WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal migrant workers

  1. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  2. Internal Migration and Depressive Symptoms among Migrant Factory Workers in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Cheng, Jinquan; Griffiths, Sian M.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Hillier, Sheila; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in rural-urban migration in China over the last two decades but there are few studies on the mental health of Chinese internal migrants. This study assesses the prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) and their associated factors among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A questionnaire survey was sent to…

  3. Migrant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Drupsteen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Health and Safety aspects related to migrants working in multi-cultural settings (heterogeneous teams, working together on one location). Several assumptions can be made related to cultural differences and safe and healthy behaviour, but research evidence on this matter is very

  4. Selection and use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities: a workplace-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xin; Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhan, Shao-Kang; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ting-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    To describe the current status of the decision-making process with regard to the use of contraceptive methods among internal migrant workers in three large Chinese cities. A total of 4313 sexually active internal migrant workers were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chengdu. Information on contraceptive use was collected by means of questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence was 86% among unmarried sexually active migrant workers and 91% among married workers. The main contraceptive methods used by married migrants were the intrauterine device (51%), condoms (25%) and female/male sterilisation (17%); the main methods resorted to by unmarried, sexually active migrants were condoms (74%) and oral contraceptives (11%). The contraceptive method applied by 20% of married respondents had been selected by other people, without they themselves having their share in an informed choice. Adopting the contraceptive decisions made by others was associated with being a married migrant, a construction or service worker, a rural-urban migrant, a migrant living in collective or rented rooms, or a migrant with more children. Many internal migrants in these large cities did not choose their contraceptive method on their own. Efforts enabling and encouraging migrants to make informed choices are needed.

  5. The relationship between attributional style and destructive responses to job dissatisfaction: an exploratory study of internal migrant workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Siu-On; Wong, Fu-Keung Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attributional style and destructive responses to job dissatisfaction among internal migrant workers in mainland China. Contrary to previous studies conducted in the West, we found that internality of bad events was negatively related to destructive responses to job dissatisfaction. Stability and globality were positively related to destructive responses to job dissatisfaction. We suggest that the concept of interdependent self-construal may explain the unique positive meaning of internality of bad events among Chinese migrant workers. The practical significance of the findings is discussed.

  6. Measures to facilitate the reintegration of returning migrant workers: international experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, R

    1988-06-01

    Bilateral and multilateral measures implemented to assist migrants who return to their country of origin have been designed to respond to a number of different but specific situations. 2 bilateral agreements are briefly described: 1) an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Turkey signed in the early 1970s, and 2) an agreement between France and Algeria signed in 1980. 3 different types of multilateral activities are described: 1) the operation of the so-called Return of Talent program by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, 2) the Transfer of KNow-how Through Expatriate Nationals program of the UN Development Programme, and 3) the elaboration of a model machinery on return migration by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While the 1st 2 activities are operational programs, by which annually between 1000-2000 professionals are assisted in their permanent return to or temporary sojourn in their developing countries of origin, with the financial support of both the developed and the developing countries concerned, the 3rd initiative is a conceptual effort aimed at assisting governments to implement policy measures designed to make return migration commensurate with national development goals. 3 recent proposals include 1) the proposal for an international labor compensatory facility, 2) an international fund for vocational training, and 3) an international fund for manpower resources. A common factor shared by all these programs is that they have all involved on 1 side industrial receiving countries which feel themselves obliged to observe a number of principles guaranteed by law and which govern employment conditions and working relations. The reintegration measures implemented or proposed in cooperation with them have been adopted in full consideration of the prevailing standards of these countries, as different as they may be from 1 country to another. A common consideration has been that the

  7. Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2018-01-01

    Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex

  8. Delivering migrant workers' remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2004-01-01

    As globalization has led to ever higher levels of labour mobility, so the volume of funds remitted to their families by workers employed in countries far distant from their homes has increased by leaps and bounds. The total volume of such transfers currently amounts to over $100 billion per annum, the greater part of which flows from economically advanced regions in the West and North to developing countries in the East and South. Delivering those funds swiftly, reliably and cheaply to relati...

  9. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  10. Specialists on the Problems of Training Migrant Workers Meet in Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants of a symposium attempted to identify the aims of workers' education for migrant workers, analyze the training activities undertaken by trade union and workers' education bodies for migrant and migration problems, and consider the role of the ILO (International Labour Organisation) in promoting workers' education centered on migration.…

  11. Common mental disorders among adult members of 'left-behind' international migrant worker families in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Siribaddana, Sisira; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Pieris, Sharika; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-03-28

    Nearly one-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International migrant workers (IMW). Very little is known about the mental health of adult members in families left-behind. This study aimed to explore the impact of economic migration on mental health (common mental disorders) of left-behind families in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling was conducted in six districts (representing 62% of outbound IMW population) of Sri Lanka. Spouses and non-spouse caregivers (those providing substantial care for children) from families of economic migrants were recruited. Adult mental health was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Demographic, socio-economic, migration-specific and health utilization information were gathered. A total of 410 IMW families were recruited (response rate: 95.1%). Both spouse and a non-spouse caregiver were recruited for 55 families with a total of 277 spouses and 188 caregivers included. Poor general health, current diagnosed illness and healthcare visit frequency was higher in the non-spouse caregiver group. Overall prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD; Depression, somatoform disorder, anxiety) was 20.7% (95%CI 16.9-24.3) with 14.4% (95%CI 10.3-18.6) among spouses and 29.8% (95%CI 23.2-36.4) among non-spouse caregivers. Prevalence of depression (25.5%; 95%CI 19.2-31.8) and somatoform disorder 11.7% (95%CI 7.0-16.3) was higher in non-spouse caregiver group. When adjusted for age and gender, non-returning IMW in family, primary education and low in-bound remittance frequency was associated with CMD for spouses while no education, poor general health and increased healthcare visits was significantly associated in the non-spouse caregiver group. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to explore specific mental health outcomes among adult left-behind family members of IMW through standardized diagnostic instruments in Sri Lanka and in South Asian region. Negative impact of economic migration is

  12. Discrimination Against Migrant Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Badarulzaman, Muhammad Hafiz; Ayub, Zainal A; Yusoff, Zuryati M; Wahab, Harlida A

    2016-01-01

    AbstractMigrant workers are often discriminated against in almost every aspect of life. Discrimination against them is due to irrational dislike of them and also negative perception towards them. It is alleged that migrant workers contribute to the crimes hike in Malaysia. Using doctrinal research methodology, this article discusses direct and perceptive discrimination against them. This article concludes that physical discriminations are mostly happened because ineffective enforcement of the...

  13. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  14. Work injuries among migrant workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. METHODS: This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported....... Workers who had migrated recently were at even higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found increased risk of work injuries among migrant workers. Studying migrants in registers is a methodological challenge as some migrants are not registered, for legal or illegal reasons; thus, only a selected group is studied......OBJECTIVES: Work migration into Denmark has increased during the recent decades, especially after the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004. Whether or not migrant workers experience more work injuries than the native workforce has been debated and results are conflicting, most likely due...

  15. The International Migrant Child: An Aspect of U.S./Mexico Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Little is know about the educational, social, and psychological problems that migrant worker children experience. This paper juxtaposes what we know about domestic migrant worker children with what is being discovered about international migrant worker counterparts. The educational experiences in the country of origin and receiving nation are…

  16. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  17. Migration, violence, and safety among migrant sex workers: A qualitative study in two Guatemalan communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Silverman, Jay G.; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012–February 2015), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Úman and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to

  19. Eldercare work, migrant care workers, affective care and subjective proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg

    2016-08-01

    To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to 'blurred emotional boundaries' and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute

  20. Health screening of migrant workers- serological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)

  1. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  2. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  3. Applying a typology of health worker migration to non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Tyrrell, Ella; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí

    2015-06-26

    Research on health worker migration in the Irish context has categorized migrant health workers by country or region of training (for example, non-EU nurses or doctors) or recruitment mechanism (for example, actively recruited nurses). This paper applies a new typology of health worker migrants - livelihood, career-oriented, backpacker, commuter, undocumented and returner migrants (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) - to the experiences of non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland and tests its utility for understanding health worker migration internationally. The paper draws on quantitative survey (N = 366) and qualitative interview (N = 37) data collected from non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland between 2011 and 2013. Categorizing non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland according to the typology (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) offers insight into their differing motivations, particularly on arrival. Findings suggest that the career-oriented migrant is the most common type of doctor among non-EU migrant doctor respondents, accounting for 60 % (N = 220) of quantitative and 54 % (N = 20) of qualitative respondents. The authors propose a modification to the typology via the addition of two additional categories - the family migrant and the safety and security migrant. Employing a typology of health worker migration can facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the migrant medical workforce, a necessary prerequisite for the development of useful policy tools (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014). The findings indicate that there is some fluidity between categories, as health worker motivations change over time. This indicates the potential for policy levers to influence migrant health worker decision-making, if they are sufficiently "tuned in" to migrant health worker motivation.

  4. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI IRREGULAR MIGRANT WORKERS INDONESIA DI KAWASAN ASIA TENGGARA (DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM HAM INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Anggriani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of globalization that occurred has considerable impact for human life and for countries in Southeast Asia. One is the movement of people from one country to another, especially concerning the problem of economic migrants seeking employment or working in a country where they work especially irregular migrant workers. These irregular migrants are vulnerable to violations of their human rights. The issue is how the protection of the law is provided by the country of origin through Indonesian national law in countries that are the destination of Indonesian migrant workers in the Southeast Asian Region through the perspective of international human rights law. This research is legal research. The results of this study indicate that Indonesian migrant workers with the status of irregular migrant workers are workers who also have the same rights as other migrant workers or other citizens so that countries (especially countries in Southeast Asia have an obligation to acknowledge and Protect them wherever they may be or under any circumstances they experience as contained in the provisions of international human rights law, especially in the Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families (CMW, 1990.

  5. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed betwe...

  6. Theory, Demonstration and Methods: Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker social security, policy defects and equity construction in social security system of migrant workers. Secondly, real studies on social security of migrant workers, including researches on sequence of demand and influencing factors of social security of migrant workers as well as intrinsic motivation forming the perspective on social security. Lastly, road exploration of establishing social security system, including researches on the multi-level development of rural worker social security system, comparison of "Double-low method", "Guangdong Method" and "Shanghai Method" of the social security of migrant workers in Zhejiang Province and establishing multi-level social security system according to the hierarchy after the internal differentiation.

  7. Infectious diseases and migrant worker health in Singapore: a receiving country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn

    2017-07-01

    barriers to healthcare access for migrant workers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  9. Who is a Migrant Farm Worker? Quien Es Un Trabajador Agricola Migrante?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Manuel

    Concerned with varying definitions of migrants given by Federal agencies helping them, the 2 objectives of this study were to present migrant definitions utilized by these agencies and to initiate discussion on one standard definition of a migrant worker. Using standards of the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Department of Labor, the…

  10. Migration, violence, and safety among migrant sex workers: a qualitative study in two Guatemalan communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2016-09-01

    Despite reports of high levels of violence among women migrants in Central America, limited evidence exists regarding the health and safety of migrant sex workers in Central America. This study is based on 16 months of field research (November 2012-February 2014), including ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews, and focus groups conducted with 52 internal and international migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, key transit and destination communities for both international and internal migrants. The analysis explored migration-related determinants of susceptibility to violence experienced by migrant sex workers across different phases of migration. Violence in home communities and economic considerations were key drivers of migration. Unsafe transit experiences (eg undocumented border crossings) and negative interactions with authorities in destination settings (eg extortion) contributed to migrant sex workers' susceptibility to violence, while enhanced access to information on immigration policies and greater migration and sex work experience were found to enhance agency and resilience. Findings suggest the urgent need for actions that promote migrant sex workers' safety in communities of origin, transit, and destination, and programmes aimed at preventing and addressing human rights violations within the context of migration and sex work.

  11. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  12. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H

    1994-01-01

    The amended Immigration Control Act of 1990 focused on 1) redefinition of the resident status of foreign nationals, 2) clarification of immigration regulations, and 3) countermeasures to cope with the problem of illegal migrant workers. Tough penalties were introduced for illegal employment. The reform paved the way for third generation Nikkei (foreigners of Japanese ancestry) and also opened the door to non-Nikkei married to second generation Nikkei to reside in the country. The migration of Nikkei workers to Japan dates back to the beginning of the 1980s. The Technical Intern Training Program introduced in 1993 also opened a legal channel for the employment of unskilled or semi-skilled foreigners. The categories of foreign workers were heavily concentrated in the automobile and electric appliances industries, mostly as assembly line workers. Foreign students and clandestine workers had a wider dispersion in the labor force than the Nikkei. Students often find work in the urban service sector while attending school. Clandestine male workers predominate in the construction industry as unskilled workers. According to the size of firms, small firms had had the most acute labor shortages in the past 15 years prior to 1994, especially in the late 1980s. The Immigration Law of 1990 brought major changes in the hiring practices of large firms that began hiring legal workers such as the Nikkei, while small firms continued hiring clandestine workers from Asian countries. Foreign workers also earned almost as much as native part-time workers and sometimes even outstripped native seasonal workers. In terms of wages, Nikkei South Americans were on the top followed by Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans, Nepalese, Ghanians, and Iranians on the bottom. Unskilled foreign workers generally had a high turnover rate with the Nikkei showing the lowest rate. Only 7% of the Nikkei changed jobs more than four times vs. 16-17% of foreign students and 21% of clandestine workers.

  13. International Legal Realities of Migrant Labour Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Lieto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the evolutionary process of the global governance of labour migration, which has led to the progressive privatisation and commodification of international labour mobility. The focus is on the effects of such change on working conditions for migrants. In particular, the analysis is concerned with legal conceptualisations of labour mobility and their repercussions on the normative process of migration governance. For people on the move, the journey almost always entails sacrifices and uncertainty. The possible costs range from the emotional cost of separation from families and friends to high monetary fees. The stakes can include the physical dangers of working in dangerous occupations, or even a risk of death, such as in the case of illegal border crossings. Nevertheless, millions of people are still attempting movement, facing these costs or risks, in order to improve their living standards and those of their families. The implications for international human rights law are striking. Thus, attention is drawn to the human rights of all migrant workers, and more specifically to the protection and development of basic labour rights in the framework of international organisations. Ultimately, the main point of this study is to evaluate to what extent the freedom to choose where to work and to do so in decent conditions is a current legal reality at both the national and international levels.

  14. Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Majowicz, Shannon; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2017-09-12

    Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may have consequences for the health of these individuals. Previous research on the connections between health and labour mobility within India have primarily focused on the negative health outcomes associated with this practice. Thus, there is a need to better identify the determinants of internal migrant health and how these determinants shape migrant health outcomes. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in 26 villages in the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Sixty-six semi-structured interviews were completed using snowball sampling, followed by 300 household surveys using multi-stage random sampling. For qualitative data, an analysis of themes and content was completed. For quantitative data, information on current participation in internal labour migration, in addition to self-reported morbidity and determinants of internal migrant health, was collected. Morbidity categories were compared between migrant and non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) using a Fisher's exact test. Of the 300 households surveyed, 137 households (45.7%) had at least one current migrant member, with 205 migrant and 1012 non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) included in this study. The health profile of migrant and non-migrants was similar in this setting, with 53 migrants (25.9%) currently suffering from a health problem compared to 273 non-migrants (27.0%). Migrant households identified both occupational and livelihood factors that contributed to changes in the health of their migrant members. These determinants of internal migrant health were corroborated and further expanded on through the semi-structured interviews. Internal labour migration in and of itself is not a determinant of health, as participation in labour mobility can contribute to an improvement in health, a

  15. Occupational injury among migrant workers in China: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Simon; Chen, Xin; Qu, Hui; Sheff, Mira Grice

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This review considers the state of occupational injury surveillance and prevention among migrant workers in China and suggests areas of focus for future research on the topic. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies on surveillance of and interventions to prevent occupational injury among migrant workers in mainland China. Additional abstracts were identified from the citations of relevant articles from the database search. Studies fitting the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and findings were extracted and summarised. Results The search uncovered 726 studies in the English-language databases searched, and 3109 in the Chinese database. This article analyses a total of 19 research articles that fit the inclusion criteria with qualitative or quantitative data on occupational injury surveillance and prevention of migrant workers in China. Despite evidence of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the workplace, there is little systematic surveillance of occupational injury and few evaluated interventions. Conclusions Migrant workers account for a disproportionate burden of occupational injury morbidity and mortality in China. However, data are inconsistent and inadequate to detail injury incidence or to evaluate interventions. The following are suggestions to decrease injury incidence among migrants: strengthen the national system of occupational injury surveillance; focus surveillance and interventions on high-risk occupations employing migrants such as construction, manufacturing and small mining operations; improve occupational safety training and access to appropriate safety equipment; evaluate recent changes in occupational health and safety and evaluate outcome of multi-party interventions to reduce occupational injury among migrant workers. PMID:23710065

  16. Vulnerabilities and rights of migrant sex workers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussa, Licia; Munk, Veronica

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, Europe has witnessed a rise in the number of migrant sex workers, in part because of increased mobility for citizens of European Union member states. However, migrant sex workers find themselves in a highly vulnerable position in regard to having their rights respected and accessing HIV prevention services. In this article, based on a presentation at AIDS 2010, Licia Brussa and Veronica Munk outline the current situation of migrant sex workers in Europe and the steps that need to be taken to ensure that their rights are respected.

  17. Will Happiness Improve the Psychological Integration of Migrant Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Chu, Chien-Chi; Meng, Fan-Cun; Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2018-05-03

    Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers.

  18. Will Happiness Improve the Psychological Integration of Migrant Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Mo, Di; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Happiness is a major factor that influences people’s perceptions and behavior. Two-stage least squares regression was applied to investigate the effect of happiness on the psychological integration of migrant workers in China. The data for a total of 1625 individuals were obtained from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS). This study describes happiness from three main aspects: happiness, life satisfaction, and economic satisfaction. The psychological integration includes two dimensions of settlement willingness, and trust level; these have gone through dimension-reduced processing by using the weighted average method. The empirical evidence shows, first, that happiness has a significantly positive effect on the psychological integration of migrant workers and second, that the sense of life satisfaction in particular plays a more significant role. The acceleration of the social and political integration in migrant workers will enhance their psychological integration. Additionally, social, cultural and economic integration is found to influence migrant workers’ psychological integration by promoting happiness. Happiness between different generations of migrant workers was found to have a noticeably positive impact on their psychological integration; however, the happiness of the younger migrant workers was more perceivable than that of the other generations. Preferential policies should therefore be provided to improve the happiness of migrant workers. PMID:29751489

  19. Differences in working conditions and employment arrangements among migrant and non-migrant workers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda Pérez, Elena; Benavides, Fernando G; Levecque, Katia; Love, John G; Felt, Emily; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    To determine migrant workers' exposure to select occupational risks and compare it with that of non-migrant workers in Europe. Based on the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS-2005, n=29,654 workers, 31 countries) we examined differential prevalence amongst migrant and non-migrant workers' primary paid jobs in terms of employment arrangements (working >10 hours/day, working >5 days/week, on Sundays, without a contract, changes in the work schedule and not free to decide when to take holidays or days off) and working conditions (exposure to hazards including chemical, physical agents, physical load and psychological conditions). For the purpose of this study, a migrant is defined as a person without nationality of the country of residence (n=926). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for age, economic sector and education were calculated. Differences in employment arrangements and working conditions were noted by migration status, gender and occupational status. Among non-manual workers, migrant males are more exposed than non-migrant males to negative psychosocial conditions--working at a very high speed (aPR 1.23; 95% CI 1.07-1.42) and shift work (aPR 1.66; 95% CI 1.27-2.17)--and adverse employment arrangements: working on Sundays (aPR 1.91; 95% CI 1.42-2.55), variable starting/finishing times (aPR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04-1.32) and changes in work schedule (aPR 1.56; 95% CI 1.30-1.88). Compared with non-migrant males, male migrant manual workers are the group with a greater number of disparities in terms of exposure to negative working conditions. Female migrant non-manual workers are more exposed to psychosocial conditions - working at very high speed (aPR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.44) and shift work (aPR 1.61; 95% CI 1.29-2.01) while female manual migrant workers were more likely to report standing or walking (aPR 2.43; 95% CI 1.98-2.97), not having a contract (aPR 2.94; 95% CI 2.07-4.10) and not being free to decide days off and holidays (aPR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.48) than

  20. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.

  1. Сoping with stress in migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granskaya J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an objective process in Russia as worldwide. It has always existed and played an important role in human history. The problem of migrant workers is acute in Russia, because it borders on 18 countries. The collapse of the USSR severely damaged the economy of many former socialist republics. Consequently, people who cannot find employment in their country are forced to migrate to Russia to earn money. Most migrant workers face social, economic and psychological problems. Often, lack of social skills adds more problems to their everyday life difficulties. These things cause stress reactions and slow down their adaptation process. On the other hand, one of the most difficult things for migrants is negative attitudes they encounter as newcomers. People around often associate migrants with illegal work, crime and terrorism. On a regular basis, media report about crimes committed by migrants.

  2. Migrant women farm workers in the occupational health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Fathallah, Fadi A

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the vulnerable populations of migrant women agricultural workers. A systemic review in PubMed was carried out (1990-2008) using terms related to migrant agricultural workers, with specific focus on women. Case studies from Lebanon and California are presented to highlight key physical, psychosocial, and cultural risk factors among these working populations. The review revealed a host of potential problems that span from pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal disorders to socio-cultural barriers. Comprehensive exposure-outcome and intervention studies focusing specifically on migrant women in agriculture are lacking. In depth studies focusing on the work environment of migrant women workers in the agricultural sector are needed. Personal and environmental factors that influence health should be considered in any effective intervention aiming to influence policy making and have a positive impact on these vulnerable working populations.

  3. Proficiency in condom use among migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance). Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Rights and International Labour Law issues concerning Migrant Women Working as Domestic Helpers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375803998

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the human rights and international labour law issues concerning rural migrant women workers as domestic helpers in China and offers several legislative suggestions to the Chinese government. By describing the current de facto and de jure condition of rural migrant women working

  5. Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1 estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2 ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000 migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000 of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000 among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582 (95% CI: 19 -23, ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16 in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41 in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741 trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03 peak located at a frequency (radians 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575. Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021% was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive

  6. The Diaspora and Temporary Migrant Workers: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.

  7. [Migrant workers. The critical aspects of integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The integration of migrant poplulations with the indigeneous population is regulated by the Italian Decree, D.Lgs 9/7/2003 n. 215 in enforcement of the directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Italian decree, D.Lgs 215/2003, at present in force, according to regulation stipulated as to the equal treatment of diverse cohabiting populations, explicitly forbids any form of discrimination whatsoever, be it direct or indirect. A first description of today's migrant panorama is offered by the Caritas Migrantes and the CNEL (Italian National Council of the Economy of Labour). The most critical aspects on the integration of migrants are described and discussed in the text.

  8. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  9. Social Support and HIV Risks Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Market Workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenova, Gaukhar; Shaw, Stacey A; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Gilbert, Louisa; Gensburg, Lenore; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Migration processes are listed within the primary factors facilitating the heterosexual spread of HIV. The study examines the relationship between social support, sexual HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers from Barakholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. (1) higher level of perceived social support [Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument (ESSI score)] was associated with a lower likelihood of having sex with a female sex worker (FSW) [OR = 0.952 (0.927, 0.978) p social support factors should be considered as a component of HIV and STI prevention programs for male migrant workers from Central Asia in Kazakhstan.

  10. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  11. A meta-ethnography of the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L

    2015-02-01

    To report a meta-ethnography of qualitative research studies exploring the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. Migrant care workers are increasingly participating in health and social care in developed countries. There is a need to understand this increasingly socioculturally diversified workforce. A comprehensive search through 12 databases and a manual search of journals related to transculture for studies on socialization and acculturation experiences (published 1993-2013) was completed. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies on the acculturation or socialization experiences of migrant care workers published in English in any country, using a qualitative or mixed-methods approach. This meta-ethnography employed the seven-phase Noblit and Hare method with reciprocal translation, refutational synthesis and lines-of-argument to synthesize qualitative studies. Three main themes were identified: (a) schema for the migration dream: optimism; (b) the reality of the migration dream: so close, yet so far; and (c) resilience: from chaos to order. A general framework of motivated psychosocial and behavioural adaptation was proposed. This meta-ethnography also revealed the vulnerabilities of migrant nurses in the process of acculturation and socialization. The general framework of behavioural and psychosocial adaptation revealed factors that impede and facilitate behavioural and psychosocial changes. Strategies to enrich external and internal resources should be targeted at encouraging multiculturalism and at improving the psychosocial resources of migrant care workers. It is suggested that research investigating the prominence of nursing vulnerabilities be conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Influential factors on psychosocial health of the migrant workers in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiu-hong; Liu, Yi-min; Zhou, Jing-dong; Cao, Nai-qiong; Fang, Yuan-yu

    2012-03-01

    To study the influential factors on psychosocial health of the migrant workers in Guangzhou. The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were used to investigate 518 migrant workers in Guangzhou. The rate of migrant workers with psychosocial problems was 36.5%. The scores of SCL-90 and positive rates in migrant workers with the different personality types had significant difference (P workers was significantly associated with the personality. The results of present study indicated that different vocation, sex, working years, smoking and drinking might interfere with the psychological states. The migrant workers with the personality of psychoticism, neuroticism and introversion may have unhealthy mental reaction.

  13. Blessings on the Food, Blessings on the Workers: Arts-Based Education for Migrant Worker Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barndt, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…

  14. International organizations and migrant health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda

    International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.

  15. Health Care Access for Migrant Domestic Workers (Philippines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This translates into an absence of protection and recognition of human rights, including access to health services. Migrant workers are exposed to conditions of vulnerability throughout the migration cycle and often endure abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, work-related accidents and injuries, mental health ...

  16. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers – examples from five destination countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Design Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Results Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. Conclusions The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. PMID:26652910

  17. Diaspora engagement of African migrant health workers - examples from five destination countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Poppe, Annelien; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Pentz, Stephen; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migrant health workers fill care gaps in their destination countries, but they also actively engage in improving living conditions for people of their countries of origin through expatriate professional networks. This paper aims to explore the professional links that migrant health workers from sub-Saharan African countries living in five African and European destinations (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom) have to their countries of origin. Qualitative interviews were conducted with migrant doctors, nurses, and midwives from sub-Saharan Africa (N=66). A qualitative content analysis of the material was performed using the software ATLAS.ti. Almost all migrant health workers have professional ties with their countries of origin supporting health, education, and social structures. They work with non-governmental organizations, universities, or hospitals and travel back and forth between their destination country and country of origin. For a few respondents, professional engagement or even maintaining private contacts in their country of origin is difficult due to the political situation at home. The results show that African migrant health workers are actively engaged in improving living conditions not only for their family members but also for the population in general in their countries of origin. Our respondents are mediators and active networkers in a globalized and transnationally connected world. The research suggests that the governments of these countries of origin could strategically use their migrant health workforce for improving education and population health in sub-Saharan Africa. Destination countries should be reminded of their need to comply with the WHO Global Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals.

  18. The New Nomads: Art Life, and Lore of Migrant Workers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Mary Arnold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Migrant farm workers are the concern and theme of this special serial issue. Migrant farm workers arrange much of their social and economic life around seasonal changes as they follow jobs up the eastern migrant stream to its northenmost part in New York state, then south to Florida. The education, health, and folk arts program at the Board of…

  19. Sexual behavior of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Jian; Gong, Jian; Xia, Xiuping; Yang, Hua; Shen, Yao; Gu, Jie; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Zhou, Jing; Shen, Zhiping; Zhu, Shanzhu; Pan, Zhigang

    2015-10-17

    Rapid urbanization of China has resulted in significant domestic migration. The purpose of the present study was to survey the sexual behavior of migrant workers in Shanghai and determine the risk factors for unprotected sex. A cross-sectional study of the sexual behavior of 5996 migrant workers was conducted in 7 administrative regions of Shanghai in 2012 from August to October. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Five thousand seven hundred seventy two out of the 5996 migrants enrolled into the present study were primarily young adults aged 34.3 ± 10.6 years. Of them, 73.5 % were married, 51.1 % graduated from junior high school, 46.0 % earned 1500-2500 yuan (RMB) monthly. The majority (82.3 %) of the migrants engaged in sexual behavior, and 58.0 % did not use condoms in sexual intercourse. Some of the participants (15.2 %) had casual extramarital partners within the previous 12 months; among them, 76.2 % never or only occasionally used condoms. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that condom use was associated with age, occupation, monthly income, education, and housing conditions. Having temporary sexual partners was significantly associated with several factors such as unmarried (OR: 0.47, 95 % CI: 0.38-0.57), working at domestic (OR: 1.65,95 % CI: 1.17-2.34), working at wholesale/retail(OR: 1.65, 95 % CI: 1.13-2.13), and male migrants (OR: 2.37, 95 % CI: 1.96-2.85), but not with other factors such as age, monthly income, or education. Having casual extramarital partners was significantly associated with female migrants working at domestic (OR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.09-3.28), unmarried male migrants (OR: 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.36-0.74). Closer attention should be paid to sexual health education among migrant workers, especially women and those working in domestic and wholesale/retail occupations. The use of condoms should be promoted for older (>35 y), low-income, and less-educated individuals.

  20. Outsourcing Equality: Migrant Care Worker Imaginary in Finnish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nordberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implications from the restructuring of Nordic eldercare include the incorporation of new categories of care workers and a redefinition of the terms of citizenship and participation in working life. Drawing on the idea that policy actors script care worker subjectivities, this article examines print media as a key arena where the cultural imaginary of care work is played out. The media has the potential to accommodate ideological complexity through the possible range of participatory actors. From the scripts promoted through the mediascape, we can learn about the positions understood as being (inappropriate for migrant care workers. This study draws on the analysis of news and feature stories from 2003 to 2013 in the largest Finnish daily, Helsingin Sanomat, and in the periodical Kuntalehti, published by the Finnish Association of Local and Regional Authorities. The article points to tensions in Finnish media discourse, identifying ambiguous occupational scripts for migrant care workers—rooted in neoliberal repertoires of self-sufficiency and normative individualism on the one hand and helplessness and naivety on the other hand. It draws attention to an unsettling construction whereby migrant care workers are excluded from a long-term contract with the Finnish care labor market, and where social equality is conditioned to global redistribution.

  1. Theory, Demonstration and Methods Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Weifang

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker soci...

  2. Migrant Care Worker Imaginary in Finnish Media

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, Camilla Christina

    2016-01-01

    Implications from the restructuring of Nordic eldercare include the incorporation of new categories of care workers and a redefinition of the terms of citizenship and participation in working life. Drawing on the idea that policy actors script care worker subjectivities, this article examines print media as a key arena where the cultural imaginary of care work is played out. The media has the potential to accommodate ideological complexity through the possible range of participatory actors. F...

  3. Mental wellbeing amongst younger and older migrant workers in comparison to their urban counterparts in Guangzhou city, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul S F; Li, Juan; Jordan, Lucy P; Tang, Yunge; Hao, Yuantao; Huang, Xingmei; Yang, Ning; Chen, Chaoqi; Zeng, Qiaomei

    2014-12-16

    There has been a dramatic increase in internal migrant workers in China over recent decades, and there is a recent concern of poor mental health particularly amongst younger or "new generation" migrants who were born in 1980 or later. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou city between May and July in 2012. Mental wellbeing was measured using the World Health Organization Five-item Well-Being Index Scale and the 36 Item Short Form Health Survey mental health scale. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the differences between migrant workers and their urban counterparts and between younger and older migrants. Migrant workers (n = 914) showed a small but significant advantage in mental wellbeing compared to their urban counterparts (n = 814). There was some evidence for age modification effect (p for interaction = 0.055-0.095); better mental wellbeing in migrants than urbanites were mainly seen in the older compared to the younger group, and the difference attenuated somewhat after controlling for income satisfaction. Older migrants showed better mental health than younger migrants. Factors that were independently associated with poor mental health in migrants included being male, longer working hours, and income dissatisfaction, whilst older age, factory job, high income, and increased use of social support resources were associated with reduced risk. Efforts to promote mental health amongst migrant workers may be usefully targeted on younger migrants and include measures aimed to improve working conditions, strengthen the social support network, and address age-specific needs.

  4. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  5. Identifying the gaps in Nepalese migrant workers' health and well-being: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam P; Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Aryal, Nirmal

    2017-07-01

    The health and well-being of migrant workers from low-income countries is often neglected in travel medicine. This article uses Nepal as a case study to highlight key issues affecting this particular group of international travellers. This narrative review used a comprehensive systematic literature search to identify relevant studies on Nepal. The included articles were thematically analysed leading to four key themes or risk factors. The search found 18 articles from which we identified 3 key themes related directly to migrant workers: (1) sexual risk taking; (2) occupational health and (3) lifestyles, and a fourth theme related to partners and family of migrant workers who are left behind in Nepal. Of the 18 included articles, 11 articles discussed sexual risk taking and HIV, whilst considerably fewer focused on work-related risk factors and lifestyle factors in migrant workers. Migrant workers who are generally healthy appear to be similar to tourist travellers in regarding sexual health as a key issue related to being abroad. Risky sexual behaviour increases in individuals separated from their usual sexual partners, away from their own communities and families, leading to the so-called 'situational disinhibition'. Considering the recent media coverage of deaths and injuries among migrant workers in the Middle East, it is interesting to see that their sexual health is more prevalent in the research literature. This article argues that travel medicine should provide more emphasis to the health and well-being of migrant workers as a highly vulnerable group of travellers with additional impact on the health of those left behind. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Epidemiological investigation of visual display terminal syndrome in migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fen Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the prevalence and related factors of visual display terminal(VDTsyndrome in migrant workers caused by using smartphones.METHODS: From January to October 2014, migrant workers who worked in 10 factories individually in Tangxia Town Dongguan City, were selected by systematic sampling. Every participant was asked to complete the visual display terminal questionnaire and acepted accommodative amplitude determination, tear-film break up time, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I text and so on. The data was analyzed by the SPSS 19.0 software. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-nine people were enrolled(246 males, 223 females. Among them, 384 cases(206 males and 178 femaleswere diagnosed as the VDT syndrome, the prevalence rate was 81.9%. Compared the prevalence rate in different gender in 40~CONCLUSION:The main factors for VDT syndrome in the migrant workers are reading novels, watching videos, being in dark and shaking space, poor sport and less interval. To get rid of the bad habits in using smartphones, do more sport, take more intervals, moisten the ocular surface are expected to prevent VDT syndrome.

  7. The Protection of Fundamental Rights of Migrant Workers Face to Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Giovanetti Pereira Da; Giovanetti, Lais

    2015-01-01

    This article intends to present reflections on issues relevant to migration and contemporary movements. The main constitutional protections, international and infra laws that ensure the rights of migrant workers entering the country in search of better job opportunities are highlighted here. Search up also emphasize the protection of fundamental rights and the consideration of human dignity as base principle of this protection. As well as labor mobility reflexes in industrial relations and vu...

  8. Resolution No. 43/146. Measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers, 8 December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains portions of the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers. In this resolution, the General Assembly reaffirms international instruments protecting human rights but articulates a further need to improve the protection of human rights for migrant workers and their families. The General Assembly then noted the two most recent reports of the Working Group on the Drafting of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families and took measures to enable the Working Group to complete its task.

  9. Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyce, Sally C; Schenker, Marc

    2018-04-01

    In 2015, approximately 244 million people were transnational migrants, approximately half of whom were workers, often engaged in jobs that are hazardous to their health. They work for less pay, for longer hours, and in worse conditions than do nonmigrants and are often subject to human rights violations, abuse, human trafficking, and violence. Worldwide, immigrant workers have higher rates of adverse occupational exposures and working conditions, which lead to poor health outcomes, workplace injuries, and occupational fatalities. Health disparities of immigrant workers are related to environmental and occupational exposures and are a result of language/cultural barriers, access to health care, documentation status, and the political climate of the host country. Recommendations on global and local scales are offered as potential solutions to improving the health of immigrant workers.

  10. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2013-04-20

    Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures.

  11. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China’s economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl Ri...

  12. The Difficulties and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers Returning Home to Start Business of Shaanxi

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen-xi; Yan, Yu-jie

    2011-01-01

    The paper discloses me current situation of migrant workers returning home to start business by making a survey of the total number of returning migrant workers. The paper also points out the main difficulties the migrant workers who returning home to start business facing. The first is the old fashioned and backward concepts of development in some local departments; the second is lacking of powerful supports of policies; the third is the still bad environment to start business: the fourth is...

