peclet numbers larger than 1, the temperature difference after one diffusion time reaches 5 per cent of \\tilde{T} or more (\\tilde{T} is a scaling temperature, e.g. the initial temperature difference). Thus, our results imply that thermal non-equilibrium can play an important role for melt migration through partially molten systems

  3. Migration, foraging, and residency patterns for Northern Gulf loggerheads: implications of local threats and international movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Hart

    Full Text Available Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM loggerheads (Caretta caretta make up one of the smallest subpopulations of this threatened species and have declining nest numbers. We used satellite telemetry and a switching state-space model to identify distinct foraging areas used by 59 NGoM loggerheads tagged during 2010-2013. We tagged turtles after nesting at three sites, 1 in Alabama (Gulf Shores; n = 37 and 2 in Florida (St. Joseph Peninsula; n = 20 and Eglin Air Force Base; n = 2. Peak migration time was 22 July to 9 August during which >40% of turtles were in migration mode; the mean post-nesting migration period was 23.0 d (±13.8 d SD. After displacement from nesting beaches, 44 turtles traveled to foraging sites where they remained resident throughout tracking durations. Selected foraging locations were variable distances from tagging sites, and in 5 geographic regions; no turtles selected foraging sites outside the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Foraging sites delineated using 50% kernel density estimation were located a mean distance of 47.6 km from land and in water with mean depth of -32.5 m; other foraging sites, delineated using minimum convex polygons, were located a mean distance of 43.0 km from land and in water with a mean depth of -24.9 m. Foraging sites overlapped with known trawling activities, oil and gas extraction activities, and the footprint of surface oiling during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (n = 10. Our results highlight the year-round use of habitats in the GoM by loggerheads that nest in the NGoM. Our findings indicate that protection of females in this subpopulation requires both international collaborations and management of threats that spatially overlap with distinct foraging habitats.

  4. 2nd International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF '95

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, T; Bataille, Jean

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing world-wide interest in obtaining an understanding of various multiphase flow phenomena and problems in terms of a common language of multiphase flow. This volume contains state-of-the-art papers which have been contributed from all over the world by experts working on all aspects of multiphase flows. The volume also highlights international technology-sharing in the fields of energy, environment and public health, in order to create a brighter and sustainable future for man and for all life in the next century. It is intended that this volume will serve as a major source of

  5. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  6. Numerical Investigation of the Internal Flow in a Banki Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús De Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the numerical analysis of the internal flow in a hydraulic cross-flow turbine type Banki. A 3D-CFD steady state flow simulation has been performed using ANSYS CFX codes. The simulation includes nozzle, runner, shaft, and casing. The turbine has a specific speed of 63 (metric units, an outside runner diameter of 294 mm. Simulations were carried out using a water-air free surface model and k-ε turbulence model. The objectives of this study were to analyze the velocity and pressure fields of the cross-flow within the runner and to characterize its performance for different runner speeds. Absolute flow velocity angles are obtained at runner entrance for simulations with and without the runner. Flow recirculation in the runner interblade passages and shocks of the internal cross-flow cause considerable hydraulic losses by which the efficiency of the turbine decreases significantly. The CFD simulations results were compared with experimental data and were consistent with global performance parameters.

  7. Hybrid continuum–molecular modelling of multiscale internal gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patronis, Alexander; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and apply an efficient multiscale method for simulating a large class of low-speed internal rarefied gas flows. The method is an extension of the hybrid atomistic–continuum approach proposed by Borg et al. (2013) [28] for the simulation of micro/nano flows of high-aspect ratio. The major new extensions are: (1) incorporation of fluid compressibility; (2) implementation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for dilute rarefied gas flows, and (3) application to a broader range of geometries, including periodic, non-periodic, pressure-driven, gravity-driven and shear-driven internal flows. The multiscale method is applied to micro-scale gas flows through a periodic converging–diverging channel (driven by an external acceleration) and a non-periodic channel with a bend (driven by a pressure difference), as well as the flow between two eccentric cylinders (with the inner rotating relative to the outer). In all these cases there exists a wide variation of Knudsen number within the geometries, as well as substantial compressibility despite the Mach number being very low. For validation purposes, our multiscale simulation results are compared to those obtained from full-scale DSMC simulations: very close agreement is obtained in all cases for all flow variables considered. Our multiscale simulation is an order of magnitude more computationally efficient than the full-scale DSMC for the first and second test cases, and two orders of magnitude more efficient for the third case

  8. International migration, "domestic struggles" and status aspiration among nurses in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of upward mobility through participation in international labour markets has become possible for nurses in the context of a 'new' democratic South Africa, but this contrasts sharply with the predicament of many in the post-apartheid context, for whom economic vulnerability and unemployment are the prevailing norm. Such a stark contrast has tended to complicate the domestic relations experienced by nurses who, as working professionals, often have significantly greater financial resources and career flexibility than their husbands. Looking at the possibilities and constraints that are created for nurses in their social relationships particularly with their husbands, I draw on Belinda Bozzoli's concept of 'domestic struggles' in order to emphasise the multiplicity and changeability of gendered relations, instead of assuming a single patriarchal status quo.1 Fixed representations of gender roles nonetheless play an important part in nurses' own commentary on migration. While many nurses speak enthusiastically of the possibilities of seeking work overseas, others draw upon familiar representations of female domestic duty to condemn migrants for neglecting their family in pursuit of financial gain. I argue that this criticism is rooted in a fear of the threat that migration presents to existing nursing hierarchies, as a new and powerful tool for status acquisition in the post-apartheid context.

  9. A systematic analysis of motivations of international migration of people from the homes of overseas Chinese in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Y

    1988-12-01

    Based on quantitative analyses of the latest survey data and qualitative analyses of the demographic literature, this paper studies the course of international migration of Chinese people from Fujian Province during the period from the 1920s to 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded. Migration to Southeast Asia is emphasized. Per capita arable land in Fujian Province was only 1.8 mu. in 1936. Far more arable land was available in Southeast Asian countries, and a lot of it was farmed far more productively. The period from the 1920s to 1949 was one of the most politically turbulent periods in Chinese history. Numerous wars took place during this period. 30% of the emigrants during this period went to join family members. Emigrants were not only informed about employment opportunities in the destination, they were also provided with transportation, accommodations, and even employment. This chain migration was influenced by the inertia of migration movements. Demographic theories describe patterns of migration, including primary, compulsory, promoting, free, and large-scale migration patterns. The international migration of Chinese from Fujian Province to Southeast Asia was a comprehensive process characterized by multiple patterns of migration. The process was influenced by many factors at both destination and origin, including the inertia principle. The major factors leading to emigration were poor living conditions at home, the attraction of the blood relationship, life-threatening political conditions, and the intention of seeking a better business environment, as well as the feedback effect of the previous migration process. Moreover, good transportation, a favorable natural environment, a large labor force, and political stability pulled emigrants to the Southeast Asian countries.

  10. International labour migration in Nigeria 1976-1986: employment, nationality and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, K

    1990-01-01

    International migration trends associated with the oil boom and bust that occurred in Nigeria between 1976 and 1986 are analyzed. "Large numbers came from Ghana..., [and] Niger, Chad and Togo, whose countries were suffering from a mixture of drought, political instability and stagnant economies. The resultant labour market became segmented according to job skills, nationality and ethnicity...." The decline in the oil industry led to the expulsion of some two million aliens between 1983 and 1986, causing considerable friction between Nigeria and its neighbors. The author concludes that "the rise and fall of migrant labour in Nigeria and the political situation within the country were embedded in the changing regional political economy of West Africa and its linkages to the larger world capitalist economy." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  11. Go west : internal migration in Germany after reunification Go West : interregionale Migration in Deutschland nach der Wiedervereinigung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Glorius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to shed light on the phenomenon of internal migration in Germany after the fall of the iron curtain. Since German reunification, the eastern part of Germany lost a large share of its population due to internal migration. Whereas in the beginning, departures were spread evenly over all age and educational groups and were accompanied by a significant counter-stream, in the course of time the negative migration balance was mainly produced by younger people at the beginning of their professional career. The paper describes the development of internal east-west migration in detail and presents primary data on the profiles of young migrants drawn from a research project during the years 2004-2007 (in this research project, financed by the German Research Foundation DFG, data were gathered from 1,200 migrants aged between 18-35 who moved from the federal state Sachsen-Anhalt to the western part of Germany. Hereby, special emphasis will be given to the methodological implications of studying selective migration processes. Final conclusions are drawn regarding the regional assessment and theoretical classification of this migration process, but also on the theoretical and methodological constraints of mobility research.Seit der deutschen Wiedervereinigung hat Ostdeutschland beträchtliche Bevölkerungs­verluste aufgrund von innerdeutschen Wanderungen zu verzeichnen. Während der Migrationsstrom zunächst relativ gleichmäßig über alle Bevölkerungsgruppen hinsichtlich Alter und Bildungsstand verteilt war und überdies von einem signifikanten Gegenstrom begleitet wurde, hat er sich im Laufe der 1990er Jahre ausdifferenziert. Die negative Wanderungsbilanz ist heute vor allem durch die Abwanderung junger Menschen zu Beginn des Erwerbslebens gekennzeichnet. Der Beitrag bietet eine detaillierte Beschreibung der innerdeutschen Ost-West-Wanderung und präsentiert empirische Primärdaten zu den Profilen junger Ost-West-Migranten aus Sachsen

  12. International fund flows: surges, sudden stops, and cyclicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao

    2017-01-01

    International fund flows are cross-border investments in domestic equity and bond markets by global investment funds. They have increased dramatically since the 1990s and played an increasingly important role in the transmission of shocks. In this thesis, we examine the drivers of large changes in

  13. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear ... It is widely believed that the most promising strategy for achieving a jet ... this level of performance for two main reasons. Firstly ... (i) Tracking: For the studies presented in this paper, the track pattern ... that particles propagating outward from the interaction region will cross ...

  14. Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.

  15. Inactive supply wells as conduits for flow and contaminant migration: conditions of occurrence and suggestions for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    Water supply wells can act as conduits for vertical flow and contaminant migration between water-bearing strata under common hydrogeologic and well construction conditions. While recognized by some for decades, there is little published data on the magnitude of flows and extent of resulting water quality impacts. Consequently, the issue may not be acknowledged widely enough and the need for better management persists. This is especially true for unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins that are hydrologically stressed by agricultural activities. Theoretical and practical considerations indicate that significant water volumes can migrate vertically through wells. The flow is often downward, with shallow groundwater, usually poorer in quality, migrating through conduit wells to degrade deeper water quality. Field data from locations in California, USA, are presented in combination with modeling results to illustrate both the prevalence of conditions conducive to intraborehole flow and the resulting impacts to water quality. Suggestions for management of planned wells include better enforcement of current regulations and more detailed consideration of hydrogeologic conditions during design and installation. A potentially greater management challenge is presented by the large number of existing wells. Monitoring for evidence of conduit flow and solute transport in areas of high well density is recommended to identify wells that pose greater risks to water quality. Conduit wells that are discovered may be addressed through approaches that include structural modification and changes in operations.

  16. The efficiency of interprovincial migration in Canada, 1961-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N

    1983-05-01

    A programming model is used to analyze the impact of the efficiency of migration flows on regional income disparities in Canada. A new method to measure such efficiency is presented in an attempt to show that occupations involving high-level skills and training have efficient migration patterns. The relationship between income differentials and internal migration is discussed.