  13. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïçal Daly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  14. [Economic aspects of migration: remittances by migrant workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskawetz, A

    1995-01-01

    "Worldwide annual remittances...by migrant workers to their home countries amount to some 70 billion U.S. dollars, exceeded by oil export earnings only.... The amount of remittances depends on the income of both the migrants and their family members.... Remittances meant for investment at home are determined by interest rates, foreign exchange regulations, exchange rates, monetary stability etc. in the immigration and emigration countries. Home remittances and saving habits of emigrants also depend on whether or not they expect to return to their home countries and the prospects of family reunification, all of which is directly linked to the (immigration) policy and economic conditions of both the countries of origin and residence." The factors influencing remittances flowing into and out of Austria are analyzed using data from the Austrian National Bank. (EXCERPT)

  15. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the 'dirty work'. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers' family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men's experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity.

  16. Alcohol use among Latino migrant workers in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    A significant segment of the Latino migrant worker population in the United States is at high risk for alcohol abuse and related risk behaviors. Information about the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse and its association with sociodemographic and psychological variables is needed for designing effective intervention prevention strategies. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a baseline assessment that was part of a randomized controlled trial of 278 Latino migrant workers (LMWs) conducted between 2008 and 2010. About one-third (32%) of participants engaged in heavy drinking in the past 30 days prior to baseline interview. More females than males reported no alcohol use in the past 30 days (53.5% vs. 20.5%). On the other hand, more males reported drinking every day or nearly (25.2% vs. 7.1%). Five factors-gender, country of origin, relationship status, living arrangements, and acculturation-were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol consumption. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, country of origin, education attainment, relationship status, living arrangement, living with children, length of stay in the US, religious beliefs, acculturation, and depression were associated with frequent heavy drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence, and unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol. There is significant variation in alcohol use among Latino migrant workers. Although a substantial proportion of this population abstains from alcohol, an equally substantial proportion report levels of alcohol use that pose significant risk. More research is needed to better understand drinking patterns in this community in order to design prevention strategies specifically tailored for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The ILO and the new UN convention on migrant workers: the past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, R

    1991-01-01

    Migrant workers are less protected than nationals against the actions of states and employers. These workers therefore require special global protection of their rights while employed in countries other than their own. Accordingly, the UN International Labor Organization (ILO) is constitutionally charged with developing international measures to protect the interests of migrant workers from developing countries. The ILO, however, had little involvement in molding the International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrants Workers and Members of their Families, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1990. Instead, final adoption of the Convention stems largely from developing state dissatisfaction with the former 1975 ILO Migrant Workers Convention No. 143, and Mexican and Moroccan government machinations outside of the ILO in support of modifications. Convention No. 143 threatened to sever employment opportunities and hard foreign exchange remittances in North America and western Europe from illegally employed immigrant workers from developing countries. By working in the UN outside of the ILO, developing nations would enjoy automatic majority, and greater potential for success in reforming the Convention. Soon, developing nations squelched a delay tactic proffered by the Swedes, and succeeded in bringing the UN General Assembly to adopt resolution 34/172 in December 1979, which led to the establishment of an Open-Ended Working Group. This group then elaborated the 1990 Convention over 19 sessions. At the expense of the ILO and more developed nations, developing nations successfully challenged and changed the international order to benefit their peoples and national economies. Finally, the paper considers the interests of immigrant businesspeople and asylum seekers during or immediately upon entry to a foreign country, who are not specifically covered by the Convention. While the university of international humanitarian law suggests that

  18. Oropharyngeal rhinosporidiosis in a migrant worker--a delayed presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailendra, S; Prepageran, N

    2008-03-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by an aquatic protistan parasite in the class of Mesomycetozoea, that is endemic in India and the subcontinent. This is a case report of a rhinosporidiosis presenting in an individual from Myanmar, whom had been working in Malaysia for the past four years. The disease is characterized by the appearance of polypoidal, friable growths that contain numerous spore filled cysts that stain with PAS staining. This disease is rarely seen in Malaysians due to the extensive urbanization in Kuala Lumpur, however the increasing numbers of migrant workers in Malaysia today necessitates an increasing awareness in clinicians of the possibility of these conditions.

  19. Violence against women migrant workers: issues, data and partial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N M; Menon, I

    1997-01-01

    "Despite the creation of specific norms, procedures, and institutions to protect women migrant workers, serious gaps remain. Statistics for measuring violence are not compiled comprehensively or regularly. Two occupations that increase the risk of violence are domestic service and entertainment-related services. Migration through illegal channels and trafficking also increase the risk. This article suggests a list of indicators to measure violence of three major types: (1) economic, (2) social/psychological, and (3) physical/sexual. Evidence from several countries to document instances of violence is reviewed. Major policy issues for the sending and receiving countries are outlined, and some recommendations for addressing such violations are made." excerpt

  20. Coping strategies among internal migrant students in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of

  1. How portable is social security for migrant workers? : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Taha (Nurulsyahirah); M. Messkoub (Mahmood); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the literature on the portability of social security entitlements for migrant workers, who moved along North-North, South- North, and South-South migration flows. Portability of social security entitlements is the ability of migrant workers to preserve, maintain, and

  2. Systematic Barriers to Schooling of Migrant Workers' Children and Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao

    2009-01-01

    A population of migrant workers have appearing during the process of China's urbanization, and is an important part of the society that cannot be ignored. In the process of integration into cities, the equal development between the rights and obligations of migrant workers is gaining attention. Especially, the issue of schooling of their children…

  3. Clearing a Hurried Path: Study on Education Programs for Migrant Workers in Six Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Noel C.

    Against the backdrop of the Asian economic crisis, this study examined the range of education programs for migrant workers in six Asian countries. Surveys were returned from 145 migrant worker support organizations in three host countries--Hong Kong, South Korea, and Japan--and three sending countries--the Philippines, Indonesia, and India. The…

  4. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC, and workers born in high income countries (HIC, taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Methods Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Results Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py, but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09, transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23 and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67. Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both

  5. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-22

    Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py), but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09), transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23) and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67). Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both SMPC and Moroccan workers in the construction

  6. The return of international labour migrants in the ESCAP Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for

  7. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Abused and Alone: Legal Redress for Migrant Domestic Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Jennifer; Nordin, Rohaida; Ishak, Ma Khaltum; Matwi, Nursyuhada; Zahari, Siti Nurimani; Mekler, Nicole; Thiyagarajan, Amritha

    2016-01-01

    Since independence, Malaysia’s rapid economic development has relied on Malaysian workers moving from rural-to-rural and rural-to-urban areas as well as on migrant workers, especially from ASEAN countries such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand and also from South Asia. The sustained high economic growth rates in Malaysia over approximately three decades caused the increase in migrant workers, who were to meet the rising demand in certain sectors of the Malaysian labour market. The o...

  9. Heavy Alcohol Use Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Male Sex Workers in Thailand: A Neglected HIV/STI Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, Thomas E; Clatts, Michael C; Goldsamt, Lloyd A

    2018-02-20

    There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand. Between August and October 2015, 18-24 year-old migrant and non-migrant male sex workers (n = 212) were recruited from various male sex work-identified venues (bars, clubs, massage parlors, and go-go bars) to take an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. Measures were adapted from previous studies in similar populations and included structured questions across four domains, including demographic characteristics, alcohol use, stimulant use, and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the independent associations between heavy alcohol use (heavy versus not heavy) and demographic characteristics, stimulant use and sexual behavior. Heavy alcohol use was prevalent among one-third of participants. Heavy alcohol use was positively associated with male sex workers who were non-migrant and Thai, currently using stimulants, having 15 or more male clients in the past month and having first consumed alcohol at age 15 years or younger. Current HIV prevention efforts should consider subpopulations of MSM, including male sex workers and migrants, as well as other risk behaviors like alcohol, as important contexts for HIV and STI risks.

  10. International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

  11. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  12. Injury and Mortality in Young Nepalese Migrant Workers: A Call for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Nirmal; Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Simkhada, Padam; Adhikary, Pratik; Bhatta, Yadav Kumar Deo; Mann, Stewart

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 3.5 million Nepalese are working as migrant workers in the Gulf countries, Malaysia, and India. Every year there are more than 1000 deaths and many hundreds cases of injuries among Nepalese workers in these countries excluding India. A postmortem examination of migrant workers is not carried out in most of these countries, and those with work-related injuries are often sent back to home. Uninsured migrant workers also do not have easy access to health care services in host countries due to the high medical and hospital fees. Greater efforts are needed to protect the health and well-being, labor rights, and human rights of migrant workers from Nepal and other South-Asian nations. There is a need to enforce universal labor laws in these countries and to develop accurate records of mortality and morbidity and their causes. © 2016 APJPH.

  13. Forced Flexibility and Exploitation: Experiences of Migrant Workers in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ollus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has resulted in structural changes in the labor markets over the last decades. These changes have weakened some of the economic and social dimensions of work. At the same time, migration and especially labor migration have increased on the global level. This article looks at the situation of migrant workers in the cleaning industry in Finland. It is based on interviews with migrant workers who have experienced labor exploitation in the cleaning industry, representatives of cleaning industry employers, and representatives of labor unions. The primary aim is to give voice to the migrant workers themselves and to analyze how they experience their work and their position in working life. The findings suggest that there is a risk that migrant workers in the cleaning sector experience various forms of exploitation. This article argues that the demand and need for (employee flexibility may turn into forced flexibility that exploits the powerless and vulnerable migrant workers who have few other options than to agree to work on poor terms. The article suggests that the structural reasons that make the exploitation of migrant labor possible should be identified and addressed in order to prevent misuse of any workers, especially migrants.

  14. A skill mismatch for migrant workers? Evidence from WageIndicator survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; van Klaveren, M.; Galgóczi, B.; Leschke, J.; Watt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Are overeducation and undereducation more common among migrants compared to domestic workers? If so, are overeducation and undereducation similar across migrants from various home countries and across various host countries? This chapter is aimed at unravelling the incidence of skill mismatch,

  15. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  16. Tasks performed by primary caregivers and migrant live-in homecare workers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Iecovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of migrant live-in homecare workers has been barely addressed in the gerontological literature, in spite of the increase of older persons being cared for by such persons in many Western countries. The purposes of the study are to examine the extent to which migrant live-in homecare workers substitute family caregivers or complement the care that is provided by primary caregivers, and to examine if there are differences in primary caregivers’ involvement in providing help with activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL before and after hiring a migrant live-in homecare worker, by caregivers’ employment status and gender. The data were drawn from a study that included 335 triads (care recipients, their primary caregivers, and their Filipina live-in homecare workers. The findings show that for the most part primary caregivers continue to play a significant role in providing care, in particular with regard to IADL tasks, even when there is a migrant live-in homecare worker. Several patterns of division of labor between the formal and informal caregivers were identified; that is, in some cases they complement each other while in other cases the migrant live-in homecare workers substitute for the care previously provided by the primary caregivers. Significant differences between male and female caregivers and between working and nonworking caregivers were found with regard to involvement in providing care before and after employment of a migrant homecare worker.

  17. The occupational promotion of migrant workers: contribution from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on two consecutive studies (the Netherlands Working Condition Survey (NEA), TNO), a review (Discrimination Monitor, SCP) and literature it is concluded that non-western migrants experience more labour market problems than western migrants. In general non-western migrants experience more

  18. Association between adverse mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle in rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with mental health in rural-to-urban migrant workers, and these findings indicate the need to develop targeted psychological interventions to foster healthy lifestyles in migrants.

  19. Vulnerable but feeling safe: HIV risk among male rural-to-urban migrant workers in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Morrow, M; Kermode, M

    2007-11-01

    HIV prevalence is increasing in China. The proportion of infection attributable to heterosexual sex in China is also on the rise. The scale of internal migration for work is likely to be one of the factors contributing to these changing patterns, but little is known about HIV-related knowledge, perceptions and risk behaviours of China's migrant workers. This study aimed to investigate HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours of male rural-to-urban migrant workers in Chengdu and to identify factors associated with risk behaviours. In 2005, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was completed by 163 male construction- and factory-based migrant workers aged 18-35 years. With a mean age of 26 years, just 30% had completed senior middle school and 47% were currently married. Respondents were highly mobile, worked long hours and were relatively poorly paid. As migrants, their access to urban services and benefits was restricted, making it difficult for family members to join them. Knowledge of HIV transmission was generally poor and discriminatory attitudes towards people with HIV were commonplace. Seventy-five percent were sexually experienced, among whom 88% had had sexual relations in the last 12 months. Of these, 30% had had two or more partners and 20% had paid for sex. Just 36% had used a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with a sex worker. Around 70% thought it was 'impossible' for them to become infected, yet a significant sub-group were engaging in sexual behaviours that place them at risk of infection with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Logistic Regression found a significant association between having multiple sexual partners and both education level and marital status. Education was also found to be significantly associated with purchasing sex. Targeted HIV-prevention programs for male migrant workers in Chengdu, especially for those who are single and less educated, are urgently needed.

  20. Unmasking the enterprising nurse: migrant care workers and the discursive mobilisation of productive professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakivi, Antero

    2017-03-01

    Public care work organisations in Northern Europe often seek to increase their economic efficiency in ways that care workers criticise for reducing both their professional autonomy and the quality of care. Recently, the ideal of 'enterprising nursing' has emerged as a political belief according to which economic efficiency, care workers' autonomy and the quality of care can be improved in tandem by cultivating care workers' agential abilities. This article examines the reception of this belief among migrant care workers in Finland. Drawing on research interviews, the analysis demonstrates how migrant care workers may have difficulties in aligning themselves with the enterprising ideals but also in protesting them. Ethnicity, and the status of a migrant, can offer resources for both constructing enterprising subjectivities and reframing care workers' agency, and their organisational environment, in more critical terms. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Investigation on the Status Quo of Migrant Workers’ Motivation for Vocational Training

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Jianhua; ZUO, Lu

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of migrant workers’ motivation for training is of significant importance to promote the vocational training effectiveness. The survey study of 626 migrant workers in Guangdong province identified that occupational development motivation is the most intensive, followed by the social environment and job responsibility while cognitive interest and interrelationship are among the least. Therefore, the authors suggest that appropriate guidance should be conducted to facilitate ...

  2. Migrant Workers in the Middle East: Not an In Shah Allah Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwyn Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East is seen by many developing nations as a region of opportunity and prosperity. With the cost of living spiralling, coupled with mass unemployment, most Indian families are left economically strangulated. Education, healthcare, rent, fuel, electricity and other essential commodities are becoming unaffordable to the ordinary masses. In lieu of a better future for their families, most workers migrate to the Middle East in search of well paying jobs. Although the workers are paid as promised, their lives are burdened with many obstacles. Immigrants are discriminated against and made to endure strenuous working conditions. These workers are met with harsh realities, both during the course of employment and otherwise. With a poor dispute redressal mechanism and forcefully signed indemnity agreements, these workers are left neglected and abused. Although free trade agreements have been entered into, the discrimination and hostility has persisted. Religion and nationality are often used as a ground to discriminate. Wages below minimum wages, restriction on job applications, heavy taxation on foreigners, etc. are often used tactics to propagate nepotism towards locals. The international community has warned the Gulf States and surrounding States of the same. Yet, there has been no visible change in the system. The paper seeks to identify, through primary and secondary sources of information, a suitable mechanism to help protect these migrant workers from such inequalities.

  3. Comparing earnings profiles in urban areas of an LDC: rural-to-urban migrants vs. native workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, W P; Zeager, L A

    1994-12-01

    "We use Tanzanian data to test a recently proposed hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have an incentive to supply greater work effort than native urban workers, because of the migrants' positive probability of returning to the low-wage rural areas. We treat the choice between public- and private-sector employment as endogenous and, for theoretical and empirical reasons, distinguish migrants with access to rural land from those without access. Our results show that migrants in both sectors face lower initial wage offers than native urban workers. But, the wage gap is eliminated within a decade or less, and thereafter, migrants surpass the wage offers of native workers." excerpt

  4. Stigmatization experienced by rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-12-01

    Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.

  5. Structural determinants of inconsistent condom use with clients among migrant sex workers: findings of longitudinal research in an urban canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Julie; Shannon, Kate; Li, Jane; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shoveller, Jean; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-06-01

    Migrant women in sex work experience unique risks and protective factors related to their sexual health. Given the dearth of knowledge in high-income countries, we explored factors associated with inconsistent condom use by clients among migrant female sex workers over time in Vancouver, BC. Questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing data from a longitudinal cohort, An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, were collected from 2010 to 2013. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to model correlates of inconsistent condom use by clients among international migrant sex workers over a 3-year study period. Of 685 participants, analyses were restricted to 182 (27%) international migrants who primarily originated from China. In multivariate generalized estimating equations analyses, difficulty accessing condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-12.47) independently correlated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Servicing clients in indoor sex work establishments (e.g., massage parlors) (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.77), and high school attainment (AOR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09-0.50) had independent protective effects on the odds of inconsistent condom use by clients. Findings of this longitudinal study highlight the persistent challenges faced by migrant sex workers in terms of accessing and using condoms. Migrant sex workers who experienced difficulty in accessing condoms were more than 3 times as likely to report inconsistent condom use by clients. Laws, policies, and programs promoting access to safer, decriminalized indoor work environments remain urgently needed to promote health, safety, and human rights for migrant workers in the sex industry.

  6. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Chen; Zuo-xian Gan; Yu-ting He

    2015-01-01

    Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL) model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all great...

  7. Health and safety implications of recruitment payments in migrant construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East construction sector is heavily reliant on a migrant workforce that predominantly originates from South Asia. It is common practice for migrant construction workers to pay a local labour recruiter the equivalent of one or more years’ prospective overseas salary to secure employment, work and travel permits and transportation. The occupational health and safety implications of these financial arrangements remain unexplored. Aims To examine associations between payment to a labour recruiter, perceived general health and worksite accidents among migrant construction workers in the Middle East. Methods A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of predominantly Indian migrant construction workers drawn from a large construction project. The relationship between payment and risk of poor health and workplace accidents was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models (crude and adjusted for socio-demographic and occupational factors). Results There were 651 participants. The majority (58%) of migrant construction workers had paid a labour recruiter and ~40% had experienced a worksite accident. Between 3% (labourers) and 9% (foremen) perceived their health to be poor. Labourers and skilled workers who had paid a labour recruiter were significantly more likely to have experienced a worksite accident in the previous 12 months. Skilled workers, but not labourers and foremen, who had paid a labour recruiter were at increased risk of poor health. Conclusions The mechanisms linking labour recruiter payments to adverse safety and health outcomes warrant investigation with a view to developing interventions to erode these links. PMID:24668316

  8. PHAMIT: A program on hiv/aids prevention among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongphit Pinyosinwat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”.  The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries.  The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces.  Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms.  To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities.  These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing.  The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed.  In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est

  9. MIGRANT CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS, A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NANCE, AFTON D.

    ENROLLMENT, ATTENDANCE, CLASS SIZE, NUMBER OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED, ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES, AND PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE THE CONCERNS OF A 1961 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS SERVING CHILDREN OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO THE SUPERINTENDENTS OF 105 CALIFORNIA DISTRICTS ENROLLING THE MOST MIGRANT…

  10. A study on undocumented migrant workers in the Dutch household sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheasi, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Migration waves have a significant impact on cultural diversity. But in various sections of the economy the authors observe large numbers of unregistered workers. The purpose of this paper is to map out the socio-economic situation of unregistered migrant workers and aims to identify the

  11. Integration of International Migrants into Western Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Western Australia’s capital city, Perth. Data was collected on residency, English proficiency, employment status, mode of transport, housing, home...European Union 2010, 2014). Based on the concept of “human capital ”, a cross-sectorial approach covering inter alia education, employment and...populations of unqualified migrants with poor local language skills who have become dependent on the welfare state. In the UK, migration as a product of

  12. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li

    2014-04-13

    Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.

  13. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  14. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers.Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops.Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers.Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant

  15. Migrant workers: a risk factor for hiv transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Kamal, Q.M.; Hassan, M.U.; Tariq, H.M.; Ahmed, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: HIV continues to be a threat in both developed and developing countries. Pakistan has entered concentrated epidemic from low epidemic stage. The prevalence of HIV is more in at risk population particularly intravenous drug users (IDUs). Studies are required to find out other risk factors contributing to spread of the disease in the general population in order to prevent the spread of disease among general population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients reporting for HIV testing at National HIV/STI Referral Lab, National AIDS Control Program (NACP) from January to December 2011. Results: A total of 345 patients reported to the lab during the study period. The detailed histories of 271 patients were available out of which 131 (48.3%) patients were found to be positive for HIV. Minimum age of patient with HIV was 2 years while maximum age was 64 years. HIV affected those more significantly who had visited abroad (p=0.000) or were IDUs (p=0.000). Extramarital sexual activity, blood transfusion, or any surgical procedure in the past was not found to be significant (p=0.574, p=0.243, p=0.252 respectively). Most of the affected males were drivers (16, 12.2%) by profession. Among them 9 had visited gulf countries and 4 of them were deported from the gulf countries having HIV. Conclusion: Migrant workers are a risk factor for HIV transmission. Policy may be developed to focus on this population who continues to spread HIV among their spouses and children as a result of unawareness about their HIV status and its modes of transmission. (author)

  16. Influence Factors of Sexual Activity for Internal Migrants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Zhang, PhD candidate

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual frequency is associated with the quality of life. China’s internal migrants that are sexually active are more likely to participate in sexual behavior. However, less work has been undertaken to assess the sexual frequency and its predictors in migrants. Aim: This study seeks to explore which factors were related to sexual frequency in migrants and how the association varies with different levels of sexual frequency. Methods: A total of 10,834 men and 4,928 women aged 20–49 years from 5 cities in China were enrolled by multi-stage sampling during August 2013–August 2015. Outcomes: Sexual frequency among migrants was determined by asking: How many times have you had sexual intercourse with a man/woman in the past 30 days? Results: In this study, sexual frequency with an average age of 38.28 years was 5.06 (95% CI 5.01–5.11 time per month. Negative binomial showed that male gender, younger age, earlier age of sexual debut, masturbation, more knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, longer time together with a spouse, and higher school education and incomes were predictors of increased sexual frequency in migrants. Communicating with sexual partners frequently had the largest effect on sexual frequency compared with occasional communicating (β = 0.2419, incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.23–1.31. In the quantile regression, months of cohabitation (β = 0.0999, 95% CI 0.08–0.12, frequent sexual communication (β = 0.4534, 95% CI 0.39–0.52, and masturbation (β = 0.2168, 95% CI 0.14–0.30 were positively related to lower levels of sexual frequency. Interestingly, migrants who had low and high sexual frequency would be affected in opposite directions by the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Clinical Translation: Clinicians can more understand the relationship between sexual frequency and its factors that can as the symptom basis of sexually-related diseases. Conclusions: The present findings

  17. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  18. The Financial Planning and Financial Literacy of ex-Malaysia Indonesian Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayenda Khresna Brahmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian migrant workers (IMW face life difficulties after returning back to Indonesia. This is a contrary condition considering their contribution to their home family in Indonesia while working abroad. Literature mentions that their financial planning is the root of the poverty of ex-IMW. Therefore, this research adopts literacy theory to explain this phenomenon. This research conducted a survey among 548 ex-IMW and measures their financial literacy and financial planning. This research also maps their asset ownership to examine the relationship between financial literacy and asset ownership. Overall, this research documents that financial literacy contributes statistically significantly and positively to financial planning. Furthermore, this research shows that asset ownership is closely related to financial literacy. In a nutshell, this research concludes that it is important for migrant workers to have good knowledge of financial issues, because having good financial literacy helps the migrant workers to plan their finance and budget much better, thereby helping them to avoid the poverty trap. Therefore, policymakers such as migrant worker authorities and/or Indonesian embassies abroad have to institute financial education programmes for migrant workers before they return to Indonesia.

  19. Is the State of Indonesia In Charge to Provide Law Protection to the Indonesian Migrant Workers ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, D.

    2018-01-01

    Right to work is assured in the regulation of 1945 Constitution (amendment) Article 28 D Clause (2) mandating that every person deserves to work and in return they get wages, fair and proper treatment in the relation of employment. Working as migrant worker is accessible job opportunity, especially to people who have low education and skill with promising income. Many case facedto the migrant worker. It is necessary to analyze how the state’s position in providing protection to its citizens experiencing problems overseas. Country has the right to protect its citizens overseas and to intervene diplomatically. It cannot provide direct protection because if there is a criminal act committed by Migrant Worker of Indonesia, then the applicable law is the law of country where the Migrant Worker works. The actual protection is to make bilateral agreements with the destination country. Law No 39 Year 2004. Article 77 regulates the right to obtain protection from pre-placement, placement period to post-placement. Employment or the right to work is one of human rights that is the right to social freedom, namely the right to meet the basic needs. Regarding the legal protection for women migrant workers, the relevant human rights theory used is the natural rights theory because the right to work in this case is the right that every human being possesses

  20. An institutional perspective on managing migrant workers in the North of England

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Paul; Fitzgerald, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances made in our understanding of migrant worker issues, analysis of the literature reveals disconnections between the policy and practice of 'managed migration' across three fundamental levels of the state (e.g. public institutions at the EU, national and regional levels), corporate (e.g. employers and unions) and community (e.g. migrant social networks) levels. Consequently, this has implications on corporate and community aspects that often escape deeper analytical scrutiny. Co...

  1. Chapter 5. The contradictions of self-enterprising migrant worker subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Tinajero, Sandra Paola

    2014-01-01

    Migrant agricultural and care workers share similar conditions of work and social positions in the receiving labor market. The construction of their shared condition as low-wage laborers involves parallel processes of subject formation (or subjectification) and identity construction. The study of migration as a process of subject formation is not new. Here it serves to articulate the subject level of analysis to respond to the question about what the parallel experiences of migrant farm and c...

  2. Migrant Workers' Community in China: Relationships among Social Networks, Life Satisfaction and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The millions of persons migrating from China´s rural areas to urban spaces have contributed greatly to the country´s decades-long economic growth, and the influx of migrants has changed the fabric of China´s urban social and economic life. These internal migrants, similar to many international immigrants, depend heavily on their social networks, which are often developed in their rural villages, for jobs, housing, financial assistance, and social support both during and after migration. Consequently, migrants´ networks function distinctly in well-being and behavior. Using data from the 2006 China General Social Survey, this article seeks to 1 investigate the existence of migrant sub-groups in China, 2 understand the characteristics of social networks among sub-groups, and 3 explore the relationships social networks hold to life satisfaction and political participation among China´s migrant population. This article asserts that China´s migrant population includes several sub-groups emerging on the basis of gender, education, age, and marital status, which in turn produce different patterns of ties and social interactions among their social networks. While this article finds very different employment patterns among migrant sub-groups, migrant networks do not appear to strongly influence perceptions and behaviors, such as life satisfaction and political participation. This article also argues that individual networks could facilitate the development of migrant communities in cities.

  3. Irregular Migrants and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Azizah; Mat Zin, Ragayah Hj.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Malaysia`s policy on irregular migrants and its implementation, and discusses its impact. A survey and interview covering 404 respondents was conducted between July 2010 and June 2011 to ascertain the real situations surrounding irregular migrants in Malaysia, which is one of the major host countries of international migrants from developing nations. The policy on foreign workers was formulated in the mid-1980s to deal with the large number of irregular migrants and their ...

  4. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-12-15

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. Copyright © 2011 Sonmez, Apostolopoulos, Tran, and Rentrope. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  5. Preventing HIV transmission in chinese internal migrants: A behavioral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a

  6. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  7. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation.

  8. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: Building a Community Partnership Through a Community Health Worker Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article...

  9. Research on occupational safety and health for migrant workers in five Asia-Pacific countries : Australia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kawon; McGuinness, Connor; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Studies conditions of occupational safety and health for migrant workers in five Asia-Pacific in response to the growing concern on the improvement of safety, health and working conditions for migrant workers. It presents trends and facts within the five target countries' OSH environments for migrant workers with a long term aim to raise the awareness of workplace safety.

  10. Abused and Alone: Legal Redress for Migrant Domestic Workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Whelan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since independence, Malaysia’s rapid economic development has relied on Malaysian workers moving from rural-to-rural and rural-to-urban areas as well as on migrant workers, especially from ASEAN countries such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand and also from South Asia. The sustained high economic growth rates in Malaysia over approximately three decades caused the increase in migrant workers, who were to meet the rising demand in certain sectors of the Malaysian labour market. The objective of the article is to identify potential opportunities for policy and legislative reform in relation to Malaysia’s implementation of its obligations as a Migrant Domestic Worker (MDW receiving country specifically in relation to the barriers to MDW bringing claims where their rights have been breached. This article has identifies the relevant policy, legislative and support mechanism (NGO and government landscape in Malaysia regarding the realisation of the rights of migrant domestic workers in Malaysia to bring claims where their rights have been breached (particularly the differences between Malaysia’s treatment of domestic workers as compared to other migrant workers; best practice examples of the relevant policy, legislative and support mechanism (NGO and government landscapes in at least 2 ‘best practice’ MDW receiving countries regarding the realisation of the rights of MDW to bring claims where their rights have been breached; and potential opportunities for policy, legislative and support mechanism reform in Malaysia to further enhance the realisation of the rights of MDW in Malaysia specifically in relation to redress mechanisms for breaches of the rights of MDW.

  11. THE INACCESSIBILITY OF JUSTICE FOR MIGRANT WORKERS: A CAPABILITIES-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Hastie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the barriers migrant workers face in accessing justice, including the ability to assert legal rights in the workplace, and to access mechanisms for legal redress or remedy. Drawing on empirical research, and using the capabilities approach as a conceptual framework through which to examine these issues, this article demonstrates that the regulatory structure of the Temporary Foreign Worker Programs operates to actively constrain the ability for migrant workers to assert their rights in the workplace, and seek effective legal remedies in the face of rights violations.   Cet article porte sur les obstacles auxquels se heurtent les travailleurs migrants lorsqu’ils tentent d’avoir accès à la justice, notamment en ce qui concerne les moyens d’exercer des recours en justice ou d’obtenir réparation, ainsi que sur l’écart manifeste entre les signalements de cas d’exploitation de travailleurs migrants et la jurisprudence connexe actuelle. En se fondant sur des recherches empiriques et en utilisant comme cadre conceptuel l’approche axée sur les capacités, l’auteure de cet article montre que la structure de réglementation du Programme des travailleurs étrangers temporaires restreint sensiblement la capacité des travailleurs migrants de faire valoir leurs droits au travail et d’exercer des recours juridiques efficaces lorsque leurs droits sont bafoués.

  12. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: an international Delphi consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta; Gissler, Mika; Heaman, Maureen; Jeambey, Zeinab; Korfker, Dineke; McCourt, Christine; Roth, Carolyn; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Small, Rhonda

    2014-06-10

    Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview

  13. Islamic Influence on HIV Risk and Protection Among Central Asian Male Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stacey A; McCrimmon, Tara; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Sultangaliyeva, Alma; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon. Religious networks were unlikely to discuss HIV risks, and some men viewed religious affiliation or practices as protective. Marital practices including neke (religious marriage), polygyny, and bride kidnapping may be linked to risk. Findings suggest adhering to Islamic ideals may be protective for some men, but for others, assumptions of protection may enhance risk. HIV prevention strategies among Central Asian migrants may be strengthened by attention to religious and cultural understandings of risk and protection.

  14. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  15. Caring from Afar: Asian H1B Migrant Workers and Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Chaudhuri, Anoshua; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-09-01

    With the growth in engineering/technology industries, the United States has seen an increase in the arrival of highly skilled temporary migrant workers on H1B visas from various Asian countries. Limited research exists on how these groups maintain family ties from afar including caring for aging parents. This study explores the experiences and challenges that Asian H1B workers face when providing care from a distance. A total of 21 Chinese/Taiwanese, Korean, and Indian H1B workers participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Key findings indicate that despite distance, caring relationships still continue through regular communications, financial remittances, and return visits, at the same time creating emotional, psychological, and financial challenges for the workers. Findings highlight the need for further research in understanding how the decline of aging parent's health impacts the migrants' adjustment and health in the United States.

  16. Threat of Deportation as Proximal Social Determinant of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Nicholas M; Koh, Chiu Yee; Amirrudin, Amirah

    2017-06-01

    While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates that workers believed threats were used as a negotiating strategy during workplace conflicts. Findings suggest that migration status places workers who come into workplace conflict with their employers at heightened risk of mental illness because migration status can be used as a tool by employers in workplace negotiations.

  17. Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hanping

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54% who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.

  18. Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S J

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the legal systems in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and the protection of migrant domestic workers who are vulnerable to domestic violence and abuse. Migration in the last 10 years in Asia has increasingly included female migrants who are usually employed in domestic services, the entertainment industry, and health care services. This work places women migrants in a vulnerable position in the isolation of households, away from public oversight. Labor laws are not applied to domestic workers, who are considered of low societal value. In Hong Kong, domestic work is covered under the labor laws, but the societal perception is that housework is not really work. Employer-employee relationships are more clear cut in institutional settings. Most domestic workers live with their employers. They are outsiders to families and must maintain professional relationships within an intimate environment. The isolation within a household discourages development of support systems and contacts with women doing similar work. There is a power struggle between women of unequal stature concerning the operation of the household and the interrelationships with family members. The power dynamic, the nature of the family structure, and culture are all interrelated. The first year's income covers the cost of securing foreign employment, and workers are vulnerable in this first year due to their debts. Employers protect their investment by working them to capacity or using fear and physical confinement to secure obedience. Workers are humiliated and immobilized. The comparison between the three countries illustrates the potential for protecting migrant domestic workers. Singapore and Taiwan lack sufficient legal and social support for migrant women, and Hong Kong must use a more comprehensive approach for integrating power dynamics, employment, work regulations, and labor status.

  19. Reworking labour practices : On the agency of unorganized mobile migrant construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to probe the nuanced processes of non-unionization, this article analyses the agency of migrant construction workers and the ways they negotiate and navigate an increasingly flexible and pan-European labour market. Drawing upon qualitative interview data, the article argues that the

  20. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2018-02-01

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  1. Substance abuse among migrant workers of Thai-Laos border, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichuang, Siriluk; Ratanasiri, Amornrat; Kanato, Manop

    2012-09-01

    Study the impact of substance abuse among migrant workers along the Thai-Laos border region in Nakhon Phanom Province. The target population included migrant workers aged 15 years and over and were selected using the snowball technique. Data were collected from 300 migrant workers and in-depth interviews and focus group discussion were carried out. Data analysis used content analysis, descriptive statistics, and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-five point seven percent of migrant workers used stimulants namely tobacco, energy drinks, coffee, and methamphetamine. Males were at greater risk for substance abuse than females (AOR 16.03; 95% CI 8.43-30.45) and those who received news and information from community radios and news broadcasting towers were at more risk than other media (AOR 5.38; 95% CI 2.88-10.05). The impact of substance abuse were found to be chronic cough, moodiness, lack of interest in food, headache, wakefulness, sleeplessness, tremor heart palpitation, and accidents. Health promotion strategy must be implemented to minimize the harm. Motivating behavioral modification while keeping in mind the lifestyle, work, and environment of these people could help.

  2. Far from Home, But at Home: Indian Migrant Workers in the Iranian Oil Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, T.

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the life and times of Indian migrant workers in Persia/Iran during the first half of the twentieth century, and discusses their contributions to the founding, development and eventual consolidation of the Persian/Iranian oil industry. A number of factors that shaped this

  3. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  4. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  5. Learning from returnee Ethiopian migrant domestic workers: a qualitative assessment to reduce the risk of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busza, Joanna; Teferra, Sehin; Omer, Serawit; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2017-09-11

    International migration has become a global political priority, with growing concern about the scale of human trafficking, hazardous work conditions, and resulting psychological and physical morbidity among migrants. Ethiopia remains a significant "source" country for female domestic workers to the Middle East and Gulf States, despite widespread reports of exploitation and abuse. Prior to introduction of a "safe migration" intervention, we conducted formative research to elicit lessons learned by women who had worked as domestic workers abroad. The aim of the study was to identify realistic measures future migrants could take to protect themselves, based on the collective insights and experience of returnees. We conducted a qualitative assessment among returnee domestic labour migrants in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, an area considered a "hotspot" for outmigration. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with a total of 35 female returnees, exploring risk and protective factors experienced by Ethiopian women during domestic work abroad. We used thematic content analysis to identify practical messages that could improve prospective migrants' preparedness. Returnees described the knowledge and skills they acquired prior to departure and during migration, and shared advice they would give to prospective migrants in their community. Facilitators of positive migration included conforming to cultural and behavioural expectations, learning basic Arabic, using household appliances, and ensuring safety in employers' homes. Respondents also associated confidence and assertiveness with better treatment and respect, and emphasized the importance of access to external communication (e.g. a mobile phone, local sim card, and contact details) for help in an emergency. Following their own challenging or even traumatic experiences, returnees were keen to support resilience among the next wave of migrants. There is little evidence on practices that foster safer

  6. HIV awareness of outgoing female migrant workers of Bangladesh: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; Conigrave, Katherine M; Miah, Md Shahjahan; Kalam, Kazi Abul

    2010-12-01

    Female migrant workers face a growing scale of unsafe migration, which increases their risk of HIV. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are migrating from Bangladesh to other countries as contractual workers. The aim of the study is to establish a baseline for the socio-demographic status of female migrant workers and the extent of their HIV/AIDS awareness along with the factors that determine it, and to discuss the need for effective HIV awareness programmes. During June-July 2008 data were collected by a questionnaire from 123 participants by approaching a cross section of women at the airport who were ready to fly to take up an overseas job. A total of 87% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Participants who had completed an education level of year ≥8 were more likely to have been informed about HIV than others. The average score in correct identification of modes of HIV infection was 1.6 (out of 4) and for preventive measures 1.8 (out of 5). Television and health workers were the major sources of HIV related knowledge. HIV-knowledge among the potential female migrant workers seems to be poor. As growing numbers of female workers are moving overseas for work, government and other concerned agencies must take a pro-active role to raise their awareness of HIV/AIDS infection and of effective preventive measures.

  7. The making of a new working class? A study of collective actions of migrant workers in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chris King-Chi; Pun, Ngai

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we argue that the specific process of the proletarianization of Chinese migrant workers contributes to the recent rise of labour protests. Most of the collective actions involve workers' conflict with management at the point of production, while simultaneously entailing labour organizing in dormitories and communities. The type of living space, including workers' dormitories and migrant communities, facilitates collective actions organized not only on bases of locality, ethnici...

  8. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: an international Delphi consensus process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, ‘Health of Migrants’, the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. Methods This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. Results A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created - the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) – in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is

  9. [Immigration and work. Roles and opportunities for occupational medicine in the health and safety of migrant workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, S; Arici, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that in Italy there are 4 million migrant workers, accounting for about 10 percent of the total workforce. They contribute to national economic development but they are also heavily involved in the so-called "3D jobs" (dangerous, dirty and demanding/degrading). To draw occupational physicians' (OP) attention to the necessity of dealing with occupational health and safety problems related to migrant workers, highlighting his/her role and opportunities, in order to guarantee access to health services and prevent occupational health inequalities. The available data on occupational diseases and accidents among migrant workers are discussed, as well as conditions of individual susceptibility; as an example, data are commented obtained in many years of health surveillance in a foundry. Migrant workers may suffer from occupational health inequalities. The OP, by means of focused risk assessment, health surveillance, fitness for work and health promotion, can substantially improve migrant workers' health. In fact, data from our experience showed how a migrant workforce may be well characterized and also represent an opportunity, instead of being a "risk factor". Within the framework of needs for further methodological and applied research, the OP can play a proactive role in workplaces, aimed at real integration of migrant workers, with overall benefits for workers, enterprises and society.

  10. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.

  11. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  12. Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Douadi, Benacer; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Wilson, John-James; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant

  13. [Occupational stress and early health effects in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X M; Li, S; Zhang, Q Y; Wang, C; Ji, Y Q; Wang, J; Shi, J

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise and the association between occupational stress and early health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia. Methods: In August 2015, stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 1 097 migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The Job Demand-Autonomy Questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to investigate occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance, and Burnout Inventory, depression scale, and self-management sleep questionnaire were used to investigate the early health effects of occupational stress. Results: In these migrant workers, the detection rates of occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance were 69.8%(766/1 097) and 11.9%(131/1 097). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the workers who had occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance had significantly higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who did not have these two types of occupational stress ( P workers who had occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance had a significantly higher ability to predict the risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who had occupational stress with the type of high workload ( P health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia, in the migrant workers in this electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The workers who have occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance have higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who have occupational stress with the type of high workload.

  14. Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Thailand - Implications for Leveraging Migration for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy HUYEN NGUYEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater flow of people to and from each of the Mekong countries is catching the attention of the general public and academic researchers. As one of the fastest growing countries in the GMS, Thailand is attracting the majority of migrant workers from its neighbours. At a smaller scale, when compared with those from Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar, Vietnamese workers are also joining this increasing trend in immigration to Thailand. By analyzing information from secondary data sources, this research paper attempts to provide further insights into the social and economic impacts generated by the Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand both at home and the host country. The study discovers that moving to Thailand for work has eased the pressures of rural unemployment and underemployment that have plagued Vietnam recently. Meanwhile, Vietnamese workers are helping soothe the stress caused by the increasing demand for unskilled and low skilled labourers in Thailand. The study further learns that the long-established community of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand is encouraging the increasing movement of Vietnamese workers to Thailand. The study findings suggest meaningful implications for future policies in leveraging labour migration for development.

  15. Nationalization Scheme (Nitaqat in Saudi Arabia and the Condition of Filipino Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henelito A. SEVILLA, Jr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of few countries in the developing world that heavily relied on exporting its laborers to sustain its economic growth. Despite attempts by previous administrations to minimize sending Filipino workers abroad by improving working condition at home so that working abroad would no longer be compulsory but optional, many Filipinos continue to leave the country hoping to alleviate their families from poverty. This idea of working abroad has several implications for migrant workers especially in regions where labor policies are not clearly laid down and that rights and welfare of migrant workers are not protected. This paper seeks to elucidate the conditions of Overseas Filipinos Workers (OFWs in Saudi Arabia which strictly implemented “Saudization”2 policy since 2011. In particular, the paper tries to address the following questions: What does “Saudization” (nitaqat mean from Filipinos’ perspectives?; Who are affected by this policy and Why have OFWs been affected by such policy?; How did undocumented or illegal OFWs survive in previous years?; What policies they have implemented to counter it? This paper is centered on its main thesis that Saudi Nationalization policy, which is centered on solving socio-economic problems facing the young and unemployed population in several Gulf countries, has been the driver for these governments to strictly implement such a law and that many migrant workers including Filipinos working on specific areas together with undocumented ones are gravely affected.

  16. Monitoring acetylcholinesterase levels in migrant agricultural workers and their children using a portable test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, G M; Muñiz, J F; McCauley, L A

    2001-02-01

    The EQM Research, Inc., portable test kit was evaluated as a surveillance tool for blood cholinesterase levels among migrant workers and their children. Laboratory validation demonstrated a linear relationship between the reference Ellman and kit methods (Ellman = 0.95 x kit result + 0.82, r2 = 0.98). Pre- and post-season cholinesterase levels measured in 70 farm workers were within normal ranges, but significantly different at 28.5 and 29.7 U/g Hb, respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.014). Results from 98 migrant farm worker children and a comparison group of 53 age-matched non-agricultural children showed that cholinesterase levels were not significantly different between the agricultural and non-agricultural children (ANOVA, p = 0.69). These data demonstrate that a portable test kit can provide useful data pesticide exposures when measurements are made in a temperature-controlled setting.

  17. Drug use and HIV risks among migrant workers on the DelMarVa Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, J A; Surratt, H L; Colón, H M; Chitwood, D D; Rivers, J E

    1999-01-01

    Because high rates of drug use have been documented in the migrant farm worker population, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded the Migrant Health Study to examine HIV risk behaviors among drug-using farm workers and their sexual partners. Many of these individuals were home-based in South Florida and migrated during the work season to various points along the Eastern Migratory Stream. The focus of this paper is a description of the characteristics and behaviors of the 151 respondents contacted on the DelMarVa Peninsula during 1994 and 1995. The data indicate that drug use was widespread in this population, a significant proportion were at risk for HIV infection, and 6% were HIV positive. As a result of these findings, public health agencies on the peninsula have instituted HIV education programs in those clinics utilized by both local and transient agricultural workers.

  18. Partnership working as liberation psychology: Forced labor among UK Chinese migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca; Kagan, Carolyn; Burton, Mark; Lo, Sandy; Mok, Lisa; Sham, Sylvia; Baines, Sue; Greenwood, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article we seek to reflect critically on some recent research we have carried out, in collaboration with a Chinese welfare NGO, on the experience of forced labor among Chinese migrant workers in the UK. We will (a) locate briefly the wider political context of migrant work (both regular and irregular) in the UK; (b) explore how and why the actual research methods and process of the research deviated in practice from those that were planned; and (c) show the extent to which aspects of the research process reflected a liberation psychology perspective.

  19. "One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Sian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly

  20. Characteristics and determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents of migrant workers in Shangai (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Huang, Hong; Cai, Yong; Xu, Gang; Huang, Fengrong; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI) epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high schools from April to June of 2008. A total of 2821 adolescents aged 14.06 ± 0.93 years (8.9% of migrant workers vs. 91.1% of general residents) participated in the survey. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with increased risk for HIV/STI. Results The percentage of adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse or had sexual intercourse in last three months was 7.2% and 4.3% in adolescents of migrant workers, respectively; in contrast, 4.5% and 1.8% in their peers of general residents, respectively. 47.3% adolescents of migrant workers and 34.3% of those adolescents of general residents reported no condom use in sexual intercourse during last three months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that migration was a independent risk factor for sexual intercourse in last three months in our sampled adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.72). In adolescents of migrant workers, factors such as lower family income (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.09–3.05 for low level; OR:1.25, CI: 1.04–1.59 for medium level), younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 1.24, CI: 1.09–1.57), lower knowledge on HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.93, CI: 0.90–0.97), and fewer communication on HIV/AIDS related issues (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.90–0.97) were related to sexual intercourse in last three months. Conclusion Based on these results, we advocated that heightened concerns targeting the adolescents of migrant workers

  1. The Migration, Mental Stress, and Tobacco use of Internal Migrants in China: The Moderating Effect of the Social Context of the Host Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shenghua

    2017-11-10

    Previous studies on the relationship between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants have not fully considered the social context of the host society. This study aims to examine how mental stress influences cigarette smoking in internal migrants in China by considering the social context of the host society. We used the RUMiC data that were collected in 15 cities distributed throughout 9 provinces of China. A total of 8,446 and 5,426 migrant workers were interviewed in 2008 and 2009, respectively. We selected individuals based on the criteria of age, salary, and hukou status. A total of 8,880 observations are valid for this study. This research used the logistic regression method to test the association between mental stress and the tobacco use of internal migrants. The results show that mental stress is not necessarily associated with the tobacco use of internal migrants. However, the effects of mental stress on tobacco use are moderated by the social context of the host society. This article calls for more attention to be paid to the moderate effect of social context in the host society on the association between mental stress and cigarette smoking of internal migrants. Moreover, this article underscores the importance of factors related to local societies in making and enacting tobacco control policies for migrants in developing countries.

  2. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  3. HIV-Risk Behavior Among the Male Migrant Factory Workers in a North Indian City

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    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male migrants act as a bridge for transmitting infection from core risk groups to general population and hence this group becomes essential for the HIV control program. Migrant workers constitute a large proportion of workforce in India and HIV/AIDS epidemic in them would cause huge economic losses. Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the HIV-risk behavior among male migrant factory workers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional facility based survey conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to current location after 15 years of age, who had worked in the current factory for at least one year, who were willing to participate and able to give valid consent were eligible. A consecutive sampling was done. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done. Results: A total of 755 male subjects completed the interview. About 21.5% had experienced non-spousal sexual intercourse in last one year. Nearly 60% did not use a condom at the last non-spousal sex. Factors associated with recent non-spousal sex were being unmarried, younger age at migration, recent migration to Haryana, greater number of places migrated and lesser total duration of migration and those associated with non-use of condom at the last non-spousal sex were older age, lower education, lesser number of places migrated and lower level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Conclusion: Unprotected, recent non-spousal sex was common among male migrants, which could increase their HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  4. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  5. Analysis of hepatitis B vaccination behavior and vaccination willingness among migrant workers from rural China based on protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rugang; Li, Youwei; Wangen, Knut R; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-03

    With China's accelerating urbanization, migrant workers comprise up to 40% of the urban population of China's largest cities. More mobile than non-migrant urban dwellers, migrants are more likely to contract and spread hepatitis B (HB) than non-migrants. Due to the mandatory system of household registration (hukou), migrants are less likely to be covered by national HB immunization programs and also to have more limited access to public health services where they work than non-migrants. Migrants form a significant sub-group in all Chinese cities posing unique public policy vaccination challenges. Using protection motivation theory (PMT), we developed and measured HB cognitive variables and analyze the factors affecting HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate by migrant workers. We propose public policy interventions to increase HB vaccination rates of migrant workers. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the HB vaccination characteristics of 1684 respondents from 6 provinces and Beijing. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create PMT variables and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting migrant workers' HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate. Vulnerability and response-efficacy were significant PMT cognition factors determining HB vaccination behavior. The HB vaccination rate for migrants decreased with increasing age and was smaller for the primary education than the high education group. The vaccination rate of the medical insurance group was significantly greater than the non-insured group, and the vaccination probability was significantly higher for the self-rated good health compared to the self-rated poor health group. Geographical birth location mattered: the vaccination rate for Beijing city and Ningxia province migrants were higher than for Hebei province and the vaccination rate was lower for migrants born far from health facilities compared to those located middle

  6. Labour migration and protection of migrant workers' rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kraukšlytė, Jovita

    2006-01-01

    Darbo jėgos migracija yra teigiamas reiškinys, padedantis spręsti nedarbo bei darbo jėgos trūkumo problemas. Dėl to svarbu tiek nacionaliniu, tiek tarptautiniu mastu užtikrinti darbuotojų migrantų apsaugą. Šiame darbe daugiausiai dėmesio skiriama darbo jėgos migracijai Europos Sąjungoje ir laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo suteikiamoms teisėms. Laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo laisve gali naudotis Europos Sąjungos valstybių narių piliečiai, kurie yra pripažįstami darbuotojais. Asmenys priskiriami darbuoto...

  7. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Mayuri; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Nair, Narayana Pillai Sreekumaran

    2015-01-01

    India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18-30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8%) of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  9. Factors associated with self-rated health among migrant workers: results from a population-based cross-sectional study in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumparatana, Pam; Cournos, Francine; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena; Gilbert, Louisa

    2017-06-01

    To determine factors associated with SRH among migrant workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. In 2007, 805 vendors were screened. Approximately half were eligible (n =450), defined as at least 18 years old, a worker/owner in a randomly selected stall, having traveled 2 + hours outside of Almaty within the past year, and being an internal/external migrant. 28 non-migrants were excluded, leaving 422 participants. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between SRH, mental health, and psychosocial problems. Approximately 46% reported having poor or fair SRH. Clinical depression (OR 0.859, 95% CI 0.342-2.154), alcohol problems (OR 1.169, 95% CI 0.527-2.593), and legal status (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.806-1.229) were not significantly associated with SRH, nor was exposure to interpersonal violence among women (OR 1.554, 95% CI 0.703-3.435). After adjusting for key variables, only ethnicity and social support were found to be significantly protective against poor or fair SRH. SRH was not a comprehensive health measure for these Central Asian migrant workers. More specific questions are needed to identify mental illness and interpersonal violence.

  10. The Financial Planning and Financial Literacy of ex-Malaysia Indonesian Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rayenda Khresna Brahmana; Ritzky Karina Brahmana

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian migrant workers (IMW) face life difficulties after returning back to Indonesia. This is a contrary condition considering their contribution to their home family in Indonesia while working abroad. Literature mentions that their financial planning is the root of the poverty of ex-IMW. Therefore, this research adopts literacy theory to explain this phenomenon. This research conducted a survey among 548 ex-IMW and measures their financial literacy and financial planning. This resear...

  11. The Western European countryside from an Eastern European perspective: Case of migrant workers in Norwegian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007, large numbers of migrant workers from Eastern Europe in-migrated to the Western European countryside. In this paper I discuss how these migration streams in important ways challenge the dominant perspectives in contemporary rural studies, in particular their focus on lifestyle-related rural in-migration, on the post-productivist character of the countryside, and on the social constructions of the rural as idyllic space. These perspectives a...

  12. Suicide as Protest for the New Generation of Chinese Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    A startling 13 young workers attempted or committed suicide at the two Foxconn production facilities in southern China between January and May 2010. We can interpret their acts as protest against a global labor regime that is widely practiced in China. Their defiant deaths demand that society reflect upon the costs of a state-promoted development model that sacrifices dignity for corporate profit in the name of economic growth. Chinese migrant labor conditions as articulated by the state, are...

  13. Overview of Researches on Social Capital, Human Capital and Social Integration of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Wenjing; Lu, Honghong; Tong, Yulin; Lu, Danna

    2013-01-01

    With urbanization and socio-economic development, new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However, for a long time, their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches, but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches, it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation...

  14. Workplace and security stressors and mental health among migrant workers on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Decker, Michele R; Tol, Wietse A; Abshir, Nada; Mar, Aye Aye; Robinson, W Courtland

    2016-05-01

    Migrant workers in low-resource settings may experience multiple types of workplace and security-related stressors. This study explores the relationship between these stressors and adverse mental health outcomes, through a study of migrant workers from Myanmar, working in agriculture, factory, and sex industries in and around Mae Sot, Thailand. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit a total sample of 589 male and female migrants. Trained data collectors administered a survey, which included measures of workplace and security-related stressors, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariate regression models were conducted separately for depression and anxiety symptoms. For male agricultural workers, security stressors (β = 1.9, p = .001) are associated with an increase in depression symptoms and coercive working conditions are associated with an increase in anxiety symptoms (β = .8, p = .000). For female agricultural workers, daily hassles and stressors were associated with both depression (β = 1.5, p = .000) and anxiety (β = .5, p = .027), and barriers to exit (β = 3.0, p = .005) and security stressors (β = .9, p = .010) were significantly associated with increased depression symptoms. In the factory subsample, sexual assault and abuse (depression: β = 2.7, p = .009; anxiety: β = 2.8, p = .002) and daily hassles and stressors (depression: β = .7, p = .007; anxiety: β = .7, p = .001) were both significantly associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms for males. Other categories of stressors similarly showed different associations with mental health outcomes between occupational groups, and between male and female migrant workers. The differing influences of stressors on mental health between the three occupational groups, and between males and females, indicate the need for targeted and tailored approaches to reduce specific stressors and improve services to address mental health needs

  15. Barriers to performing stretching exercises among Korean-Chinese female migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Wilbur, JoEllen; Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Kyongeun; Lee, Meenhye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers to performing stretching exercise experienced by Korean-Chinese female migrant workers during a community-based 12-week stretching exercise intervention trial. Qualitative secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone counseling interview transcripts from 27 middle-aged, Korean-Chinese migrant women workers. A semistructured interview question asking barriers to performing stretching exercise was given to women who did not adhere to recommended stretching exercise. During the 12-week home-based stretching exercise intervention trial, six telephone calls were made to participants biweekly to elicit barriers to performing stretching exercise. Directed content analysis approach was utilized using three barrier categories: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and work-related environmental factors based on the ecological model. Participants experienced an average of 2.5 barriers during the study period. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time and lack of motivation, and interpersonal barriers included no family to provide support and also a feeling resistance from coworkers. Work-related environmental barriers included frequent job changes, long working hours, lack of rest time, and unpredictable job demands. The findings highlight that migrant workers in Korea face unique work-related difficulties which present barriers to exercise. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. ... have little or no access to basic services, including health and education for themselves or their dependents. ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  17. Work stress, life stress, and smoking among rural–urban migrant workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xiaobo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulated by rapid modernization and industrialization, there is massive rural–urban migration in China. The migrants are highly susceptible to smoking and mental health problems. This study examined the association between both perceived work stress and perceived life stress with smoking behavior among this group during the period of migration. Methods Participants (n = 1,595 were identified through stratified, multi-stage, systematic sampling. Smoking status separated non-smokers from daily and occasional smokers, and migration history, work stress, and life stress were also measured. Analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Two models were utilized. The first was the full model that comprised sociodemographic and migration-related characteristics, as well as the two stress variables. In addressing potential overlap between life and work stress, the second model eliminated one of the two stress variables as appropriate. Results Overall smoking prevalence was 64.9% (95% CI: 62.4-67.2%. In the regression analysis, under the full model, migrants with high perceived life stress showed a 45% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to low-stress counterparts (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.06. Applying the second model, which excluded the life stress variable, migrants with high perceived work stress had a 75% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to opposites (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.26–2.45. Conclusions Rural–urban migrant workers manifested a high prevalence of both life stress and work stress. While both forms of stress showed associations with current smoking, life stress appeared to outweigh the impact of work stress. Our findings could inform the design of tobacco control programs that would target Chinese rural–urban migrant workers as a special population.

  18. Agribusiness, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Health of Agricultural Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María Isabel; Sabo, Samantha; Aranda Gallegos, Patricia; De Zapien, Jill Eileen Guernsey; Zapien, Antonio; Portillo Abril, Gloria Elena; Rosales, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions and health of migrant farmworkers could benefit from a health promotion model based on corporate social responsibility (CSR). To understand how Mexican agribusiness owners and general managers view and practice CSR. We interviewed 8 agribusiness owners/managers and 233 farmworkers using open-ended interviews and gathered anthropometrical data of 133 children from farmworkers families. To guide our analysis and discussion, we followed the two-dimension model of CSR proposed by Quazi and O'Brien. According to interviewee responses, mean percentage of agreement with CSR concept was 77.4%, with a range of 54-85.7%. Main health-related issues among farmworkers were infectious diseases, crowding, and access to health-care services; there were acute cases of undernutrition among farmworkers' children and diets were of poor quality. Agribusiness owners and managers understand and practice CSR according to a wide and modern view, which contradicts with farmworkers' living conditions and health. Quazi and O'Brien model should consider the social context, in which it is analyzed, and the social manifestations of community development as a tool for further analysis on the perceptions and actions of entrepreneurs.

  19. Influence of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life in New-Generation Migrant Workers in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Yu, Wei; Chen, Sanmei; Zhang, Dengke; Tan, Rongmei

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has generally been used for patients, few studies in migrants who move from rural to urban within one country. Many studies asserted that social isolation presents a risk to individual health. Poor social networks are associated with worse QOL. This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and social support in new-generation migrant workers and compared it with urban workers. Nine hundred thirty new-generation migrant workers and 939 urban controls completed the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) by stratified sampling in 2011. Spearman's correlation was performed to clarify the relationship between social support and HRQOL in migrants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were associated with HRQOL. The general health, psychological health, and environmental scores of QOL in new-generation migrant workers were lower than in urban workers. New-generation migrants had poorer social support compared with urban controls with regard to general support, objective support, and support utilization. A positive correlation was found between social support and HRQOL. Workers with a higher level of education achieved better psychological, environmental, and general scores than workers with a primary education. Physical, social, environmental, and general health was also closely connected with the age factor. Physical health scores were higher in males than in females. These data suggest that new-generation migrant workers have significant impairment in HRQOL and receive less social support. HRQOL may be affected by social support, education, age, and gender.

  20. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

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    Yanwei Lin

    Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these

  1. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods: The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant worker...

  2. Experience of migrant care and needs for cultural competence training among public health workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Jina; Asami, Keiko; Kim, Hyunlye

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the experiences of public health workers (PHWs) providing health care for migrants living in Korea and clarified needs for cultural competence training. Twenty-six PHWs from five public health centers in Gwangju city, South Korea, participated in this exploratory qualitative study. Five semi-structured focus group interviews of PHWs were conducted from September to December 2016. A directed content analysis approach was conducted using four categories: perceived characteristics of migrants, interaction between PHWs and migrants, interaction between PHWs and organizations/systems, and cultural competence training needs. PHWs perceived that migrants lacked autonomy in health decisions and awareness of health behaviors. PHWs experienced difficulties in communicating and in establishing trusting relationships. They found clients hard to reach and easy to miss, a lack of continuity in health care programs, and inadequate human and material resources. They preferred passive teaching methods to activity-based simulation. PHWs believed essential training should be provided through e-learning to all PHWs, including management. PHWs reported experiencing multiple challenges from a lack of preparedness for culturally competent care and their clients' vulnerability. Development of cultural competence training is suggested through e-learning that reflects the PHWs' experiences and provides systematic support. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Conundrums in the legal protection of migrant workers' health rights and relative resolutions: implications from the case of Tseng Hei-tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The deteriorating situation of migrant workers' health rights protection was once again highlighted in the case of Tseng Hei-tao. This case explicitly and implicitly showed that four conundrums--the Employment Restriction Conundrum, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Legal Conundrum, the Morality Conundrum and the Identity Conundrum--are barriers to migrant workers' right protection. The health rights of migrant workers could be safeguarded by abolishing the outdated household registration system designed in the planned economy era, improving the rule of law, and strengthening administrative supervisions. This would fundamentally remove these barriers and thus contribute to migrant workers' health rights protection.

  4. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.

  5. Factors Influencing Learning Satisfaction of Migrant Workers in Korea with E-learning-Based Occupational Safety and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Dongjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background E-learning-based programs have recently been introduced to the occupational safety and health (OSH) education for migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the factors related to migrant workers' backgrounds and the instructional design affect the migrant workers' satisfaction with e-learning-based OSH education. Methods The data were collected from the surveys of 300 migrant workers who had participated in an OSH education program. Independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine differences in the degree of learning satisfaction using background variables. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted to examine relationships between the instructional design variables and the degree of learning satisfaction. Results There was no significant difference in the degree of learning satisfaction by gender, age, level of education, number of employees, or type of occupation, except for nationality. Among the instructional design variables, “learning content” (β = 0.344, p e-learning” (β = 0.095, p E-learning-based OSH education for migrant workers may be an effective way to increase their safety knowledge and behavior if the accuracy, credibility, and novelty of learning content; strategies to promote learners' motivation to learn; and interactions with learners and instructors are systematically applied during the development and implementation of e-learning programs. PMID:26929830

  6. Pesticide Exposure and Cholinesterase Levels in Migrant Farm Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yenjai, Pornthip; Jaidee, Wanlop; Jaidee, Patchana; Sriprapat, Poonsak

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of pesticides in migrant farm workers from Cambodia after workplace exposure on fruit plantations in eastern Thailand. We studied 891 migrant farm workers employed on pineapple, durian, and rambutan plantations in Thailand. Data were collected via a detailed questionnaire survey and measurements of serum cholinesterase level (SChE). The majority of subjects was male (57.7%), with an average age of 30.3 years. Most subjects (76.8%) were moderately aware of good industrial hygiene practices. SChE level was divided into four groups based on the results. Only 4.4% had normal levels of cholinesterase activity, 20.5% had slightly reduced levels, 58.5% had markedly reduced levels and were "at risk," and 16.6% who had highest levels of cholinesterase inhibition were deemed to be in an "unsafe" range. SChE was classified into two groups, SChE value of 87.5 was "normal" and 39 acres, use a backpack sprayer, or have a low level of compliance with accepted industrial hygiene practices. These three classes of workers are at increased risk of chemical exposures and developing acute or chronic illness from pesticide exposures.

  7. Pattern of Clinical Medication Seeking for Import Malaria by Migrant Workers

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    Muhammad Mahmudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Number of malaria cases in Kabupaten Trenggalek in 2014 is 89 cases, and 83 cases are import malaria from migrant workers. Import malaria is transmitted across two areas and affects the clinical medication seeking. This research wants to describe the pattern of clinical medication seeking for import malaria by migrant workers in Puskesmas Pandean working area. This was cross sectional study with descriptive quantitative approach. Research’s sample is 26 import malaria sufferers in 2013–2015 who has chosen purposively with inclusion criteria. Interview had used to get information about characteristics, place felt the symptom, first clinical medication seeking (place and time, clinical diagnosis, medication follow up, and recovery status. The result of the research shows 100% respondent is man and the age about 20-30 years old (53,8 who is working as agricultural laborers outside Java. Mostly of respondent feel the malaria symptoms in their working place (53,8%. The day seeks clinical medication at day three after symptom (34, 6%. Respondents that feel the symptom in Puskesmas Pandean working area chose Puskesmas as clinical medication place (42,3%, and hospital (19,2% for them whose experience the malaria symptom in their working area. Puskesmas is chosen as clinical diagnosis place (69% and only 11,5% respondent got medication follow up. Puskesmas is chosen as intermediate clinical medication place (60% for 19,2% respondent that is not recovered well, although 20% go to Dukun. All of respondent chose the clinical medication as their prime medication. Need to make medication follow up visitation well complete. Keyword: pattern, clinical medication, import malaria, migrant worker

  8. Sexual risk behavior and type of sexual partners in transnational indigenous migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.

  9. It is not their war: the impact of military operations on Philippine migrant care workers for elderly people in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina

    2015-01-01

    Objective A majority of work immigrants from the Philippines came to Israel to fill positions involving personal and nursing care. Most of them were in Israel during the Second Lebanon War, the Cast Lead operation, and the Protective Edge Operation. These migrant care workers experienced these events no differently than did the Israeli population. The goal of this study was to examine the connections between the Philippine migrant care workers’ exposure to the military operations and the levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), death anxiety, and burnout among them. Methods A random sample of 147 Philippine migrant care workers was recruited through four agencies that employ migrant care workers. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire. Results Philippine migrant care workers reported high levels of PTSD, high levels of death anxiety, and low levels of burnout. Levels of exposure were positively associated with levels of PTSD, death anxiety, and negatively with burnout. A significant inverse relationship was found between interpersonal variables (self-esteem and sense of mastery) and the PTSD, death anxiety, and burnout levels reported by the participants. PMID:26170643

  10. Common mental health problems in rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shenzhen, China: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, B L; Liu, T B; Chan, S S M; Jin, D; Hu, C Y; Dai, J; Chiu, H F K

    2018-06-01

    Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers. A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs. The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16-25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26-35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70). CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.

  11. [Health differences between male and female migrant agricultural workers in Sinaloa, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Nava, Martha Edilia; Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Luz María Angela

    2004-01-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of muscarinic and nicotinic type symptoms and the level of erythrocytic cholinesterase, prior to pesticide exposure, in male and female migrant agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001 in Sinaloa State, Mexico, among 488 migrant workers. A questionnaire was applied and erythrocytic cholinesterase levels were measured before the beginning of the agricultural season. The differences by sex were compared using the "t" test for continuous variables and chi2 test for categorical variables. Prevalence odds ratios were also estimated. Statistical significance was assessed using p-values migration type, place of origin, education, and migration time (p=0.000). Women were six times more likely to have anemia and asthma, twice more likely to have parasites and respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases and 38% more likely to suffer from heart disease. They were also at greater prevalence in thirteen of nineteen investigated symptoms. The average cholinesterase level was within normal limits (4.22 U/ml+/-0.77) and it was similar to the levels reported using the Magnotti method. The prevalence of symptoms, illnesses and cholinesterase levels found in this study may serve as baseline values for future comparisons of the health effects of pesticide exposure. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  12. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV knowledge of migrant farm workers in a rural community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, A O; Adebayo, M A

    2011-03-01

    Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted.

  13. COMBATTING SEXUAL HARASSMENT AGAINST WOMEN MIGRANT WORKERS OVERSEAS: LOOKING AT THE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Joko Pitoyo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women is a criminal act. It involves not only in personal domain, but also within social arenas. It could be happened in social life, such as the fact of sexual harassment at work. Through qualitative retrospective cross-sectional methods, the study aimed to explore the contextual factors of sexual harassment which have occurred overseas among women migrant workers from Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia. Several factors altogether were identi ed as logical elements contributing to the existence of sexual harassment, composed of personal factors, relationship, working environment and structural regulation. The poor mechanism of placing Indonesian workers overseas was also perceived as an exacerbating factor to the presence of the conducts. Sexual harassment was more likely happened for female migrants in young age, low skill, and poor language in host countries. Several kinds of dependencies upon employers, such as administrative dependency, social and economic dependencies, and the existence of con ict at work were identi ed as other precipitating factors to the malpractice.

  14. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex.We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics.Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants.Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  15. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Primbetova, Sholpan; Ma, Xin; Chang, Mingway; Ismayilova, Leyla; Hunt, Tim; West, Brooke; Wu, Elwin; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics. Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants. Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among male migrant factory workers in Haryana, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Kant, Shashi; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Goswami, Kiran; Misra, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Male migrant workers display high risk sexual behavior and have been shown to have higher prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which make them more vulnerable to HIV infection. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported STIs and delineate their determinants among male migrant factory workers in Faridabad, Haryana. Male workers in two selected factories, who were aged ≥18 years, were born outside Haryana (destination), and who had migrated to Haryana after the age of 15 years were eligible. Socio-demographic information, HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior, and self-reported STI symptoms in the last 1 year were ascertained by face-to-face interview. Determinants of STIs were identified by regression analysis. Totally 755 eligible workers participated. Mean ± SD age was 31.4 ± 8.2 years and migration duration was 9.5 ± 6.7 years. At least one STI symptom was reported by 41.7% of the participants (burning micturition- 35%, inguinal bubos-5.2%, genital ulcers- 2.6%, urethral pus discharge- 1.3%). Factors associated with STIs were higher age at migration, lower HIV/AIDS knowledge, paid sex in the last year, non-use of condoms during the last non-spousal sex, and unfavorable intention to use condom. Prevalence of self-reported STIs among these migrant men was high. Targeted Interventions among migrant workers need to be strengthened for control and prevention of STIs.

  17. The Access to Antenatal and Postpartum Care Services of Migrant Workers in the Greater Mekong Subregion: The Role of Acculturative Stress and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charamporn Holumyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine whether social support and acculturative stress were related to obtaining antenatal and postpartum care for pregnant female migrants, as well as access to health care for migrant children. The study utilized data of 987 migrant workers in Thailand who originated from hill tribes and mountain communities in Myanmar and Cambodia. Regression analysis showed that the language barrier, a crucial factor behind acculturative stress, adversely influenced access to maternal care. Social support reduced the impact of acculturative stress. Migrants with support are more likely to access health care. Based on the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, more sources of support either from friends, family members, or other supporters who are significant could increase health care access. Besides friends and family, the support from the Migrant Health Worker Program and Migrant Health Volunteer Program allowed the formal health sector to utilize the informal social networks to improve care for migrants.

  18. Should the poor have no medicines to cure? A study on the association between social class and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming

    2017-11-07

    The rampant urbanization and medical marketization in China have resulted in increased vulnerabilities to health and socioeconomic disparities among the rural migrant workers in urban China. In the Chinese context, the socioeconomic characteristics of rural migrant workers have attracted considerable research attention in the recent past years. However, to date, no previous studies have explored the association between the socioeconomic factors and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China. This study aims to explore the association between socioeconomic inequity and social security inequity and the subsequent associations with medical inequity and reimbursement rejection. Data from a regionally representative sample of 2009 Survey of Migrant Workers in Pearl River Delta in China were used for analyses. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze the impacts of socioeconomic factors on the eight dimensions of social security (sick pay, paid leave, maternity pay, medical insurance, pension insurance, occupational injury insurance, unemployment insurance, and maternity insurance) and the impacts of social security on medical reimbursement rejection. The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB regression) was adopted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers with social security. The study population consisted of 848 rural migrant workers with high income who were young and middle-aged, low-educated, and covered by social security. Reimbursement rejection and abusive supervision for the rural migrant workers were observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and social security. ZINB regression showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers. Also, several dimensions of social security had significant

  19. Educational challenges of internal migrant girls: a case study among primary school children in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate education-related challenges encountered by internal migrant girls studying at primary schools in Turkey. From the perspectives of participants, the emerging themes included adaptation, language, low socio-economic status, peer relations, discrimination and

  20. Adaptation of the children of migrant workers to the new social and cultural space: pedagogical help and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Sabat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the value of the pedagogic help and support in the adaptation of migrants to the new circumstances of social and cultural space. The basic needs of the children from the specified category are characterized, and if we meet these needs will have the successful adaptation. The essence of information, instrumental emotional support was revealed. It was proven that the school serves the important medium to conduct such activities as the usual environment where a child with a family of migrants stays, talks, feels comfortable. The necessity of the cooperation between the teachers, educators, social educator and psychologist, administration is emphasized in helping the children of migrant workers in the process of adapting to the new social and cultural space.Key words: children of migrants, adaptation, educational help, pedagogic support, social and cultural space.

  1. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HCV and their high risk behaviors among migrant workers in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Pan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. RESULTS: 17,377 (92.8% of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73% of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4% had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single; male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job; having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%-0.06% and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%-0.51%, respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%-0.70%. Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant

  2. Profile of an HIV Testing and Counseling Unit in Bangladesh: Majority of New Diagnoses among Returning Migrant Workers and Spouses.

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    Arunthia Zaidi Urmi

    Full Text Available Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested.We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities.8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2% of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%, male (70%, and married (68%. Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated.These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.

  3. Factors Influencing Learning Satisfaction of Migrant Workers in Korea with E-learning-Based Occupational Safety and Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: E-learning-based OSH education for migrant workers may be an effective way to increase their safety knowledge and behavior if the accuracy, credibility, and novelty of learning content; strategies to promote learners' motivation to learn; and interactions with learners and instructors are systematically applied during the development and implementation of e-learning programs.