  17. The 'global interconnectedness' of dentist migration: a qualitative study of the life-stories of international dental graduates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D

    2015-05-01

    The migration of dentists is a major challenge contributing to the oral health system crisis in many countries. This paper explores the origins of the dentist migration problem through a study on international dental graduates, who had migrated to Australia. Life-stories of 49 international dental graduates from 22 countries were analysed in order to discern significant themes and patterns. We focused on their home country experience, including stories on early life and career choice; dental student life; professional life; social and political life; travels; and coming to Australia. Our participants exhibited a commitment to excellence in earlier stages of life and had cultivated a desire to learn more and be involved with the latest technology. Dentists from low- and middle-income countries were also disappointed by the lack of opportunity and were unhappy with the local ethos. Some pointed towards political unrest. Interestingly, participants also carried prior travel learnings and unforgettable memories contributing to their migration. Family members and peers had also influenced participants. These considerations were brought together in four themes explaining the desire to migrate: 'Being good at something', 'Feelings of being let down', 'A novel experience' and 'Influenced by someone'. Even if one of these four themes dominated the narrative, we found that more than one theme, however, coexisted for most participants. We refer to this worldview as 'Global interconnectedness', and identify the development of migration desire as a historical process, stimulated by a priori knowledge (and interactions) of people, place and things. This qualitative study has enriched our understanding on the complexity of the dental migration experience. It supports efforts to achieve greater technical co-operation in issues such as dental education, workforce surveillance and oral health service planning within the context of ongoing global efforts on health professional

  18. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  19. Medical migration: A qualitative exploration of the atypical path of Japanese international medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Brian S; Torok, Haruka Matsubara

    2018-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are commonly understood to move from low to high resource countries with motivations including improved financial situations and cultures of emigration. A presumable exception to the above themes would be the Japanese IMG population. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the Japanese IMG experience. Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed 19 Japanese IMGs working in the US and 16 Japanese IMGs working in Japan who had completed US clinical training. Questions addressed decision-making to pursue US clinical training, goals for the training, and career decision-making upon completing the training. Data collection and constant comparative analysis were conducted iteratively to identify emerging themes. The emerging model of the Japanese IMG experience is focused around pivotal experiences that often include dissatisfaction with the quality of Japanese clinical training and personal exposures to US clinical education. Further decision-making in the pursuit of US residency is influenced by educator training quality, and clinical training and career opportunities. The desire to improve Japanese clinical training commonly influences career decision-making after US training. The Japanese IMG experience contrasts numerous perceptions of international physician migration and, in turn, enhances understanding of this paradigm.

  20. Changes in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim; Lachat, Carl; Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey carried out in April-May 2006 among international students enrolled at Ghent University in Belgium. The aim of the study was to assess their knowledge and attitudes related to nutrition, perceived changes in dietary habits, perceived barriers to healthy eating and the determinants of dietary changes since their arrival in Belgium. In total, 235 students from 60 countries participated. Following the reported dietary changes, which were factor-analyzed into "less energy-dense" foods, "more fruits and vegetables" and "less processed" foods, three clusters could be identified. Cluster 1 composed of students who increased their fruits, vegetables and fiber intake. Cluster 2, the largest, reported dietary changes overall and in particular towards less processed foods. Cluster 3 composed of students who changed in the main towards less energy-dense foods. Gender differences were observed in healthy dietary changes, particularly in males. Healthier choices were hindered by a perceived unavailability of healthy food products. Gender and availability of healthy foods should be taken into consideration when informing temporal migration populations, such as international students in this study, about the healthy food options available during their stay in a different cultural, food and dietary environment.

  1. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement......, and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from...... the CEECs that entered the EU in 2004 is not significantly different from zero. However, the effect of the opening of the Swedish and Finnish labour markets in 2007 on migration from the 2007 EU entrants, Bulgaria and Romania, is significantly positive. Further, we are interested in the overall effect...

  2. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  3. International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  4. Studies on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration at underground environments. Final report of collaboration research between JAERI and AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nagao, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducted a collaboration program Phase II with the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) from 1994 to 1998. The program was started to contribute the establishment of safety assessment methodology for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the basis of the results from the Phase I program (1987-1993). The Phase II program consisted of following experimental items: (1) radionuclide migration experiments for quarried blocks (1m x 1m x 1m) of granite with natural fracture under in-situ geochemical conditions at 240 m level of Underground Research Laboratory of AECL; (2) study on the effects of dissolved organic materials extracted from natural groundwaters on radionuclide migration; (3) study on groundwater flow using environmental isotopes at two different geologic environments; (4) development of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model for heterogeneous geological media. The mobility of radionuclides was retarded in the fracture by the deep geological conditions and the fracture paths. The groundwater humic substances with high molecular size were enhanced for the mobility of radionuclides in the sand and granitic media due to the complexation. The application of 36 Cl and 129 I for the analysis on the long-term groundwater flow can be validated on the basis of investigation at the URL site. Moreover, the geostatistical model for the analysis on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration was developed, and was able to describe the groundwater flow and the migration of environmental tracers at AECL sites. This report summaries the results of the Phase II program between JAERI and AECL. (author)

  5. Studies on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration at underground environments. Final report of collaboration research between JAERI and AECL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nagao, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducted a collaboration program Phase II with the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) from 1994 to 1998. The program was started to contribute the establishment of safety assessment methodology for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the basis of the results from the Phase I program (1987-1993). The Phase II program consisted of following experimental items: (1) radionuclide migration experiments for quarried blocks (1m x 1m x 1m) of granite with natural fracture under in-situ geochemical conditions at 240 m level of Underground Research Laboratory of AECL; (2) study on the effects of dissolved organic materials extracted from natural groundwaters on radionuclide migration; (3) study on groundwater flow using environmental isotopes at two different geologic environments; (4) development of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model for heterogeneous geological media. The mobility of radionuclides was retarded in the fracture by the deep geological conditions and the fracture paths. The groundwater humic substances with high molecular size were enhanced for the mobility of radionuclides in the sand and granitic media due to the complexation. The application of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I for the analysis on the long-term groundwater flow can be validated on the basis of investigation at the URL site. Moreover, the geostatistical model for the analysis on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration was developed, and was able to describe the groundwater flow and the migration of environmental tracers at AECL sites. This report summaries the results of the Phase II program between JAERI and AECL. (author)

  6. Prediction of strongly-heated internal gas flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.; Shehata, A.M.; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1997-01-01

    The purposes of the present article are to remind practitioners why the usual textbook approaches may not be appropriate for treating gas flows heated from the surface with large heat fluxes and to review the successes of some recent applications of turbulence models to this case. Simulations from various turbulence models have been assessed by comparison to the measurements of internal mean velocity and temperature distributions by Shehata for turbulent, laminarizing and intermediate flows with significant gas property variation. Of about fifteen models considered, five were judged to provide adequate predictions

  7. Analysing the Demography and Migration Related Challenges within the Internal Periphery of South-Heves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Bogardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my study is to perform an analysis with the application of regional statistical data, in order to understand the changes within the number of the population at South-Heves in the past period, and to the reveal its special characteristics compared to regional, national trends. The examined area is a classic internal periphery, a region “hit severely by social, economic and environmental crisis” (according to the draft proposal of Heves county’s regional development concept (2014-2020. Considering such regions, besides the examination of the intention to migrate, it is also important to see who will remain in the region. Experiences show that in case of regions with a more disadvantageous situation than average, generally classes of lower social statuses will become dominant, while as it is described by Győri-Nagy (2003, “the escape of competent classes of the population” can be observed. It results in a contra-selected local society which is unable to retain the young and ambitious. The future of the affected regions, settlements is largely determined by the perspectives perceived by young people who live there, and who shall start their families and careers there in the near future. I have conducted an empirical research amongst high-school students living and studying at South-Heves, focusing on issues such as whether the high-school age-group of this classic periphery is considering migration; if so, then what are the reasons, destinations, and as an important question from the aspect of the national strategy as well, how could these young people who are longing to go elsewhere manage their lives here, and how could we make them stay in their homeland (in a narrow sense. By investigating the intention to migrate, we also receive indirect answers for questions such as how could significant regional differences be reduced, and how could we close the gap in case of the most disadvantageous regions.

  8. International migration and dietary change in Mexican women from a social practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Rosales, Cecilia; Angulo, Alexandra; de Zapien, Jill; Denman, Catalina; Madanat, Hala

    2018-06-01

    Migration from lower- and middle-income to high-income countries is associated with dietary change, and especially with the adoption of a modern, less healthy diet. In this article we analyze the dietary changes experienced by Mexican migrants, employing as a theoretical framework the concept of social practice. According to this framework, practices integrate material elements, meanings and competences that provide their conditions of possibility. Practices are shared by members of social groups, and interact with other competing or reinforcing practices. Between 2014 and 2015, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women, international return migrants living in Tijuana, Mexico. The interview guide asked about history of migration and dietary change. We found three main areas of dietary change: from subsistence farming to ready meals, abundance vs. restriction, and adoption of new food items. The first one was associated with changes in food procurement and female work: when moving from rural to urban areas, participants substituted self-produced for purchased food; and as migrant women joined the labor force, consumption of ready meals increased. The second was the result of changes in income: participants of lower socioeconomic position modified the logic of food acquisition from restriction to abundance and back, depending on the available resources. The third change was relatively minor, with occasional consumption of new dishes or food items, and was associated with exposure to different cuisines and with learning how to cook them. Public health efforts to improve the migrants' diets should take into account the constitutive elements of dietary practices, instead of isolating individuals from their social contexts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term gas migration modelling in compacted bentonite using swelling/shrinkage-dependent two phase flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Y.; Mori, K.; Tada, K.; Shimura, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Asano, H.; Namiki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the completion of field-scaled Gas Migration Test (GMT) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS Phase V Project, 1996-2004), an advanced gas migration modelling study has been implemented to increase the accuracy and reliability as a part of the R and D programs by the Radioactive Waste Management funding and research Center (RWMC) in Japan. The multiple gas migration modes which consist of diffusive transport of dissolved gas, conventional two phase flow, pore failure induced microscopic fissuring and macroscopic fracturing flow, were identified in GMT bentonite. However the required parameters and constitutive models governing those modes are still uncertain. To tackle this issue, an extended validation and scoping study aiming to generalize such gas migration behavior has been performed in the advanced gas migration modelling study. One of the main objectives of the validation study is to identify gas migration modes using laboratory test data and to qualify the alternative models and parameters. In the scoping study, we have extracted the specific THMC (Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical and Chemical) coupled processes which have impacts on the performance measures such as the pressure built-up in EBS (Engineered Barrier System) and expelled water to the geosphere by gas generation and transport. The measured data of hydration tests and gas injection tests using bentonite specimens with different water contents were reproduced. Two phase flow parameters were estimated using the observed data of both types of tests, independently. The simulated results of the conventional two phase flow model were well-matched with the hydration test data. In the gas injection test, the extended two phase flow model which simulates the pressure-induced pore failure (pathway dilation), was able to reproduce observed data reasonably. However, we found that the identified parameters obtained from the hydration test data were

  10. Influence of complex interfacial rheology on the thermocapillary migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayan; Chakraborty, Suman

    2018-02-01

    The effect of surface viscosity on the motion of a surfactant-laden droplet in the presence of a non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied, both analytically and numerically. The presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants along the droplet surface results in interfacial shear and dilatational viscosities. This, in turn, is responsible for the generation of surface-excess viscous stresses that obey the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive law for constant values of surface shear and dilatational viscosities. The present study is primarily focused on finding out how this confluence can be used to modulate droplet dynamics in the presence of Marangoni stress induced by nonuniform distribution of surfactants and temperature along the droplet surface, by exploiting an intricate interplay of the respective forcing parameters influencing the interfacial stresses. Under the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and thermal convection, the steady-state migration velocity of a non-deformable spherical droplet, placed at the centerline of an imposed unbounded Poiseuille flow, is obtained for the limiting case when the surfactant transport along the interface is dominated by surface diffusion. Our analysis proves that the droplet migration velocity is unaffected by the shear viscosity whereas the dilatational viscosity has a significant effect on the same. The surface viscous effects always retard the migration of a surfactant-laden droplet when the temperature in the far-field increases in the direction of the imposed flow although the droplet always migrates towards the hotter region. On the contrary, if a large temperature gradient is applied in a direction opposite to that of the imposed flow, the direction of droplet migration gets reversed. However, for a sufficiently high value of dilatational surface viscosity, the direction of droplet migration reverses. For the limiting case in which the surfactant transport along the droplet surface is dominated by surface convection, on