  4. What Makes Migrant Live-in Home Care Workers in Elder Care Be Satisfied with Their Job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…

  5. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Group Intervention Program to Enhance Mental Health of Children of Illegal Migrant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Yael; Slone, Michelle; Levis, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Background: The social-ecological environment of undocumented children of migrant workers includes varying levels of risk factors. Growing up in these conditions compromises children's development on all levels. Many of these children are in need of psychotherapy, however, due to limited resources, only a few of them receive mental health aid.…

  6. Socio-demographic determinants of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in migrant workers of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Walker, Martin; Lewis, John W; Noordin, Rahmah; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-05-15

    The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work. A total of 484 migrant workers originating from rural locations in neighbouring countries, namely, Indonesia (n = 247, 51.0%), Nepal (n = 99, 20.5%), Bangladesh (n = 72, 14.9%), India (n = 52, 10.7%) and Myanmar (n = 14, 2.9%) were included in this study. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 57.4% (n = 278; 95% CI: 52.7-61.8%) with 52.9% (n = 256; 95% CI: 48.4-57.2%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG only, 0.8% (n = 4; 95% CI: 0.2-1.7%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM only and 3.7% (n = 18; 95% CI: 2.1-5.4%) seropositive with both IgG and IgM antibodies. All positive samples with both IgG and IgM antibodies showed high avidity (> 40%), suggesting latent infection. Age (being older than 45 years), Nepalese nationality, manufacturing occupation, and being a newcomer in Malaysia (excepting domestic work) were positively and statistically significantly associated with seroprevalence (P Malaysia. Efforts should be made to encourage improved personal hygiene before consumption of food and fluids, thorough cooking of meat and better disposal of feline excreta from domestic pets.

  7. Valuing women’s labour: Law, empowerment and human rights of migrant filipino domestic workers in Pakistan 11th Asian Law Institute International Conference Law in Asia: Balancing Tradition and Modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, A

    2014-01-01

    International labour migration has expanded across the globe and is no more confined to migration from Asia to Europe, Americas and oil rich Gulf countries. New regional migration patterns have emerged, creating new labour markets within countries in Asia. Domestic service is an informal labour sector where international labour migration is taking place. Historically, domestic service for others' households has remained a principal way of earning a living for women. Affluent families in the d...

  8. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Cenyi; Meng, Xuehui; Cui, Shichen; Wang, Jingru; Li, Chengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Although migrant workers are a vulnerable group in China, they demonstrably contribute to the country's economic growth and prosperity. This study aimed to describe and assess the inequality of migrant worker health in China and its association with socioeconomic determinants. The data utilized in this study were obtained from the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey conducted in 29 Chinese provinces. This study converted the self-rated health of these migrant workers into a general cardinal ill-health score. Determinants associated with migrant worker health included but were not limited to age, marital status, income, and education, among other factors. Concentration index, concentration curve, and decomposition of the concentration index were employed to measure socioeconomic inequality in migrant workers' health. Prorich inequality was found in the health of migrant workers. The concentration index was -0.0866, as a score indicator of ill health. Decomposition of the concentration index revealed that the factors most contributing to the observed inequality were income, followed by gender, age, marital status, and smoking history. It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  9. Health Status and Experience of the Migrant Workers Returned from Spain to Colombia: A Qualitative Approach.

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    Zapata-Villa, Carolina; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cardona-Arango, Doris; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-12-14

    This study aims to understand the migratory experience and the employment, work and health conditions of the returned migrants from Spain to Colombia. A qualitative study was conducted by means of 23 semi-structured interviews with Colombian returned migrant workers. Qualitative narrative content analysis was performed using Atlas.Ti software. Main findings are represented by nine categories emerged from the participants' discourses: (1) impact of the economic crisis on work and employment conditions in Spain, (2) economic crisis and return, (3) characteristics of returnees, (4) perception of the returnees about Colombia, (5) the role of social support networks, (6) employment and working conditions in Colombia, (7) health and wellbeing, (8) future plans and expectations, (9) the experience of being immigrant. Adjustment difficulties in participants are evidenced by the return migration process and the conditions of the social, political and economic system in Colombia. Return migration represents the reconfiguration of personal and working lives of this population. This situation requires the development of global policies and strategies in public health to facilitate the adaptation of these people.

  10. What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV Testing? Implications for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Terloyeva, Dina; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12-2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58-4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86-7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18-2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20-4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.

  11. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

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    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  12. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fua, Hua; Pan, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD) among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW). A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking. Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23), 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56) and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72), respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking. Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  13. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  14. Development of a scale for attitude toward condom use for migrant workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Arunansu; Bal, Runa; Sanyal, Debasis; Roy, Krishnendu; Talukdar, Payel Sengupta

    2008-02-01

    The propaganda for the use of condoms remains one of the mainstay for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In spite of the proven efficacy of condom, some moral, social and psychological obstacles are still prevalent, hindering the use of condoms. The study tried to construct a short condom-attitude scale for use among the migrant workers, a major bridge population in India. The study was conducted among the male migrant workers who were 18-49 years old, sexually active and had heard about condoms and were engaged in nonformal jobs. We recruited 234 and 280 candidates for Phase 1 and Phase 2 respectively. Ten items from the original 40-item Brown's ATC (attitude towards condom) scale were selected in Phase 1. After analysis of Phase 1 results, using principal component analysis six items were found appropriate for measuring attitude towards condom use. These six items were then administered in another group in Phase 2. Utilizing Pearson's correlations, scale items were examined in terms of their mean response scores and the correlation matrix between items. Cornbach's alpha and construct validity were also assessed for the entire sample. Study subjects were categorized as condom users and nonusers. The scale structure was explored by analyzing response scores with respect to the items, using principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the first factor accounted for 71% of the variance, with eigenvalue greater than one. Eigenvalues of the second factor was less than one. Application of screen test suggests only one factor was dominant. Mean score of six items among condom users was 20.45 and that among nonusers was 16.67, which was statistically significant (Pvulnerable people in India, can be included in any rapid survey for assessing the existing beliefs and attitudes toward condoms and also for evaluating efficacy of an intervention program.

  15. Migrant Workers, Legal Tactics, and Fragile Family Formation in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Constable

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration and labor laws and policies, including employment contracts for temporary workers, are largely intended to protect the rights and privileges of citizens and to limit those of migrant workers. In Hong Kong, “foreign domestic helpers” are prohibited from bringing family members with them and despite legal maternity protections they face many deterrents to being or becoming pregnant. Yet some migrant women nonetheless become mothers in Hong Kong, and learn from friends, partners, nongovernmental organizations and human rights lawyers, to utilize laws and policies – such as the UN Convention Against Torture, labor law and family law – as tactics to establish and maintain a “family” of sorts in the region, at least temporarily. This essay presents ethnographic examples of the tactical use of law by migrant mothers in their efforts to remain in Hong Kong with their children, despite hegemonic pressures against doing so. Las leyes y políticas laborales y de inmigración, incluyendo los contratos de trabajo de los trabajadores temporales, están destinadas principalmente a proteger los derechos y privilegios de los ciudadanos y limitar los de los trabajadores emigrantes. En Hong Kong, "las trabajadoras domésticas extranjeras" tienen prohibido traer miembros de la familia con ellos, y a pesar de las protecciones legales de maternidad se enfrentan a muchos impedimentos si están o se quedan embarazadas. Sin embargo, algunas mujeres emigrantes se convierten en madres en Hong Kong, y aprenden de los amigos, socios, organizaciones no gubernamentales y abogados de derechos humanos a utilizar las leyes y políticas - como la Convención de la ONU contra la Tortura, el derecho laboral y el derecho de familia - como tácticas para establecer y mantener una "familia" tipo en la región, al menos temporalmente. Este ensayo presenta ejemplos etnográficos de la utilización táctica de la ley por las madres emigrantes en sus esfuerzos por

  16. HEALTH STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL LIVING CONDITIONS AND MICROBIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AMONG MIGRANT WORKER HOUSEHOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Suknongbung, Siranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Sujirarut, Dusit

    2017-03-01

    A large number of migrants have move to cities in Thailand seeking employment. These people may be at increased risk for environmental health problems. We studied the health status, environmental living conditions and microbial indoor air quality (IAQ) among selected groups of migrant workers and their households in Mueang District, Samut Sakhon, central Thailand. We conducted a cross sectional study of 240 migrant workers and their households randomly selected by multistage sampling. The person responsible for hygiene at each studied household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Two indoor air samples were taken from each household (480 indoor air samples) to determine bacterial and fungal counts using a Millipore air tester; 240 outdoor air samples were collected for comparison. Ninety-nine point six percent of study subjects were Myanmar, 74.2% were aged 21-40 years, 91.7% had a primary school level education or lower and 53.7% had stayed in Thailand less than 5 years. Eight point three percent had a history of an underlying disease, 20.8% had a recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis in a family member within the previous year. Forty-three point eight percent had a current illness related to IAQ during a previous month. Twenty-one point three were current cigarette smokers, 15.0% were current alcohol consumers, and 5.0% exercises ≥3 times per week. Forty-nine point two percent never opened the windows of their bedrooms or living rooms for ventilation, 45% never cleaned their window screens, and 38.3% never put their pillows or mattresses in the sunlight. The mean(±SD) air bacterial count was 230(±229) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 128±82 CFU/ m3), and the mean fungal count was 630(±842) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 138±94 CFU/ m3). When the bacterial and fungal counts were compared with the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the bacterial counts in 6.5% of houses surveyed and the fungal counts in 28.8% of house

  17. Sustaining Regional Advantages in Manufacturing: Skill Accumulation of Rural–Urban Migrant Workers in the Coastal Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasheng Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extant research pays little attention to unorganized migrant workers’ skill accumulation/upgrading from the perspective of the labor supply. This paper takes China as an example to explore the factors influencing the skill accumulation of rural–urban migrant workers (RUMWs, with the purpose of discovering how to sustain or reshape regional competitive advantages by improving RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Structured questionnaire surveys were adopted for data collection in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province and Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province located in the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China. In total, 700 questionnaires were issued and 491 effective questionnaires were recovered. It takes the perspective of individual laborers, with special regard to the effects of localization on the laborers’ skill accumulation within the context of globalization. It adopts a broad viewpoint including intra-firm skill-biased strategy (as a response to intense competition, inter-firm relationships, and the accessibility of local non-firm organizations. The findings indicate that firms’ skill preference, which impacts employees’ skills and innovation ability and stimulates them to learn with initiative, have a significant influence on RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In terms of collective efficiency based on the co-competitive relationship between local firms, the more intensive interactions are, the more opportunities RUMWs are afforded for skill accumulation. The accessibility of local institutions and favorable policies also benefit RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In addition, the place itself, as a synthesized space of a firm’s internal labor-management relations and inter-organizational relations, also exerts an influence on and causes regional differences in RUMWs’ skill accumulation.

  18. Influence of alcohol on condom use pattern during non-spousal sexual encounter in male migrant workers in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, S A; Kant, S; Goswami, K; Rai, S K; Misra, P

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers constitute an important risk group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome transmission in India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India. A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to the current location after 15 years of age,had worked in the current factory for at least 1 year, who were willing to participate and were able to give written, informed consent were included in the study. A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of 162 participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was 59.3%, and 78.4% of the men reported having consumed alcohol in the last 1 year. About 48.1% of men reported having consumed alcohol before their last non-spousal sexual encounter. Men who consumed alcohol were three times more likely to not use a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4). This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers. An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies.

  19. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  20. Migrant workers in Sabah, East Malaysia: The importance of legislation and policy to uphold equity on sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Tong, Wen Ting; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-04-01

    Sabah, located in Southeast Asia, hosts the highest number of non-Malaysian citizens (27.7%), predominantly the Indonesian and Filipino migrants in comparison to other states in Malaysia. Sabah has inadequate data on migrants' sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs). Various migrant-related policies and laws are present, but they do not offer full protection and rights to legal migrants in terms of their SRHRs. The aim of the laws and policies appears to be controlling the migrants from having any negative impact on the locals, rather than protecting migrants' health and rights. This affected their rights to marriage, having children, increase their vulnerabilities to labour trafficking and sexual abuse and access to health-care services. Female migrant workers and undocumented migrants form the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. This narrative review highlights the status of SRHRs of migrants in Sabah and the migrant-related Malaysian laws and policies affecting their SRHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Summer Educational Program for the Children of Migrant Agricultural Workers, 1976. [North Dakota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    During the summer of 1976, North Dakota's 10 migrant centers enrolled more than 2,500 migrant children, ranging from a few days to 18 years of age. All students were entered in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. A basic remedial program emphasizing instruction in reading, language arts, and math with some time devoted to science and…

  2. HIV and STI prevalence and determinants among male migrant workers in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S Dave

    Full Text Available Our objective was to estimate for the first time the prevalence and determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among male migrants in India.We conducted a multi-stage stratified probability sample survey of migrant (defined as not born in Surat city men aged 18 to 49 years working in the diamond and textile industries in Surat city. Behavioural and biological data were collected. Biological data included laboratory diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (together defined as 'any STI' and HIV-1. Likely recently acquired STIs included chlamydia, gonorrhoea, T. vaginalis and syphilis with rapid plasma reagin ≥1:8. The response rate was 77% (845/1099. Among 841 participants, HIV-1 prevalence was 1.0%, 'any STI' prevalence was 9.5% and 38.9% of these STIs were likely to have been recently acquired. Being a diamond worker, Surat resident for 10+ years and recent antibiotic use were each associated with higher odds of 'any STI' (aORs 1.83 (95% CI 1.09-3.09, 1.98 (95% CI 1.22-3.22 and 2.57 (95% CI 1 .17-5.64, respectively after adjusting for the other two factors and age. The main study limitation was social desirability bias for self-reported sexual behaviour; STIs were diagnosed in some self-reported virgins.HIV and STI prevalence were lower than expected, but prevention interventions remain necessary in Surat since almost 40% of STIs among participants were probably recently acquired and sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence remains high. The participants had a similar HIV prevalence to Surat antenatal clinic attendees, a proxy for the general population. This suggests migrants are not always at higher risk of HIV compared to the general population in their migration destination. Our findings highlight the need to contextualise research findings from a specific setting with other local information to guide HIV/STI prevention

  3. Perceived control among migrant live-in and local live-out home care workers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-11-20

    To examine perceived control among live-in and live-out home care workers and to identify factors that contribute to perceived control among both types of caregiving. 338 migrant live-in home care workers and 185 local live-out home care workers were asked to report their perceived control. Burnout, satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family, and satisfaction with social relationship were also gathered. Both types of caregivers reported high levels of perceived control, although live-in home care workers expressed more perceived control. Higher age, higher levels of satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family and lower levels of burnout, predicted perceived control. Satisfaction with social relationship was a stronger predictor of one's perceived control among live-in home care workers. Promoting social relationships outside the home care context by allowing migrant live-in home care workers to take part in social gatherings is recommended as this can strengthen their sense of perceived control.

  4. The Integration of International Migrants into Western Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Western Australia’s capital city, Perth. Data was collected on residency, English proficiency, employment status, mode of transport, housing, home...European Union 2010, 2014). Based on the concept of “human capital ”, a cross-sectorial approach covering inter alia education, employment and...populations of unqualified migrants with poor local language skills who have become dependent on the welfare state. In the UK, migration as a product of

  5. CHANGING CULTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF MIGRANT ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERT HAMILTON; LEO-PAUL DANA; CAMILLA BENFELL

    2008-01-01

    This is a comparative study about the assimilation and integration of migrant entrepreneurs of Chinese and Indian origins. The research is based on surveys of 320 entrepreneurs who migrated to Manchester and 885 entrepreneurs whose ancestors moved to Singapore. With the dramatic change in national cultures associated with such migration, the study sought to identify the emergence of differences over time in the business behaviour and adherence to traditional family values. The main finding of...

  6. A survey of health problems of Nepalese female migrants workers in the Middle-East and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Gurung, Manju; Wasti, Sharada P

    2018-01-18

    Nepal is a key supplier of labour for countries in the Middle East, India and Malaysia. As many more men than women leave Nepal to work abroad, female migrant workers are a minority and very much under-researched. The aim of the study was to explore the health problems of female Nepalese migrants working in the Middle-East and Malaysia. The study was conducted among 1010 women who were registered as migrant returnees at an organisation called Pourakhi Nepal. Secondary data were extracted from the records of the organisation covering the five-year period of July 2009 to July 2014. The 1010 participants were aged 14 to 51 with a median age of 31 (IQR: 38-25) years. A quarter of respondents (24%) reported having experienced health problems while in the country of employment. Fever, severe illness and accidents were the most common health problems reported. Working for unlimited periods of time and not being able to change one's place of work were independently associated with a greater likelihood of health problems. Logistic regression shows that migrant women who are illiterate [OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.38, p = 0.042], who had changed their workplace [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.32, p = 0.007], who worked unlimited periods of time [OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.44 to 1.93, p = 0.020], had been severely maltreated or tortured in the workplace [OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.92, p = 0.010], were not being paid on time [OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.60 to 3.55, p = 0.038] and migrant women who had family problems at home [OR = 3.48, CI 95%: 1.22 to 9.98, p = 0.020] were significantly associated with health problems in their host country in the Middle East. Female migrant workers face various work-related health risks, which are often related to exploitation. The Government of Nepal should initiate awareness campaigns about health risks and rights in relation to health care services in the host countries. Recruiting agencies

  7. The views of migrant health workers living in Austria and Belgium on return migration to sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Annelien; Wojczewski, Silvia; Taylor, Katherine; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim

    2016-06-30

    The negative consequences of the brain drain of sub-Saharan African health workers for source countries are well documented and include understaffed facilities, decreased standards of care and higher workloads. However, studies suggest that, if migrated health workers eventually return to their home countries, this may lead to beneficial effects following the transfer of their acquired skills and knowledge (brain gain). The present study aims to explore the factors influencing the intentions for return migration of sub-Saharan African health workers who emigrated to Austria and Belgium, and gain further insight into the potential of circular migration. Semi-structured interviews with 27 sub-Saharan African health workers in Belgium and Austria were conducted. As mentioned by the respondents, the main barriers for returning were family, structural crises in the source country, and insecurity. These barriers overrule the perceived drivers, which were nearly all pull factors and emotion driven. Despite the fact that only a minority plans to return permanently, many wish to return regularly to work in the healthcare sector or to contribute to the development of their source country. As long as safety and structural stability cannot be guaranteed in source countries, the number of return migrants is likely to remain low. National governments and regional organizations could play a role in facilitating the engagement of migrant health workers in the development of the healthcare system in source countries.

  8. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sumedh; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Hui; You, Hua; Fan, Hong; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Qungang; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG) of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  9. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Bele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  10. Analysis of the Impact of the Flow of Migrant Workers on Regional Economy: Based on the Thought about the Promotion of Jiangxi Regional Economic Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor resource is the necessary productive factor in regional economic development, and one of important indexes to evaluate regional economic competitiveness. The great economic achievement brought by the 30-year reform and opening up of China is due to the fact that China brought the backward advantage of “demographic dividend” into play, promoted the fast development of industrialization and urbanization, and became the second largest economy in the world. The entity of “demographic dividend” is the non-agricultural migrant population, i.e., migrant workers. The transfer employment of migrant workers has typical regional liquidity, and the imbalance of regional economy causes the flow of many migrant workers. In order to achieve harmonious development and coordinated development, underdeveloped areas must understand the character and regulation, adopt positive industrial policy and supportive policy, guide the reasonable flow of migrant workers, and realize the transfer of local employment and citizenization of migrant workers, which can enhance regional economic competitiveness

  11. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  12. Social care as first work experience in England: a secondary analysis of the profile of a national sample of migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers are increasingly important to the care sector in England as well as in other developed countries. The profile of migrants is likely to continue changing due to reforms in immigration policy and legislation limiting the range of jobs open to migrants from non-EU countries while facilitating migration from the new European Union accession countries. This article reports on detailed secondary analysis of newly available data on the characteristics of migrants working in the care sector as their first job. The analysis was undertaken in 2009 as part of research investigating the contribution made by migrant care workers in England. The sample was identified from the new National Minimum Data Set for Social Care (NMDSSC), which is completed by social care employers in England. Workers whose ethnicity was identified as not White British and who had their previous job abroad were used as a proxy of recent migrants. The analysis shows that this group of workers has a significantly different profile compared with other workers. Recent migrants in the care sector were significantly younger and held higher qualifications relevant to social care; however, there were no significant gender differences. They were also significantly concentrated in the private and voluntary sectors and in direct care work. There were variations between recent migrants' ethnicity and their job roles, with Asian workers more prevalent in senior care positions. These findings have a number of possible implications for social care workforce and providers, particularly within the current context of changing migration rules and social care reforms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.

  14. Association between adverse mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle in rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Gao, Jian; Wang, Tianhao; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2017-02-01

    The association between adverse mental health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in migrant workers remains poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted regarding health-related behaviors in 5484 migrants (51.3% males) employed in Shanghai for at least 6 months. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess migrant mental health status. Logistic regression was applied to determine the contribution of adverse mental health to lifestyle behaviors. Of the 5484 migrants, 21.1% had potential mental health problems and 63.1% had an unhealthy lifestyle. The three most prevalent mental disorders were obsessions-compulsions (O-C; 13.7%; 751/5484), interpersonal sensitivity (I-S; 11.0%; 603/5484), and hostility (HOS; 10.8%; 590/5484). Compared with the male participants, the female participants exhibited significantly increased mean scores for phobic anxiety (PHOB) and anxiety (ANX) (p unhealthy lifestyle score was significantly associated with all nine subscales of the SCL-90-R. The male participants with psychoticism [PSY; odds ratio (OR) = 4.908, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.474-9.735], ANX (OR = 4.022, 95% CI 2.151-7.518), or depression (DEP; OR = 3.378, 95% CI 2.079-5.487) were the most likely to have an unhealthy lifestyle. In the female participants, an unhealthy lifestyle was most associated with HOS (OR = 2.868, 95% CI 2.155-3.819), PSY (OR = 2.783, 95% CI 1.870-4.141), or DEP (OR = 2.650, 95% CI 1.960-3.582). Lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with mental health in rural-to-urban migrant workers, and these findings indicate the need to develop targeted psychological interventions to foster healthy lifestyles in migrants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  16. Interstate Migrant Education Task Force: Migrant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Because ill-clothed, sick, or hungry migrant children learn poorly, the Task Force has emphasized the migrant health situation in 1979. Migrant workers have a 33% shorter life expectancy, a 25% higher infant mortality rate, and a 25% higher death rate from tuberculosis and other communicable diseases than the national average. Common among…

  17. Backyard Living – Integrative Policies Towards Migrant Workers: Housing Microfinance in Greater Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Noltze

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban agglomeration of the Vietnamese southeast industrial driving force Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC has become the most outstanding benefi ciary of the remarkable economic growth and foreign investments in the Vietnamese economy since the start of a comprehensive economic reform process in the mid 1980s. The notable development towards the foremost economic centre led to a high influx of migrant workers. In the course of an ongoing expansion process towards a megacity of tomorrow, the defi cient provision of adequate housing remains one of the most challenging problems of rural migrants in Greater HCMC. However, a future-oriented sustainable megacity concept is strongly dependent on the successful integration of migrants into the urban society. Within this context, the housing market is considered to be a key aspect of comprehensive urban planning. Hereby, housing microfinance (HMF will be presented as an alternative housing finance scheme meeting the demand of a noteworthy number of poor and low-income people. Thereby HMF can do both: focus on specifi c needs of migrants with respect to their current life situation and enhance its outreach to a potential target group.

  18. Migration and self-esteem: a qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored educational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed that students encountered a variety of challenges in their new school environment including adaptation, language, low socioeconomic background, peer relations, discrimination, and bullying. These challenges seemed to have a direct or indirect influence on the educational experiences of migrant girls, undermining their self-esteem in multiple and complex ways.

  19. Child Maltreatment among U.S. East Coast Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Oscar W., III; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Responses of 1,328 educational personnel in 14 states along the Atlantic coastal region who work with migrant children indicated that the incidence of child abuse among migrant families was perceived to be substantially higher than for the general population or nonmigrant families of the same socioeconomic status. (Author/DB)

  20. Promoting the Recognition and Protection of the Rights of All Migrants Using a Soft-Law International Migrants Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Kysel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rights and movement of people crossing international borders remain inadequately governed and incompletely protected by a fragmented patchwork of institutions and norms. In recent years, debates regarding migration law and practice globally have been focused on subcategories of migrants, such as refugees, or on particular migration contexts, such as migration as a result of crisis or climate change. In response, a transnational initiative housed at the Georgetown University Law Center has drafted a soft-law bill of rights — the International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR — that seeks to elaborate the law protecting all migrants, regardless of the cause of their movement across an international border. The bill draws its content from human rights, refugee, and labor law, among other areas, and is drafted to be a comprehensive and declarative tool that articulates a core set of rights to protect migrants and to apply in the migration context.This article articulates how such a tool could be used to promote the recognition and protection of the rights of all migrants, in law and in practice. It argues that a soft-law bill of rights could be leveraged to fill significant gaps and promote an improved normative and institutional infrastructure that better protects all migrants worldwide. Section I provides a brief overview of the gap that a soft-law bill of rights can address. Section II provides a brief overview of the history and content of the bill of rights and IMBR Initiative. Section III describes, specifically, how making use of a soft-law bill of rights stands to improve the recognition and protection of fundamental rights that protect all migrants — and how soft law can help fill specific protection gaps.

  1. Does migration ‘pay off’ for foreign-born migrant health workers? : An exploratory analysis using the global WageIndicator dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, D.H.; Steinmetz, S.; Tijdens, K.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against

  2. Understanding malaria treatment-seeking preferences within the public sector amongst mobile/migrant workers in a malaria elimination scenario: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ye Naung; Maung, Thae Maung; Wai, Khin Thet; Oo, Tin; Thi, Aung; Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2017-11-13

    Migration flows and the emerging resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) create programmatic challenges to meeting the AD 2030 malaria elimination target in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) targeted migrant workers based mainly on the stability of their worksites (categories 1: permanent work-setting; categories 2 and 3: less stable work-settings). This study aims to assess the migration patterns, malaria treatment-seeking preferences, and challenges encountered by mobile/migrant workers at remote sites in a malaria-elimination setting. A mixed-methods explanatory sequential study retrospectively analysed the secondary data acquired through migrant mapping surveys (2013-2015) in six endemic regions (n = 9603). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to ascertain the contributing factors. A qualitative strand (2016-2017) was added by conducting five focus-group discussions (n = 50) and five in-depth interviews with migrant workers from less stable worksites in Shwegyin Township, Bago Region. The contiguous approach was used to integrate quantitative and qualitative findings. Among others, migrant workers from Bago Region were significantly more likely to report the duration of stay ≥ 12 months (63% vs. 49%) and high seasonal mobility (40% vs. 35%). Particularly in less stable settings, a very low proportion of migrant workers (17%) preferred to seek malaria treatment from the public sector and was significantly influenced by the worksite stability (adjusted OR = 1.4 and 2.3, respectively for categories 2 and 1); longer duration of stay (adjusted OR = 3.5); and adjusted OR malaria messages, knowledge of malaria symptoms and awareness of means of malaria diagnosis. Qualitative data further elucidated their preference for the informal healthcare sector, due to convenience, trust and good relations, and put migrant workers at risk of substandard care. Moreover, the

  3. [Analysis of use of personal protective equipment among rural-to-urban migrant workers in small and medium enterprises in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi; Lu, Liming; Rao, Zhanhong; Han, Lu; Shi, Jingrong; Ling, Li

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the current supply and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among rural-to-urban migrant workers in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, China and the influential factors for the use of PPE, and to provide a basis for better occupational health services and ensuring the health of migrant workers. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 856 migrant workers from 27 SMEs in Zhongshan and Shenzhen, and face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in these subjects. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Of all migrant workers, 38.67%were supplied with free PPE by the factory, and this rate varied across industries (furniture industry: 45.81%; electronic industry: 31.46%) and SMEs (medium enterprises: 42.13%; small enterprises: 39.20%; micro enterprises: 22.16%); 22.43% insisted on the use of PPE. The logistic regression analysis showed that factors associated with the use of PPE included sex, age, awareness of occupational health knowledge, and the size of enterprise. The rates of supply and use of PPE among migrant workers are low. The larger the enterprise, the better the supply of PPE. Male gender, being elder, and high occupational health knowledge score were favorable factors for the use of PPE, while small enterprise size was the unfavorable factor for the use of PPE.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  5. ‘Tied Visas’ and Inadequate Labour Protections: A formula for abuse and exploitation of migrant domestic workers in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Demetriou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the link between restrictive immigration schemes, specifically ‘tied visas’ and the selective application of labour laws, with exploitation of workers. It focuses on the situation of migrant domestic workers, who accompany their employers to the United Kingdom (UK and are exposed to both an excessively restrictive visa regime, introduced in April 2012, and limited labour protections. The immigration status of these workers is currently tied to a named employer, a restriction that traps workers into exploitative conditions, often amounting to forced labour, servitude or slavery. Additionally, current UK labour laws are either not enforced or not applicable to domestic workers. The article concludes that unless the current immigration regime is abolished and comprehensive labour law protections are extended to migrant domestic workers, exploitation will continue.

  6. The protective functions of relationships, social support and self-esteem in the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chang, Yingli; He, Xuesong; Wu, Qiaobing

    2010-03-01

    At present, China has approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children accompanying their parents in relocating to the cities. However, very little is known about them. Using a resilience framework, the present study attempted to examine the psychosocial factors affecting their life satisfaction in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 migrant children were recruited from 10 schools in Shanghai through a cross-sectional survey design using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The questionnaire included measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, social support, relationships at school and the parent-child and peer relationships. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the relative effects of different relationship domains, self-esteem and social support on the life satisfaction of migrant children. The results suggested that parent-child and peer relationships significantly influenced the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers. Relationships in school did not exert such effect. Both social support and self-esteem had significant effects on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Relationship factors, social support and self-esteem are critical factors affecting the life satisfaction of migrant children. The findings and implications were discussed in relation to developmental and migration-related issues and the social contexts of the lives of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

  7. Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Occupationally Exposed Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.T.; Farag, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased

  8. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  9. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  10. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  11. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  12. Risk of mental health and nutritional problems for left-behind children of international labor migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramage, Kolitha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Peiris, Sharika; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-03-06

    One-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International Labor Migrants (ILM), mainly as domestic maids or low-skilled laborers. Little is known about the impact their migration has on the health status of the children they 'leave behind'. This national study explored associations between the health status of 'left-behind' children of ILM's with those from comparative non-migrant families. A cross-sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to survey a total of 820 children matched for both age and sex. Socio-demographic and health status data were derived using standardized pre-validated instruments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in mental health outcomes between children of migrant vs. non-migrant families. Two in every five left-behind children were shown to have mental disorders [95%CI: 37.4-49.2, p migration of labour, where remittances from ILM's remain as the single highest contributor to the economy. These findings may be relevant for other labour 'sending countries' in Asia relying on contractual labor migration for economic gain. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal health impacts on the children left-behind.

  13. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-10-01

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  14. The effects of migrant remittances on population–environment dynamics in migrant origin areas: international migration, fertility, and consumption in highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carr, David

    2010-01-01

    International migration impacts origin regions in many ways. As examples, remittances from distant migrants may alter consumption patterns within sending communities, while exposure to different cultural norms may alter other behaviors. This paper combines these insights to offer a unique lens on migration’s environmental impact. From an environmental perspective, we ask the following question: is the likely rise in consumption brought about by remittances counterbalanced by a reduction in fertility in migrant households following exposure to lower fertility cultures? Based on ethnographic case studies in two western highland Guatemalan communities, we argue that the near-term rise in consumption due to remittances is not counterbalanced by rapid decline in migrant household fertility. However, over time, the environmental cost of consumption may be mitigated at the community level through diffusion of contraception and family planning norms yielding lower family size. PMID:21258636

  15. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S.; Shannon, K.; Li, J.; Lee, Y.; Chettiar, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Kr?si, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Methods Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vanco...

  16. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The clash of rural-urban migrants and real estate investors on Phnom Penh's housing market: Prospects for garment workers

    OpenAIRE

    Buttmann, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Housing markets of large cities around the world, particularly in so-called developing and emerging countries, are currently experiencing a clash: On the one hand, large numbers of labour migrants arrive from rural areas and need cheap rental housing. On the other hand, international real estate investment, particularly in the upper market segment, is strong. The resulting mismatch of housing demand and supply increases segregation, marginalises the vulnerable and leads to massive urban devel...

  18. Implementation evaluation of a culturally competent eye injury prevention program for citrus workers in a Florida migrant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Monaghan, Paul; Contreras, Ricardo B; August, Euna; Baldwin, Julie A; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    The Partnership for Citrus Worker Health (PCWH) is a coalition that connects academic institutions, public health agencies, industry and community-based organizations for implementation of an eye safety pilot project with citrus workers using the Camp Health Aide (CHA) model. This project was an implementation evaluation of an eye safety curriculum using modeling and peer-to-peer education among Mexican migrant citrus workers in a southwest Florida community to increase positive perceptions toward the use of safety eyewear and reduce occupational eye injuries. CHAs have been employed and trained in eye safety and health during harvesting seasons since 2004. Field observations, focus group interviews, and written questionnaires assessed program implementation and initial outcomes. There was an increase in positive perceptions toward use of safety eyewear between 2004 and 2005. Evaluation of training suggested ways to improve the curriculum. The modest literacy level of the CHAs necessitated some redesign of the curriculum and its implementation (e.g., introduction of and more reliance on use of training posters). PCWH benefited by extensive documentation of the training and supervision, a pilot project that demonstrated the potential effectiveness of CHAs, and having a well-defined target population of citrus workers (n = 427). Future research can rigorously test the effectiveness of CHAs in reducing eye injuries among citrus workers.

  19. Public Health Services Utilization and Its Determinants among Internal Migrants in China: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingya; Lin, Senlin; Liang, Di; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Donglan; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2017-09-01

    There have been obstacles for internal migrants in China in accessing local public health services for some time. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, and demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Our results showed that internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The years of living in the city of residence were positively associated with the utilization of public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces significantly reduced the probability of using health records (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on non-communicable diseases (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through the Internet (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). This study concludes that public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsidies. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.

  20. Cervical cancer screening in rural South Africa among HIV-infected migrant farm workers and sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omara Afzal

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate successful integration of cervical cancer screening using VIA for HIV+ farm workers and sex workers into an existing HIV treatment and prevention clinic in rural South Africa, addressing and treating abnormal results promptly.

  1. Pridnestrovian Migrant Workers in the Country of the Recipient: Quality of Life and Employment Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga А. Volkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article pays the attention to the role of Pridnestrovian migrants at the Russian labor market regarding the life’s quality, social interaction and employment. Authors think that migration policy of native and welcoming sides should be based on pragmatic approach when migrants’ labor should promote the development of human capital. Positive prerequisites of such process are social, demographic, professional, linguistic and cultural characteristics of Pridnestrovian migrants. The article contains the results of the survey of migrants (n=270, living in all regions of Pridnestrovie, conducted by the employees of the Pridnestrovie State University named after T.G. Shevchenko. The sample is formed based on heterogeneity of respondents and includes such criteria as gender, age, level of education, ethnicity and citizenship. The main emphasis in the research has been done on the study of the relationship of the following indicators: goals, quality of life, social relationships, and employment.

  2. International Migrant Remittance and Productivity Growth in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression results showed that remittance is significantly and negatively related to productivity in Ghana. The study revealed that foreign direct investment, official development assistance and international trade are positively related to productivity. It is recommended that government should make the business environment ...

  3. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  4. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmije Topxhiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national and international institutions and current published material in this regard. Researched material and published data on the role of remittances in Kosovo's economic development lead to the conclusion that migration and remittances will continue to be an important part of the economic, political and social development of Kosovo.

  5. Cervical cancer screening in rural South Africa among HIV-infected migrant farm workers and sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Omara; Lieber, Molly; Dottino, Peter; Beddoe, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    At an HIV clinic in the Limpopo province of South Africa, chart reviews revealed long delays in addressing abnormal Pap smears, difficulty in referrals, poor quality and lost results, and increasing cases of cervical cancer. To address these barriers, a "see and treat" approach to screening was proposed. The objective was to integrate this method into current HIV care offered by local providers and to obtain demographic and risk factor data for use in future educational and intervention programs in the region. A cross sectional study of HIV farm workers and at-risk sex workers attending an HIV clinic was performed with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Those with positive screens were offered cryotherapy. Clinic charts were reviewed retrospectively for Pap smear results for the previous year at the time of program initiation and at 12 and 18 months post-program. A total of 403 participants consented and underwent screening with VIA (306 Farm workers and 97 sex workers participated). 83.9% of participants (32.9% sex workers and 100% farm workers) were HIV +. VIA was positive in 30.5% of participants, necessitating cryotherapy. There was no significant difference in VIA positivity between HIV + farm workers and sex workers. There was a positive correlation between Pap smears and VIAs results. We demonstrate successful integration of cervical cancer screening using VIA for HIV + farm workers and sex workers into an existing HIV treatment and prevention clinic in rural South Africa, addressing and treating abnormal results promptly.