  11. International migration and national development in sub-Saharan Africa : viewpoints and policy initiatives in the countries of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adepoju, Aderanti; Naerssen, Ton van; Zoomers, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    This book aims at achieving a better understanding of the implications of international migration for national development from the perspective of the sending countries, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, the volume explores (1) current perceptions of the links between

  12. Changing Academic Mobility Patterns and International Migration: What Will Academic Mobility Mean in the 21St Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Several scholars have underlined connections between academic mobility and international migration. This qualitative study explores a spectrum of academic mobility articulated by Teichler that empirically contributes to consideration of these connections. This analysis of e-mail excerpts from 20 migrant academics, living in seven countries,…

  13. Virtual Seafloor Reduces Internal Wave Generation by Tidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.

    2014-03-01

    Our numerical simulations of tidal flow of a stratified fluid over periodic knife-edge ridges and random topography reveal that the time-averaged tidal energy converted into internal gravity wave radiation arises only from the section of a ridge above a virtual seafloor. The average radiated power is approximated by the power predicted by linear theory if the height of the ridge is measured relative to the virtual floor. The concept of a virtual floor can extend the applicability of linear theory to global predictions of the conversion of tidal energy into internal wave energy in the oceans.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  15. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  16. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  17. Human capital on the move: Education as a determinant of internal migration in selected INDEPTH surveillance populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carren Ginsburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban areas at the expense of rural areas. However, there is fragmentary evidence concerning the educational correlates of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study questions whether more precise measures of migration in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS populations support the hypothesis that migrants are self-selected on human capital and more educated people are more likely to leave rural areas or enter urban areas within a geographical region. Methods: Using unique longitudinal data representing approximately 900,000 people living in eight sub-Saharan African HDSS sites that are members of the INDEPTH Network, the paper uses Event History Analysis techniques to examine the relationship between formal educational attainment and in- and out-migration, over the period 2009 to 2011. Results: Between 7Š and 27Š of these local populations are moving in or out of the HDSS area over this period. Education is positively associated with both in- and out-migration in the Kenyan HDSS areas; however, the education effect has no clear pattern in the HDSS sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and South Africa. Conclusions: Empirical results presented in this paper confirm a strong age profile of migration consistent with human capital expectation, yet the results point to variability in the association of education and the propensity to migrate. In particular, the hypothesis of a shift of human capital from rural to urban areas is not universally valid.

  18. Formation of compositional gradient profiles by using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon under Couette flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Su Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duck Jong; Park, O Ok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Moo Hyun [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We investigated whether a graded-index profile, specified by the polymer compositional gradient, could be formed using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon in a polymer solution. For the presented model system, we generated a shear flow by rotating a glass rod at the center of a polystyrene/methylmethacrylate (PS/MMA) solution and measured the degree of polymer migration by the shear flow field by examining the concentration of polymer solution along the radial direction from the rotating axis to the periphery. Through model experiments, we formed a compositional gradient and controlled its profile in the solution by varying the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight of polymer, and shear rate. Finally, we solidified the gradient profiles by the polymerization of the PS/MMA solution and confirmed that the gradient profiles were maintained with a compositional gradient twice larger than the mother PS/MMA solution.

  19. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  20. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman

    2017-05-01

    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  1. Irregular Migration flows and human trafficking in the Western Balkan countries: challenges of the covergence of counter-trafficking response

    OpenAIRE

    Mece, Merita H.

    2016-01-01

    Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional respo...

  2. Introduction to Dossier. International Migrations in Latin America: Critical Views on the Production of a Field of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Herrera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection from three dimensions on epistemological and political logics that crosscut the studies on migrations in Latin America: 1 the increasing heterogeneity of flows and the need to rethink the conceptual categories from which migrations are addressed; 2 the dialogue and appropriation of analytical frameworks produced in other regions in Latin American studies; and 3 the political agendas of the States in the region and in the North, and their selective influence on the production of knowledge. The objective is to offer a general reflection on the production of the field of studies on migrations in Latin America to serve as a context for the analysis of the five articles presented in this dossier of Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales.

  3. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  4. Movements of Croatian Labour Supply and Their Implications on Migration Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Obadić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian labour market is characterised by a low degree of activity on the part of the population, a high unemployment rate, a pronounced problem with long-term unemployment and a high structural disproportion between supply and demand. Because of the relatively high share of the unofficial economy, there is a large difference between the administrative unemployment rate and that shown by surveys. Analysis of the situation on the Croatian labour market shows that significant structural issues still remained unsolved (such as inflexibility, mismatch between supply and demand with respect to profession and education, and similar. There is still very limited creation of new jobs. The employment rates of men and women and the employment of young people are among the lowest in comparison with the EU-27 and are far from attainment of the Lisbon objectives. The high rate of economic inactivity indicates the lack of utilisation of the existing work force potential. The conducted research shows that the continued advised needs for workers is 25 time higher than the annual number of approved work permits to foreigners from 1992 to 2006, while that number was negligible in 1991. Due to this situation, Croatia still has a very strict protectionist orientation towards employing foreigners, although the fact is that this situation will have to change very quickly with accession to the EU. It can be concluded that no major changes in migration flows or any significant shifts in em¬ployment and unemployment rates can be expected until the year 2010. Although opening the borders could mean, on the one hand, the possibility of increased emigration of the Croatian work force, the expectations are that such movements, nonetheless, will not occur. It is more likely that opening borders would be connected with greater mobility of workers, both from Croatia into other countries and from other countries towards Croatia.

  5. International Labour Migration. A Present-Day Phenomenon Using the Example of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolláriková Petra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term migration encompasses a dynamic and complex process affected by numerous components that at the same time creates numerous relationships and factors. Nowadays, migration is understood as a natural phenomenon that occurs in every state and as a source of cultural diversity or cultural contribution. Migration touches upon a great number of issues in the fields of demography, economy, language, religion, national security and politics.

  6. Analysis of Migration Flows of the Population of the Vologda Oblast Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Mikhailovich Panov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research on the main directions and scale of migration in municipal districts of the Vologda Oblast and considers the main types of migration and the specifics of their statistical accounting. The data by Rosstat served as a basis upon which a general analysis of migration dynamics in the Vologda Oblast districts was carried out; and the article presents its periodization. Three main periods are defined: the “migration shock” of 1991–1999 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the migration stability of 2000–2008 and the post-crisis rural out-migration that began in 2009 and is increasing year by year. At the same time, gross migration indicators have shown high sensitivity to significant socioeconomic change, in particular, to the economic crises of 1999 and 2008. The article describes the main age and gender characteristics of migrants, it has been determined that the most active migrants are girls aged 15–29, who move from rural to urban settlements. In general, it is the young people aged 15–34 who are most likely to migrate. The author has found out that most of the Vologda Oblast districts are characterized by a higher outflow of the population, which is in some places restrained by a relative migration attractiveness of a number of areas. The author has found out that most districts of the Oblast are characterized by a higher outflow of the population, which is sometimes restrained by relative migration attractiveness of some areas. The author highlights the region’s territories with the highest migration attraction; in the long run they can play the role of “growth points” in the region; these territories comprise Velikoustyugsky and Chagodoshchensky districts, as well as several districts of the central part of the Vologda Oblast – Ust-Kubinsky and Vologodsky. The author also points out the territories that suffered the most from out-migration: Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky, Vashkinsky

  7. ARE INTERNATIONAL TRADE FLOWS A VECTOR OF GLOBALIZATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Florian ENEA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International commerce and regional integration have long been considered key determinants of national development. The purpose of the present paper is to answer the question whether international trade flows are a vector of globalization and economic growth. In order to achieve this, we have conducted panel data analysis on a sample consisting of members from regional economic structures, such as the E.U., NAFTA, MERCOSUR and ASEAN, and covering a time span of 24 years, from 1990 to 2013. The results of the study underline the fact that, on average and taking into account the heterogeneity of the sample, international commerce counts from around 50 % of the annual economic growth. The future research direction will aim to conduct a more thorough analysis, by focusing more on the regional perspective.

  8. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  9. Risk of psychosis and internal migration: Results from the Bologna First Episode Psychosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Boydell, Jane; Kokona, Arnisa; Triolo, Federico; Gamberini, Lisa; Sutti, Enrico; Marchetta, Michela; Menchetti, Marco; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of psychotic disorders is higher in many migrant groups; however little is known about internal migrants (IM). This study aims to describe the IR in natives (NA), IM and external migrants (EM). All patients aged 18-64years, with First Episode Psychosis (FEP), who made contact with the Bologna West psychiatric services, between 2002 and 2010, were included. 187 cases were included. Age and sex adjusted IR of psychosis per 100,000per year were: 12.6 for NA, 25.3 for IM and 21.4 for EM. The IRR was 1.93 (1.19-3.13, P=0.007) for IM and 1.79 (1.06-3.02, P=0.03) for EM compared to NA. Rates of psychosis were significantly elevated in IM as well as in EM. This result adds evidence as to the role of migration itself (versus ethnicity) on the risk of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  11. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  12. Fleeing through the Globalised Education System: The Role of Violence and Conflict in International Student Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Ane Marie Ørbø; Nat-George, Sisse Mari-Louise Wulff

    2016-01-01

    This article connects directly to the globalisation of both education and conflict, and attends to the intersection between these phenomena, by focusing on conflict-induced student migration, an area, which has until recently been neglected in studies of higher education and migration, and peace and conflict research. The focus is on the very…

  13. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein de Haas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the likelihood of returning. However, according to alternative theoretical interpretations, return migration can also be the outflow of successful integration in receiving countries. Drawing on a data set of four African immigrant groups in Spain and Italy, this articlereviews these conflicting hypotheses by assessing the effects of integration and transnational ties on return migration intentions. The results of the analysis suggest that socio-cultural integration has a negative effect on return migration intentions, while economic integration and transnational ties have more ambiguous and sometimes positive effects. The results provide mixed support for the different hypotheses but question theoretical perspectives that unequivocally conceptualizereturn migration and transnationalism as causes and/or consequences of "integration failure".

  14. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  15. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  16. An integrated internal flow analysis for ramjet propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shih-Yang

    An integrated numerical analysis has been conducted to study the ramjet internal flowfield. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a unified numerical scheme and accurate representation of the internal flow development. The theoretical model is based on the complete conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration, with consideration of finite-rate chemical reactions and variable properties. Turbulence closure is achieved using a low-Reynolds number k-epsilon two-equation model. A new computation procedure capable of treating time-accurate, chemically reacting flows over a wide range of Mach number was developed. This numerical scheme allows for a unified treatment of the entire flowfield in a ramjet engine, including both the supersonic inlet and the combustion chamber. The algorithm is based on scaling the pressure terms in the momentum equations and preconditioning the conservation equations to circumvent numerical difficulties at low Mach numbers. The resulting equations are solved using the lower-upper (LU) factorization method in a fully-coupled manner, with the incorporation of a flux-differencing upwind TVD scheme to achieve high-order spatial accuracy. The transient behavior of the modeled system is preserved through implementation of the dual time-stepping integration technique. Calculations have been carried out for the flowfield in a typical ramjet engine consisting of an axisymmetric mixed-compression supersonic inlet and a coaxial dump combustor. Distinguished shock structures in the forward section of the inlet were clearly captured. The boundary layer thickening and flow separation behind the terminal shock due to shock/boundary-layer interactions and inlet configuration were observed. The mutual coupling between the inlet and combustor was carefully examined. In particular, strong vortices arising from the inlet shock/acoustic and shock/boundary-layer interactions may convect downstream and affect the combustion

  17. International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates.

  18. Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.

    1989-01-01

    The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr

  19. International migration patterns of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) from four breeding populations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Sarah E.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska. On average (± SD) Red-throated Loons underwent long (6,288 ± 1,825 km) fall and spring migrations predominantly along coastlines. The most northern population (Arctic Coastal Plain) migrated westward to East Asia and traveled approximately 2,000 km farther to wintering sites than the three more southerly populations (Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Copper River Delta) which migrated south along the Pacific coast of North America. These migration paths are consistent with the hypothesis that Red-throated Loons from the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to contaminants in East Asia. The three more southerly breeding populations demonstrated a chain migration pattern in which the more northerly breeding populations generally wintered in more northerly latitudes. Collectively, the migration paths observed in this study demonstrate that some geographically distinct breeding populations overlap in wintering distribution while others use highly different wintering areas. Red-throated Loon population trends in Alaska may therefore be driven by a wide range of effects throughout the annual cycle.

  20. Migration of finite sized particles in a laminar square channel flow from low to high Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS, 31030, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Fédération de recherche FERMaT, CNRS, 31400, Toulouse (France); Magaud, P. [CNRS, Fédération de recherche FERMaT, CNRS, 31400, Toulouse (France); Institut Clément Ader, Université de Toulouse UPS-INSA-ISAE-Mines Albi, 31400, Toulouse (France); Gao, Y. [Institut Clément Ader, Université de Toulouse UPS-INSA-ISAE-Mines Albi, 31400, Toulouse (France); Geoffroy, S. [CNRS, Fédération de recherche FERMaT, CNRS, 31400, Toulouse (France); Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions, Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA, 31077, Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-15

    The migration of neutrally buoyant finite sized particles in a Newtonian square channel flow is investigated in the limit of very low solid volumetric concentration, within a wide range of channel Reynolds numbers Re = [0.07-120]. In situ microscope measurements of particle distributions, taken far from the channel inlet (at a distance several thousand times the channel height), revealed that particles are preferentially located near the channel walls at Re > 10 and near the channel center at Re < 1. Whereas the cross-streamline particle motion is governed by inertia-induced lift forces at high inertia, it seems to be controlled by shear-induced particle interactions at low (but finite) Reynolds numbers, despite the low solid volume fraction (<1%). The transition between both regimes is observed in the range Re = [1-10]. In order to exclude the effect of multi-body interactions, the trajectories of single freely moving particles are calculated thanks to numerical simulations based on the force coupling method. With the deployed numerical tool, the complete particle trajectories are accessible within a reasonable computational time only in the inertial regime (Re > 10). In this regime, we show that (i) the particle undergoes cross-streamline migration followed by a cross-lateral migration (parallel to the wall) in agreement with previous observations, and (ii) the stable equilibrium positions are located at the midline of the channel faces while the diagonal equilibrium positions are unstable. At low flow inertia, the first instants of the numerical simulations (carried at Re = O(1)) reveal that the cross-streamline migration of a single particle is oriented towards the channel wall, suggesting that the particle preferential positions around the channel center, observed in the experiments, are rather due to multi-body interactions.

  1. Migration of finite sized particles in a laminar square channel flow from low to high Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.; Magaud, P.; Gao, Y.; Geoffroy, S.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of neutrally buoyant finite sized particles in a Newtonian square channel flow is investigated in the limit of very low solid volumetric concentration, within a wide range of channel Reynolds numbers Re = [0.07-120]. In situ microscope measurements of particle distributions, taken far from the channel inlet (at a distance several thousand times the channel height), revealed that particles are preferentially located near the channel walls at Re > 10 and near the channel center at Re < 1. Whereas the cross-streamline particle motion is governed by inertia-induced lift forces at high inertia, it seems to be controlled by shear-induced particle interactions at low (but finite) Reynolds numbers, despite the low solid volume fraction (<1%). The transition between both regimes is observed in the range Re = [1-10]. In order to exclude the effect of multi-body interactions, the trajectories of single freely moving particles are calculated thanks to numerical simulations based on the force coupling method. With the deployed numerical tool, the complete particle trajectories are accessible within a reasonable computational time only in the inertial regime (Re > 10). In this regime, we show that (i) the particle undergoes cross-streamline migration followed by a cross-lateral migration (parallel to the wall) in agreement with previous observations, and (ii) the stable equilibrium positions are located at the midline of the channel faces while the diagonal equilibrium positions are unstable. At low flow inertia, the first instants of the numerical simulations (carried at Re = O(1)) reveal that the cross-streamline migration of a single particle is oriented towards the channel wall, suggesting that the particle preferential positions around the channel center, observed in the experiments, are rather due to multi-body interactions

  2. Turning points in international labor migration: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuprasat, P

    1994-01-01

    "This article describes the dynamics of the structural transformation of the Thai economy, labor migration and direct foreign investment and proposes an econometric model to explain the migration phenomenon. Though migration shifts have been significantly influenced by political factors such as the Gulf crisis and tensions with Saudi Arabia, economic factors such as the Thai government's liberalization of markets and the expansion of trade and direct foreign investment have contributed to changes in labor market needs. The economic conditions of a shift from net exporter to net importer for labor are posited in the model. The empirical results reveal a turning point in labor migration from Thailand and also confirm the contribution of commodity export in place of labor export in creating employment and income." excerpt

  3. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." excerpt

  4. The Determinants and the Size of International Migration in Central and Eastern Europe After 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Organiściak-Krzykowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a very important socio‑economic issue in the contemporary world. One of the interesting and pertinent research problems worth considering concerns the scale and nature of migration from countries which entered the European Union in 2004 and in the subsequent years. As a result of integration within the European Community, the citizens of member states acquired citizenship within the entire European Union (which is complementary to citizenship in the country of origin. The right of free movement led to the emergence of the migration phenomenon within the territory of the European Union. A well educated and young labour force may be an influential factor in the social and economic development of the European Union members. The enlargement of the EU led to a significant increase in the number of part‑time/temporary migrants. According to statistical data, the number of emigrants from the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEE to the more prosperous European countries increased from 1,66 million in 2004 to 7,3 million in 2016. Within the context of the scale of economic migration from the CEE, questions should be asked about the determinants and economic consequences of this mobility. The main objective of this article is a diagnosis and evaluation of the determinants and size of migration from the CEE. The analyses are based on Eurostat data. The determinants of migration are presented from the point of view of the push and pull factors theory and related to the situation in the European labour market. An analysis of the size of migration outflow from the CEE countries made it possible to classify them into three groups: countries with a high emigration potential (Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, a moderate emigration potential (Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Estonia, Slovakia and a low emigration potential (the Czech Republic, Slovenia. The economic consequences of migration are shown from the perspective of remittances received from

  5. Transformation of Migration Flows Between the Russian Far East and CIS and non-CIS States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motrich E. L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic trends in the migration processes in the Russian Far East are shown. Special emphasis is placed on the transformation of migration interactions with CIS and non-CIS countries both at the level of the region as a whole, and at the level of the Far Eastern territories of the Russian Federation. An extent of using foreign labor in different periods of the Russian Far East socio-economic development and the regulatory support of this process are shown. Prospects for attracting and utilizing foreign labor are stated

  6. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND MIGRATION FLOWS OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Викторовна Ерёменко

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the dynamics of the population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, as well as migration processes, which negatively influence on formation of labor resources of the Republic. Socio-political, socio-economic transformations in recent years, could not affect the demographic situation of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. In the Republic, as in other regions of Russia the demographic situation deteriorated over the past decades. Deformed main functions of the family, its structure, the increased number of divorces, the growing number of single-parent families, decreased fertility. Fertility decline led to reduction of the share of children and adolescents under the age of 16 years and intensified the process of population aging. The ageing of the population, gives rise to a number of demographic, economic and social problems. An important role is also being played outflow from the Republic of working-age people. Issues of internal and external migration represent a very large layer of problems, both economic and social interaction of people from different cultures and walks of life in the majority is not without conflict. Organization of civilized (adjustable migration, i.e. the creation of conditions for improvement of the migration attractiveness of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, on the one hand, and combating illegal migration, on the other, should be directed on realization of the strategic course of the Government of the Russian Federation of the stabilization of the total population and promote sustainable socio-economic development of the country in General and of the Republic in particular.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-9

  8. Migration, financial flows and development in the Euro-Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    as to the conclusions: that by the turn of the twenty-first century migration would become an explosive issue for the Mediterranean region, and that today we are facing the consequences. The risk described as a ‘demographic bomb’ is no longer a risk; it has exploded and can be seen in the daily dramas along the Italian...

  9. Economy, Ethnicity and International Migration. The Comparison of Finland, Hungary and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Forsander

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to compare present migration situation, history, economy and migration regulation in an European Union country (Finland, and, an EU accessing country (Hungary and a major non - EU country (Russia. Our material and methods base on literature survey, policy analysis and analysis of the existing statistics and legislation. The results show that even in the era of globalisation that is often claimed to erode states regulatory power over the ? ows of capital and people, some regulatory power still exists. Instead of developing their policies in accordance with the largely self-regulating migration process, according to our data, the countries sought to regain political control through reproducing economic, ethnic and national hierarchies.

  10. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, THE BARON DE MONTESQUIEU AND THE DESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barclay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay demonstrates that, although modern liberals incessantly promote the EU as a living exemplar for the virtues of contemporary liberalism and basic, unrestrictive, migration policies, the experiences of innumerable contemporary EU states, such as France, contradict these spurious claims, since, instead of becoming enriched or improved, countless EU states have deteriorated and become fraught with social conflict, insecurity, and instability, as a result of their minimally restrictive, liberal, migration policies and consequent penetration with foreign, inherently contradictory ideology. Furthermore, this essay demonstrates that, despite the ignorant exclamations of modern liberals, the inviolable patriarch of liberalism, the Baron de Montesquieu, in addition to the pre-eminent, indispensable, paterfamilias of realism, Niccolo Machiavelli, explicitly confirm that, if any state fails to adequately restrict the migration of people and ideas across its borders, then that state will inevitably become penetrated by a foreign, inherently contradictory, ideology, and, consequently, eviscerated by an unrelenting insecurity.

  11. All projects related to | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Project. In West Africa, notably Mali and Sénégal, the flow of women's migration takes place mainly within and between countries. Start Date: February 15, 2008. End Date: August 26, 2011. Topic: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RURAL URBAN MIGRATION, MIGRANT ...

  12. Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulka, A.; Cano, D.

    2009-04-01

    Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.

  13. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN: EVIDENCE FROM LIMA, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Verónica Frisancho; Oropesa, R S

    2011-08-01

    The issue of whether emigration has consequences for the education of children who remain behind in the country of origin occupies an increasingly prominent place in the agendas of both scholars and policy makers. The conventional wisdom is that the emigration of family members may benefit children by relaxing budget constraints through remittances that can be used to cover educational expenses. However, the empirical evidence on the overall effect of migration is inconclusive. This is due in part to a substantive emphasis on remittances in the literature, as well as the inability of some studies to deal satisfactorily with the endogeneity of household migration decisions in comparing outcomes across migrant and non-migrant households. Using Peruvian data from the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP), we apply an innovative instrumental variable technique to evaluate the overall effect of migration on educational attainment and schooling disruption among the children of immigrants. In contrast to conventional wisdom, our results suggest that a higher household risk of immigration has deleterious consequences for the education of children who remain behind.

  14. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN: EVIDENCE FROM LIMA, PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Verónica Frisancho; Oropesa, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of whether emigration has consequences for the education of children who remain behind in the country of origin occupies an increasingly prominent place in the agendas of both scholars and policy makers. The conventional wisdom is that the emigration of family members may benefit children by relaxing budget constraints through remittances that can be used to cover educational expenses. However, the empirical evidence on the overall effect of migration is inconclusive. This is due in part to a substantive emphasis on remittances in the literature, as well as the inability of some studies to deal satisfactorily with the endogeneity of household migration decisions in comparing outcomes across migrant and non-migrant households. Using Peruvian data from the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP), we apply an innovative instrumental variable technique to evaluate the overall effect of migration on educational attainment and schooling disruption among the children of immigrants. In contrast to conventional wisdom, our results suggest that a higher household risk of immigration has deleterious consequences for the education of children who remain behind. PMID:22581990

  15. The effects of integration and transnational ties on international return migration intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    While return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants’ intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant weakening of transnational ties decreases the

  16. The governance of international migration in Turkey and Morocco: Irregular migrants’ access to right to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Üstübici Önay, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses migrant experiences of illegality in Turkey and Morocco by taking into account how both countries responded to increasing pressure by the European Union to govern irregular migration within their territories. In dialogue with literatures on the legal production of migrant

  17. Sound attenuation of a finite length dissipative flow duct silencer with internal mean flow in the absorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, A.; Chang, I.-J.