  6. Relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among rural-to-urban migrant workers in Dongguan, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Yang, Hui; Xu, Xiujuan; Yun, Lin; Chen, Ruoling; Chen, Yuting; Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Liu, Linhua; Liang, Hairong; Zhuang, Yali; Hong, Liecheng; Chen, Ling; Yang, Jinping; Tang, Huanwen

    2016-08-17

    In China, there have been an increasing number of migrant workers from rural to urban areas, and migrant workers have the highest incidence of occupational diseases. However, few studies have examined the impact of occupational stress on job burnout in these migrant workers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among migrant workers. This study used a cross-sectional survey. This investigation was conducted in Dongguan city, Guangdong Province, China. 3806 migrant workers, aged 18-60 years, were randomly selected using multistage sampling procedures. Multistage sampling procedures were used to examine demographic characteristics, behaviour customs and job-related data. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression models were constructed to explore the relationship between occupational stress and burnout. Demographics, behaviour customs and job-related characteristics significantly affected on burnout. After adjusting for the control variable, a high level of emotional exhaustion was associated with high role overload, high role insufficiency, high role boundary, high physical environment, high psychological strain, high physical strain, low role ambiguity, low responsibility and low vocational strain. A high level of depersonalisation was associated with high role overload, high role ambiguity, high role boundary, high interpersonal strain, high recreation, low physical environment and low social support. A low level of personal accomplishment was associated with high role boundary, high role insufficiency, low responsibility, low social support, low physical environment, low self-care and low interpersonal strain. Compared to the personal resources, the job strain and personal strain were more likely to explain the burnout of rural-to-urban migrant workers in our study. The migrant workers have increased job burnouts in relation to occupational stress. Relieving occupational stress and maintaining

  7. Reasons for self-medication and perceptions of risk among Mexican migrant farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Stewart, Analisia

    2012-08-01

    Although the frequency of self-medication among Mexican migrants has been well-documented in the public health literature, the multiple reasons for this practice are poorly understood. Most studies point to migrants' cultural preferences for Mexican medications, their prior experiences in countries where antibiotics are loosely regulated, and their lack of access to health care as the primary factors behind their self-medication. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews with 23 Mexican migrants in a farm working community in the interior of California, we argue that occupational vulnerability is an equally important factor that encourages self-medication. All 23 of our interviewees reported having engaged in some degree of self-medication, notable in this location 8 h from the US-Mexico border. Among interviewees, occupational vulnerability represented an even more important factor influencing self-medication than lack of health insurance or lack of legal documentation. While interviewees did express a preference for Mexican medications as more potent and effective, this did not necessarily translate to a preference for using them without a doctor's supervision. Finally, we show that rather than remaining unaware of the risks of following this custom "transported from Latin America", Mexican migrants devised an elaborate hierarchy of resort of the safest self-medication practices to follow.

  8. Anakuran: A Proposed Path to Education for Children of Migrant Construction Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Satarupa Dutta

    2014-01-01

    "If you cannot go to school, the school comes to you." Project Anakuran (the Hindi word for germination) is an innovative design which seeks to provide formal education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the children of migrant construction labourers based at medium and large construction sites in urban locales.…

  9. Does migration 'pay off' for foreign-born migrant health workers? An exploratory analysis using the global WageIndicator dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Daniel H; Steinmetz, Stephanie; Tijdens, Kea G

    2016-06-24

    This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against in their destination countries? Of the unweighted data collected in 2006-2014 from health workers aged 15-64 in paid employment, 7.9 % were on migrants (N = 44,394; 36 countries). To answer RQ1, binary logistic regression models were applied to the full sample. To answer RQ2, binary logistic regression was used to compare data on migrants with that on native respondents from the same source countries, a condition met by only four African countries (N = 890) and five Latin American countries (N = 6356). To answer RQ3, a multilevel analysis was applied to the full sample to take into account the nested structure of the data (N = 33,765 individual observations nested within 31 countries). RQ1: 57 % migrated to a country where the same language is spoken, 33 % migrated to neighbouring countries and 21 % migrated to former colonizing countries. Women and nurses migrated to neighbouring countries, nurses and older and highly educated workers to former colonizing countries and highly educated health workers and medical doctors to countries that have a language match. RQ2: In the African countries, nurses more often out-migrated compared to other health workers; in the Latin American countries, this is the case for doctors. Out-migrated health workers earn more and work fewer hours than comparable workers in source countries, but only Latin American health workers reported a higher level of life satisfaction. RQ3: We did not detect discrimination against migrants with respect to wages and occupational status. However, there seems to be a small wage premium for the group of migrants in other healthcare occupations. Except doctors, migrant health workers reported a lower level

  10. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Vocational Education for Chinese Migrant Workers of New Generation--Reflection from a Special Investigation in F City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuoxin, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The research has chosen some migrant workers of new generation from different fields in F City to investigate their current situation of vocational education. The research reveals that their education is helpful, mainly in employment, work and the methods of mentorship and further study organized by employers. The research also reveals its…

  12. Income-related health inequality of migrant workers in China and its decomposition: An analysis based on the 2012 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenyi Shao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: It is generally known that there is an unequal socioeconomic distribution of migrant worker health in China. In order to reduce the health inequality, the government should make a substantial effort to strengthen policy implementation in improving the income distribution for vulnerable groups. After this investigation, it is apparent that the findings we have made warrant further investigation.

  13. The Emergence of Informal Institutions among Internal Migrants in Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumin Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s dramatic economic development and urbanisation have led to an increase in its number of internal migrants. As of 2013, this group accounted for more than 20 per cent of the country’s population, and approximately 70 per cent of people in this group are working in the informal economy. This paper pays special attention to migrant-traders in the informal sector and the strategies they use in Shanghai. Migrants are doubly marginalised by the hukou (户口 and danwei (单位 systems in the megacity and have only limited access to social welfare. It is argued that the informal strategies of these marginalised actors develop in related patterns of social relationships and institutional constraints. Such strategies create new forms of informal institutions that are justified and gain legitimacy when countering unequal and hierarchical formal institutions and social arrangements. This paper empirically explores how informal institutions can act in parallel with or diverge from formal institutions, and how they might influence formal institutions in the long term.

  14. Prevalence of chest symptoms amongst brick kiln migrant workers and care seeking behaviour: a study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena E; Charles, Niruparani; Watson, Basilea; Chandrasekaran, V; Senthil Kumar, R; Dhanalakshmi, A; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been key principles of TB control. However, this can be a challenge with 'hard to reach' populations such as migrants. Brick kiln workers are one such group of migrants who are exposed to smoke, heat and dust from brick kilns which are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, South India, from August 2011 to June 2012. A total of 4002 individuals from 55 brick kiln chambers were interviewed to determine the prevalence of chest symptoms and care seeking behaviour patterns. Three hundred and seventy-seven (9.4%) chest symptomatics were identified. The most significant variables associated with chest symptoms were illiteracy, alcohol abuse and heavy smoking. Of the chest symptomatics identified, 50.4% took action to get relief from their symptoms. The duration of over 6-month stay in the chamber was significantly associated with taking action (OR, 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3). The TB control programme needs to further explore how to extend its services to such 'hard to reach' groups. Active case finding to ensure early diagnosis and treatment initiation amongst such groups needs consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwauche, C A; Akani, C I

    2006-06-01

    A cross--sectional behavioural survey undertaken amongst migrant oil-workers of an oil exploration outfit operating in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the interplay of migrancy, high-risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission. A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high - risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with a control cohort of 200. The prevalence of high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) amongst the migrant oil workers was found to be 7.7% while low-risk sexual behaviour (LRSB) was 92.3%. There was no record of HRSB in the control group. We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of HRSB amongst the migrant oil workers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual partners with 6 (26.1%). Furthermore, majority of these individuals 19 (82.6%) were above the age of 35 years. The index of condom-use and acceptance was high. Here 14 (60.9%) found condom-use convenient while 13 (56.5%) regularly used the condom. This study confirms the existence of HRSB among migrant oil workers in the Niger delta. It is therefore advisable to focus interventionist and prevention programmes on this group which appear to be pivotal in the transmission and spread of HIV/AIDS in this environment.

  16. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2005-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...

  17. Performance, labour flexibility and migrant workers in hotels: An establishment and departmental level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yaduma, N; Williams, A; Lockwood, A; Park, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. This paper analyses flexible working, and the employment of migrants, as determinants of performance in hotels, utilising a highly disaggregated data set of actual hours worked and outputs, on a monthly basis, over an 8 year period for 25 establishments within a single firm. It examines not only inter-establishment, but also intra-establishment (departmental) variations in performance. The analysis also systematically compares the findings based on financial versus physical measures, ...

  18. THE BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES STRATEGY TOWARDS THE TKI (INDONESIAN MIGRANT WORKERS) MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Haeryip; Yaakob, Moh. Yuhazri; Safarudin, Mochamad

    2015-01-01

    The business prospects and opportunities of the migrant workers’ (TKI) market are still wide open. This is shown by the year to year remittances incremental of TKI thatcorresponds to the beneficial opportunity of the business players to optimize their exploration of this market. In reality, the current efforts and strategy in this exploration,however, are still not utilised effectively in terms of competitive advantage. Therefore the initiative strategy towards product differentiation and inn...

  19. Employers' paradoxical views about temporary foreign migrant workers' health: a qualitative study in rural farms in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-09-10

    The province of Ontario hosts nearly a half of Canada's temporary foreign migrant farm workers (MFWs). Despite the essential role played by MFWs in the economic prosperity of the region, a growing body of research suggests that the workers' occupational safety and health are substandard, and often neglected by employers. This study thus explores farm owners' perceptions about MFWs occupational safety and general health, and their attitudes towards health promotion for their employees. Using modified grounded theory approach, we collected data through in-depth individual interviews with farm owners employing MFWs in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed following three steps (open, axial, and selective coding) to identify thematic patterns and relationships. Nine employers or their representatives were interviewed. Four major overarching categories were identified: employers' dependence on MFWs; their fragmented view of occupational safety and health; their blurring of the boundaries between the work and personal lives of the MFWs on their farms; and their reluctance to implement health promotion programs. The interaction of these categories suggests the complex social processes through which employers come to hold these paradoxical attitudes towards workers' safety and health. There is a fundamental contradiction between what employers considered public versus personal. Despite employers' preference to separate MFWs' workplace safety from personal health issues, due to the fact that workers live within their employers' property, workers' private life becomes public making their personal health a business-related concern. Farmers' conflicting views, combined with a lack of support from governing bodies, hold back timely implementation of health promotion activities in the workplace. In order to address the needs of MFWs in a more integrated manner, an ecological view of health, which includes the social and psychological determinants of health, by employers

  20. The inverse primary care law in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative study of the views of migrant health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Wojczewski, Silvia; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Poppe, Annelien; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Peersman, Wim; Willcox, Merlin; Derese, Anselme; Mant, David

    2014-06-01

    Many low-income and middle-income countries globally are now pursuing ambitious plans for universal primary care, but are failing to deliver adequate care quality because of intractable human resource problems. To understand why migrant nurses and doctors from sub-Saharan Africa did not wish to take up available posts in primary and first-contact care in their home countries. Qualitative study of migrant health workers to Europe (UK, Belgium, and Austria) or southern Africa (Botswana and South Africa) from sub-Saharan Africa. Semi-structured interviews with 66 health workers (24 nurses and 42 doctors) from 18 countries between July 2011 and April 2012. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a framework approach. The reasons given for choosing not to work in primary care were grouped into three main analytic streams: poor working environment, difficult living experiences, and poor career path. Responders described a lack of basic medicines and equipment, an unmanageable workload, and lack of professional support. Many had concerns about personal security, living conditions (such as education for children), and poor income. Primary care was seen as lower status than hospital medicine, with lack of specialist training opportunities and more exposure to corruption. Clinicians are reluctant to work in the conditions they currently experience in primary care in sub-Saharan Africa and these conditions tend to get worse as poverty and need for primary care increases. This inverse primary care law undermines achievement of universal health coverage. Policy experience from countries outside Africa shows that it is not immutable. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  1. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  2. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  3. Health Services Use and HIV Prevalence Among Migrant and National Female Sex Workers in Portugal: Are We Providing the Services Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Pingarilho, Marta; Simões, Daniel; Mendão, Luís

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted with 853 female sex workers (FSW) aimed to examine differences in use of HIV health services, testing and prevalence among migrant and national FSW. A quarter of undocumented FSW had never used National Health Service (NHS) and 15 % never tested for HIV, significantly more than nationals (p migrants (p migrants were unaware of their positive serostatus compared to nationals. Ever had HIV testing was less likely among undocumented, who never used the NHS and who didn't know where to go if suspected being HIV-infected. Promoting early diagnosis with linkage to care among migrant FSW should be supported, while developing health services better tailored to their needs. Una encuesta transversal biocomportamental fue realizada con una muestra de 853 trabajadoras sexuales (TS) con el objetivo de examinar diferencias en el uso de servicios de salud del VIH, test y prevalencia entre TS migrantes y nacionales. Un cuarto de las TS indocumentadas nunca utilizaron el Servicio Nacional de Salud (SNS) y el 15 % nunca fueron testadas respecto al VIH, porcentajes significativamente superiores a las observadas para las nacionales (p migrantes documentadas y 0.8 % de las indocumentadas (p migrantes desconocía su serostatus positivo en comparación con las nacionales. El test del VIH fue menos frecuente entre las indocumentadas, quien nunca utilizó el SNS y quien no sabía dónde recurrir si sospechaba estar infectada por el VIH. Promover un diagnóstico precoz en conexión con los cuidados en TS migrantes debe ser respaldado mientras se desarrollan servicios de salud mejor adaptados a sus necesidades.

  4. Do transportation subsidies and living allowances improve tuberculosis control outcomes among internal migrants in urban Shanghai, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Laiwa; Ma, Weiping; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xin; Mei, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in internal migrants is one of three threats for TB control in China. To address this threat, a project was launched in eight of the 19 districts of Shanghai in 2007 to provide transportation subsidies and living allowances for all migrant TB cases. This study aims to determine if this project contributed to improved TB control outcomes among migrants in urban Shanghai. This was a community intervention study. The data were derived from the TB Management Information System in three project districts and three non-project districts in Shanghai between 2006 and 2010. The impact of the project was estimated in a difference-in-difference (DID) analysis framework, and a multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 1872 pulmonary TB (PTB) cases in internal migrants were included in the study. The treatment success rate (TSR) for migrant smear-positive cases in project districts increased from 59.9% in 2006 to 87.6% in 2010 (P < 0.001). The crude DID improvement of TSR was 18.9%. There was an increased probability of TSR in the project group before and after the project intervention period (coefficient = 1.156, odds ratio = 3.178, 95% confidence interval: 1.305-7.736, P = 0.011). The study showed the project could improve treatment success in migrant PTB cases. This was a short-term programme using special financial subsidies for all migrant PTB cases. It is recommended that project funds be continuously invested by governments with particular focus on the more vulnerable PTB cases among migrants.

  5. Do transportation subsidies and living allowances improve tuberculosis control outcomes among internal migrants in urban Shanghai, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB in internal migrants is one of three threats for TB control in China. To address this threat, a project was launched in eight of the 19 districts of Shanghai in 2007 to provide transportation subsidies and living allowances for all migrant TB cases. This study aims to determine if this project contributed to improved TB control outcomes among migrants in urban Shanghai. Methods: This was a community intervention study. The data were derived from the TB Management Information System in three project districts and three non-project districts in Shanghai between 2006 and 2010. The impact of the project was estimated in a difference-in–difference (DID analysis framework, and a multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1872 pulmonary TB (PTB cases in internal migrants were included in the study. The treatment success rate (TSR for migrant smear-positive cases in project districts increased from 59.9% in 2006 to 87.6% in 2010 (P < 0.001. The crude DID improvement of TSR was 18.9%. There was an increased probability of TSR in the project group before and after the project intervention period (coefficient = 1.156, odds ratio = 3.178, 95% confidence interval: 1.305–7.736, P = 0.011. Conclusion: The study showed the project could improve treatment success in migrant PTB cases. This was a short-term programme using special financial subsidies for all migrant PTB cases. It is recommended that project funds be continuously invested by governments with particular focus on the more vulnerable PTB cases among migrants.

  6. Mobility dynamics of migrant workers and their socio-behavioral parameters related to malaria in Tier II, Artemisinin Resistance Containment Zone, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Thaung; Wai, Khin Thet; Oo, Tin; Sint, Nyan; Min, Tun; Myar, Shwe; Lon, Khin Nan; Naing, Myo Myint; Tun, Tet Toe; Maung, Nay Lin Yin; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Thimarsan, Krongthong; Wai, Tin Tin; Thaung, Lwin Ni Ni

    2015-09-14

    Areas with dynamic population movements are likely to be associated with higher levels of drug-resistant malaria. Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC) Project has been launching since 2012. One of its components includes enhancing strategic approaches for mobile/migrant populations. We aimed to ascertain the estimated population of mobile migrant workers and their families in terms of stability in work setting in townships classified as tier II (areas with significant inflows of people from areas with credible evidence of artemisinin resistance) for Artemisinin resistance; to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices related to prevention and control of malaria and to recommend cost-effective strategies in planning for prevention and control of malaria. A prospective cross-sectional study conducted between June to December 2013 that covered 1,899 migrant groups from 16 tier II townships of Bago Region, and Kayin and Kayah States. Trained data collectors used a pre-tested and subsequently modified questionnaire and interviewed 2,381 respondents. Data of migrant groups were analyzed and compared by category depending upon the stability of their work setting. The estimated population of the 1,899 migrant groups categorized into three on the nature of their work setting was 56,030. Bago region was the commonest reported source of origin of migrant groups as well as their transit. Malaria volunteers were mostly within the reach of category 1 migrant groups (43/66, 65.2 %). Less stable migrant groups in category 3 had limited access to malaria information (14.7 %) and malaria care providers (22.1 %), low level of awareness and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (46.6 and 38.8 %). Also, they had poor knowledge on malaria prevention on confirming suspected malaria and on using artemisinin combined therapy (ACT). Within two weeks prior to the survey, only 16.5 % of respondents in all categories combined reported acute undifferentiated fever

  7. UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES AMONG INTERNAL MIGRANTS IN HANOI AND ITS CORRELATION WITH HEALTH INSURANCE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Thi Kim; Vu, Lan Hoang; Schelling, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Economic transition ( DoiMoi ) in the 1980s in Viet Nam has led to internal migration, particularly rural-to-urban migration. Many studies suggested that there is a difference between non-migrants and migrants in using health care services. Current studies have mostly focused on migrants working in industrial zones (IZs) but migrants working in private small enterprises (PSEs) and seasonal migrants seem to be ignored. However, these two groups of migrants are more vulnerable in health care access than others because they usually work without labor contracts and have no health insurance. The study aims to compare the utilization of health care services and explore its correlated factors among these three groups. This cross-sectional study included 1800 non-migrants and migrants aged 18-55 who were selected through stratified sampling in Long Bien and Ba Dinh districts, Hanoi. These study sites consist of large industrial zones and many slums where most seasonal migrants live in. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on health service utilization in the last 6 months before the study. Utilization of heath care services was identified as "an ill person who goes to health care centers to seek any treatment (i.e. both private and public health care centers)". 644 of 1800 participants reported having a health problem in the last 6 months before the study. Among these 644 people, 335 people used health care services. The percentage of non-migrants using health care service was the highest (67.6%), followed by migrants working in IZ (53.7%), migrants working in PSE (44%), and seasonal migrants (42%). Multivariate logistic regression showed migrants, especially seasonal migrants and migrants working in PSE, were less likely to use health care services (OR=0.35, p=0.016 and 0.38, p= 0.004, respectively), compared to non-migrants. The study also found that having no health insurance was a risk factor of the utilization (OR=0.29, pincome were not related

  8. Migrant workers’ occupation and healthcare-seeking preferences for TB-suspicious symptoms and other health problems: a survey among immigrant workers in Songkhla province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Tinzar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants registered with the Ministry of Labour, their actual healthcare-seeking preferences and practices, as well as those of unregistered migrants, are not well documented. This study aimed to describe the patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviours of immigrant workers in Thailand, emphasizing healthcare practices for TB-suspicious symptoms, and to identify the role of occupation and other factors influencing these behaviours. Methods A survey was conducted among 614 immigrant factory workers (FW, rubber tappers (RT and construction workers (CW, in which information was sought on socio-demography, history of illness and related healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was employed in data analysis. Results Among all three occupations, self-medication was the most common way of dealing with illnesses, including the development of TB-suspicious symptoms, for which inappropriate drugs were used. Only for GI symptoms and obstetric problems did migrant workers commonly seek healthcare at modern healthcare facilities. For GI illness, FW preferred to attend the in-factory clinic and RT a private facility over government facilities owing to the quicker service and greater convenience. For RT, who were generally wealthier, the higher cost of private treatment was not a deterrent. CW preferentially chose a government healthcare facility for their GI problems. For obstetric problems, including delivery, government facilities were utilized by RT and CW, but most FW returned to their home country. After adjusting for confounding, having legal status in the country was associated with overall greater use of government facilities and being female and being married with use of both types of modern healthcare

  9. Towards healthy migration: an exploratory study on the resilience of migrant domestic workers from the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, A.J.; Ujano-Batangan, M.T.; Ignacio, R.; Wolffers, I.N.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health. Currently there is an emphasis in the literature on these workers' problems and vulnerability, while there is little insight into factors that positively affect their mental health. In this study, we describe a

  10. Health differences between male and female migrant agricultural workers in Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Nava, Martha Edilia; Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Luz María Angela

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de origen muscarínico y nicotínico, y el nivel de colinesterasa eritrocítica de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas, antes de la exposición a plaguicidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre enero y febrero de 2001 se realizó un estudio transversal con 488 trabajadores migrantes en el estado de Sinaloa, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se midió colinesterasa eritrocítica antes del inicio de sus labores en la temporada agrícola. Las difere...

  11. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Can the subaltern speak? Visibility of international migrants with communication and swallowing disabilities in the World Report on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Mershen

    2013-02-01

    Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshal (2013) argued that the speech-language pathology profession must be encouraged to consider novel ways to deliver equitable services to people with communication disorders. People with communication disorders include the world's 215 million international migrants who deserve unique commentary when considering disability in the world. Hence, this paper focuses on invisibility of international migrants with communication or swallowing disorders in the World Report on Disability. The analysis of people with disabilities is biased towards citizenship. What of those who are non-citizens? Three issues are highlighted: (a) the demographic construction of migrants; (b) management of communication disability within the migrant patient-speech language pathologist dyad; and (c) strategic re-prioritization of dysphagia as a disability. While relevant to all people, re-prioritization of dysphagia as an impairment (of eating or drinking) resulting in restricted mealtime participation is especially relevant to the healthcare of international migrants. This issue is discussed in terms of how safe or adequate eating and drinking ought to constitute essential discharge criteria in medical settings where discharge (often resulting in deportation) may be decided on one's ability to walk or talk.

  13. Indonesian Traditional Migrant Worker Profile Cross-border Kelurahan Sungai Raya Kecamatan Meral Kabupaten Karimun

    OpenAIRE

    Razif, M.; ", Jumiati

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is a developing country that is characterized by the development of cities in a fast tempo, this supported with high population growth and labor force. It also increases the demands of various jobs and so on. As experienced by the Karimun lack of jobs and the low level of wages / salary earned make them choose to work as Indonesian workers. Various types of job in other state including construction workers, farm workers, etc. Therefore, the problems in this research are: 1. How Tanj...

  14. Overcoming language barriers in community-based research with refugee and migrant populations: options for using bilingual workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan K; Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl R; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-04-12

    Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual workers was regarded as

  15. Overcoming language barriers in community-based research with refugee and migrant populations: options for using bilingual workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the challenges of working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups can lead to the exclusion of some communities from research studies, cost effective strategies to encourage access and promote cross-cultural linkages between researchers and ethnic minority participants are essential to ensure their views are heard and their health needs identified. Using bilingual research assistants is one means to achieve this. In a study exploring alcohol and other drug service use by migrant women in Western Australia, bilingual workers were used to assist with participant recruitment and administration of a survey to 268 women who spoke more than 40 different languages. Discussion Professional interpreters, bilingual students, bilingual overseas-trained health professionals and community sector bilingual workers were used throughout the research project. For the initial qualitative phase, professional interpreters were used to conduct interviews and focus group sessions, however scheduling conflicts, inflexibility, their inability to help with recruitment and the expense prompted exploration of alternative options for interview interpreting in the quantitative component of the study. Bilingual mature-age students on work placement and overseas-trained health professionals provided good entry into their different community networks and successfully recruited and interviewed participants, often in languages with limited interpreter access. Although both groups required training and supervision, overseas-trained health professionals often had existing research skills, as well as understanding of key issues such as confidentiality and referral processes. Strategies to minimise social desirability bias and the need to set boundaries were discussed during regular debriefing sessions. Having a number of workers recruiting participants also helped minimise the potential for selection bias. The practical and educational experience gained by the bilingual

  16. Association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation among unmarried female migrant workers in three metropolitan cities in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mengyun; Jiang, Xueqin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zezhou; Shen, Qiuming; Li, Rui; Cai, Yong

    2018-05-15

    Despite reports of mental health issues, suicidality has not been closely examined among the migrant population. The association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation is unknown among unmarried female migrant workers of reproductive age in China. This study aims to examine induced abortion and suicidality among the Chinese migrant population. We recruited 5115 unmarried female migrant workers during 2015 to 2016 from Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou, and collected demographic, psychosocial, reproductive and mental health information using structured questionnaires. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between lifetime induced abortion and suicidal ideation during the past year among the subjects. Overall, 8.2% of the subjects had suicidal ideation during the past year, and 15.5% of the subjects experienced induced abortion. Induced abortion was associated with nearly twice the odds of having past-year suicidal ideation (Odds ratio, OR = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.46, 2.44) after adjusting for age, education, years in the working place, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, daily internet use, attitude towards premarital pregnancy, multiple induced abortion, self-esteem, loneliness, depression, and anxiety disorders. The association was stronger in those aged > 25 (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.16, 5.28), with > 5 years of stay in the working place (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 2.02, 4.39), the non-anxiety group (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.74, 3.00), and the non-depression group (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 2.08, 4.15). Induced abortion was associated with increased odds for suicidal ideation among the unmarried female migrant workers in urban cities in China. More attention should be paid to the mental health of the population.

  17. RACIALIZED IN JUSTICE: THE LEGAL AND EXTRA-LEGAL STRUGGLES OF MIGRANT AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A Smith

    2013-10-01

    Une attention considérable a été accordée à la décision de la Cour suprême du Canada rendue en 2011 dans l’arrêt Fraser, qui portait sur le droit constitutionnel à la liberté d’association des travailleurs agricoles en Ontario. Bien que les interventions tendent à juste titre à critiquer la décision de la Cour rejetant des droits d’association significatifs, il existe une indifférence marquée à l’égard des dimensions racialisées de la décision et de la production de la main-d’œuvre agricole au Canada d’une façon générale. Cependant, bien qu’elle soit nécessaire pour aborder les limites de l’analyse juridique savante et jurisprudentielle contemporaine, l’application des idées de la théorie raciale critique ne tient pas suffisamment compte des particularités de l’exploitation de la main-d’œuvre qui fait partie intégrante du régime canadien de migration temporaire de la main-d’œuvre. Dans le but d’approfondir l’étude de la racialisation, de la main-d’œuvre et du droit au Canada, je place les luttes judiciaires et extrajudiciaires des travailleurs agricoles migrants au sein d’une analyse antiraciste du droit qui tient compte des diverses façons dont la racialisation et le racisme influencent la migration de la main-d’œuvre. La construction du travail migrant fondée sur une catégorie racialisée -- une « nécessité structurelle » dans le cadre de la production agricole -- se fait par l’imposition d’obstacles politico-juridiques organisés par le capitalisme mondial et le système des États nationaux. L’analyse se termine en préconisant l’abandon des approches actuelles relatives à l’étude et à l’exercice du droit du travail, au profit d’un programme transgressif visant à contester ouvertement l’exploitation capitaliste sous toutes ses formes, y compris la réglementation racialisée de la main-d’œuvre agricole migrante.

  18. Does International Migration Pay Off? The Labor Market Situation of Finnish Return Migrants Based on Longitudinal Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Koikkalainen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International mobility is a form of flexible labor market adaptation available for young Nordic nationals who have the privilege of relatively easy return if life abroad does not work out. The article considers mobility as a labor market transition and examines the pre- and post-migration situation of two Finnish return migrant groups—those who lived abroad in 1999 and in 2004—based on longitudinal register data. It considers the consequences of return for an individual migrant: is it a form of failure in labor market integration in the country of destination or rather a sign of success whereby the skills, resources, and experiences gained abroad are brought back to the country of origin. Migrants who leave Finland nowadays often opt to move to other Nordic countries and are younger, more educated, and have a better socio-economic status than previous migrant generations. The article demonstrates that international migration does not deteriorate the returnees’ labor market status. While re-entry into the Finnish labor market may take some time and flexibility, mobility seems to pay off and have beneficial consequences: return migrants earn higher taxable incomes and have lower unemployment rates than their peers who only stayed in the national labor markets..

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapash; Anderson, Claire; Evans, Catrin; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mosiur

    2013-03-19

    The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh. This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented. The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p < 0.001). The 2-week repeatability assessed by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was 0.75. The results indicated that Bengali version of the scale have good metric properties for assessing attitudes toward

  20. HIV/STI risk by migrant status among workers in an urban high-end entertainment centre in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianfang; Exner, Theresa M; Hoffman, Susie; Zhou, Feng; Sandfort, Theo G M; Leu, Cheng-Shiun

    2011-04-01

    Large-scale internal migration in China may be an important mechanism for the spread of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of the risk behaviours of migrants. We conducted a self-administered survey among 724 employees of a high-end entertainment centre in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China. Using logistic regression, we examined the association of hometown of origin (Kunshan city, elsewhere in Jiangsu Province, or another province in China) and consecutive years living in Kunshan with measures of HIV/STI risk behaviour. We found that increased time living in Kunshan was associated with lower odds of using condoms as contraception [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.95] and consistent condom use with a casual partner (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93), after controlling for gender, marital status age and income. The odds of having had an STI were significantly lower for Kunshan natives than those originally from outside provinces (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07-0.96), but increasing years living in Kunshan was not related to lower risk for an STI. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that migrants living far from home participate in higher risk behaviour than locals. Findings suggest that adaptation to local culture over time may increase HIV/STI risk behaviours, a troublesome finding.

  1. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2014-12-22

    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  2. Working in the UK: Polish migrant worker routes into employment in the north east and north west construction and food processing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a TUC-funded project that sought to identify the main routes into employment for Polish migrant workers in the North East and North West construction and food processing sectors. Its findings show that the two sectors offer real opportunities and challenges for trade unions to organise those who most need help. Indeed many unions in the sectors have already taken up the challenge and have started to see real successes in organising groups traditionally see...

  3. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández; Angela Duarte; Sagrario Lobato; Ana Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP) and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The rem...

  4. Stress, health and quality of life of female migrant domestic workers in Singapore: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjara, S G; Nellums, L B; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T

    2017-10-10

    There is a global increase in migrant workers. In Singapore, there are over 230,000 migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs may experience high levels of stress and social isolation, which may negatively impact on their health and quality of life. There have also been documented cases of abuse and exploitation. However, there is a lack of empirical research with this population. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting on the health and quality of life of female MDWs in Singapore, including socio-demographic and job related characteristics, stress, social isolation, and working management style. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 182 female MDWs in Singapore. The survey examined health and quality of life (WHOQoL-Bréf), social connectedness (the Friendship Scale), and preferred and experienced working management style (the Theory X and Theory Y Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses were carried out in addition to ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square tests, followed by a multivariate analysis using linear regression. Participants were found to have good overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. Age and working experience were found to be significantly (p health). Agreement between experienced and preferred working management style was also found to be associated with higher quality of life scores (with the exception of the social relationships domain). Though women reported relatively good overall quality of life, more than half of participants reported feeling stressed. In addition, nearly 20% of participants reported being isolated or very isolated. Stress was identified to be associated with isolation. In the multivariate analysis, stress was found to contribute to worse quality of life in all domains except social relationships, after adjusting for confounders. Social connectedness was positively associated with all domains of quality of life, and agreement of working management style was positively associated with physical health

  5. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Targeting High-Risk Migrant Workers: The Process and Outcome of Formative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eShrestha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHistorically, HIV prevention efforts in Nepal have primarily focused on heterosexual transmission, particularly, among female sex workers (FSWs and their male clients, with little acknowledgment of the contribution of migrant workers to the epidemic. The very few HIV prevention efforts that have been attempted with migrants have been unsuccessful primarily due to stigma, discrimination, and insufficient availability of culturally relevant evidence-based interventions (EBIs. As an initial step toward addressing this unmet need, we conducted formative research aimed at adapting an evidence-based HIV risk reduction intervention for implementation among migrants in Nepal.MethodsOur formative work involved a critical examination of established EBIs and associated published reports complemented by data elicited through structured interviews with members of the target population and key stakeholders. Between July and August, 2014, we conducted structured one-on-one interview with migrants (n = 5 and key stakeholder (e.g., counselors, field workers, and project coordinator; n = 5, which focused on the HIV risk profiles of the migrants and on ways to optimize intervention content, delivery, and placement within the community-based settings. Data analysis followed a thematic analysis approach utilizing several qualitative data analysis techniques, including inductive analysis, cross-case analysis, and analytical coding of textual data.ResultsBased on formative research, we adapted the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP, an EBI, to consist of four 30-minute sessions that cover a range of topics relevant to migrants in Nepal. The intervention was adapted with flexibility so that it could be provided in an individual format, implemented within or outside the CBO, and can be delivered in either consecutive or weekly sessions based on time constraints. ConclusionsThis paper provides a detailed description of the formative research process

  6. A World-Wide Overview of Migratory Movements. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Francis

    1974-01-01

    A survey of world migration patterns prefaces a declaration of educational problems and ways of solving them as viewed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The problems are conceptualized on the socio-cultural and occupational levels and involve both the worker and his family. (JH)

  7. Sharing International Responsibility for the Protection of Poor Migrants? An Analysis of Extraterritorial Socio-Economic Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possible legal bases for or the existence of extraterritorial socio-economic human rights obligations on the part of wealthier European ‘Destination Countries’ vis-à-vis poor migrants. In particular, the paper considers whether obligations of international cooperation and

  8. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings

  9. The Life Story Experience of "Migrant Dentists" in Australia: Potential Implications for Health Workforce Governance and International Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie D; Watkins, Keith; Chrisopoulos, Sergio; Brennan, David S

    2016-10-10

    The migration of dentists is a major policy challenge facing both developing and developed countries. Dentists from over 120 countries migrate to Australia, and a large proportion are from developing countries. The aim of the study was to assess the life story experience (LSE) of migrant dentists in Australia, in order to address key policy challenges facing dentist migration. A national survey of all migrant dentists resident in Australia was conducted in 2013. Migrant experiences were assessed through a suite of LSE scales, developed through a qualitative-quantitative study. Respondents rated experiences using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to the survey (response rate = 54.5%). LSE1 (health system and general lifestyle concerns in home country), LSE2 (appreciation towards Australian way of life) and LSE3 (settlement concerns in Australia) scales varied by migrant dentist groups, sex, and years since arrival to Australia (chi-square, P international agenda to address dentist migration. Better integration of dentist migration with the mainstream health workforce governance is a viable and opportunistic way forward. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Self-determination in New Contexts: The Self-determination of Refugees and Forced Migrants in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen McVay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The international movement of people as a result of conflict, natural disaster, and famine is increasingly challenging for States. The Refugee Convention and its additional protocols have proven to be inadequate for protecting many people from human rights abuses. Accordingly this paper seeks to ascertain whether self-determination may operate to protect permanent refugee and forced migrant communities. Self-determination is a human right that has attracted considerable controversy. However, its universal applicability and the strength of the right make it an attractive means of limiting the power of a State in respect of refugee and forced migrant communities. Drawing from historical analogy this article concludes that in limited circumstances self-determination may be available for permanent refugee or forced migrant communities.

  11. Toward healthy migration: an exploratory study on the resilience of migrant domestic workers from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Alida Joanna; Ujano-Batangan, Maria Theresa; Ignacio, Raquel; Wolffers, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    Domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health. Currently there is an emphasis in the literature on these workers' problems and vulnerability, while there is little insight into factors that positively affect their mental health. In this study, we describe a range of factors that potentially contribute to the resilience of female domestic workers from the Philippines, and explore their relation to stress and well-being. The study used an explorative, mixed-methods design. First, data were collected using questionnaires (n = 500) to assess self-perceived stress levels, well-being, personal resources, and social resources. Then, findings from the questionnaires were validated and elaborated on in a workshop (n = 23) and two focus groups (n = 13; n = 8). Results show that participants perceived their well-being abroad as relatively good, while they also experienced high levels of stress. Workers used a variety of resources in dealing with stress. Socially oriented coping strategies and spirituality seemed to play an important role as personal resources, while the influence of reasons for migration was less clear. Employers and (access to) social networks appeared important in determining social resources. Social resources were more often related to stress and well-being than were personal resources. Findings from this study can help to design strengths-based interventions aimed at improving the well-being of female domestic workers and preventing mental health problems. The environmental factors and structural constraints that provide the context for resilience should be further explored as they influence the ability to mobilize resources. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anzil Ks; Mohammed, Arshad; Thomas, Archana A; Paul, Shann; Shahul, M; Kasim, K

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chi-square test was applied. Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%). Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalig-nant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer. Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.

  13. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare...... according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why...... are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were...

  14. The social income inequality, social integration and health status of internal migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2017-08-04

    To examine the interaction between social income inequality, social integration, and health status among internal migrants (IMs) who migrate between regions in China. We used the data from the 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, which sampled 15,999 IMs in eight cities in China. The Gini coefficient at the city level was calculated to measure social income inequality and was categorized into low (0.2 0.5). Health status was measured based upon self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perceptions of stress and mental health. Social integration was measured from four perspectives (acculturation and integration willingness, social insurance, economy, social communication). Linear mixed models were used to examine the interaction effects between health statuses, social integration, and the Gini coefficient. Factors of social integration, such as economic integration and acculturation and integration willingness, were significantly related to health. Social income inequality had a negative relationship with the health status of IMs. For example, IMs in one city, Qingdao, with a medium income inequality level (Gini = 0.329), had the best health statuses and better social integration. On the other hand, IMs in another city, Shenzhen, who had a large income inequality (Gini = 0.447) were worst in health statues and had worse social integration. Policies or programs targeting IMs should support integration willingness, promote a sense of belonging, and improve economic equality. In the meantime, social activities to facilitate employment and create social trust should also be promoted. At the societal level, structural and policy changes are necessary to promote income equity to promote IMs' general health status.

  15. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  16. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.

  17. Association between health service utilisation of internal migrant children and parents’ acculturation in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo-li; Zou, Guan-yang; Chen, Wen; Lin, Yan-wei; Ling, Li

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the health service utilisation of internal migrant children in Guangdong, China, and to explore the association between children’s health service utilisation and their parents’ acculturation. Design Cross-sectional survey between April and May 2016. Setting Six society-run schools of Tianhe and Baiyun districts in Guangzhou City of China. Participants We recruited all students at grade 7 or 8 and one of their parents who resided in Guangzhou over 6 months without permanent registered residence (hukou) in Guangzhou (1161 pairs completed this survey). 258 children were ill within the past 2 weeks or during the last year. Main outcome measures The main outcome was self-reported health service utilisation. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between children’s unmet needs for outpatient or inpatient service and their parents’ acculturation (categorised into high, middle and low groups). Results In total, 216 children, or 18.6% of the total subjects, were ill within the past 2 weeks and were in need of outpatient service; 94 children, or 8.1% of the total subjects, were in need of inpatient service. Among them, 17.6% and 46.8% of the migrant children had unmet needs for outpatient and inpatient services, respectively. After controlling for enabling resources and predisposing characteristics, migrant children with parents in the middle-acculturation group (adjusted OR=3.17, 95% CIs 1.2 to 8.3, Pacculturation or low-acculturation groups, although only statistically significant when comparing with the high-acculturation group. Stratified analysis suggested that this association could be moderated by their family economic status. Conclusions Our study suggested that the association between migrant children’s health service utilisation and their parents’ acculturation was complex and could be moderated by family economic status. Increasing the service utilisation among migrant children requires

  18. The impact of ethnic identity on changes in high risk HIV behaviors in sexually active migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.

  19. The Role Of Migrant Workers Remittances In Fostering Economic Growth: The Kosovo Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmije Topxhiu; Florentina Xhelili

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, in Kosovo as well, remittances of workers from diaspora have become an important source of external financing. In this paper some theoretical and practical aspects of the role of remittances in the development of countries receiving them are treated. An analytical approach is made about the migration trends of Kosovo's population, trends and role of remittances in the economic development of Kosovo through various statistical data published by relevant national ...

  20. [The health and welfare of migrant workers as a factor in business competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltrasio, A

    2011-01-01

    The role of the enterprises in tackling the immigration theme was significant in the last few years, though within a context of tensions, necessity of flexible approaches, and swaying feelings. However, the world of the entrepreneurs has certainly contributed to the promotion of quality of life and to the process of integration, through a few actions, such as education, the use of mediators for culture, cooperation with projects aimed at family conjunctions, regularizations, code of ethics. The acknowledgement that the immigrant workers is more prone to acquire health and safety culture is a step forward, as well as the co-existence of cultures is per se a positive factor toward behavioral changes. An industrial policy favoring work for itself, equity and merit, while creating moments of encounter, certainly facilitates good organization and integration, and delineates pathways for responsibility for immigrant workers as well. The occupational plant physician can proactively play a fundamental role for safety and health promotion for immigrant workers, considering the special relationship based on trust and the moments of encounter within the workplace, clear occasion "to treat every patient with the same care and diligence, regardless of ethnicity, religion, nationality, social condition", as the Hyppocrates oath states.

  1. Comparison of three intervention models for promoting circumcision among migrant workers in western China to reduce local sexual transmission of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyi Ning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Three models for promoting male circumcision (MC as a preventative intervention against HIV infection were compared among migrant worker populations in western China. METHODS: A cohort study was performed after an initial cross-sectional survey among migrant workers in three provincial level districts with high HIV prevalence in western China. A total of 1,670 HIV seronegative male migrants were cluster-randomized into three intervention models, in which the dissemination of promotional materials and expert- and volunteer-led discussions are conducted in one, two, and three stage interventions. Changes in knowledge of MC, acceptability of MC, MC surgery uptake, and the costs of implementation were analyzed at 6-month and 9-month follow-up visits. RESULTS: All three models significantly increased the participants' knowledge about MC. The three-stage model significantly increased the acceptability of MC among participants and led to greatest increase in MC uptake. At the end of follow-up, 9.2% (153/1,670 of participants underwent MC surgery; uptake among the one-, two-, and three-stage models were 4.9%, 9.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that three-stage model was the most effective method to scale up MC, with RR = 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1, P=0.002 compared to the on-site session model. The two-stage intervention model showed no significant difference with either the on-site session model (RR=1.5, 95% CI, 0.92-2.4, P=0.12 or three-stage model (P=0.10. CONCLUSIONS: A three-stage intervention with gradual introduction of knowledge led to the significantly increase in MC uptake among migrant workers in western China, and was also the most cost-effective method among the three models.

  2. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  3. Between talent and migrant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosneaga, Ana

    ’ agendas for internationalisation of higher education and talent attraction to boost national competitiveness. Concurrently, convergence is happening between migration management regimes, albeit with persistent variations in actual regulations, when it comes to attracting skilled migrants, while reducing...... by examining the management of the status transition of international students’ into foreign workers in the host country context. It takes its point of departure in understanding international student migration as a phenomenon evolving in the cross field between the global competition for talent...... that create discrepancies between them. The conclusion highlights the tensions inherent in promoting talent attraction and internationalisation vis-à-vis migration management, and draws overall policy implications through the case of the management of international student migration in Denmark....

  4. The Change in Mental Health Status of Indonesian Health Care Migrant Worker in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the Japan – Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement, more than 1,000 of Indonesian health care workers have migrated to Japan. Social adjustment during the process of migration is linked to mental health changes. This study aimed to figure out the strongest predictor that influences the change in mental health status as a result of migration. Baseline data were collected in Jakarta in 2013 during pre-departure orientation. Follow-up study was conducted one year after the study participants migrated to Japan in 2014. Using longitudinal design, this study employed 92 participants consisting of nurse and certified care worker candidates. The multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to figure out the predictors that influence the change in mental health status. The prediction model expected to explain 39.9% of the change in mental health status, p value < 0.01, while sex (b = 0.201, p value < 0.05, economic conditions in pre-migration (b = -0.200, p value < 0.05, and the socio cultural adaptation competency (b = -0.238, p value < 0.05. This finding assumed that female candidates and those who have economic constraint in pre-migration stage, and those who have declining in socio-cultural adaptation competency tend to have lower mental health one year after the migration.

  5. HIV Testing and Cross Border Migrant Vulnerability: Social Integration and Legal/Economic Status Among Cross Border Migrant Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify factors related to the use of HIV testing among cross border migrants in Thailand. Two measures of vulnerability (social integration and legal/economic status) as well as HIV knowledge, risk behaviour, and demographic factors were tested for association with HIV testing. Data were drawn from a survey of 2600 sexually active migrants age 15-59 in multiple provinces of Thailand. The measures of social integration (AOR = 1.14(95 % CI 1.09, 1.20) female; AOR = 1.12 (95 %CI 1.05, 1.19) male) and legal-income status (AOR = 1.12 (95 % CI 1.07, 1.18) female; AOR = 1.31 (95 %CI 1.20, 1.42) male) were positively related to the odds of reporting an HIV test for both male and female migrants. Exposure to AIDS programming including attending an AIDS meeting and possessing AIDS knowledge was also related to an increase in HIV testing. In addition, reproductive health factors including sexual risk behavior and childbirth increased the rate of HIV testing.

  6. First childbirth experience of international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min Sun; Park, Minna; Kim, Jung A

    2017-08-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a large number of foreign women have migrated from developing countries to South Korea by means of international marriages. These nulliparous foreign women may experience more difficulties in pregnancy and childbirth than native Koreans. This study aimed to describe the meaning of the first childbirth experiences of international marriage migrant women marrying Korean men in South Korea. This is a descriptive phenomenological study that included 10 participants using the purposive and snowball sampling in one multicultural support center in Seoul, South Korea. Colaizzi's data analysis method was used to inductively determine themes and formulate meanings. The meanings of first childbirth were categorized into four themes-'coming to a crisis,' 'depending on others,' 'searching for solutions,' and 'strengthening family unity.' Inadequate antenatal care is associated with obstacles such as language barriers, social isolation, lack of knowledge, different midwifery practice and dependent lifestyle. Meanwhile, their children were a source of energy for the women to fulfill their emotional needs and improve family relationships. Childbirth is a life-changing event for these women, in which they face challenges as well as opportunities to develop new coping skills and a new role identity in their family. It is important for healthcare providers and policy makers to identify obstacles and unmet needs to improve maternity care in light of the distinctive challenges of immigrant living in multicultural families. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  8. [The status of occupational health of female migrant workers in traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine and bio-pharmaceutical industry in Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ping-Tai; Kou, Zhen-Xia; Li, Zhi-Lan; He, Yu-Hong; Yu, Wen-Lan; Zho, An-Shou

    2011-09-01

    To understand the status of occupational health of female migrant workers in different kinds of pharmaceutical industries in Gansu province and to provide the basis for improving occupational health condition. One thousand eight hundreds and one female workers from 16 enterprises were selected by cluster sampling in Gansu province and investigated by interviewing and questionnaires. There were statistical significances of education level, status of residency registrations, employment relationship and occupational hazards among female workers in three types of enterprises (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The morbidities of skin disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 4.46%, 2.53% and 3.70%, respectively. The morbidities of reproductive system disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 48.57%, 36.70% and 36.11%, respectively. The levels of education and working conditions of female workers in the traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine plants are low. There are more severe occupational hazards in female workers of the traditional Chinese medicine plants.

  9. “I’ll Be Home for Christmas”: The Role of International Maasai Migrants in Rural Sustainable Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Archambault

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While the Maasai have to be among sub-Saharan Africa’s most mobile population due to their traditional transhumant pastoral livelihood strategy, compared with other neighboring ethnic groups they have been relatively late to migrate in substantial numbers for wage labour opportunities. In the community of Elangata Wuas in Southern Kenya, international migration for employment abroad has been very rare but promises to increase in significant numbers with the dramatic rise in education participation and diversification of livelihoods. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research and the specific experiences of the few international migrant pioneers in Elangata Wuas, this paper explores how community members assess the impacts of international migration on community sustainable development. It appears that international migration facilitates, and even exacerbates, inequality, which is locally celebrated, under an ethic of inter-dependence, as sustainable development. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of social control employed by community members to socially maintain their migrants as part of the community so that these migrants feel continued pressure and commitment to invest and develop their communities. Such mechanisms are importantly derived from the adaptability and accommodation of culture and the re-invention of tradition.

  10. Smoking and Its Determinants in Chinese Internal Migrants: Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Data Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Liu, Shenglan; Zhao, Xiaoping; Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Qingqi; Chang, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Migrants often face multiple risk factors for smoking initiation. Former studies that have explored the smoking habits of Chinese migrants have provided inconsistent findings and lacked nationally representative samples. Using data from the 2012 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey in China published by the National Population and Family Planning Commission, this study explored current smoking rates and its determinants among migrants in China. The smoking rates of men (46.9%, 46.3%-47.3%) and women (1.8%, 1.7%-1.9%) differed significantly. Although the overall smoking rates in migrants was slightly lower than in the general population, the rates in certain subgroups were much higher. Among men, the three leading associated factors were the following: higher smoking rates among the divorced or widowed (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-1.74); lower smoking rates among those with an educational level of senior high school or above (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.71-0.76), and higher smoking rates in the migrant-receiving area (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.42). Among women, smoking rates were also higher in the migrant-receiving area (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.34-2.34), when monthly income was more than 3000 Renminbi (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.43-1.90), and among those with an educational level of senior high school or above (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.56-0.75). The social integration of migrants, the duration of stay, and working hours had weaker associations with smoking risk. The sociodemographic features, work pressure, and migration-related features were sex-dependent determinants of smoking rates. These factors need to be considered when planning tobacco control interventions among migrants. Our study was the first to analyze a nationally representative Chinese migrant sample with respect to smoking, its differential rates across various subgroups, and its determinants. Our results provided overall levels of migrant smoking rates. The findings also demonstrated the

  11. UTILIZATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES AMONG INTERNAL MIGRANTS IN MUMBAI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh C; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Babu, Bontha V

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to understand access to maternal health care and the factors shaping it amongst poor migrants in Mumbai, India. A cross-sectional mixed methods approach was used. It included multistage cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews, through structured interview schedules, of 234 migrant women who had delivered in the two years previous to the date they were interviewed. Qualitative in-depth interviews of migrant women, health care providers and health officials were also conducted to understand community and provider perspectives. The results showed that access to antenatal care was poor among migrants with less than a third of them receiving basic antenatal care and a quarter delivering at home. Multivariate analysis highlighted that amongst migrant women those who stayed in Mumbai during pregnancy and delivery had better access to maternal health care than those who went back to their home towns. Poor maternal health care was also due to weaker demand for health care as a result of the lack of felt-need among migrants due to socio-cultural factors and lack of social support for, and knowledge of, health facilities in the city. Supply-side factors such as inadequate health infrastructure at primary and secondary levels, lack of specific strategies to improve access to health care for migrants and cumbersome administrative procedures that exclude migrants from certain government programmes all need to be addressed. Migrants should be integral to the urban development process and policies should aim at preventing their exclusion from basic amenities and their entitlements as citizens.

  12. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Shannon, K; Li, J; Lee, Y; Chettiar, J; Goldenberg, S; Krüsi, A

    2016-11-17

    Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The criminalization of in-call venues and third parties explicitly limits sex workers' access to HIV/STI prevention, including manager restrictions on condoms and limited onsite access to sexual health information and HIV/STI testing. With limited labour protections and socio-cultural barriers, criminalization and policing undermine the health and human rights of migrant sex workers working in -call venues. This research supports growing evidence-based calls for decriminalization of sex work, including the removal of criminal sanctions targeting third parties and in-call venues, alongside programs and policies that better protect the working conditions of migrant sex workers as critical to HIV/STI prevention and human rights.

  13. Schistosoma real-time PCR as diagnostic tool for international travellers and migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Tannich, Egbert; Polman, Katja; Clerinx, Jan; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the use of a genus-specific PCR that combines high sensitivity with the detection of different Schistosoma species for diagnosis in international travellers and migrants in comparison to standard microscopy. The genus-specific real-time PCR was developed to target the 28S ribosomal RNA gene of the major human Schistosoma species. It was validated for analytical specificity and reproducibility and demonstrated an analytical sensitivity of 0.2 eggs per gram of faeces. Its diagnostic performance was further evaluated on 152 faecal, 32 urine and 38 serum samples from patients presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp (Belgium). We detected Schistosoma DNA in 76 faecal (50.0%) and five urine (15.6%) samples of which, respectively, nine and one were not detected by standard microscopy. Only two of the 38 serum samples of patients with confirmed schistosomiasis were positive with the presently developed PCR. Sequence analysis on positive faecal samples allowed identification of the Schistosoma species complex. The real-time PCR is highly sensitive and may offer added value in diagnosing imported schistosomiasis. The genus-specific PCR can detect all schistosome species that are infectious to humans and performs very well with faeces and urine, but not in serum. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Determinants of condom use among selected migrant commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey implemented by the International Organisation for Migration in 2010 among farm workers, this study seeks to investigate factors associated with condom use among migrant men and women in selected commercial farms in two provinces of ...

  15. A study on the spatial characteristics and correlation of migrant workers' urban integration and well-being: A case study of Xi’an (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Yang, X. J.; Hao, F. J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper used SPSS and ARCGIS to measure the urban integration degree and well-being index, spatial features, and their correlation. This results show: (1) The space differentiation of migrant workers’ urban integration degree in Xi’an distinct: The northern great site protection zone area is low, eastern military area is peak and the western electronic district and southwest high-tech zone are second peak areas. (2) Migrant workers’ well-being index has differentiation spatial distribution: eastern military area is significantly higher than other regions, northern economic zone shows low-lying shape, southern cultural and educational area is higher than northern economic development zone, and central business district is higher than the surrounding. (3) As the result of correlation analysis in SPSS 19.0, it is shown that there is certain positive correlation between urban integration degree and well-being index of migrant workers in main urban districts of Xi’an. Economic integration and social integration have positive prediction to well-being.

  16. Modifiers of the healthy worker effect and expression of the internal healthy worker effect in a female nuclear worker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques Guy

    Though well-documented among numerous cohorts of male workers, little is known about how the healthy worker effect (HWE) and the internal HWE is expressed among cohorts of female workers. This investigation examines characteristics of the HWE and the internal HWE in a cohort of 12,668 female nuclear workers. The HWE, which was estimated by assessing SMRs for all causes of death combined, was found to be modified by race, occupational class and length of follow-up. Smaller variations in the HWE were observed for age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, monitored status, and interruption of monitoring. Examination of SMRs for all cancers combined revealed that the HWE was modified by race, occupational class, monitored status, interruption of monitoring, and length of follow-up. Smaller variations were observed for age at hire and length of employment. Investigators often try to circumvent the HWE by employing internal comparisons; that is, by directly comparing the mortality of subgroups within a defined occupational cohort with one another. However, internal comparisons are not necessarily free from certain biases related to the HWE. If employees are selected on the basis of health into subgroups which serve as the basis for internal comparisons, then a form of internal comparison bias, called the internal healthy worker effect (Stewart et al, 1991; Wilkinson, 1992) may occur. In this investigation, the expression of the internal HWE was examined by estimating the extent to which survival time was modified by the variables under study. Using the Cox PH model, time to death from all causes was found to be modified by occupational class and length of employment but not by race, age at hire, monitored status, or interruption of monitoring. Time to death from all cancers was found to be modified by race and interruption of monitoring but not by age at hire, occupational class, length of employment, or monitored status. These results are important because

  17. Assessment of the feasibility and coverage of a modified universal hearing screening protocol for use with newborn babies of migrant workers in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Beier; Cheng, Xiaohua; En, Hui; Liu, Bo; Peng, Shichun; Zhen, Yong; Cai, Zhenghua; Huang, Lihui; Zhang, Luo; Han, Demin

    2013-08-08

    Although migrant workers account for the majority of newborns in Beijing, their children are less likely to undergo appropriate universal newborn hearing screening/rescreening (UNHS) than newborns of local non-migrant residents. We hypothesised that this was at least in part due to the inadequacy of the UNHS protocol currently employed for newborn babies, and therefore aimed to modify the protocol to specifically reflect the needs of the migrant population. A total of 10,983 healthy babies born to migrant mothers between January 2007 and December 2009 at a Beijing public hospital were investigated for hearing abnormalities according to a modified UNHS protocol. This incorporated two additional/optional otoacoustic emissions (OAE) tests at 24-48 hours and 2 months after birth. Infants not passing a screening test were referred to the next test, until any hearing loss was confirmed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. A total of 98.91% (10983/11104) of all newborn children underwent the initial OAE test, of which 27.22% (2990/10983) failed the test. 1712 of the failed babies underwent the second inpatient OAE test, with739 failing again; thus significantly decreasing the overall positive rate for abnormal hearing from 27.22% to 18.36% ([2990-973 /10983)]; p = 0). Overall, 1147(56.87%) babies underwent the outpatient OAE test again after1-month, of whom 228 failed and were referred for the second outpatient OAE test (i.e. 2.08% (228/10983) referral rate at 1month of age). 141 of these infants underwent the referral test, of whom 103 (73.05%) tested positive again and were referred for a final ABR test for hearing loss (i.e. final referral rate of 1.73% ([228-38/10983] at 2 months of age). Only 54 infants attended the ABR test and 35 (0.32% of the original cohort tested) were diagnosed with abnormal hearing. Our study shows that it is feasible and practical to achieve high coverage rates for screening hearing loss and decrease the referral rates in

  18. Acculturation, Acculturative Stress, and Depressive Symptoms in International Migrants: A Study with Vietnamese Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Ju; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Lee, Sun Hae; Moon, Soo Kyung

    2017-10-10

    Globally, there have been increasing numbers of migrant women; these women are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among acculturation, acculturative stress and depressive symptoms in Vietnamese women who migrated to South Korea through marriages. We hypothesized that acculturative stress would serve as a mediator in the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms. Our findings from surveys with 217 Vietnamese immigrant women showed that the indirect effect of acculturation on depressive symptoms, mediated through acculturative stress [- .15 (.04)], was significant (bias corrected 95% confidence interval for the indirect effect = - .25, - .08). Low levels of acculturation increased acculturative stress, which in turn led to the elevated symptoms of depression. Our findings not only illuminate the adaptation processes of international, female migrants but also suggest avenues to protect and promote their mental well-being.

  19. Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE. However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention designed to promote PPE utilization among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in SMEs. Methods/Design This is a single blind, three-arm cluster randomized trial with 60 SMEs equally randomized to receive a top-down intervention (i.e. general health education and mHealth intervention provided by researchers or a comprehensive intervention (which includes both top-down intervention and peer education or a control condition (participants will not receive the intervention, but study measures will be obtained. Interventions will be conducted at the SMEs level for 6 months and all eligible migrant workers in these SMEs will be enrolled into the trial. The primary outcome is effective use of PPE during the last week. The secondary outcomes are occupational health knowledge and attitude and participation in occupational health check-up. Data will be collected and assessed at baseline; 3 months post baseline and the end of the intervention. Discussion This theory- and evidence based intervention will contribute to the limited evidence of behaviour change intervention in improving PPE utilization of migrant workers in SMEs, and provide timely evidence for the development of basic occupational health services in China and elsewhere with similar industrialization contexts. Trial registration ChiCTR-IOR-15006929 . Registered on 16 August 2015.

  20. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Arphorn, Sara; Muto, Takashi; Koetkhlai, Kanatid; Naing, Saw Sandy; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and investigated risk factors for LBP among seafood processing factory workers in Thailand including migrant workers. The subjects were Thai and Myanmar workers in the typical seafood processing factory. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of LBP, general characteristics, life style, and working condition were investigated. The associations between LBP and risk factors were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of 254 workers, 165 completed the questionnaire. Half of these workers were Thai, the others were from Myanmar. The point prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. Risk factors for LBP were age over 40 yr, poor health status, history of back injury, twisting posture at work, and slipping on wet floors. The results suggest that health promotion should focus on working conditions rather than individual life style in order to prevent LBP. Furthermore, greater attention to other risk factors such as history of back injury and perception of health status after regular health check up, especially in older age groups may be needed.

  2. A study of the health-related quality of life and work-related stress of white-collar migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2012-10-19

    Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work-related stress and its risk factors among white-collar businessmen and management workers that migrate to high-income developing countries. A structural questionnaire survey was administered to 156 white-collar Taiwanese management personnel of representative companies of their industries in Taiwan, who were assigned long-term job positions in China. Questionnaire content included demographics and medical history, self-reported physical and mental conditions, personal lifestyle and behavior, Beck Depression Inventory, and information on HRQoL. White-collar migrant workers reported a high prevalence of alcohol consumption (72.4%) and perceived work-related stress (62.2%), and a lower prevalence of regular exercise (12.2%). Workers with higher levels of perceived work-related stress reported more alcohol consumption, a history of hyperlipidemia, and a higher prevalence of self-reported neck pain, poor sleep, and mild/moderate/severe depression. In our primary multivariate risk model to determine lifestyle and work-related stress variables and HRQoL, perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression negatively impacted both the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores of the SF-36 health survey. Hyperlipidemia and self-reported neck pain were associated with significantly lower PCS scores, whereas cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep were associated with statistically lower MCS scores. White-collar migrant workers are generally younger with high socioeconomic status. Perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression indirectly affect HRQoL. Hyperlipidemia, self-reported neck pain, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep also had a significant negative impact on HRQoL.

  3. A Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life and Work-Related Stress of White-Collar Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying Tsai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL and work-related stress and its risk factors among white-collar businessmen and management workers that migrate to high-income developing countries. A structural questionnaire survey was administered to 156 white-collar Taiwanese management personnel of representative companies of their industries in Taiwan, who were assigned long-term job positions in China. Questionnaire content included demographics and medical history, self-reported physical and mental conditions, personal lifestyle and behavior, Beck Depression Inventory, and information on HRQoL. White-collar migrant workers reported a high prevalence of alcohol consumption (72.4% and perceived work-related stress (62.2%, and a lower prevalence of regular exercise (12.2%. Workers with higher levels of perceived work-related stress reported more alcohol consumption, a history of hyperlipidemia, and a higher prevalence of self-reported neck pain, poor sleep, and mild/moderate/severe depression. In our primary multivariate risk model to determine lifestyle and work-related stress variables and HRQoL, perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression negatively impacted both the Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS scores of the SF-36 health survey. Hyperlipidemia and self-reported neck pain were associated with significantly lower PCS scores, whereas cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep were associated with statistically lower MCS scores. White-collar migrant workers are generally younger with high socioeconomic status. Perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression indirectly affect HRQoL. Hyperlipidemia, self-reported neck pain, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep also had a significant negative impact on HRQoL.

  4. Leveraging the Domain of Work to Improve Migrant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2017-10-19

    Work is a principal driver of current international migration, a primary social determinant of health, and a fundamental point of articulation between migrants and their host society. Efforts by international organizations to promote migrant health have traditionally focused on infectious diseases and access to healthcare, while international labor organizations have largely focused on issues of occupational health. The underutilization of the domain of work in addressing the health of migrants is truly a missed opportunity for influencing worker well-being and reducing societal economic burden. Understanding of the relationships among migration, work, and health would facilitate further integration of migrant health concerns into the policy agenda of governments and international agencies that work at the nexus of labor, health and development. The domain of work offers an opportunity to capitalize on the existing health and development infrastructure and leverage technical resources, programs and research to promote migrant health. It also provides the opportunity to advance migrant health through new and innovative approaches and partnerships.

  5. Marketization of Care and Gendered Cross-Border Migration from Indonesia to Malaysia: The Case of Indonesian Female Migrant Domestic Workers in/to Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kimura (Kenji)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction For the last two decades, the rights of domestic workers have drawn attention from academia, policy makers, NGO workers and human rights activists. The International Labour Organization (ILO) (2011) estimates that there are currently 53 to 100 million domestic

  6. Cultural Orientation and Social Capital as Predictors of Condom Use among Internal Migrants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global literature has revealed that cultural orientation, adaptation and social capital may influence HIV-related sexual behaviours among migrants. However, whether cultural orientations influence adaptation and social capital and thereby affect sexual behaviour is not well understood. Method: This study examined whether…

  7. Mental Health and Migration: Depression, Alcohol Abuse, and Access to Health Care among Migrants in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Background One fifth of Kazakhstan’s population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Methods Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N=450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Results Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. Conclusions This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  8. Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rocha Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Silverman, Jay G

    2018-02-02

    Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border. Drawing on theoretical perspectives on risk environments and structural determinants of HIV in sex work, we analyzed in-depth interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic fieldwork conducted with 39 migrant sex workers in indoor work environments between 2012 and 2015 in Tecún Umán, Guatemala. Participant narratives revealed the following intersecting themes to be most closely linked to safety and agency to engage in HIV/STI prevention: physical features of indoor work environments (e.g., physical layout of venue, proximity to peers and third parties); social norms and practices for alcohol use within the workplace; the existence and nature of management practices and policies on health and safety practices; and economic influences relating to control over earnings and clients. Across work environments, health and safety were greatly shaped by human rights concerns stemming from workplace interactions with police, immigration authorities, and health authorities. Physical isolation, establishment norms promoting alcohol use, restricted economic agency, and human rights violations related to sex work policies and immigration enforcement were found to exacerbate risks. However, some establishment policies and practices promoted 'enabling environments' for health and safety, supporting

  9. Findings from a prospective cohort study evaluating the effects of International Health Advisors' work on recently settled migrants' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Emmelin, Maria; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergen, Per-Olof

    2017-04-28

    Several interventions have been carried out to tackle health inequalities between migrant groups, especially refugees, and native-born European populations. These initiatives are often address language or cultural barriers. One of them is the International Health Advisors (IHA) in Sweden; a peer education intervention aimed at providing health information for recently settled migrants. It is known that social determinants, such as educational level and access to social capital, affect health. Social determinants may also affect how health information is received and transformed into practice. The aims of this study was to a) assess the impact of the IHA on recently settled migrants' self-reported health status, and received health information; b) determine the moderating role of educational level and social capital; and c) critically discuss the outcomes and suggest implications for health promotion practice. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A postal questionnaire translated to Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi migrants in eight counties in Sweden, in May 2008 and May 2010. Two of the counties were exposed to the intervention, and six were used as references. The proportion of individuals who reported that they had received information on healthy diet and physical exercise was higher in the intervention group than in the non-intervention group (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.02-5.22), after adjustments. Low social participation was negatively associated with deteriorated or unchanged health needs (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.92). No other statistically significant differences in health outcomes could be observed between the groups. No signs of effect modification on this association by social capital or educational level could be found. Health information provided by the IHA increased self-reported level of knowledge on healthy diet and physical exercise. The interpretation of the observed negative association between low social participation and

  10. Evaluation of the internal contamination risk for isotope laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.; Kocznow, W.; Hawrynski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation covered 484 workers. Altogether 1787 determinations have been made, in this - 1648 internal contaminations and 139 contaminations of air, hand skin and working surfaces. The internal contaminations (22% of results) resulted mainly from deviation from radiological protection rules and were reduced by certain changes. Those were tritium contaminations (application of tritium radioluminescence dyes) and 125, 131 J. The highest levels of which were 20 mSv and 0.25% ALI respectively. The results of 238 Pu air contamination measurements indicates that the dust arising during the production of smoke detectors (with 238 PuO 2 sources) probably has no respirable fraction properties, what confines its absorption in lower parts of the respiratory tract. It has been demonstrated that in Poland is no need of a central system of permanent internal contamination control. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a WHO-5A model based comprehensive tobacco control program among migrant workers in Guangdong, China: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenxin; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Jingrong; Chen, Wen; Gong, Xiao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ling, Li

    2018-02-27

    As a vulnerable population in China, migrant workers have a higher smoking rate than the general population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a WHO-5A based comprehensive tobacco control program in workplaces aggregated with migrants. Using a controlled before and after design, four purposely selected manufacturing factories were assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention arm received adapted 5A group counseling regularly supported by social-media and traditional health education approaches. The primary outcome was the change of smoking rate based on salivary cotinine concentration at three-month follow-up as compared to the control arm. Secondary outcomes were changes in smoking-related knowledge and attitudes assessed using questionnaires. Difference-in-differences approach (DID) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were used to conduct the effectiveness analysis. 149 and 166 workers were enrolled in the intervention and control arm respectively. The multiple imputed and adjusted GEE models demonstrated that, compared to those in the control arm, participants in the intervention arm had nearly 2.4 times odds of improving smoking-related knowledge (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.32-4.36, P = 0.02) and three times the odds of improving smoking-related attitude (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.28-7.41, P = 0.03). However, no significant difference was found regarding the change of smoking rate between the two arms (P > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that attendance at the 5A group counseling sections was an important determinant of stopping smoking or improving smoking-related knowledge and attitudes in the intervention group. This WHO-5A comprehensive intervention was effective in improving migrant workers' knowledge of smoking and anti-smoking attitudes. A large-scale, long-term trial is recommended to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. ChiCTR-OPC-17011637 at Chinese

  12. “Don’t forget the migrants”: exploring preparedness and response strategies to combat the potential spread of MERS-CoV virus through migrant workers in Sri Lanka [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1hs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolitha Wickramage

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From September 2012 to July 2013, 81 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, including 45 deaths (a case fatality ratio of 55% have been reported from eight countries. Human-to-human transmission is now confirmed showing potential for another pandemic of zoonotic disease, with an extremely high mortality rate. Effective surveillance strategies are required in countries with a high influx of migrants from the Middle East to mitigate the probable importation of MERS-CoV. We discuss here the risk of MERS-CoV in major labor sending countries and list the probable strategies for control and prevention of MERS-CoV using Sri Lanka as an example. It is conservatively estimated that 10% of Sri Lanka’s population work as international labor migrants (1.8 to 2 million workers, with 93% residing in the Middle East. An average of 720 workers depart each day, with the majority of these workers (71% departing to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (the country with 81.5% of total MERS-CoV cases. We also describe other inbound migration categories such as tourists and resident visa holders relevant to the context of preparedness and planning. The importance of partnerships between public health authorities at national and regional levels with labor migration networks to establish institutional and/or policy mechanisms are highlighted for ensuring effective preparedness and response planning. Strategies that can be taken by public health authorities working in both labor sending and labor receiving counties are also described.  The strategies described here may be useful for other labor sending country contexts in Asia with a high frequency and volume of migrant workers to and from the Gulf region.

  13. Information behaviour of migrant Hispanic farm workers and their families in the Pacific Northwest Information grounds, Information behaviour, Behavior, Washington, Immigrants, Information habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants are generally perceived to be information poor, meaning they face major challenges with finding and using greatly needed everyday information. However, little research exists from an information behaviour perspective as differences in language, culture, and other factors such as access make immigrants a difficult population to study. We explored the everyday information behaviour and information grounds of migrant Hispanic farm workers through field observation and interviews with users, non-users, and staff of community technology centres in a major agricultural area. Findings suggest that personal networks having various levels of credibility were used more readily than any other type of information source. Credibility and use of various sources seemed to relate to personal status as well as interest in information.