    1988-11-01

    Internal mean flow within the pores of a bulk-reacting porous acoustic absorbent, driven by mean static pressure gradients, is shown here to be an important feature of the acoustics of dissipative silencers in flow ducts, particularly in the case of internal combustion engine exhaust silencers. Theoretical treatments are presented here, both to describe the effect of internal flow on the bulk acoustic perties of the porous medium and to find the effect of the absorbent in situ, in the form of the sound transmission loss of the silencer. The measured transmission loss of an experimental silencer is compared to predicted data and good agreement between the two is obtained. The effects of mean fluid flow in the central passage and internal flow in the absorbent are separately demonstrated.

  18. Annual reduction of 90Sr migration from Solid Waste Storage Area 4 to White Oak Creek by flow diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroy, L.A.; Huff, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The discharge from Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA 4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was studied to determine the effect of a new flow diversion system on the annual flux of 90 Sr into White Oak Creek. The diversion structure was built in late 1983 to route runoff from the SWSA 4 catchment headwaters area (56% of the basin) around the burial ground, because an earlier study showed that this would be an effective remedial measure for reducing 90 Sr migration. A preliminary evaluation of the diversion was conducted during the winter of 1984, and an average flow reduction of 56% and a 90 Sr flux reduction of 44% were observed during the initial study period. The results presented here indicate that an overall annual flow reduction of 66% and an annual 90 Sr flux reduction of 47% were achieved during the 1984 calendar year. An additional goal of the study was to rank SWSA 4 and the surrounding areas as sources of 90 Sr input into White Oak Creek. Runoff from SWSA 4 was found to contribute 58% of the 90 Sr flux to the adjacent reach of White Oak Creek and therefore is the major source of contamination in that area. Statistical analysis suggests that the remaining 42% of the influx is attributable to groundwater inflows from adjacent contaminated areas rather than to the considerable uncertainty associated with flow and 90 Sr measurements

  19. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S.F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives [1]. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the planets’ life. We find no reason, however, to exclude the explanation that a small number of planets are continuously sent migrating inwards such that these planets indeed are in the last fraction of their lives. Following the observation that the distribution of medium planets disfavors tidal dissipation being significantly weaker than has been found from observations of binary stars [2], we now show that the numbers of planets in such a “flow” of excess planets migrating inwards is low enough that even depletion of the three-day pileup is a plausible source. Then the shortest period occurrence distribution would be shaped by planets continuously being sent into the star, which may explain the depletion of the pileup in the Kepler field relative to the solar neighborhood [3]. Because Kepler observes above the galactic plan, [3] suggested the Kepler field may include an older population of stars. The tidal dissipation strength in stars due to giant planets may be not greatly weaker than it is in binary stars.

  20. Particle migration using local variation of the viscosity (LVOV) model in flow of a non-Newtonian fluid for ceramic tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the migration of secondary particles in a non-Newtonian ceramic slurry inthe tape casting process is investigated with the purpose of understanding the particle distribution patterns along the casting direction. The Ostwald-de Waele power law model for the non-Newtonian flow...... the substratevelocity (casting speed) leads to a more uniform distribution of the particles inside the ceramic slurry, in which case the shear induced particle migration is dominating over the gravity induced one....

  1. Study of the influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifer on radionuclide migration from a geological repository using a 2D groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestopalov, Vyacheslav; Bohuslavskyy, Alexander; Shybetskyi, Iurii [National Academy of Science of Ukaraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Radioenvironmental Centre

    2015-07-01

    Results are presented of a case groundwater flow-transport modeling to predict the radionuclide migration from a deep geological repository (DGR) of radioactive waste. The influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifers of a storey water exchange system on the rate of contaminant migration from the DGR to its natural far-field groundwater discharges (a shallow well and a river) as a general DGR safety condition is considered.

  2. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  3. Small flow rate can supply inwardly migrating shortest-period planets

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    The number of exoplanets found with periods as short as one day and less was surprising given how fast these planets had been expected to migrate into the star due to the tides raised on the star by planets at such close distances. It has been seen as improbable that we would find planets in such a small final fraction of their lives. The favored solution has been that the tidal dissipation is much weaker than expected, which would mean that the final infall would be a larger fraction of the ...

  4. Internal Migration Patterns of Foreign-Born Immigrants in Spain. A study based on the National Immigrant Survey (ENI-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the existing literature on the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born in Spain. We analyze the spatial distribution of immigrants and their patterns of mobility at different levels. Socio-demographic characteristics of immigrants and characteristics of places of origin and destination are considered. We also examine repeat migration, duration of residence in each destination, as well as return migration within Spain. To this end, we make use of a new micro database corresponding to the National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

    Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre la migración interna de los inmigrantes nacidos fuera de España. En él se analiza la distribución espacial y las pautas de movilidad de los inmigrantes, considerando aspectos como las características sociodemográficas de los individuos y las características de los orígenes y destinos dentro de España. También se analiza la emigración repetida, la duración de la residencia en cada destino y la emigración de retorno (dentro de España. Para todo ello, se utiliza la nueva base de datos micro derivada de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

  5. Vimentin expression influences flow dependent VASP phosphorylation and regulates cell migration and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Natalie; Henrion, Daniel; Tiede, Petra; Ziche, Marina; Schunkert, Heribert; Ito, Wulf D.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton plays a central role for the integration of biochemical and biomechanical signals across the cell required for complex cellular functions. Recent studies indicate that the intermediate filament vimentin is necessary for endothelial cell morphogenesis e.g. in the context of leukocyte transmigration. Here, we present evidence, that the scaffold provided by vimentin is essential for VASP localization and PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation and thus controls endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Vimentin suppression using siRNA technique significantly decreased migration velocity by 50% (videomicroscopy), diminished transmigration activity by 42.5% (Boyden chamber) and reduced proliferation by 43% (BrdU-incorporation). In confocal microscopy Vimentin colocalized with VASP and PKG in endothelial cells. Vimentin suppression was accompanied with a translocation of VASP from focal contacts to the perinuclear region. VASP/Vimentin and PKG/Vimentin colocalization appeared to be essential for proper PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation because we detected a diminished expression of PKG and p Ser239 -VASP in vimentin-suppressed cells, Furthermore, the induction of VASP phosphorylation in perfused arteries was markedly decreased in vimentin knockout mice compared to wildtypes. A link is proposed between vimentin, VASP phosphorylation and actin dynamics that delivers an explanation for the important role of vimentin in controlling endothelial cell morphogenesis.

  6. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  7. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepeau, John; Mcllroy, Hugh M. Jr.; McEligot, Donald M.; Condie, Keith G.; McCreery, Glenn; Clarsean, Randy; Brodkey, Robert S.; Guezennec, Yann G.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated

  8. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  9. Internal-external flow integration for a thin ejector-flapped wing section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    Thin airfoil theories of an ejector flapped wing section are reviewed. The global matching of the external airfoil flow with the ejector internal flow and the overall ejector flapped wing section aerodynamic performance are examined. Mathematical models of the external and internal flows are presented. The delineation of the suction flow coefficient characteristics are discussed. The idealized lift performance of an ejector flapped wing relative to a jet augmented flapped wing are compared.

  10. Autocrine EGF receptor activation mediates endothelial cell migration and vascular morphogenesis induced by VEGF under interstitial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, Carlos E.; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    We show here that autocrine ligand activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in combination with interstitial flow is critically involved in the morphogenetic response of endothelial cells to VEGF stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a collagen gel and exposed to low interstitial flow in the absence of EGF and VEGF remained viable and mitotic but exhibited little evidence of vascular morphogenesis. Addition of VEGF produced a flow-dependent morphogenetic response within 48 to 72 h, characterized by branched capillary-like structures. The response was substantially abolished by inhibitors related to the autocrine EGF receptor pathway including Galardin, AG1478, PD98059, and an EGF receptor-blocking antibody, indicating that regulation of the morphogenetic process operates via autocrine EGF receptor activation. Moreover, we observed that in our system the EGF receptor was always activated independently of the interstitial flow, and, in addition, the EGF receptor inhibitors used above reduced the phosphorylation state of the receptor, correlating with inhibition of capillary morphogenesis. Finally, 5'bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling identified dividing cells at the monolayer but not in the extending capillary-like structures. EGF pathway inhibitors Galardin and AG1478 did not reduce BrdU incorporation in the monolayer, indicating that the EGF-receptor-mediated morphogenetic behavior is mainly due to cell migration rather than proliferation. Based on these results, we propose a two-step model for in vitro capillary morphogenesis in response to VEGF stimulation with interstitial fluid flow: monolayer maintenance by mitotic activity independent of EGF receptors and a migratory response mediated by autocrine EGF receptor activation wherein cells establish capillary-like structures

  11. Morocco: The new migration flows / Le Maroc face aux nouveaux flux migratoires / Marruecos frente a los nuevos flujos migratorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Benamar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration, fueled in recent years by a massive influx of sub-Saharans who leave North Africa, where Morocco is included as destination in Europe (Spain and Italy as privileged points of entry is taking alarming dimensions and repeatedly dramatic, taking into account the price paid in lives to cross the Mediterranean. Faced with this new reality, Morocco raises revise its immigration policy and take legislative, institutional and even operational to respond to this new situation for the country measures. We analyze this situation based on a survey (ETF et AMERM, 2012, covering the entire national territory, although we will focus especially in the north of Morocco, who was interested returnees immigrants, candidates for illegal immigration and our experience in a European project POCTEFEX 2011-2013 program to which you have participated as a partner (Czech, 2014, were studied: the evolution of process control and management of migration flows; the main challenges of sub-Saharan immigration to Morocco, and the challenges and opportunities for Morocco as new host country of immigrants.

  12. Performance and Internal Flow of a Dental Air Turbine Handpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An air turbine handpiece is a dental abrasive device that rotates at high speed and uses compressed air as the driving force. It is characterized by its small size, light weight, and painless abrading due to its high-speed rotation, but its torque is small and noise level is high. Thus, to improve the performance of the air turbine handpiece, we conducted a performance test of an actual handpiece and a numerical analysis that modeled the whole handpiece; we also analyzed the internal flow of the handpiece. Results show that experimental and calculated values were consistent for a constant speed load method with the descending speed of 1 mm/min for torque and turbine output. When the tip of the blade was at the center of the nozzle, the torque was at its highest. This is likely because the jet from the nozzle entered the tip of the blade from a close distance that would not reduce the speed and exited along the blade.

  13. A simple method for migrating narrow aperture, noisy seismic reflection data and application to Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) deep seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug

    1997-08-01

    Migration of deep seismic data is often hindered by a narrow recording aperture (line length by record length) and a low signal-to-noise ratio. The severity of typical migration artifacts (e.g., lateral smearing of discontinuous reflections into synforms, "smiles") increases with travel time such that interpreters of deep seismic data have often substituted migrated line drawings for the actual sections. As part of Project INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya), a new migration method was developed to address both the noise and migration issues. The method works in the time-space domain and uses the simple, constant velocity, straight ray path to perform the migration. First, only amplitudes within a given range are retained for migration, thus avoiding high-amplitude noise bursts and low-amplitude background noise. Then, the local dip of a reflection is found by automatically fitting a straight line to the highest amplitudes within a small window (several time samples by several traces) and calculating the dip of the line using a constant velocity. Finally, using this dip, the method migrates a selected amplitude value. The dips, lateral positions, and depths of the migrated events compare very well with output from more conventional algorithms (e.g.,fk-Stolt, finite difference, etc.). The advantages of the new method include fewer artifacts, fast computer run times, low memory use and the ability to migrate long profiles and travel times (e.g., 50 s). The output of the method is a grid of migrated amplitudes (not wavelets) or dip values which is particularly effective for making small figures, such as those needed for publication. The principal disadvantage is the use of a constant migration velocity.

  14. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DEFINING HUMAN MIGRATION – A POLICY MAKERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Panfil IVAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a global phenomenon gradually increased in scope, impact and complexity. Practically all countries are simultaneously countries of destination, origin and transit for migrants. Traditionally migration flows are complemented by new changes generated by economic, demographic, political or social conditions, and these trends affect both the size and structure of the migrant population and also economies and societies. Of course this has sparked international interest from various NGOs and by the European Union and the United Nations. This paper aims to present the vision of international organizations concerned with migration and how they define migration and its typologies.

  16. Does International Migration Pay Off? The Labor Market Situation of Finnish Return Migrants Based on Longitudinal Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Koikkalainen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International mobility is a form of flexible labor market adaptation available for young Nordic nationals who have the privilege of relatively easy return if life abroad does not work out. The article considers mobility as a labor market transition and examines the pre- and post-migration situation of two Finnish return migrant groups—those who lived abroad in 1999 and in 2004—based on longitudinal register data. It considers the consequences of return for an individual migrant: is it a form of failure in labor market integration in the country of destination or rather a sign of success whereby the skills, resources, and experiences gained abroad are brought back to the country of origin. Migrants who leave Finland nowadays often opt to move to other Nordic countries and are younger, more educated, and have a better socio-economic status than previous migrant generations. The article demonstrates that international migration does not deteriorate the returnees’ labor market status. While re-entry into the Finnish labor market may take some time and flexibility, mobility seems to pay off and have beneficial consequences: return migrants earn higher taxable incomes and have lower unemployment rates than their peers who only stayed in the national labor markets..

  17. IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES OF THE CONVERGENCE OF COUNTER-TRAFFICKING RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita H. Mece

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional response to combat it. This paper aims at examining challenges faced by the Western Balkan countries to converge anti-trafficking response while facing increased irregular migratory waves. Using secondary data it illustrates various disparities and differences among them concluding that a well-coordinated, multi-faceted and integrated regional response is needed to combat this humanitarian problem.

  18. Migration: The Present State, Problems and Perspectives of Research Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mežnarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prevailing paradigms in contemporary international migration research – migration as unpredictable explosion and migration as mainly predictable long cycles movement – are put into question. Both paradigms are not valid in explaining latest development in international migration field. They are too robust for reality which is satiated with novel developments in the field of volume, directions, labour markets and structure of migration flows, both voluntary and involuntary. Individual independent migrant as decision maker is coming to the fore. Therefore the reassessment of theoretical and conceptual apparatus of migration is imminent. As to the methods, mathematically supported sociological models of contemporary migration could be needed. On the basis of “new intuition”, the principles of simplicity, parsimony, and universality could lead to a theoretical innovation.

  19. On the Mutual Dynamics of Interregional Gross Migration Flows in Space and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies spatial dynamic panel data models to analyse the labor market dimension of interregional population flows among German federal states in the period 1993–2009. Making use of recent improvements in the estimation of space-time dynamic panel data models and the computation of mean...

  20. Mountain scale modeling of transient, coupled gas flow, heat transfer and carbon-14 migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ning; Ross, B.

    1993-01-01

    We simulate mountain-scale coupled heat transfer and gas flow at Yucca Mountain. A coupled rock-gas flow and heat transfer model, TGIF2, is used to simulate mountain-scale two-dimensional transient heat transfer and gas flow. The model is first verified against an analytical solution for the problem of an infinite horizontal layer of fluid heated from below. Our numerical results match very well with the analytical solution. Then, we obtain transient temperature and gas flow distributions inside the mountain. These distributions are used by a transient semianalytical particle tracker to obtain carbon-14 travel times for particles starting at different locations within the repository. Assuming that the repository is filled with 30-year-old waste at an initial areal power density of 57 kw/acre, we find that repository temperatures remain above 60 degrees C for more than 10,000 years. Carbon-14 travel times to the surface are mostly less than 1000 years, for particles starting at any time within the first 10,000 years

  1. International migration of partner, autonomy and depressive symptoms among women from a mexican rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Casique, Irene

    2009-07-01

    The emigration of Mexicans to the USA has increased in the last decades, and little is known about the effect of this on the mental health of those who stay behind. To evaluate the association of emigration of husband and depressive symptoms (DS) among women who stay in Mexico. We also tested the hypothesis that the husband's migration would increase the woman's autonomy, which in turn would decrease DS. A survey was conducted in a rural area in Mexico. Participants (n = 418) were selected through probabilistic sampling in three stages: localities, households and individuals. DS were evaluated using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Having a partner in the USA was associated with higher odds of scoring above the cut-off point in CES-D (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.92-7.43). Economic autonomy was also associated with DS (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Migration of husband was associated with DS among women. The construct of autonomy and its operational definition should be further explored.

  2. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…

  3. Does fragmentation of wetlands affect gene flow in sympatric Acrocephalus warblers with different migration strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ceresa, Francesco; Belda, E.J.; Kvist, Laura; Rguibi-Idrissi, Hamid; Monrós González, Juan Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are naturally patchy habitats, but patchiness has been accentuated by the extensive wetlands loss due to human activities. In such a fragmented habitat, dispersal ability is especially important to maintain gene flow between populations. Here we studied population structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of Iberian and North African populations of two wetland passerines, the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and the moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon....

  4. Migration to the pulmonary artery of nine metallic coils placed in the internal iliac vein for treatment of giant rectal varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Yamasaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter venous embolization with metallic coils is a safe and reliable method for the treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome and pelvic varicocele. While rare, coil migration to the pulmonary arteries is potentially fatal. We report the migration to the pulmonary artery of a cluster of nine metallic microcoils placed in the internal iliac vein to obliterate giant rectal varices. Our patient suffered no severe sequelae. To avoid coil migration to the pulmonary arteries, the coils chosen for placement must take into consideration the characteristics of the target vessels, particularly of larger veins.

  5. Review of Andrés Solimano, International Migration in the Age of Crisis and Globalisation. Historical and Recent Experiences, Cambridge University Press, 2010. 223 Pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirina Claudiu – Ciprian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “International Migration in the Age of Crisis and Globalization. Historical and Recent Experiences” represents a work of major interest in the field of migration and globalization. Apparently two concepts that relate one to another, on a background of major population dynamics, the two notions are the two important pillars in what might perfectly be described as a complex analysis of migration, starting from the elements that have initiated it, and culminating with a fine comparison of positive and negative aspects of this phenomenon.

  6. Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, S

    1993-01-01

    This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity.

  7. International Migration and Labour Turnover: Workers’ Agency in the Construction Sector of Russia and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Morrison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on migrant workers’ agency through exploring the relationship between working and employment conditions, on one side, and labour mobility, on the other. The study is based on qualitative research involving workers from Moldova and Ukraine working in the Russian and Italian construction sector. Fieldwork has been carried out in Russia, Italy and Moldova to investigate informal networks, recruitment mechanisms and employment conditions to establish their impact on migration processes. Overcoming methodological nationalism, this study recognises transnational spaces as the new terrain where antagonistic industrial relations are rearticulated. Labour turnover is posited as a key explanatory factor and understood not simply as the outcome of capital recruitment strategies but also as workers’ agency.

  8. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  9. Design solutions to interface flow problems. A review of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration along sealed radioactive waste repository tunnels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    All published proposals for the deep level burial of radioactive waste recognise that the access shafts, tunnels and boreholes must be sealed, and that the sealing of these openings plays an integral role in the overall isolation of the waste. Previous studies have identified the interface between the host ground formation and the various sealing materials as potential defects in the overall quality of the waste isolation. The significance of groundwater flow at and near the interface has been assessed for representative conditions in generic repository materials. A range of design options to minimise the significance of flow in the interface zone have been proposed, and the most practical of these options have been selected for quantitative analysis. It has been found that isolated high impermeability collars are of limited value unless a highly effective method of minimising ground disturbance during excavation can be developed. It has also been found that control of radionuclide migration by sorptive processes provides an attractive option. The effect of various geometrical arrangements of sorptive materials has been investigated. Consideration has also been given to the particular conditions in the near field, to the behaviour of weak plastic clay host formations and to the mechanical interaction between the backfill material and the host formation. (author)

  10. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  11. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  12. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-15

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  13. Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Migration of the Radioactive Cobalt-60 from LAMA Nuclear Facility-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair Sharif Khayyun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a simulation of groundwater flow and advective-dispersive migration of radioactive Co-60 through an aquifer with three layers, which release or leak to groundwater from the Active Metallurgy Testing Laboratory (LAMA Nuclear Facility-Iraq due to the nuclear accident scenario. Processing Modflow for windows (PMWIN and Modular Three-Dimensional Multispecies Transport (MT3DMS Models were used for this purpose. The study area and the contaminated area were 12.7 km2 and 0.005625 km2, respectively. Water levels of the groundwater have been measured in six monitoring wells. The simulation time was assumed to have started in 2016. The PMWIN model simulated the flow for two scenarios of water level in Tigris River (average and minimum water levels. The MT3DMS model simulated 10 years of plume travel, beginning in 2016. The simulated Co-60 concentrations after five years of travel were 32.34 and 34.44 μg/m3 for the two scenarios. The maximum predicted Co-60 concentrations at the end of Year 10 were 34.86 and 37.31 μg/m3, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the simulated hydraulic heads in the observation wells and the simulated plume of Co-60 were highly sensitive to changes in the effective porosity but less sensitive to changes in other parameters of the dispersion and chemical reaction processes. The time necessary to reach steady state condition was predicted to be approximately 16 years. The contaminated area was isolated by using remedial process which is represented by three fully penetrating pumping wells with a suitable flow rate (0.045 m3/s for controlling the movement of Co-60 pollutant.

  14. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  15. Internal and external 2-d boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. E.; Kays, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Computer program computes general two dimensional turbulent boundary-layer flow using finite-difference techniques. Structure allows for user modification to accommodate unique problems. Program should prove useful in many applications where accurate boundary-layer flow calculations are required.

  16. Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygnanski, I.

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting instabilities rather than forcing the flow is advantageous. Simple 2D concepts may not always work. Nonlinear effects may result in first order effect. Interaction between spanwise and streamwise vortices may have a paramount effect on the mean flow, but this interaction may not always be beneficial.

  17. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  18. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN COFFEE PRODUCTION IN TWO COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF VERACRUZ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production; however this sector is facing a crisis because of the fall in prices in the international market which has resulted amongst other things in increased emigration to the United States. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU. In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in the United States and receive greater remittances; investing 14% more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This may be because 83% of the FPUs cultivate solely coffee and are beholden to the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86% of remittances are directed towards family sustenance; with only 7% directed towards agricultural investment.

  19. Does migration affect asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema prevalence? Global findings from the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Robertson, Colin F; Ross Anderson, H; Ellwood, Philippa; Williams, Hywel C; Wong, Gary Wk

    2014-12-01

    Immigrants to Westernized countries adopt the prevalence of allergic diseases of native populations, yet no data are available on immigrants to low-income or low-disease prevalence countries. We investigated these questions using data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Standardized questionnaires were completed by 13-14-year-old adolescents and by the parent/guardians of 6-7-year-old children. Questions on the symptom prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, and a wide range of factors postulated to be associated with these conditions, including birth in or not in the country and age at immigration, were asked. Odds ratios for risk of the three diseases according to immigration status were calculated using generalized linear mixed models. These were adjusted for: world region; language and gross national income; and individual risk factors including gender, maternal education, antibiotic and paracetamol use, maternal smoking, and diet. Effect modification by gross national income and by prevalence was examined. There were 326 691 adolescents from 48 countries and 208 523 children from 31 countries. Immigration was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in both age groups than among those born in the country studied, and this association was mainly confined to high-prevalence/affluent countries. This reduced risk was greater in those who had lived fewer years in the host country. Recent migration to high prevalence/affluent countries is associated with a lower prevalence of allergic diseases. The protective pre-migration environment quickly decreases with increasing time in the host country. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Aung, Tin

    2016-03-09

    Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women's health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women's reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women's migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to non-migrant women in regards to family planning and maternal health. Future research should focus on monitoring the outcomes of migrants and their children over time to assess long-term impacts.

  1. The International intraval project. Phase 1 case 2. Radionuclide migration in single natural fractures in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.