  14. Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

    2012-01-01

    Background: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology: We

  15. Migrating to learn and learning to migrate: a study of the experiences and intentions of international student migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F L; Findlay, A M; Jowett, A J; Skeldon, R

    1996-03-01

    "The research reported here evaluates whether students come to the UK mainly for educational reasons, and therefore perceive their stay as temporary, or whether emigration for study is being used as part of a conscious strategy by people intending to become future labour migrants.... The simplest interpretation of the results appears to be that migration, experienced as a result of international moves for study purposes, does not influence planning of further migration moves. But the research also indicates that migration for education is closely tied to other types of population redistribution and should be treated by population geographers as an integral part of international migration systems." Data were collected by questionnaire survey from 349 engineering students at Hong Kong universities and 82 Hong Kong students studying engineering in the UK. excerpt

  16. Diferencias en la salud de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas migrantes en Sinaloa, México Health differences between male and female migrant agricultural workers in Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Edilia Palacios-Nava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar las diferencias en la prevalencia de síntomas de origen muscarínico y nicotínico, y el nivel de colinesterasa eritrocítica de jornaleras y jornaleros agrícolas, antes de la exposición a plaguicidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre enero y febrero de 2001 se realizó un estudio transversal con 488 trabajadores migrantes en el estado de Sinaloa, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se midió colinesterasa eritrocítica antes del inicio de sus labores en la temporada agrícola. Las diferencias por sexo se analizaron utilizando prueba t para variables cuantitativas, ji2 para cualitativas y razón de momios para la prevalencia. Se consideraron alfa=0.05 e intervalos de confianza de 95% como niveles de significancia. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en edad, forma de migración, lugar de procedencia, nivel de escolaridad y antigüedad migratoria (p=0.000. Las mujeres presentaron seis veces más posibilidad de enfermar de anemia y asma, dos veces más parásitos, el doble de infecciones respiratorias y estomacales, y 38% más en enfermedades del corazón. También se encontró entre ellas una mayor posibilidad de presentar 13 de 19 síntomas interrogados. El promedio del nivel de colinesterasa se encontró en límites de normalidad (4.22 U/ml±0.77 y fue semejante a los reportados por el método Magnotti. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de síntomas, enfermedades y el nivel de colinesterasa encontrados en este estudio pueden ser un referente basal para la comparación posterior de alteraciones producidas por exposición a plaguicidas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the prevalence of muscarinic and nicotinic type symptoms and the level of erythrocytic cholinesterase, prior to pesticide exposure, in male and female migrant agricultural workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001 in Sinaloa State, Mexico, among 488 migrant workers. A questionnaire was applied and erythrocytic

  17. Using Respondent Driven Sampling to Identify Malaria Risks and Occupational Networks among Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Wangroongsarb

    Full Text Available Ranong Province in southern Thailand is one of the primary entry points for migrants entering Thailand from Myanmar, and borders Kawthaung Township in Myanmar where artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites has been detected. Areas of high population movement could increase the risk of spread of artemisinin resistance in this region and beyond.A respondent-driven sampling (RDS methodology was used to compare migrant populations coming from Myanmar in urban (Site 1 vs. rural (Site 2 settings in Ranong, Thailand. The RDS methodology collected information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices for malaria, travel and occupational histories, as well as social network size and structure. Individuals enrolled were screened for malaria by microscopy, Real Time-PCR, and serology.A total of 619 participants were recruited in Ranong City and 623 participants in Kraburi, a rural sub-district. By PCR, a total of 14 (1.1% samples were positive (2 P. falciparum in Site 1; 10 P. vivax, 1 Pf, and 1 P. malariae in Site 2. PCR analysis demonstrated an overall weighted prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.3% in the urban site and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7% in the rural site for all parasite species. PCR positivity did not correlate with serological positivity; however, as expected there was a strong association between antibody prevalence and both age and exposure. Access to long-lasting insecticidal treated nets remains low despite relatively high reported traditional net use among these populations.The low malaria prevalence, relatively smaller networks among migrants in rural settings, and limited frequency of travel to and from other areas of malaria transmission in Myanmar, suggest that the risk for the spread of artemisinin resistance from this area may be limited in these networks currently but may have implications for regional malaria elimination efforts.

  18. Health-related lifestyle behaviors among male and female rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; He, Fang; Wang, Tianhao; Liu, Yao; Shen, Yao; Gong, Jian; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jie; Tu, Yimin; Wang, Tianying; Shen, Lei; Wu, Yumiao; Xia, Xiuping; Xu, Donghao; Pan, Zhigang; Zhu, Shanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression. Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR) = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275-2.559) or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379-4.435); and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154-1.752), working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137-2.303). Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664-2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072-1.602, respectively). Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454-3.930) and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024-3.252). There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure), working conditions (e.g. long hours) and abnormal mental status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors

  19. Temps migratoires en tension Tense times for immigration. The production and experiences of temporalities for migrant workers in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La kafala, système de garantie sur l’étranger propre au monde arabe, produit au Liban un environnement normatif très contraignant pour les migrants non arabes dont elle organise l’immigration : en très grande majorité des femmes, originaires du Sri Lanka et des Philippines, employées domestiques. Elle impose sa temporalité d’institution globale à la migration, et se confronte aux autres temporalités qui structurent l’espace migratoire : celles des individus mobiles, dont la carrière migratoire s’encastre dans la hiérarchie socio-économique de la situation de départ, ainsi que dans dans la hiérarchie des contextes d’accueil ; la temporalité des industries d’émigration, qui développent une rationalité clivée qui leur est propre. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons mettre en scène ces tensions du temps migratoire dans des temporalités en conflit, en évoquant la négativité des rapports sociaux qui en résulte et les contournements normatifs que les migrants et les autres acteurs de cette scène globalisée opèrent dans la poursuite de leurs objectifs.The kafala is a system of guarantee for immigrants in the Arab world. In Lebanon, it produces a highly restrictive regulatory environment for non-Arab migrants; this institution organizes the import of a vast majority of women from Sri Lanka and the Philippines to become domestic employees. It imposes its - as defined - global institution's temporality to migration. It conflicts with the other temporalities that shape the migratory space : temporalities of individuals on the move, whose careers fit into the hierarchy of socio-economic baseline and into the hierarchy between host countries; temporalities of migration industry, that develop a cleaved rationality of their own. In this paper, we want to present the contradiction of migration time and temporalities, in order to understand the resulting negative social relationships. We also study the normative

  20. Health-related lifestyle behaviors among male and female rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Lifestyle behaviors significantly impact health, yet remain poorly defined in Chinese rural-to-urban migrants.In a cross-sectional study of health-related behaviors of 5484 rural-to-urban migrants who had worked in Shanghai for at least six months, we assessed the contribution of demographics and physical and mental health to lifestyle behaviors in male and female participants by multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression.Respondents were 51.3% male. 9.9% exhibited abnormal blood pressure; 27.0% were overweight or obese; 11.2% reported abnormal mental health; 36.9% reported healthy lifestyle. Multiple stepwise cumulative odds logistic regression indicated that men working in manufacturing reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in hospitality (cumulative odds ratio (COR = 1.806, 95%CI 1.275-2.559 or recreation/leisure (COR = 3.248, 95%CI 2.379-4.435; and women working in manufacturing and construction reported less unhealthy lifestyle than those in all other sectors. Unhealthy lifestyle was associated with small workplaces for men (COR = 1.422, 95%CI 1.154-1.752, working more than 8 or 11 hours per day for women and men, respectively, and earning over 3500 RMB in women (COR = 1.618, 95%CI 1.137-2.303. Single women and women who had previously resided in three or more cities were more likely to report unhealthy lifestyle (COR = 2.023, 95%CI 1.664-2.461, and COR = 1.311, 95%CI 1.072-1.602, respectively. Abnormal mental status was also correlated with unhealthy lifestyle in men (COR = 3.105, 95%CI 2.454-3.930 and women (COR = 2.566, 95%CI 2.024-3.252.There were different risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle score in male and female rural-to-urban migrants, especially in number of cities experienced, salary, marital status, work place scale. Several demographic groups: employment sectors (e.g. hospitality and recreation/leisure, working conditions (e.g. long hours and abnormal mental status were associated with unhealthy lifestyle

  1. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taimr, L.

    1982-03-01

    The average value of the effective half-life of /sup 32/P in migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH/sub 2//sup 32/PO/sub 4/ in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4/sup 0/C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated /sup 32/P, while assimilated /sup 32/P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological /sup 32/P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The /sup 32/P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days.

  2. The importance of ‘double embeddedness’: The potential of migrants in international interactions and in the creation of national images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper closely examines the influence of trans-migrants on the formation and development of interactions between the country of origin and the adopted country, based on the previous ethnoantropological, politicological, sociological and communicological researches. The potential of migrant activities is studied in interactions between countries, societies and cultures, as well as in the formation of national and country images. The dual identity and dual ideology of trans-migrants is viewed as an important factor for possible improvement of international relations, while avoiding unnecessary segregations and conflicts. Therefore, research of different aspects of cultural, economic and political cooperation with members of various migrant groups could lead to results that could stimulate overall improvement of international communication and other interactions, minimalising 'problematic' differences between societies. The results of the research can also be used to form a well-thought activity wich is important for an appropriate functioning in global processes. Non-existence of the activity could result in an inability of a country to successfully communicate in international relations but also with its own citizens. The aim of this work is to incite further research and discussions about the relations between the migrants, the country of origin and the adopted country, with the diaspora acting as the potential springboard for future development of international relations while applying the scientific conclusions on the creation of the national strategy in a sense of defining the international relations and the policy of identity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet portala ‘Pojmovnik srpske kulture’

  3. Internal and external factors shaping movement and distributions of trans-Saharan migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Marta Lomas

    and thrush nightingales Luscinia luscinia. It also looks at how the migration routes can be affected by future climate change. Results indicate that insectivore long-distance migrants temporally adjust migration schedules with seasonal surplus of vegetation greenness during the annual cycle. Climate......he migratory programme provides birds with the capacity to seasonally migrate thousands of kilometres during their annual breeding cycle. This programme is governed by endogenous, and environmentally-shaped, exogenous, processes. Using a diverse set of tracking methods, this thesis investigates...... (vectororientation) and possibly includes a simple navigation capability that enables juveniles to compensate for crosswind en route, but not to compensate for experimental displacement. To study exogenous influence, paper III and IV investigate how environmental factors shape movements of migratory birds at local...

  4. Worker Training: Competing in the New International Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Workers' skills are critical to U.S. industrial productivity and competitiveness and to maintaining living standards. Training is the key. Good training pays--for workers whose skills are upgraded, for companies seeking a competitive edge, and for the nation in overall productivity. However, workers in other countries are better trained than most…

  5. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week ...

  6. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimr, L.

    1982-01-01

    The average value of the effective half-life of 32 P in migrates alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH 2 32 PO 4 in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4 0 C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated 32 P, while assimilated 32 P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological 32 P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient 32 P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The 32 P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days. (orig./MG) [de

  7. 76 FR 2145 - International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA..., applicable to workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin... follows: All workers International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, including on-site leased...

  8. Socioeconomic Predictors of the Employment of Migrant Care Workers by Italian Families Assisting Older Alzheimer's Disease Patients: Evidence From the Up-Tech Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbabella, Francesco; Chiatti, Carlos; Rimland, Joseph M; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Lamura, Giovanni; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2016-05-01

    The availability of family caregivers of older people is decreasing in Italy as the number of migrant care workers (MCWs) hired by families increases. There is little evidence on the influence of socioeconomic factors in the employment of MCWs. We analyzed baseline data from 438 older people with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), and their family caregivers enrolled in the Up-Tech trial. We used bivariate analysis and multilevel regressions to investigate the association between independent variables-education, social class, and the availability of a care allowance-and three outcomes-employment of a MCW, hours of care provided by the primary family caregiver, and by the family network (primary and other family caregivers). The availability of a care allowance and the educational level were independently associated with employing MCWs. A significant interaction between education and care allowance was found, suggesting that more educated families are more likely to spend the care allowance to hire a MCW. Socioeconomic inequalities negatively influenced access both to private care and to care allowance, leading disadvantaged families to directly provide more assistance to AD patients. Care allowance entitlement needs to be reformed in Italy and in countries with similar long-term care and migration systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Rights with Capabilities: Towards a Social Justice Framework for Migrant Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Briones

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights  in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a ne...

  10. Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours.

  11. Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviors among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviors including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs, and unsafe sex (rs ranged from .10 to .16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = .02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs, and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants’ HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviors. PMID:25793493

  12. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  13. Sundhedsloven og sundhedsydelser hos udokumenterede migranter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hallas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Health-care workers may experience uncertainty regarding legal matters when attending to medical needs of undocumented migrants. This paper applies a pragmatic focus when addressing the legal aspects involved in providing health-care services to undocumented migrants with examples from the Danish...

  14. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...

  15. The risk of internal contamination of workers employed in radioisotope laboratories in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Domanski, T.; Doniec, J.

    1981-01-01

    It was established that in Poland 247 radioisotope laboratories use open radiation sources. These laboratories have not yet been covered by the internal system of control of inner contamination. The number of workers having contact with radioisotopes amounts to 1987. Frequently this is work in contact with several radioisotopes (from 1 to 17). Most workers are exposed to tritium (over 500 workers), 14 C (over 500), 125 I and 131 I, 32 P, 51 Cr, 99mTc (over 100), isotopes belonging to radiotoxicity groups 2, 3 and 4. In the radiotoxicity group 1 the most workers were exposed to 226 Ra (52). (author)

  16. Risk of internal contamination of workers employed in radioisotope laboratories in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Domanski, T.; Doniec, J.

    1981-01-01

    It was established that in Poland 247 radioisotope laboratories use open radiation sources. These laboratories have not yet been covered by the internal system of control of inner contamination. The number of workers having contact with radioisotopes amounts to 1987. Frequently this is work in contact with several radioisotopes (from 1 to 17). Most workers are exposed to tritium (over 500 workers), /sup 14/C (over 500), /sup 125/I and /sup 131/I, /sup 32/P, /sup 51/Cr, 99mTc (over 100), isotopes belonging to radiotoxicity groups 2, 3 and 4. In the radiotoxicity group 1 the most workers were exposed to /sup 226/Ra (52).

  17. Internal dose evaluation of workers involved in radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals handling for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, R.B.P.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1987-01-01

    The internal dose levels of IPEN workers, involved in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical use are surveyed. In this production, the workers were splited in six group: research and development, routine production, quality control, packaging, radiological protection and maintenance. The internal dose was evaluated according to the models described by ICRP-30, from the results obtained in the whole body counters monitoring. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. Internal dosimetry from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, R.B.P.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1988-01-01

    The internal dose from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes products is related. In the workers population, six groups were classified: development and research, routine production, quality control, package, radioprotection supervision and maintenance. The internal doses were calculated according to the methodology described by the ICRP-30, using resuls from a whole-body counter. The results described were obtained from 970 whole-body radioactivity measurements during the last three years (1985 a 1987). (author) [pt

  19. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and

  20. The education and training of older workersinternational comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first analyse the role and meaning of the education and training of older workers in the workplace from the perspective of their effects. These manifest on different levels: on the one hand, they are recognisable as the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviour of individuals, but, on the other hand, their influences are also present on the organisational level. In this paper, we analyse data gathered via PIAAC research; analyses are based on the hypothesis that older workers, in comparison to younger age groups, are discriminated against as regards access to education and training related to employment or work. The analyses confirm our hypothesis.

  1. Migrant Women’s Work: Intermeshing Structure and Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the question of migrant women's experiences in accessing the labour market in Slovenia and examine how welfare policies, or the lack thereof, affect migrant workers' lives. By focusing the study on migrant women and their position in the labour market, we problematise these women's perpetual de-skilling and socio-economic exclusion. Drawing on migrant women’s narratives we also point to their activity in counteracting experiences of discrimination and downward social mobility.

  2. Rights with Capabilities: Towards a Social Justice Framework for Migrant Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Briones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights  in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a new paradigm based on the Capablities Approach could provide a more appropriate framework from which to achieve social justice for the migrant worker.

  3. Rights with Capabilities: Towards a Social Justice Framework for Migrant Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Briones

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The paradigm of rights, established throughout the academic, policy and migrant activism arenas, governs the protection of vulnerable migrant workers against abuse. To what extent this approach has achieved social justice for the migrant worker in the current global political economy climate is, however, uncertain. In analyzing the use of rights in migrant activism in Hong Kong, this paper shows the limitation of rights  in the migrant experience at the same time as it shows how a new paradigm based on the Capablities Approach could provide a more appropriate framework from which to achieve social justice for the migrant worker.

  4. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    . Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...

  5. Human Capital Theory and Internal Migration: Do Average Outcomes Distort Our View of Migrant Motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, Martin; Clark, William A W

    2017-05-01

    By modelling the distribution of percentage income gains for movers in Sweden, using multinomial logistic regression, this paper shows that those receiving large pecuniary returns from migration are primarily those moving to the larger metropolitan areas and those with higher education, and that there is much more variability in income gains than what is often assumed in models of average gains to migration. This suggests that human capital models of internal migration often overemphasize the job and income motive for moving, and fail to explore where and when human capital motivated migration occurs.

  6. OA2 Chinese migrant peasant workers and the contradictory demands of filial piety in neo-liberal chinese society: a case study of filial end-of-life care in langzhong city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longtao

    2015-04-01

    Many scholars claim that recent changes to Chinese society since economic reform have challenged longstanding forms of informal social care, such as filial piety. For instance there is a societal tension at work in contemporary Chinese society today. On the one hand decreasing co-residence in multi-generational households caused by rural-urban migration, population ageing, the fall in fertility and 'One-Child Policy', and women's increasing participation in the labour market, emphasises an individualised, wage earning centred society. On the other hand, the Chinese government has sought to enforce a form of institutionalised filial piety through policies that legally require younger generations fulfil the full responsibility of care as there is no institutionalised equivalent of the welfare state to provide e.g. home help or personal care to the elderly whose relatives live and work at some distance. This places many younger generations in the contradiction of having to comply with neo-liberal labour market demands while also fulfilling state enforced filial piety. This research is to look at how Chinese migrant worker experience perceived filial responsibilities in relation to End-of-Life care for parents diagnosed with cancer in the current Chinese context. My PhD, based on interviews with migrant peasant workers caught in this dilemma by the demands of having a terminally ill parent, examines how Chinese migrant peasant workers negotiate and conduct their filial practices. The preliminary analysis of the interviews suggests that 'Filial Piety' is getting reconstructed in multifaceted ways as they negotiate the care dilemmas they face. The way they engage with the concept of filial piety enables and constrains how they can think about and practically organise their parents' care. The result would shed a light on evaluation of and suggestions for governmental policy-makings, such as the newly implemented Parent-Visiting law in China, in terms of better reinforcing

  7. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-07-20

    The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born). 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%). 58 (52.2%) were born in the UK; 53 (47.7%) of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049-0.235]; p = 0.002): overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6%) of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4%) were new migrants to the UK (arrival and once settled through primary care services. A more organised and holistic approach to migrant health care is required.

  8. The Assessment of I-131 Internal Doses of Nuclear Medicine Workers in Korea Using Thyroid uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Young Kag; Oh, Gi Back; Lee, Chang Ho; Lee, Jong Doo; Yeom, Yu Sun; Hwang, Young Muk

    2012-01-01

    There are possibilities the radiation workers could intake the radiation when workers deal with radiation-materials. Therefore, internal radiation doses of radiation workers need to be assessed. Although an application of the nuclear medicine is continuously increased in Korea, there is not a proper tool and form to monitor the internal doses of nuclear medicine workers. However, it is possible to attain the internal doses of I-131 to evaluate using thyroid uptake and well count system. In this study, we measured and evaluated the I-131 internal doses of nuclear medicine workers in Korea using thyroid uptake and well count system and performed an air sampling

  9. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott Gordon J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE. Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health

  10. Spatial adaptation as the Madurese migrant resilience form at urban informal sector workers settlement: a case study of Kotalama settlement - Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Damayanti; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Indira Rukmi, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Migration is the movement of the population that will bring the change of society's behavior because of the adjustments occuring at the destination of migrant area. The availability of houses in urban area is not a proportional comparison to the increasing of limited housing space, thus it encourages urban migrants to adapt to the existing conditions. Adaptation will be closely linked to the resilience of migrants in the process of interacting with their environment. The theory of urban settlement architecture continues to grow constantly, so the used paradigm should be interdisciplinary. Thereby, the understanding of adaptation, which is used will concern to various aspects of physical and non-physical environment, and it is viewed as a process and product of human interactions with the environment holistically. Malang city is one of the migration destinations of Madurese people since 1930s, and Kotalama Malang settlement is the settlement that holds the largest Madurese migrant working in informal sector, which has been developed since 1950s. This study was conducted to determine the spatial adaptation of Madurese migrants in urban settlement area as a resilience form towards their settlement environment. The qualitative descriptive method with the discourse analysis approach of searching the data through the observation and the in-depth interview of key person were used to know the adaptation process that happened. The study result indicated that spatial adaptation as a process and product on meso and micro scale conducted by Madurese migrants was the form of resilience towards their settlement environment.

  11. Impact on and use of health services by international migrants: questionnaire survey of inner city London A&E attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliahoo Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP services. Methods We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. Results 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%. 720 (44.7% were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9% were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years. Overseas born were over-represented in comparison to local estimates (44.7% vs 33.6%; p Conclusion Recently arrived migrants are a diverse and substantial group, of whom migrants from refugee-generating countries and asylum seekers comprise only a minority group. Service reorganisation to ensure improved access to community-based GPs and delivery of more appropriate care may lessen their impact on acute services.

  12. All projects related to Indonesia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  13. Hospitalizations for cancer in international migrants versus local population in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica

    2018-04-09

    To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.

  14. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born). Results 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%). 58 (52.2%) were born in the UK; 53 (47.7%) of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049–0.235]; p = 0.002): overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6%) of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4%) were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years), mostly refugees/asylum seekers. Overseas-born patients presented with a broad range and more severe spectrum of infections, differing from the UK-born population, resulting in two deaths in this group only. Presentation with a primary infection was associated with refugee/asylum status (n = 8; OR 6.35 [95% CI 1.28–31.50]; p = 0.023), being a new migrant (12; 10.62 [2.24–50.23]; p = 0.003), and being overseas born (31; 3.69 [1.67–8.18]; p = 0.001). Not having registered with a primary-care physician was associated with being overseas born, being a refugee/asylum seeker, being a new migrant, not having English as a first language, and being in the UK for ≤5 years. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of duration of illness prior to presentation or duration of hospitalisation (mean

  15. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Alison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born. Results 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%. 58 (52.2% were born in the UK; 53 (47.7% of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049–0.235]; p = 0.002: overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6% of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4% were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years, mostly refugees/asylum seekers. Overseas-born patients presented with a broad range and more severe spectrum of infections, differing from the UK-born population, resulting in two deaths in this group only. Presentation with a primary infection was associated with refugee/asylum status (n = 8; OR 6.35 [95% CI 1.28–31.50]; p = 0.023, being a new migrant (12; 10.62 [2.24–50.23]; p = 0.003, and being overseas born (31; 3.69 [1.67–8.18]; p = 0.001. Not having registered with a primary-care physician was associated with being overseas born, being a refugee/asylum seeker, being a new migrant, not having English as a first language, and being in the UK for ≤5 years. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of duration of illness prior to presentation or duration of

  16. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  17. Hospitalizations for cancer in international migrants versus local population in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Oyarte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. METHODS This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%, and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%. We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans. In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii digestive organs, and (iii breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.

  18. An empirical not on job turnover and internal mobility of workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of job turnover in which the internal mobility of workers is involved is higher in large firms than in small firms. Large firms are able to reduce turnover costs by using their ability to attain a higher internal mobility rate.

  19. An empirical note on job turnover and internal mobility of workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassink, W.H.J.

    1995-01-01

    I find that large firms have a higher rate of job turnover in which internal mobility of workers is involved. These firms are able to reduce turnover costs, by making use of their ability to attain a higher internal mobility rate.

  20. Social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors determine consistent condom use among rural-to-urban migrant female sex workers in Shanghai China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xiuxia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine potential social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors that may result in motivating female sex workers (FSWs, who are rural-to-urban migrants, and their paying partners in Shanghai, China to promote consistent condom use (CCU. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain 20 geographic sites, which consisted of 1 or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. Five hundred four FSWs from 132 Xitou Fang (shampoo wash rooms, massage parlors, and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the perceptions and behaviors of individuals associated with a risk for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS,self-efficacy at negotiating safe sex,and the physical, social, and policy environment of the establishments where they worked. Results The percentage of FSWs who reported consistent condom use with their paying partners was 63.3%. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics in multivariate analyses, environmental-structural support (OR, 3.96; CI, 2.52–6.22 for condom use was the most significant positive predictor of CCU among FSWs and their regular paying partners. A high perception of susceptibility and risk of HIV/AIDS (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.25–3.01, a high perception of benefits on condom use to protect themselves (OR, 2.06; CI, 1.32–3.22, and high safe sex self-efficacy (OR, 2.52; CI, 1.64–3.85 also play important roles on CCU based on multivariate analyses. Conclusions Environmental-structural factor support for condom use, in addition to social, psychological, and individual cognitive factors are significant predictors of CCU among FSWs, which should be

  1. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattof, Samantha R

    2018-05-01

    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  2. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  3. Impact on and use of health services by international migrants: questionnaire survey of inner city London A&E attenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sally; Friedland, Jon S; Gothard, Philip; Saxena, Sonia; Millington, Hugh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Le Feuvre, Peter; Holmes, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Background Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP) services. Methods We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. Results 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%). 720 (44.7%) were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9%) were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years). Overseas born were over-represented in comparison to local estimates (44.7% vs 33.6%; p immigration status' were: work permit (24.4%), EU citizens (21.5%), with only 21 (1.3%) political asylum seekers/refugees. 178 (11%) reported nationalities from refugee-generating countries (RGCs), eg, Somalia, who were less likely to speak English. Compared with RGCs, and after adjusting for age and sex, the Australians, New Zealanders, and South Africans (ANS group; OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.71]; p = 0.008) and the Other Migrant (OM) group comprising mainly Europeans (0.13 [0.06 to 0.30]; p = 0.000) were less likely to have GP registration and to have made prior contact with GPs, yet this did not affect mode of access to hospital services across groups nor delay access

  4. Impact on and use of health services by international migrants: questionnaire survey of inner city London A&E attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sally; Friedland, Jon S; Gothard, Philip; Saxena, Sonia; Millington, Hugh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Le Feuvre, Peter; Holmes, Alison

    2006-11-29

    Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP) services. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%). 720 (44.7%) were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9%) were new migrants to the UK (immigration status' were: work permit (24.4%), EU citizens (21.5%), with only 21 (1.3%) political asylum seekers/refugees. 178 (11%) reported nationalities from refugee-generating countries (RGCs), eg, Somalia, who were less likely to speak English. Compared with RGCs, and after adjusting for age and sex, the Australians, New Zealanders, and South Africans (ANS group; OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.71]; p = 0.008) and the Other Migrant (OM) group comprising mainly Europeans (0.13 [0.06 to 0.30]; p = 0.000) were less likely to have GP registration and to have made prior contact with GPs, yet this did not affect mode of access to hospital services across groups nor delay access to care. Recently arrived migrants are a diverse and substantial group, of whom migrants from refugee-generating countries and

  5. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  6. Marathon Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; van de Kam, Jan

    Marathon Migrants onderscheidt zich van alle andere vogelboeken door de combinatie van tekst van de trekvogelecoloog en waddenonderzoeker prof. dr. Theunis Piersma en de sublieme foto’s van de bekende vogelfotograaf Jan van de Kam. Door de wetenschappelijke blik van de fotograaf zijn de foto’s meer

  7. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA; Amended... workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin, Virginia. The notice was... Pulp & Paper Mill. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control...

  8. Highly skilled international labour migration: a qualitative study of migrant Pakistani professionals in London's big four accounting firms

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Current Migration Studies literature in Europe can broadly be divided into two major strands. First is dominated by studies on the East-West migration of working class or asylum seeking, postcolonial ethnic groups and problems associated with their subsequent integration/assimilation into the host society. The second, more recent, strand of migration research is that of highly skilled professional migrants, usually hypermobile white men moving across highly-developed countries (for example wi...

  9. Interactive Development of Community Education and Migrant Workers’ Continuing Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Community education is an essential carrier of continuing education and plays a positive role in promoting continuing education of migrant workers. On the one hand,it can raise employment quality and labor skills of migrant workers; on the other hand,it manifests function of serving society of community education. Besides,it is also an important measure for building learning society and lifelong learning system.From the perspective of interactive development,it discusses interactive relationship between community education and migrant workers’ continuing education,analyzes their interactive mechanism,and comes up with recommendations for developing community education and migrant workers’ continuing education.

  10. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  11. Monitoring and radiation dose estimation for internal contamination of occupational workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kol, R; Laichter, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    The assessment of interval radiation doses due to intake of radionuclides differs totally from external dosimetry. External dosimetry is relatively straight forward: Workers are equipped with appropriate dosimeters that give the dose upon direct reading. Internal dosimetry is actually an assessment of the dose based on results of personnel and environmental monitoring (authors).

  12. [Student Magazine of the ESL Classes of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Manuel, Ed.; Zetino, Alfredo, Ed.

    This student magazine created by the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) is a collection of personal opinions, reports, and creative writing with illustrations. Each item was written as a voluntary collaboration, homework, or classwork. Items include poems, letters, accounts of…

  13. The Structural Invisibility of Outsiders: The Role of Migrant Labour in the Meat-Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, John; Milbourne, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of migrant workers in meat-processing factories in the UK. Drawing on materials from mixed methods research in a number of case study towns across Wales, we explore the structural and spatial processes that position migrant workers as outsiders. While state policy and immigration controls are often presented as a way of protecting migrant workers from work-based exploitation and ensuring jobs for British workers, our research highlights that the situation ‘on the ground’ is more complex. We argue that ‘self-exploitation’ among the migrant workforce is linked to the strategies of employers and the organisation of work, and that hyper-flexible work patterns have reinforced the spatial and social invisibilities of migrant workers in this sector. While this creates problems for migrant workers, we conclude that it is beneficial to supermarkets looking to supply consumers with the regular supply of cheap food to which they have become accustomed. PMID:28490818

  14. The Structural Invisibility of Outsiders: The Role of Migrant Labour in the Meat-Processing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, John; Milbourne, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the role of migrant workers in meat-processing factories in the UK. Drawing on materials from mixed methods research in a number of case study towns across Wales, we explore the structural and spatial processes that position migrant workers as outsiders. While state policy and immigration controls are often presented as a way of protecting migrant workers from work-based exploitation and ensuring jobs for British workers, our research highlights that the situation 'on the ground' is more complex. We argue that 'self-exploitation' among the migrant workforce is linked to the strategies of employers and the organisation of work, and that hyper-flexible work patterns have reinforced the spatial and social invisibilities of migrant workers in this sector. While this creates problems for migrant workers, we conclude that it is beneficial to supermarkets looking to supply consumers with the regular supply of cheap food to which they have become accustomed.

  15. Sexospécificités, travailleuses migrantes transfrontalières et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007. Téléchargez le PDF. Rapports. Policy contradictions and women migrant workers : a case study of Burmese women workers in Thailand's border factories. Téléchargez le PDF ...

  16. The saga of the returnee: exploring the implication of involuntary return migration, for development. A case study of the reintegration process for ghanaian migrant workers from Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Esi Akyere

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder, 2012 This thesis presents findings from a study that investigated the reintegration experiences of the returned Ghanaian migrants from Libya. The study, which was conducted in four communities employed qualitative methods to uncover the many complexities of involuntary return and its implications for development in southern countries; an under-researched area in the migration-return nexus. The findings highlight the effect o...

  17. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: an analysis of the impacts of its in-migrant construction workers on local public services. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.; Kyles, S.D.

    1977-05-01

    The socioeconomic impact study identifies certain impacts which are projected to occur to local public services in each of 14 Tennessee communities in the Oak Ridge-Knoxville area during the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. Various in-migration scenarios are utilized, and detailed qualitative and quantitative analyses of each public service are undertaken. Per capita in-migrant cost-revenue impacts are calculated for each community in each in-migration scenario

  18. Vaccination coverage among social and healthcare workers in ten countries of Samu-social international sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Esaie; Salmon, Dominique; Bousfiha, Nadia; Togola, Yacouba; Ouedraogo, François; Santantonio, Maud; Dieng, Coumba Khadidja; Tartière, Suzanne; Emmanuelli, Xavier

    2017-09-18

    We aim to determine the vaccination coverage of social and healthcare workers in International sites of Samusocial, providing emergency care to homeless people, and to assess factors associated with having received necessary doses at adulthood. Data on immunization coverage of social and healthcare workers were provided by a cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to April 2015 among 252 Samusocial workers in 10 countries. Vaccination status and characteristics of participants were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rate ratio (PRR) of vaccination status was calculated using Poisson regression models. Among 252 Samusocial social and health workers who felt a questionnaire, median age was 39years, 42.1% were female, 88.9% were in contact with homeless beneficiaries (19.1% health workers). Overall, 90.1% of Samusocial staff felt adult vaccinations was useful and 70.2% wished to receive booster doses in future. Vaccination coverage at adulthood was satisfactory for diphtheria and poliomyelitis (96%), but low for influenza (20.8%), meningococcus (50.5%), hepatitis B (56.3%), yellow fever (58.1%), measles (81.3%) and pertussis (90.7%). The main reasons for not having received vaccination booster doses were forgetting the dates of booster doses (38.4%) and not having received the information (13.5%). In adjusted analysis, prevalence of up-to-date for vaccination schedule was 35% higher among health workers than among social workers (aPRR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.01-1.82, P=0.05) and was 56% higher among workers who had a documentary evidence of vaccination than in those who did not (aPRR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.19-2.02, P=0.001). The Samusocial International workers vaccine coverage at adulthood was insufficient and disparate by region. It is necessary to strengthen the outreach of this staff and increase immunization policy for hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, and measles, as well as for yellow fever, rabies and meningococcal ACYW135 vaccines in at

  19. Migrants and racial minorities in the labour market in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto; Cantillon, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This report analyses the situation of migrant workers and ethnic minorities in Ireland over the post-economic boom period. From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced extraordinary economic growth and this brought with it an unprecedented increase in the migrant population. As a result of the economic crisis, the total number of migrants coming to Ireland has fallen dramatically. However, despite this situation, Ireland is likely to remain a multicultural society and ethnic diver...

  20. Individual internal monitoring of workers of Fabrica de Combustivel Nuclear - FCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marcelo X.

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, workers are exposed to different compounds of enriched uranium. Due to the high cost of the individual monitoring programme for internal dose assessment in the routine monitoring programmes, usually only one type of measurement is assigned. In complex situations like the one described in this paper, where several parameters can compromise the accuracy of the bioassay interpretation it is need to have a combination of techniques to evaluate the internal dose. According to ICRP 78 (1997), the general order of preference in terms of accuracy of interpretation is: body activity measurement, excreta analysis and personal air sampling. A group of fifteen workers from controlled area of the fuel fabrication facility was selected to evaluate the internal dose using all different available techniques during a certain period. The workers were monitored for determination of uranium content in the daily urinary excretion, faecal excretion, chest counting and personal air sampling (PAS). The results have shown that at least two types of sensitivity techniques must be used, since there are some sources of uncertainties on the bioassay interpretation, like mixture of uranium compounds intake and different routes of intake. The combination of urine and faeces analysis has shown be the more appropriate methodology for assessing internal dose in this situation. (author)

  1. Proyectos de Educacion Migrante (Migrant Education Projects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Garcia, Jose D.

    Written in Spanish and English for project personnel, parents, and others interested in migrant education, the booklet summarizes general concepts and requirements behind Title I-Migrant activities in Oregon, which has been allocated $4,439,341 in Title I-Migrant funds for fiscal year 1980. Following brief definitions of important terms,…

  2. Migrant Men in Misery : Result from a Qualitative Life History Analysis on Individuals and Families Concerning Internal Migration, Health and Life Circumstances in Early 19th Century, Linköping, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore and understand under what health and life circumstances internal migrants lived, in a small early 19th century Swedish town during a time of considerable social change, and also how these migrants coped with their everyday lives. By following a small number of men throughout their lives in a family context, using mainly church registers, a group of ‘migrant men in misery’ has been qualitatively discerned. These men´s problems were found to peak in a phase of their lives when they lived in town with wives and children to support. The wives shared the tough life in town with their husbands but the overall impression still support a conclusion which put the spouses´ different gender roles´ in a stressful situation in focus, where a lack of social integration in town could be an additional factor.

  3. Killing the canary: the international epidemiology of the homicide of media workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, L; Thomson, G; Wilson, N; Purdie, G

    2008-08-01

    To describe the international epidemiology of the homicide of media workers, and investigate country-level risk factors. Data on the homicides occurring from 2002 to 2006 were collected and collated from five international databases. Analyses included consideration of seven existing international indices relating to human development, and to the social and political functioning of states. During the 5-year period, 370 deaths in 54 countries met our definitions of homicides and media workers. Almost all (89%) were nationals of the country in which they died. The annual number of such homicides globally has more than doubled, from 41 in 2002 to 104 in 2006 (including 49 in Iraq in 2006). Less than 25% of the homicides of media workers over the last 5 years have resulted in an arrest or prosecution. Statistically significant associations (pPolitical Terror Scores, OR 1.15; Corruption Perceptions Index, OR 0.53; Overall Failed State Index, OR 1.05; Failed State Index 7, OR 1.52; Failed State Index 9, OR 1.55; Failed State Index 10, OR 1.61) were found on logistic regression between the occurrence of the homicide of media workers in countries and scoring on six of the seven indices associated with country-level sociopolitical development. These indices reflected high levels of political terror and corruption, low government legitimisation, poor human rights, and uncontrolled armed groups. However, in terms of the homicide rate for countries, these associations were significant for only four of the seven indices (the general functionality of government, ability of governments to control armed groups, the level of political terror, and the level of violation of rights). The homicide of media workers increased substantially in this 5-year period and was found to be particularly concentrated in selected countries such as Iraq. The authors were able to identify specific sociopolitical risk factors for homicide occurrence, and for homicide rates at the country level.