    1992-01-01

    The INTRAVAL study addresses validation of geosphere transport models for use in repository performance assessment by examining various test cases relevant to radioactive waste disposal. This report describes the results from INTRAVAL test case 2 which is based on a set of laboratory experiments studying migration of non-sorbing as well as sorbing tracers in a single fracture in granitic cores. Three project teams have investigated this test case. Models including advection, dispersion, sorption to the fracture surface, matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock matrix were calibrated against the experimental breakthrough curves. Obtained best-fit values of the parameters determining the interaction between tracer and rock were in fair agreement with independently measured data. Models neglecting matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock matrix gave poor fits to the experimental data. These results suggest the need to include matrix diffusion and matrix sorption in the model to represent data for this test case. Furthermore, it was not possible to distinguish between hydrodynamic dispersion and channelling dispersion since equally good fits were obtained with both models. Equally good fits were also obtained with models assuming constant fracture aperture and variable fracture aperture. In the context of performance assessment of repositories in fractured rock, the major outcome from this test case is additional support for the inclusion of matrix diffusion and matrix sorption in the transport models. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Cultural Factors in the Flow of International News: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of the literature of international news flow, and surveys how the previous studies have attempted to capture “cultural factors” influencing the flow. The factors are grouped into four types of variables: language, former colonial tie, ethnicity, and geographical proximity. This paper argues that cultural factors cannot be significant without economic interests in the era of post-Cold War, that the structure of international news is imbalanced because a few powerful countries dominate the international news market, and that international news reduces cultural varieties to the singular international realities disseminated by the media of such countries.

  3. The Growth in International Enrolments in Accounting: Implications for an Established Nexus between Education and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Dimuthu; Jackling, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    International student enrolments globally have grown substantially over the first decade of the twenty-first century. In the context of Australia, the higher education (HE) sector and specifically the accounting discipline grew during this time, together with the growth in the demand for qualified accountants. Australia was attractive to…

  4. International Vocational Education and Training--The Migration and Learning Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Nyland, Chris

    2011-01-01

    International VET students have divergent, shifting and in some cases multiple purposes for undertaking their VET courses. Students' motives may be instrumental and/or intrinsic and can include obtaining permanent residency, accumulating skills that can secure good employment, gaining a foothold that leads to higher education, and/or personal…

  5. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  6. National recording systems and the measurement of international migration in Canada: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T J; White, P M; Perreault, J

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a critical assessment of the adequacy of Canada's statistical sources on immigration and emigration for both scientific study and policy needs. These data collection systems are discussed: 1) registration systems, 2) the census, and 3) administrative records and surveys. The authors conclude that Canadian migration data systems have both strengths and weaknesses. The following are some of these strengths. 1) The census is a unique source of consistent, up-to-date information on the immigrant stock. 2) Surveys provide insights on attitudes towards immigrants. 3) Citizenship data tell how many immigrants have acquired Canadian citizenship. 4) When data gaps were noticed, special efforts were made to fill them. The following are some of the data systems' weaknesses. 1) The most significant weakness is the absence of data on the characteristics of emigrants and their destination. 2) Information on returning residents is limited. 3) Undocumented immigrants defy documentation and very little is known on this group. 4) There are only skimpy data on refugee claimants. 5) There are few analyses of the differential fertility, mortality, and nuptiality patterns of the immigrants and the Canadian born. 6) The rate of return of immigrants is unknown. 7) The number of Canadian students abroad and their field of study is unknown. 8) Information on change of status and enforcement is limited. 9) The de facto population of Canada is unknown since Statistics Canada enumerates and estimates only the de jure population. 10) Lack of coordination among the multiple agencies that collect data is a major weakness; data are often unavailable in the form in which, or time when, it is required.

  7. Recovery Migration to the City of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A Migration Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Curtis, Katherine J; Dewaard, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina's effect on the population of the City of New Orleans provides a model of how severe weather events, which are likely to increase in frequency and strength as the climate warms, might affect other large coastal cities. Our research focuses on changes in the migration system - defined as the system of ties between Orleans Parish and all other U.S. counties - between the pre-disaster (1999-2004) and recovery (2007-2009) periods. Using Internal Revenue Service county-to-county migration flow data, we find that in the recovery period Orleans Parish increased the number of migration ties with and received larger migration flows from nearby counties in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region, thereby spatially concentrating and intensifying the in-migration dimension of this predominantly urban system, while the out-migration dimension contracted and had smaller flows. We interpret these changes as the migration system relying on its strongest ties to nearby and less damaged counties to generate recovery in-migration.

  8. International symposium on cavitation and multiphase flow noise - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Billet, M.L.; Blake, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on multiphase flow and cavitation. Topics considered at the conference included the development of a cavitation-free sodium pump for a breeder reactor, the stochastic behavior (randomness) of acoustic pressure pulses in the near-subcavitating range, cavitation monitoring of two axial-flow hydroturbines, and noise generated by cavitation in orifice plates with some gaseous effects

  9. Mathematical model for the calculation of internal turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, V. de P.; Valle Pereira Filho, H. do

    1981-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes and the turbulent kinetic energy equations for the incompressible, turbulent and fully developed pipe flow, were solved by a finite difference procedure. The distributions of the mean velocity, turbulent shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy were obtained at different Reynolds numbers. Those numerical results were compared with experimental data and the agreement was good in whole cross section of the flow. (Author) [pt

  10. Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

  11. International migration to Canada: the post-birth health of mothers and infants by immigration class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Wahoush, Olive; Saucier, Jean-François; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Stanger, Elizabeth; Palmer, Becky; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    There are over 214 million international migrants worldwide, half of whom are women, and all of them assigned by the receiving country to an immigration class. Immigration classes are associated with certain health risks and regulatory restrictions related to eligibility for health care. Prior to this study, reports of international migrant post-birth health had not been compared between immigration classes, with the exception of our earlier, smaller study in which we found asylum-seekers to be at greatest risk for health concerns. In order to determine whether refugee or asylum-seeking women or their infants experience a greater number or a different distribution of professionally-identified health concerns after birth than immigrant or Canadian-born women, we recruited 1127 migrant (and in Canada immigration class (refugee, asylum-seeker, immigrant, or Canadian-born). Between February 2006 and May 2009, we followed them from childbirth (in one of eleven birthing centres in Montreal or Toronto) to four months and found that at one week postpartum, asylum-seeking and immigrant women had greater rates of professionally-identified health concerns than Canadian-born women; and at four months, all three migrant groups had greater rates of professionally-identified concerns. Further, international migrants were at greater risk of not having these concerns addressed by the Canadian health care system. The current study supports our earlier findings and highlights the need for case-finding and services for international migrant women, particularly for psychosocial difficulties. Policy and program mechanisms to address migrants' needs would best be developed within the various immigration classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. “To be without a home, like a rolling stone”: Anticipating the global management of forced migration flows and the social integration of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The study investigates the practices of different forms of anticipatory knowledge of actors involved in the global management of forced migration flows in ‘migration hotspots’ (European Parliament, 2016). The study draws on an ongoing multi-sited study of professionals working in IGOs, NGOs......—all for estimating the movements and framing the choices, freedoms and rights of asylum seekers. The study shows how anticipatory practices constitute asylum seekers as ‘global problems’ which reinforce dominance relations of ‘vulnerability’ and remove individuals’ agency while providing them with life...

  13. Internal and External Flow over Laser-Textured Superhydrophobic Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, K M Tanvir; Patience, Christian; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-12

    In this work, internal and external flows over superhydrophobic (SH) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. The SH surface was fabricated by a one-step femtosecond laser micromachining process. The drag reduction ability of the textured surface was studied experimentally both in microscale and macroscale internal flows. The slip length, which indicates drag reduction in fluid flow, was determined in microscale fluid flow with a cone-and-plate rheometer, whereas a pressure channel setup was used for macroscale flow experiments. The textured PTFE surface reduced drag in both experiments yielding comparable slip lengths. Moreover, the experimentally obtained slip lengths correspond well to the result obtained applying a semianalytical model, which considers the solid fraction of the textured surface. In addition to the internal flow studies, we fabricated SH PTFE spheres to test their drag reduction abilities in an external flow experiment, where the terminal velocities of the falling spheres were measured. These experiments were conducted at three different Reynolds numbers in both viscous and inertial flow regimes with pure glycerol, a 30% glycerol solution, and water. Surprisingly, the drag on the SH spheres was higher than the measured drag on the non-SH spheres. We hypothesize that the increase in form drag outweighs the decrease in friction drag on the SH sphere. Thus, the overall drag increased. These experiments demonstrate that a superhydrophobic surface that reduces drag in internal flow might not reduce drag in external flow.

  14. The role of Internal Solitary Waves on deep-water sedimentary processes: the case of up-slope migrating sediment waves off the Messina Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghei, R.; Falcini, F.; Casalbore, D.; Martorelli, E.; Mosetti, R.; Sannino, G.; Santoleri, R.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    Subaqueous, asymmetric sand waves are typically observed in marine channel/canyon systems, tidal environments, and continental slopes exposed to strong currents, where they are formed by current shear resulting from a dominant unidirectional flow. However, sand-wave fields may be readily observed in marine environments where no such current exists; the physical processes driving their formation are enigmatic or not well understood. We propose that internal solitary waves (ISWs) induced by tides can produce an effective, unidirectional boundary “current” that forms asymmetric sand waves. We test this idea by examining a sand-wave field off the Messina Strait, where we hypothesize that ISWs formed at the interface between intermediate and surface waters are refracted by topography. Hence, we argue that the deflected pattern (i.e., the depth-dependent orientation) of the sand-wave field is due to refraction of such ISWs. Combining field observations and numerical modelling, we show that ISWs can account for three key features: ISWs produce fluid velocities capable of mobilizing bottom sediments; the predicted refraction pattern resulting from the interaction of ISWs with bottom topography matches the observed deflection of the sand waves; and predicted migration rates of sand waves match empirical estimates. This work shows how ISWs may contribute to sculpting the structure of continental margins and it represents a promising link between the geological and oceanographic communities.

  15. Securitization of Migration: an Australian case study of global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Humphrey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post September 11 migration has increasingly been framed as a security problem. In the 2010 Australian election campaign migration was connected to security (defense of our borders, terrorism and social cohesion and to related issues of insecurity about the future (population size,sustainability and economic growth. Thisframing of migration as a national security issue overlooks the reality that Australian immigration is part of the global flow of population. Migration is an international issue experienced by states as a national question of border control and sovereignty seeking to manage the consequences of global inequality and mobility. This paper analyses the 'security turn' in migration debates in Australia and the North and the way the securitization of migration signifies the transformation of security from the problem of producing national order to the problem of managing global disorder resulting in the merging of national and international security strategies.

  16. Increased gastrointestinal blood flow: An essential circulatory modification for euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) migrating to sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijs, Jeroen; Axelsson, Michael; Gräns, Albin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Olsson, Catharina; Sandblom, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale migrations of anadromous fish species from freshwater to seawater have long been considered particularly enigmatic, as this life history necessitates potentially energetically costly changes in behaviour and physiology. A significant knowledge gap concerns the integral role of cardiovascular responses, which directly link many of the well-documented adaptations (i.e. through oxygen delivery, water and ion transport) allowing fish to maintain osmotic homeostasis in the sea. Using long-term recordings of cardiorespiratory variables and a novel method for examining drinking dynamics, we show that euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) initiate drinking long before the surrounding environment reaches full seawater salinity (30–33 ppt), suggesting the presence of an external osmo-sensing mechanism. Onset of drinking was followed by a delayed, yet substantial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow through increased pulse volume exclusively, as heart rate remained unchanged. While seawater entry did not affect whole animal energy expenditure, enhanced gastrointestinal perfusion represents a mechanism crucial for ion and water absorption, as well as possibly increasing local gastrointestinal oxygen supply. Collectively, these modifications are essential for anadromous fish to maintain homeostasis at sea, whilst conserving cardiac and metabolic scope for activities directly contributing to fitness and reproductive success. PMID:26000616

  17. Linking international student mobility to skilled migration: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The emphasis on innovation in the context of globalising knowledge economy has made a highly educated and well-qualified workforce a precondition for sustained growth. At the same time, more and more students are pursuing their education abroad. The present paper focuses on the increasing tendency...... of internationalisation of higher education by harmonising diverse institutional structures. At the same time states are also in competition to attract and retain international students as future knowledge workers. Denmark is one of such countries where internationalisation of higher education stands high on the national...

  18. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  19. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  20. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J; Epstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-05

    Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CAUSES OF ROMANIAN MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main worldwide determinants influencing in time the migration phenomenon are: external environment (international political situation, economy, population growth in the migrant’s country, armed conflicts, religious persecution and xenophobic attacks. The migration of manpower from Romania is based on a number of psychological, social, financial reasons of migrants to increase their income and improve their living conditions in another country. The main cause of migration in developed countries is the migration flows originating mainly from poor or very poor countries considered disadvantaged.

  2. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  3. International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Lisa; Small, Rhonda; Blondel, Béatrice; Gagnon, Anita J

    2013-01-30

    Perinatal health disparities including disparities in caesarean births have been observed between migrant and non-migrant women and some literature suggests that non-medical factors may be implicated. A systematic review was conducted to determine if migrants in Western industrialized countries consistently have different rates of caesarean than receiving-country-born women and to identify the reasons that explain these differences. Reports were identified by searching 12 literature databases (from inception to January 2012; no language limits) and the web, by bibliographic citation hand-searches and through key informants. Studies that compared caesarean rates between international migrants and non-migrants living in industrialized countries and that did not have a 'fatal flaw' according to the US Preventative Services Task Force criteria were included. Studies were summarized, analyzed descriptively and where possible, meta-analyzed. Seventy-six studies met inclusion criteria. Caesarean rates between migrants and non-migrants differed in 69% of studies. Meta-analyses revealed consistently higher overall caesarean rates for Sub-Saharan African, Somali and South Asian women; higher emergency rates for North African/West Asian and Latin American women; and lower overall rates for Eastern European and Vietnamese women. Evidence to explain the consistently different rates was limited. Frequently postulated risk factors for caesarean included: language/communication barriers, low SES, poor maternal health, GDM/high BMI, feto-pelvic disproportion, and inadequate prenatal care. Suggested protective factors included: a healthy immigrant effect, preference for a vaginal birth, a healthier lifestyle, younger mothers and the use of fewer interventions during childbirth. Certain groups of international migrants consistently have different caesarean rates than receiving-country-born women. There is insufficient evidence to explain the observed differences.

  4. Development of numerical simulation method for gas migration through highly-compacted bentonite using model of two-phase flow through deformable porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2011-01-01

    In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Hydrogen gas can be generated inside of the engineered barrier by anaerobic corrosion of metals used for containers, etc. It is expected to be not easy for gas to entering into the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase because the pore of compacted bentonite is so minute. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the effect of gas pressure generation and gas migration on the engineered barrier, peripheral facilities and ground. In this study, a method for simulating gas migration through the compacted bentonite is proposed. The proposed method can analyze coupled hydrological-mechanical processes using the model of two-phase flow through deformable porous media. Validity of the proposed analytical method is examined by comparing gas migration test results with the calculated results, which revealed that the proposed method can simulate gas migration behavior through compacted bentonite with accuracy. (author)

  5. The Stent Patency and Migration Rate of Different Shaped Plastic Stents in Bile Flow Phantom Model and In Vivo Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2017-05-01

    In research and development of biliary plastic stents (PS), continuous efforts have been made to overcome short patency time and high rate of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patency and migration rate of different PS shapes for a given period of time. Using an in vitro bile phantom model, we compared the patency among different shapes of PS (three straight PS, four double-pigtail PS, and a new screw-shaped PS). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by light microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine model, we compared the patency and migration rate among the three different types of PS. Eight weeks after the bile exposure in the bile flow phantom model, 80 PS were retrieved and analyzed. The straight PS showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than other types of PS (p stent migration occurred less frequently in the double-pigtail PS and the screw-shaped PS than it did in the straight PS (11.1, 10, and 27.3%, respectively). However, there was no statistical difference in stent patency among the different shapes. Stent patency may not be significantly different depending on the shape of PS for 8 weeks. The screw-shaped PS showed similar patency and migration rate to the double-pigtail PS. These results may help guiding future PS development and clinical decisions.

  6. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y Y; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  7. LES of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using Cartesian Overset Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computations of turbulent flows using the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES technique with an appropriate SubFilter Scale (SFS model require low artificial dissipation such that the physical energy cascade process is not perturbed by numerical artifacts. To realize this in practical simulations, energy-conserving numerical schemes and high-quality computational grids are needed. If unstructured meshes are used, the latter requirement often makes grid generation for complex geometries very difficult. Structured Cartesian grids offer the advantage that uncertainties in mesh quality are reduced to choosing appropriate resolution. However, two intrinsic challenges of the structured approach are local mesh refinement and representation of complex geometries. In this work, the effectiveness of numerical methods which can be expected to reduce both drawbacks is assessed in engine flows, using a multi-physics inhouse code. The overset grid approach is utilized to arbitrarily combine grid patches of different spacing to a flow domain of complex shape during mesh generation. Walls are handled by an Immersed Boundary (IB method, which is combined with a wall function to treat underresolved boundary layers. A statistically stationary Spark Ignition (SI engine port flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers typical for engine operation. Good agreement of computed and measured integral flow quantities like overall pressure loss and tumble number is found. A comparison of simulated velocity fields to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurement data concludes the validation of the enhanced numerical framework for both mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations. The performance of two SFS models, the dynamic Smagorinsky model with Lagrangian averaging along pathlines and the coherent structure model, is tested on different grids. Sensitivity of pressure loss and tumble ratio to the wall treatment and mesh refinement is presented. It is shown that increased wall

  8. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sudhinaraset

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women’s health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women’s reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women’s migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Methods Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Results Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p < 0.01 and use antenatal care during pregnancy (p < 0.05. While not statistically significant, migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. Conclusions This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to

  9. Analysis of forecasting methods of cargo flows in International transportation by land transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, N.

    2005-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the existing forecasting methods of cargo flows are presented. The improvement of cargo flows forecasting method in international transportation by land transport is considered on the basis of a interregional balance model to get more correct and fuller forecast.

  10. A semi-elliptic analysis of internal viscous flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, U.; Ramamurti, R.; Ghia, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demands placed presently on the performance of compressors and turbines of gas-turbine engines have, for some time, pointed the need for accurate analysis of viscous flows in turbomachinery. With the recent developments of advanced computational facilities, much effort has been made to respond to this need. Various mathematical formulations, grid systems and numerical techniques have been developed for the numerical solution of the viscous flow equations (Refs. 1-4). The full Navier-Stokes equations as well as their corresponding thin-layer approximate form have been employed in H- as well as C-grids, using explicit or implicit methods, including convergence enhancement techniques based on multi-grid methodology. Nevertheless, obtaining converged solutions for general geometries on acceptably refined grids remains a computationally demanding task. The present paper discusses a reduced form on the governing equations which can capture much of the physics, while requiring less computer resources than the full Navier-Stokes equations

  11. Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokade, Vipin; Bhandarkar, U.V.; Bodi, Kowsik

    2016-01-01

    A strong magnetic field is used to confine the plasma in a fusion reactor. This magnetic field also affects the flow of Lead-Lithium (breeder/coolant) in the breeding blanket. So it is important to study MHD flow of Lead-Lithium (Pb-Li). Open-source toolbox, OpenFOAM, is used to study single phase behaviour of Pb-Li. As the induced magnetic field is very small, Ni et al. electric potential algorithm is employed in OpenFOAM and validated with analytical results. This solver can also solve the temperature field with heat source term. Simulations are carried out in 2D straight channel for various values of Hartmann Number ranging from 100 to 5000 and velocity profile, temperature, current density and pressure drop are studied. (author)

  12. Heterogeneous migration flows from the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso: the role of natural and social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a system of labour supply equations and data from Burkina Faso collected in 2003 to test the conditions underlying two different migratory movements: continental and intercontinental migration. We provide theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that heterogeneity in migration is

  13. [Migration patterns of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    The past three decades have seen the number of international migrants double, to reach the unprecedented total of 175 million people in 2003. National health systems are often the biggest national employer, responsible for an estimated 35 million workers worldwide. Health professionals are part of the expanding global labour market. Today, foreign-educated health professionals represent more than a quarter of the medical and nursing workforces of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Destination countries, however, are not limited to industrialised nations. For example, 50 per cent of physicians in the Namibia public services are expatriates and South Africa continues to recruit close to 80% of its rural physicians from other countries. International migration often imitates patterns of internal migration. The exodus from rural to urban areas, from lower to higher income urban neighbourhoods and from lower-income to higher-income sectors contributes challenges to the universal coverage of the population. International migration is often blamed for the dramatic health professional shortages witnessed in the developing countries. A recent OECD study, however, concludes that many registered nurses in South Africa (far exceeding the number that emigrate) are either inactive or unemployed. These dire situations constitute a modern paradox which is for the most part ignored. Shared language, promises of a better quality of life and globalization all support the continued existence of health professionals' international migration. The ethical dimension o this mobility is a sensitive issue that needs to be addressed. A major paradigm shift, however, is required in order to lessen the need to migrate rather than artificially curb the flows.

  14. Highly skilled international labour migration: a qualitative study of migrant Pakistani professionals in London's big four accounting firms

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Current Migration Studies literature in Europe can broadly be divided into two major strands. First is dominated by studies on the East-West migration of working class or asylum seeking, postcolonial ethnic groups and problems associated with their subsequent integration/assimilation into the host society. The second, more recent, strand of migration research is that of highly skilled professional migrants, usually hypermobile white men moving across highly-developed countries (for example wi...

  15. Breaking down the silos to decrease internal diversions and patient flow delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Molly; Tobis, Kristen; Gurka, David; Serafin, Frederick; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals strive to admit patients to the units where caregiver competencies align with the patient's condition. When the hospital's census peaks, internal diversions and the associated risks increase, which are intensified when silos exist, as segregated care negatively impacts collaboration and patient safety. In this study, a 600+-bed academic, tertiary care specialty hospital experienced an increase in internal diversions. Within the neuroscience service line, emergent neuroscience transfers from outside hospitals had been declined or internally diverted because of capacity limitations. Formalized processes for improving collaboration between health care providers related to capacity issues were required to decrease internal diversions and improve patient flow and patient safety. A pilot project was conducted on neuroscience units during a process improvement initiative. A hospital-wide internal diversion plan was developed, identifying primary and secondary placement options for all patients requiring hospitalization to support patient flow and patient safety. Forecasting tools were developed to provide units' leadership with current information on expected admissions. Daily capacity huddles were instituted to increase collaboration between patient care units. The interventions trialed during the pilot decreased internal diversions and improved patient flow. The improved collaboration resulted in an 80% decrease in declinations of emergent intensive care unit transfers from outside hospitals due to capacity limitations and a 50% decrease in the number of these patients being internally diverted to alternate intensive care units. The interventions implemented minimized internal diversions and improved patient flow. The transparency of the patient placement process led to an increased collaboration between all participants.

  16. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  17. MANAGING MIGRATION: TURKISH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan GÜLAY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conducting migration studies is of vital importance to Turkey, a country which has been experiencing migration throughout history due to its “open doors policy”. The objective of this study is to evaluate the strategic management of migration in Turkey in order to deal with the issue of migration. The main focus of the study is Syrian migrants who sought refuge in Turkey due to the civil war that broke out in their country in April 2011. This study demonstrates the policies and processes followed by Turkey for Syrian migration flow in terms of the social acceptance and harmonisation of the migrants within a democratic environment. The study addresses some statistical facts and issues related to Syrian migration as it has become an integral part of daily life in Turkey. The study also reviews how human rights are protected in the migration process. The study will provide insights for developing sound strategic management policies for the migration issue.

  18. Performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, T; Fukutomi, J; Kaji, K; Wada, T

    2012-01-01

    Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-CFX) to investigate the internal flow condition in detail. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades and the total pressure loss regions are decreased. The effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the internal flow condition are discussed in this paper.

  19. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  20. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.