  4. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by 222 Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  5. The United Nations Convention on Migrant Workers’ Rights. Obstacles, opportunities and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Guchteneire

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the obstacles encountered by the UN International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, the most comprehensive international treaty in the field of migration and human rights, which has however been ratified by only 39 states. It gathers evidence from major destination states in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas and outlines three main sources of difficulties stemming from the influence of market forces, security and sovereignty on migration policies. It concludes by an investigation of the place of the Convention and of migrants, rights in recent initiatives taken by the international community in the field of migration management

  6. [The management of foreign workers in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Valenti, Antonio; Persechino, Benedetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, the globalisation and important geopolitical changes have widened the spatial boundaries of international migrations which have reached a so global scope today that they influence the economic, political and social trend of countries of origin, transit and destination. According to the UN, the international labour mobility involved more than 200 million people in 2010, that is approximately 10% of the world's total population. In Italy, in the beginning of 2010 foreign residents amounted to 4.2 million, that is to say, 7% of the total population (ISTAT, 2011). Host countries have been forced to implement a series of policies aimed at combating illegal immigration and employment of foreign people. Special attention must be given to the issue of migrant workers who have become increasingly important actors in the social and productive sectors and, as a consequence, the need for preventive and protective measures taking into consideration the specific work-related hazards is growing more and more urgent. With this respect, the regulatory framework for occupational health and safety now contains explicit references to migrant workers as provided in the Leg. Decree 81/08 with subsequent integrations and modifications. First of all, the issue of occupational health and safety for migrant workers must take into account of the linguistic, social and cultural problems of the different ethnical groups that are present in our country.

  7. Information seeking, technology use, and vulnerability among migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo; Guajardo, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Through interviews with migrants and migrant aid-workers at a shelter in the border town of Nogales, Mexico, we examine how undocumented migrants are seeking, acquiring, understanding, and using information prior to, and during, migration across the U.S.-Mexico border. Our study examines migrants’

  8. 78 FR 41412 - National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: August 19, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. August 20... related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families and to formulate...

  9. 78 FR 69700 - National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: December 10, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. December 11... issues related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families, and to...

  10. 77 FR 67014 - National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Migrant Health. Dates and Times: December 4, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. December 5... related to the health of migrant and seasonal agricultural workers and their families and to formulate...

  11. Assessment of internal dose caused by uranium isotopes for workers in the phosphatic industry using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Sakhita, Kh.; Al-Dallal, Z.

    2007-04-01

    There is probability of exposure to uranium for workers in the phosphate industry (Internal exposure) by inhalation, and the deposition of this uranium in organs and tissues, and the consequence excretion out of the body by perspiration or urine. This study focuses on the determination of uranium in urine samples of workers .some results seem to be higher than the detection limit of the method, therefore routine monitoring is required for those workers.(Author)

  12. Updated Mortality Analysis of Radiation Workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice Jr JD, Colen SS, Mumma MT, Ellis ED, Eckerman DF, Leggett RW, Boecker BB, Brill B, Henderson BE

    2011-08-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 46,970 workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). Overall, 5,801 workers were involved in radiation activities, including 2,232 who were monitored for intakes of radionuclides, and 41,169 workers were engaged in rocket testing or other non-radiation activities. The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought, updated and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). Because only negligible exposures were received by the 247 workers monitored for radiation activities after 1999, the mean dose from external radiation remained essentially the same at 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv) as reported previously, as did the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined at 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional 9 years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation for the radiation workers by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included external comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models and the computation of relative risks (RRs). A low SMR for all causes of death (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.78-0.85) continued to indicate that the Rocketdyne radiation workers were healthier than the general population and were less likely to die. The SMRs for all cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all

  13. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced th...

  14. The Emerging Workforce of International University Student Workers: Injury Experience in an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Thamrin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available International university students are a growing section of the workforce and are thought to be at greater risk of injury. Qualitative studies have highlighted vulnerabilities, but there is a shortage of quantitative research exploring the injury experience and associated risk factors of this emerging issue. In this study, a total of 466 university student workers across a range of study programs in a single Australian university completed an online survey, with questions relating to their background, working experience, training and injury experience. Risk factors for injury were explored in a multivariate statistical model. More than half had not received any safety training before they started work, and 10% reported having had a work injury. About half of these injuries occurred after training. Statistically significant risk factors for injury included working more than 20 h per week (adjusted odds ratio 2.20 (95% CI 1.03–4.71 and lack of confidence in discussing safety issues (AOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.13–4.16. The findings suggest the need for a more engaging and effective approach to safety education and a limit on working hours. This situation is a moral challenge for universities, in that they are effectively sponsoring young workers in the community. It is recommended that longitudinal studies of international student workers be conducted.

  15. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose to Nuclear Medicine Workers at Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asawarattanapakdee, J.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Kanchanaphiboon, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Every type of work performed in a nuclear medicine department will make a contribution to both external and internal exposure of the worker. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of internal contamination to staff members during nuclear medicine practices and to conclude about the requirement of a routine internal monitoring. Following the method describes in the ICRP Publication 78 and the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS- G-1.2, in vivo thyroid bioassays using NaI(Tl) thyroid probe were performed to determine the intake estimates on 7 groups of nuclear medicine personnel working with I-131 and Tc-99m, based on working conditions and amount of radionuclides being handled. Frequency of measurements was between 7 and 14 days. These include (1) physicians and physicists, (2) radiochemists (3) technologists, (4) nurses and assistant nurses, (5) imaging room assistants, (6) hot lab workers and (7) hospital ward housekeepers/cleaners. Among all workers, the intake estimates of I-131 in the thyroid ranged from 0 to 76.7 kBq and of the technetium-99m from 0 to 35.4 MBq. The mean committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from both I-131 and Tc-99m were 0.63, 1.44 0.53, 0.57, 0.73, 0.98, and 1.36, mSv, for group 1 through group 7 respectively. However, the highest mean CEDE of 1.44 (max. 1.75) and 1.36 (max. 2.11) mSv observed in groups of radiochemists and hospital ward housekeepers were within the permissible level. Our results showed that CEDE for internal exposure in this study were less than investigate level of 5 mSv according to the ICRP Publication 78 and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. However, the mean CEDE for radiochemists and hospital ward housekeepers were considered in exceed of the limits of recording level (1 mSv).The increasing use of I-131 and Tc-99m in nuclear medicine poses significant risks of internal exposure to the staff. This study suggests that a routine monitoring program for internal exposures should be implemented for

  16. Whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N.; Cunha, P.G.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Bertelli, L.N.; Fonseca, A.M.G.; Ramalho, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers has recently been added to the Bioassay Division of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IRD/CNEN). For the last two years the laboratory has been monitoring personnel involved in uranium mining and milling activities, monazite industry workers and nuclear medicine staff dealing with iodine-131 and technetium-99. Uptakes of radionuclides by the different organs and also dose equivalents are evaluated through the use of mathematical models. The IRD whole-body counter unit was specially designed to detect a variety of internally deposited radionuclides which emit photons in the energy range of 15 keV to 3 MeV. It consists of a monitoring room (2.5x2.5x2.5 m internal dimension), with 0.15 m thick steel walls, internally lined with 0.3 cm lead, 0.15 cm cadmium and 0.05 cm thick copper sheets. The facility is equipped with three different size NaI(T1) detectors and three 12.7 cm diameter phoswich detectors. (author)

  17. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among workers at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anino, J O; Afullo, A; Otieno, F

    2010-02-01

    Occupational noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) occurs among workers exposed to excessive amounts of noise for long durations. The average level of noise in some locations at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) was above the safe limit of 85dB hence workers were thought to be at risk. To determine the occurrence and socio demographic attributes for NIHL at JKIA. Cross sectional descriptive study. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya. Mean age of respondents was 37 years with range 22 to 62, SD 8.98. Mean duration of exposure to noise was 10.7 years with range 1 to 40, SD 8.15. Prevalence of NIHL was 15.3%, with ground crew at 14.8% and air crew 16.1%. Ground crew had significantly poorer mean hearing threshold level at 3, 4 and 6 kHz than air crew (p = 0.015). Male workers were affected more than female counterparts with a male to female ratio of 4:3. 97% of those affected were non-managers, 3% managers while 68% of those affected resided in Embakasi Division close to the airport. Hearing threshold level at 4 kHz deteriorated with increasing age whereby those aged 50 years and above had a 13.7 times higher relative risk than those aged 20 to 29 years. Duration of exposure more than 10 years also had significantly higher risk (p hearing loss at 4 kHz. Occupational noise induced hearing loss occurs atJKIA and that ground crew and older workers are more vulnerable. We recommend that prevention programmes be put in place.

  18. Community participation of cross-border migrants for primary health care in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirilak, Supakit; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Chatchaiyalerk, Surut; Tornee, Songpol; Siri, Sukhontha

    2013-09-01

    This is the first report of the large-scale utilization of migrants as health volunteers in a migrant primary-healthcare program. The program recruited migrants who volunteered to serve their communities. This study explores the identities of these volunteers, their relationship with program management, and their attitudes. The study also investigates the impact of the volunteers, from the migrants' and healthcare workers' perspective. The study was conducted in two provinces, Tak (northern Thailand) and Samut Sakhon (central Thailand). Primary and secondary information was collected. Mixed methods, comprising in-depth interviews, observation and questionnaires, were used to gather primary data from three groups of participants-migrant volunteers, migrants and healthcare workers. Secondary data, and in-depth interviews with healthcare workers, showed that migrant volunteers made a significant contribution to the provision of both preventive and curative services. The quantitative study covered 260 migrant volunteers and 446 migrants. The results found that <5% of volunteers were selected by the community. Almost all attended a training course. Most were assigned to be health communicators; four stated they did nothing. Volunteers' attitudes were very positive. Most migrants reported that the volunteers' work was useful. It was concluded that the migrant health-volunteer program did help deal with migrant health problems. However, management of the program should be closely considered for more effective outcomes.

  19. Determination of intake and internal radiation dose for occupationally exposed workers to iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.; Sadyya, A.

    2004-12-01

    Workers who prepare and inject radioactive Iodine I 131 doses at the medical centers in Syria are potentially exposed to the radioactive intake by ingestion or inhalation during preparation or injection processes. The received amount of the radioactive intake differs according to the amount of the I 131 that released during the preparation or injection processes, and to the work conditions and the applying ways of the radiation protection principles. Because of this radioactive intake, the thyroid gland may expose to amounts of I 131 which may negatively affect the health of the workers, so it is necessary to make routine monitoring for all workers who receive an intake of more than 10% of the annual intake limit which is (2*10 6 Bq/y) for I 131 . To make this monitoring process, it is necessary to use either the thyroid gland counter in order to know the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in the gland, or the analysis of a 24 hours urine sample of the exposed workers to determine the eliminated amount of the radioactivity using gamma spectrometry, also the two processes can be applied at the same time. Since the thyroid gland counter is not available, the analysis of urine sample was done to determine the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in urine, then to estimate the radioactive intake and the internal radioactive dose. The results of applying this method dictated that some workers work in safe conditions according to the radiation protection and there is no need for them to make routine monitoring . But the other workers receive a radioactive intake of about 10% yearly of the annual intake limit and that requires a routine periodical monitoring for those workers in addition to the necessity of applying the principles of the radiation protection during the work with I 131 . These principles and systems should indicate the basic requirement of radiation protection that must be available in the laboratory that deal with I 131 either for therapy or for

  20. Updated mortality analysis of radiation workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, John; Cohen, Sarah; Mumma, Michael; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Boecker, Bruce; Brill, Bertrand; Henderson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 5,801 radiation workers, including 2,232 monitored for radionuclide intakes, and 41,169 non-radiation workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). The mean dose from external radiation was 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv), and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional nine years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models. All cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all cancers excluding leukemia, the relative risk (RR) at 100 mSv was estimated as 0.98 (95% CI 0.82-1.17) and for all leukemia other than CLL it was 1.06 (95% CI 0.50-2.23). Uranium was the primary radionuclide contributing to internal exposures, but significant increases in lung and kidney disease were not seen. The extended follow-up re-enforces the findings in the previous study in failing to observe a detectable increase in cancer deaths associated with radiation, but strong conclusions still cannot be drawn because of small numbers and relatively low career doses. Larger

  1. Sexospécificités, travailleuses migrantes transfrontalières et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... study of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Papers. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Reports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  2. 29 CFR 500.120 - Insurance policy or liability bond is required for each vehicle used to transport any migrant or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle used to transport any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker. 500.120 Section 500.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...

  3. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  4. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  5. Can International Human Rights Law Help Restore Access to Justice for Disabled Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Harwood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research literature indicates that legislative changes in recent years, including the introduction of tribunal fees, have made it harder for workers in general to enforce their rights under UK employment laws. Drawing on the author’s qualitative study, conducted in 2015 and with information from 265 participants, this paper finds that these legislative changes could be having disproportionate adverse impacts on disabled workers. Of particular note, fees had deterred substantial numbers from submitting discrimination claims; and it appeared that this reluctance to take legal action had in turn emboldened some employers to commit what might have been found to constitute unlawful acts if taken to tribunal. The paper goes onto consider whether these adverse impacts on disabled workers could render fees unlawful under UK and European equality and human rights law and/or could entail violations of rights under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper concludes that the intent behind UK laws might (in relation to the lawfulness of fees have been frustrated in the domestic courts and that the impact of any future successes in the domestic courts, or under international law, might be dependent upon public opinion and political expediency. The paper also briefly compares developments in Britain with developments in neighbouring and other comparable jurisdictions.

  6. Returnees, Student-Migrants and Second Chance Learners: Case Studies of Positional and Transformative Outcomes of Australian International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Shanthi; Hoare, Lynnel; Harwood, Aramiha

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new research into the work and life outcomes for graduates of Australian international education. Drawing upon divergent post-study transitions, this article aims to present a multi-faceted, qualitative foundation for the consideration of both positional and transformative impacts of international education on graduates'…

  7. Migrants' dreams and planners' nightmares: international labour migration in the Arab world and the growth of two sets of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, A M

    1985-11-01

    "The author investigates how trends in international labour migration in the Arab world have been paralleled by new directions in migration research....[She] seeks to evaluate why the urban impact of international migration is so great and outlines the considerable potential which exists for pursuing research on this aspect of urban development." excerpt

  8. Epidemiological study of workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva Canu, I.

    2008-09-01

    This work is a pilot-study among nuclear fuel cycle workers potentially exposed to alpha radiation. Internal exposure from inhalation of uranium compounds during uranium conversion and enrichment operations was estimated at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant. A plant specific semi-quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) was elaborated for 2709 workers employed at this plant between 1960 and 2006. The JEM has permitted to estimate the exposure to uranium and 16 other categories of pollutants and to calculate individual cumulative exposure score. Numerous correlations were detected between uranium compounds exposure and exposure to other pollutants, such as asbestos, ceramic refractive fibers, TCE and so on. 1968-2005 mortality follow-up showed an increasing risk of mortality from pleural cancer, rectal cancer and lymphoma on the basis of national mortality rates. Analyses of association between cancer mortality and uranium exposure suggested an increase in mortality due to lung cancer among workers exposed to slowly soluble uranium compounds derived from natural and reprocessed uranium. However these results are not statistically significant and based on a small number of observed deaths. These results are concordant with previously reported results from other cohorts of workers potentially exposed to uranium. Experimental studies of biokinetic and action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium oxides bear the biological plausibility of the observed results. Influence of bias was reduced by taking into account of possible confounding including co-exposure to other carcinogenic pollutants and tobacco consumption in the study. Nevertheless, at this stage statistical power of analyses is too limited to obtain more conclusive results. This pilot study shows the interest and feasibility of an epidemiological investigation among workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium and other alpha emitters at the national level. It demonstrates the importance of exposure assessment for

  9. INTERNET FORUM AS AN ENVIRONMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF MARRIED COUPLES FROM THE FAMILIES OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN A SITUATION OF FORCED SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko Valentina Vasilievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the psychological characteristics of communication of forum members concerning the situation of forced separation of married couples in a situation of labor migration. Practical relevance and novelty of the work is to identify opportunities of the Internet environment for psychological support for migrant workers’ families. Through the method of content analysis of materials of the Internet forums, the motives for applying for psychological support of family members to the participants of virtual communication in the situations of labor migration are identified, the reactions of the forum members on the suggested topics are analyzed. It is noted that the actuality of applying to the Internet resources often occurs at the stage of taking a decision of labor migration, rarely - at the stage of separation, as a rule, by the remaining partner. Most forum members assess a situation of going of one of the partners to work critically, describing negative scenarios. The article deals with coping strategies described on the forum which are estimated as the point of support, the expansion of psychological experience in a situation of forced separation. The examples of adaptive, not adaptive or relatively adaptive coping mechanisms implemented by the Forum members are given. The final conclusion of the article is an overview of possibility of communication in the Internet forums to search for effective strategies for coping with the situation of forced separation due to migration.

  10. Highly Skilled Migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    . It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...... for the highly skilled migrants to fully contribute to the Gulf economies....

  11. Adaptation of Rural and Foreign Workers to Industry, International Joint Seminar (Wiesbaden, December 10-13, 1963). Final Report. International Seminars 1963-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The major purpose of a seminar held in Wiesbaden, Germany, was to exchange experiences and views on the methods of expediating adjustment of rural and foreign workers to industry. Major presentations for discussion were "Internal Migration" by Magda Talamo, and "International Migration" by Elie Dimitras. Some conclusions were:…

  12. Migrant women: issues in organization and solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Castro, M

    1986-01-01

    To understand the situation of migrant women and their increased vulnerability, it is necessary to consider the structural factors--economic, political, and cultural--that have impelled the movement of labor, and specifically of women, from developing to developed, and also within capitalist countries. Unequal access to land and other resources has been the historic cause of rural men and women migrating, but it is the internationalization of former agrarian economies and their increased dependence on the world economic system that stand out as important new factors. In the US, about 40% of the women in domestic service work are Black women and the rest are predominantly foreigners, especially Latin Americans, Caribbeans, and to a lesser degree, Asians. Contrary to the myth that migrant women have been a passive labor force, the history of the garment industry shows that they have been in the forefront of labor issues in many developed nations. There is a need to guarantee conditions that will enable women to organize and work in labor and migrant organizations and still protect their special characteristics as women. Women migrants, because of their conditions as women and because of their status as citizens without citizenship, especially when they are undocumented, are greatly in need of a solidarity group to educate national populations of migrant worker's rights. It is essential to guarantee the autonomy of migrant women's organization without interfering with their specific demands, considering their race, nationality, and social class.

  13. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  14. Informal networks, phones and Facebook : Information seeking and technology use by undocumented migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Through semi-structured interviews with recently deported and other migrants and migrant aid-workers at a shelter in the border town of Nogales, Mexico, we examine how undocumented migrants are seeking, acquiring, understanding, and using information prior to, and during, migration across the

  15. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  16. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiang Guo

    Full Text Available Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS. Effort-reward imbalance (ERI, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout.Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy.Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  17. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of 131I in aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B.

    2014-08-01

    131 I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of 131 I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of 131 I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of 131 I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, 131 I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m 3 . This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m 3 . Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, 131 I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10 -5 mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of 131 I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the

  18. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of {sup 131}I in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B., E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    {sup 131}I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of {sup 131}I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of {sup 131}I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of {sup 131}I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, {sup 131}I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m{sup 3}. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m{sup 3}. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, {sup 131}I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10{sup -5} mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific

  19. Chinese Women Migrants and the Social Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    Au Loong-Yu; Nan Shan

    2007-01-01

    Au Loong-yu and Nan Shan examine the conditions of the women among the 150 million migrant workers who have left the rural areas in search of jobs in China. They underline that fierce social regression has accompanied Chinese enormous economic growth where women migrants particularly are exploited in ‘the ‘world's greatest sweatshop’. They argue that hukou system or household registration has proved to be as useful to ‘capitalist construction’ as it once was for ‘socialist construction’. It n...

  20. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers - regulation and practice in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Kocsy, G.; Pellet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decree of Ministry of Health for the enforcement of the Act on Atomic Energy has put special emphasis on the regulation of monitoring for internal exposure in Hungary. The necessarily general prescription of the Decree 'In case of the possibility or suspicion of incorporating open radioactive substances the affected employee shall be subjected to internal contamination monitoring. The obligation of the internal monitoring shall be determined by the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the National Public Health and Medical Officer's Service' called for a guidance to assist the work of the competent authority. The guide was elaborated on the basis of the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2. According to the Safety Guide the decision factor shall first be determined for the potential radionuclides and practice applied. For routine monitoring the required frequency, method and MDA values, moreover for special monitoring the method and MDA values were derived for over 40 radionuclides considering the following two basic assumptions: the activity remaining in or excreted from the body could be determined by the given measurement method, the possible underestimation of intake shall be less than a factor of three within the monitoring interval. The following prescription of the Decree 'The laboratory performing the monitoring of internal exposure shall be accredited' has raised a conflict in practice. To solve the problem the Guide suggests a two-step monitoring process: a screening measurement for the possible internal contamination performed by the Radiation Protection Service of the workplace by any equipment used in daily practice for investigation of patients, radiation protection purposes, etc., if the result of screening indicates an internal contamination the radiation worker shall be monitored by an accredited laboratory. As an ISO Standard in process has several assumptions differing from the IAEA Safety Guide, e.g. the limitation of 'maximum potential

  1. The legal and ethical aspects of the right to health of migrants in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Kurt, Stefanie; Leyvraz, Didier; Sprumont, Dominique

    The right to health of migrant populations, whether they are foreign nationals, foreign workers, tourists, asylum seekers or refugees, is enshrined in international human rights treaties. The effectiveness of the implementation of this fundamental right thus lies in national legal frameworks. In spite of its long humanitarian tradition, Switzerland has a strict migration policy, and while it has established a non-discriminatory legal framework for the protection and promotion of the right to health, its laws and regulations sometimes codify differences in treatment between foreign nationals and Swiss residents based on distinct situations. On the basis of shared responsibilities between the Federal State and the 26 cantons, this article describes the Swiss legal and regulatory approach to the right to health, the ways it is currently implemented and the possible vectors for an improved integration of migrants into the health system.

  2. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  3. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-15

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  4. Regulating Migrant Domestic Work in the Netherlands: Opportunities and Pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walsum, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the Netherlands, migrant domestic workers are currently campaigning on various fronts for better rights: for protection of their rights as workers; for claims to social security; for the right to reside and work in the Netherlands. Since 2006, they have received support from the Dutch

  5. Three Types of Social Integration Status among Children of Migrant Workers in China: Scenes of Superiority of City Residents, Co-Existence of Urban Culture and Rural Hometown Culture, and Weak Social Capital under Strong Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Based on surveys and field work conducted in District C of Beijing City, the author identifies migrant children's social assimilation obstacles according to distinct school types: each school type offers different quality educational resources and is composed of migrant students at different socioeconomic levels. The survey data show that migrant…

  6. The Use of Migrant Labour — Threat or Advantage for Russian Economical Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Aleksandrovna Koretskaya-Garmash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a relevant problem of labour migration, the potentially possible threats and advantages of attracting and using of foreign migrant labour in the framework of the Russian economy are considered. The purpose of this work is to establish the how the migration processes influence over the current state of the Russian economy, and whether it is possible to meet the demand in the labour force by attracting labour migrants. The research method is the analysis of the statistical indicators of the Russian regions’ development, of demographic, migratory and financial situations in the Russian Federation. The results of the study are presented in the form of a quantitative assessment of the potential threats to the internal market due to the use of external migrant labour, which has already led to the Russian economic disruption, the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the growth of current account deficit, the load on the pension system of Russia. Therefore, we must not forget the positive aspects — rejuvenation of the age composition of the population, occupation of vacant jobs by the workers in the disadvantaged Russian regions, the increasing size of tax revenues to the Russian budget system by filing patents on employment activity. The presented results of the study can be used by public authorities in the migration policy, labour and social work for the development of the state programme stimulating internal and external migrants for employment in the regions with a shortage of manpower. The conducted research allows to define the relationship between labour migrants and economic activity of local population, to characterize the reasons of external labour migration and to analyse the consequences of migration for the host country

  7. Ten years' experience in determining internal contamination among plutonium laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.; Fieuw, G.

    1976-01-01

    Glove boxes in plutonium laboratories are fitted with ''sniffers'' (air samplers), which evaluate atmospheric contamination. The results of the measurements over a ten-year period of operation are available, and cases of detection in this way of air contamination exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations are exceptional. During contamination aerodynamic particle diameters of 1 - 4 μm were measured. The concentration and characteristics of the aerosol have made it possible to ascertain the inhalable fraction and to estimate the pulmonary and systemic burden in workers. The workers exposed in the laboratories undergo a urine test each month. The results obtained show that there is little risk of internal contamination without the person concerned being aware of an abnormal situation. In the majority of cases it is possible to take proper precautions and to collect the data necessary for evaluating the body burden. Three cases of specific contamination are examined in detail: contamination by plutonium and americium from a non-identified source, detected by routine urine analysis; contamination by inhalation of plutonium; an injury to the left forefinger, accompanied by plutonium contamination. (author)

  8. Sexual behaviour among casual workers in an international nightlife resort: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young holidaymakers report increased sexual risk-taking abroad, yet little is currently known about the sexual behaviour of those who extend time abroad through casual work. Methods Information on sexual behaviour was collected via an anonymous questionnaire administered to British bar and nightclub workers in Ibiza (cases, n = 92 and British people visiting Ibiza for holiday purposes only (controls, n = 868. Results Four in five (80.5% cases who arrived in Ibiza without a partner had sex during their stay and of these two thirds (65.5% had unprotected sex. Cases were more likely to report sexual risk-taking in Ibiza than controls and reported greater numbers of sexual partners prior to their visit. However, they had fewer sexual partners per week of stay. Conclusion Casual workers in bars and nightclubs abroad are a key risk group for sexual health and a potential conduit for the international spread of sexually transmitted infections. While they are an important target group for sexual health promotion, appropriately trained they are also ideally placed to deliver sexual health interventions to other young travellers.

  9. International and national regulation of migrant workers and lessons to be learnt from migrant worker programmes in the United States of America and Germany : [bakalaureusetöö] / Maria Vassiljeva ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Ilon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vassiljeva, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Välistööjõuga seotud õiguslikud probleemid, välistöötajate õigused, ILO 3 konventsiooni, ÜRO konventsioon, ülevaade Saksamaa (Gastarbeiter programm) ja Ameerika Ühendriikide (Bracero programm) kogemustest, ülevaade Eesti õigusaktidest

  10. Cohort mortality study of garment industry workers exposed to formaldehyde: update and internal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alysha R; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J

    2013-09-01

    To further evaluate the association between formaldehyde and leukemia, we extended follow-up through 2008 for a cohort mortality study of 11,043 US formaldehyde-exposed garment workers. We computed standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios stratified by year of first exposure, exposure duration, and time since first exposure. Associations between exposure duration and rates of leukemia and myeloid leukemia were further examined using Poisson regression models. Compared to the US population, myeloid leukemia mortality was elevated but overall leukemia mortality was not. In internal analyses, overall leukemia mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and this trend was statistically significant. We continue to see limited evidence of an association between formaldehyde and leukemia. However, the extended follow-up did not strengthen previously observed associations. In addition to continued epidemiologic research, we recommend further research to evaluate the biological plausibility of a causal relation between formaldehyde and leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cancer mortality in an international cohort of reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene: a reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Guha, Neela; Kogevinas, Manolis; Fontana, Vincenzo; Gennaro, Valerio; Kolstad, Henrik A; McElvenny, Damien Martin; Sallmén, Markku; Saracci, Rodolfo

    2018-04-17

    To investigate the carcinogenicity of styrene by reanalysing data from a previous international cohort study of workers in the reinforced plastics industry. Mortality from cancers of prior interest was analysed with more detailed consideration of exposure-response relations and an updated classification of leukaemias and lymphomas in data from a previous international cohort study of 37 021 reinforced plastics workers exposed to airborne styrene. Increased mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was associated with the mean level of exposure to styrene in air (relative risk (RR) 2.31, 95% CI 1.29 to 4.12 per 100 ppm), but not with cumulative styrene exposure. Similar associations with mean exposure were observed for the oesophagus (RR 2.44, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.36 per 100 ppm) and pancreas (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.09). Oesophageal cancer mortality was also associated with cumulative styrene exposure lagged 20 years (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.31). No other cancer, including lung cancer, was associated with any indicator of styrene exposure. This reanalysis does not substantially change the conclusions of the original study with respect to NHL or lung cancer but new evidence concerning cancers of the oesophagus and pancreas merits further investigation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  13. Effects of knowledge and internal locus of control in groups of health care workers judging likelihood of pathogen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Walsh, Fran; Bryant, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    A study was conducted to measure the effects of attitudes and beliefs on the risk judgments of health care workers. Lack of hand hygiene compliance is a worldwide issue in health care, contributing to infections, fatalities, and increased health care costs. Human factors methods are a promising solution to the problem of compliance, although thus far, the concentration has been on process and engineering methods, such as the design of no-touch sinks. Factors internal to the health care worker, such as their attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene, have received less attention. For this study, three groups of health care workers completed measures of attitudes, control beliefs, and hand hygiene knowledge. They then provided risk judgments of touching various surfaces via a factorial survey. Attitudes, knowledge, control beliefs, and surface type all predicted the risk judgments of the sample of health care workers, with differences between professional groups. Health care workers perceive less risk when touching surfaces,which may explain historically low rates of hand hygiene compliance after surface contact. Although more research is needed to directly connect risk judgments to failures of hand hygiene, the current results can inform interventions targeting the internal attitudes and beliefs of health care workers.

  14. Beyond Nationality: Dispatches from Immigrant Workers in the Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ABRANTES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on migration policy, social structures and labour market dynamics underlines the persistent vulnerability of immigrants in the labour market of contemporary western societies. However, little attention has been paid to the diverse manners in which these factors overlap in the life of migrants moving within the same origin and destination settings. This article examines the case of Brazilian-born migrants working in Amsterdam, drawing on the analysis of statistical data, policy documents and fifteen life stories. It starts by explaining the aim of the research and the choice of origin and destination units. Findings are organized according to four key elements: legal status, gender, year of arrival, and occupation. It is argued that these elements comprise increasing differentiation mechanisms and provide an improved notion of what is at stake for migrant workers dwelling in the global city. The main conclusion is that international borders are undergoing a significant reorganization in their daily operation, in particular due to concomitant changes in migration law and flexibility strategies in the labour market. Reinforcement of distinct categories of migrants, expansion of rights for relatives or civil partners of European Union citizens and increasing pressure over undocumented workers require future research to consider whether migration policy is being replaced by a global order of human selection owing more to social and economic profile than nationality.

  15. Psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and burnout among international humanitarian aid workers: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lopes Cardozo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. OBJECTIVES: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. RESULTS: Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80% post-deployment; and 154 (73% within 3-6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8% participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8% at post-deployment (p = 0.0027; 22 (10.4% reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5% at post-deployment (p = 0.0117 and 31 (20.1% at follow-up (p = .00083. History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-12.50 contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17-1.83. Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.02-1.20 comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.19. Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0.9; 95% CI 0.84-0.95, psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85-0.97, burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.98, and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213. CONCLUSIONS: When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should

  16. The effects of social connections on self-rated physical and mental health among internal migrant and local adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Zheng-hong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China is in the midst of history's largest flow of rural-urban migration in the world; a flow that includes growing numbers of children and adolescents. Their health status is an important public health issue. This study compares self-rated physical and mental health of migrant and local adolescents in China, and examines to what extent layered social connections account for health outcomes. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among middle school students in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. Information about health status, social connections, and demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire survey. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, we used the t-test, Chi-square analysis, and a series of regression models to compare differences in health outcomes and explore the effects of social connections. Results Migrant adolescents reported significantly higher rates of good physical health. However, they also had significantly fewer social connections, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression than their native peers. Family cohesion was associated with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem among all adolescents; peer association and social cohesion played major roles in migrants' well-being. Gender, age, and socioeconomic (SES factors also affected adolescents' self-rated physical and mental health. Conclusions Self-rated data suggest that migrant adolescents enjoy a physical health advantage and a mental health disadvantage. Layered social connections, such as peer association and social cohesion, may be particularly important for migrants. A public health effort is required to improve the health status of migrant youth.

  17. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  18. International Migrant Remittances in the Context of Economic and Social Sustainable Development. A Comparative Study of Romania-Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela Haller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic stability is the main goal of every country’s administration, contributing to the decrease of uncertainty, creating an attractive business environment, attracting foreign direct investment and contributing to economic growth, which increases the standard of living, reduces income inequalities, represents a sustainable development for the country and puts an end to the migration process. Migration flows lower the demographic resources of the states going through this process and consequently they compromise the possibility for future generations to support a sustainable economic growth. Migration is a process with an aggressive and alarming manifestation in Romania and Bulgaria, raising the problem of the future capacity of these countries to ensure long-term economic and social sustainability and requiring an analysis framework from a scientific perspective. The current study proposes a comparative study to identify the important determinants of international migration in the EU28 and analyses the impact of remittances on economic growth/stability and income inequality in Romania and Bulgaria—Central and Eastern Europe countries—for the period between 1990 and 2015. The main contribution of the present study consists in emphasising the common determinants of the two countries regarding the migration process and at the same time providing solutions to improve government policies to contribute to the economic and social sustainability. The authors employed a multiple regression model and the correlation analysis, and tested 8 hypotheses for Romania and Bulgaria. The results indicated that the main determinants of the migration process in Romania and Bulgaria are the inflation rate, the income inequality and household consumption expenditure. Furthermore, the results indicated that there is not a direct relationship between the remittances received/capita and GDP/capita growth rate in Romania and Bulgaria. In addition, there is a

  19. Psychopathology in a migrant population visiting a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navkiran S Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration is a risk factor for psychosis in international migrants. Objectives: We compared the psychiatric morbidity in first and second generation interstate migrants in India. Methods: Psychiatric morbidity was assessed in 18-64-year-old first and second generation migrants of both the gender using Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview. Total 70 subjects were included in the study. Males and females of both the generation compared. Results: Mood disorders are found to be most common disorder in second generation migrants. Where females of second generation migrants have a major depressive episode with melancholic features, as compared to males who have manic episode significantly higher in second generation migrants. Conclusion: Migration is a risk factor for mood disorders especially in second generation migrants. As adversity of migration, discrimination, and acculturation faced from birth and early life leads to higher rates of psychiatry morbidity in second generation migrants.

  20. Skilled migrants and the city : An analysis of housing careers in Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, C.

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of economic restructuring and the expansion of higher education, skilled migrants comprise an increasingly significant part of the internal migrant population. With the aim to settle down permanently in the city, skilled migrants need to be considered “prospective citizens”, who

  1. Les migrants de Beyrouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Deboulet

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin de la guerre (1990 l’importation d‘une main-d’œuvre peu qualifiée majoritairement féminine est devenue massive au Liban. Qu’ils soient en situation régulière ou non, des migrants non arabes dits « temporaires » ou « en transit », mais dont certains sont là depuis une dizaine d’années, ont fait leur entrée sur le marché du travail et tentent de s’inscrire, pour nombre d’entre eux, dans un « milieu » aux identités multiples et conflictuelles dans des quartiers périphériques où il est plus facile de trouver à se loger. En s’appuyant sur des enquêtes de terrain menées dans la banlieue de Bourj-Hammoud à l’est de Beyrouth et dans les quartiers sud de Jnah et de Ouzaï, les auteures décrivent des situations migratoires qui sans être généralisables n’en sont pas moins exemplaires de la place de cette main-d’œuvre immigrée.Since the end of the war, in 1990, unqualified, mostly feminine, workers have been massively entering Lebanon. Whether they have regular registration or not, non-Arab, so-called ‘temporary’, or ‘transit’ migrants have entered the labour market, but some of them have been there for about ten years. Many try to join the mixed, full of conflicts environment of peripheral districts, in which it is easier to find housing. Using fieldwork they have been conducting in the Borj-Hamoud suburb, in the east of Beirut, and Jnah and Ouzaï, in the south, the authors describe migratory situations which, although they cannot be applied generally, are nevertheless a good example of the place held by these immigrant

  2. Migrants as Cheap Labourers in Europe: Towards Critical Assessment of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many “third country” migrants are recruited to the EU for unskilled labour, filling in positions that are unattractive to the “domestic” workforce. Current integration policies declare integration as a two-way process that should equalise migrants’ opportunities with those of the “nationals”. However, integration often appears blind to addressing specific migrant positions, in particular migrants as precarious and low-paid workers. This article discusses in a comparative perspective the precarious positions of migrants from “third countries” in six EU member states – Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia. The article first addresses most recent data on migrant populations and discusses the sectors of migrant work. The assumption is that current migration and integration policies are to a large extent devoid of the migrants’ own perceptions and needs. It is therefore pivotal for the presented argument to provide visibility of migrants and discuss their own living and working experiences. Considering migrants as “partners in communication”, the article analyses interviews and focus groups engaging 150 migrants that were conducted in the six countries in 2009. Attention is devoted to discussing the themes that emerge in migrant narratives, analysing the cross-country similarities and differences in the economies that are largely sustained by a migrant workforce. By exploring the precarious labour market experiences of migrants, the article questions the validity of the concept of integration that remains an important objective of current EU migration regimes.

  3. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Ros