WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal measuring apparatus

  1. Proposed apparatus for measuring internal friction in rocks at high temperatures and pressures: a design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.P.

    1977-10-03

    An apparatus is described that measures internal friction in rocks at high temperatures (approximately 800/sup 0/C) and pressures (approximately 1.0 GPa). Steady oscillations (approximately 1.0 Hz) are induced in a jacketed sample while coaxial capacitive transducers monitor the resulting radial strain. Sample strains are continuously compared to the deformation of a low-loss standard, which acts as a stress transducer. The stress state produced is uniaxial stress. We use the theory of viscoelasticity to partition the loss into components depending on pure shear and dilatation. The theoretical results emphasize the importance of ultimately measuring each loss independently.

  2. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  3. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  4. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  5. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  6. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  9. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  10. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  11. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  12. Manufacture of ultrasonic thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Yanagihara, Takao; Katoh, Chiaki; Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes in the acid recovery evaporator and short tubes used in corrosion test, we have developed ultra sonic thickness measuring apparatus using immersion method with high resolution. This apparatus can measure and record tube thickness automatically with a personal computer. The results obtained by this apparatus are coincident with the results obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  13. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  14. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  15. Apparatus and techniques for measuring bedload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, David Wellington

    1964-01-01

    The need for accurate determinations of the total sediment discharge of particles of bedload size has prompted this investigation of available and possible measuring apparatus and procedures. The accuracy of measurements of sediment discharge made with trap-type samplers is affected by the variability of sampler efficiency, by the oscillatory variation of bedload discharge, and by sampler placement. Equations that were developed for determining total discharge from measured bedioad discharge and measured suspended-sediment discharge are simplest if the bedload apparatus measures only the true bedload. Early bedload samplers are generally unsatisfactory. Recently developed or suggested apparatus include various improved samplers of the pressure-difference type, a pumping sampler, a magnetic sampler, acoustical instruments that measure the magnitude of the sound of particle collisions, an ultrasonic bedload sampler designed to measure and integrate electronically the concentration and velocity, and a tiltmeter designed to measure the total sediment discharge from the ground tilt that results from the passage of flow. All the pressure-difference samplers are improvements over early samplers, but none are void of the inherent shortcomings of trap-type apparatus; probably the Sphinx (Dutch) and VUV (Hungarian) samplers are the most satisfactory. The acoustical instruments are capable of measuring only the relative discharge. The ultrasonic sampler and the tiltmeter are not adequate without further development. Some new possible apparatus and means for measuring or aiding in measuring bedload discharge are small pit samplers, ultrasonic sounders, pressure transducers, and photography. A small pit sampler for measuring bedload discharge was designed to provide self-placement and portability ; however, its practicability and efficiency are undetermined. Exploratory films show that by using slowmotion photography the discharge of particles larger than about pea size can be

  16. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The apparatus will be used to make measurements on conductors which must operate in fields up to 7.0 T and rates of field change up to 15 T/s. The magnet for this facility is wound of uninsulated, 15 strand Rutherford cable in which the strand is a 0.812 mm diameter, fully mixed matrix, Cu plus CuNi, multifilament NbTi conductor. The coil is wound in a bath cooled configuration with an overall current density of 7.8 kA/cm/sup 2/. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  17. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  19. Microwave/Sonic Apparatus Measures Flow and Density in Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the rate of flow and the mass density of a liquid or slurry includes a special section of pipe instrumented with microwave and sonic sensors, and a computer that processes digitized readings taken by the sensors. The apparatus was conceived specifically for monitoring a flow of oil-well-drilling mud, but the basic principles of its design and operation are also applicable to monitoring flows of other liquids and slurries.

  20. Method and apparatus of measuring unburned carbon in fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus are shown to measure unburned carbon particles in the exhaust of a combustor. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure the presence of the unburned carbon. Especially helpful in these measurements is a vertically elongated photoacoustic cell in which high flow velocities are maintained to prevent particles from settling. These measurements are useful in determining the efficiency of coal-fired combustors.

  1. Nab: Measurement Principles, Apparatus and Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Pocanic, D; Alonzi, L P; Baessler, S; Balascuta, S; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Cianciolo, V; Crawford, C; Frlez, E; Gericke, M T; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Hersman, F W; Klein, A; Martín, J; Page, S A; Palladino, A; Penttila, S I; Rykaczewski, K P; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R; Young, G R

    2008-01-01

    The Nab collaboration will perform a precise measurement of 'a', the electron-neutrino correlation parameter, and 'b', the Fierz interference term in neutron beta decay, in the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the SNS, using a novel electric/magnetic field spectrometer and detector design. The experiment is aiming at the 10^{-3} accuracy level in (Delta a)/a, and will provide an independent measurement of lambda = G_A/G_V, the ratio of axial-vector to vector coupling constants of the nucleon. Nab also plans to perform the first ever measurement of 'b' in neutron decay, which will provide an independent limit on the tensor weak coupling.

  2. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, A.W.; Merkus, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    Described is a method for measuring the particle size of ultra-small particles (202) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121, 123) is guided via a first optical path (160) to a suspension (201), and light (125) scattered by the particles (202) in the suspension (201) is guided to an optical

  4. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  5. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Surface Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing (Inventor); Hu, Yongxiang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for remotely measuring surface air pressure. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention utilizes the steps of transmitting a signal having multiple frequencies into the atmosphere, measuring the transmitted/reflected signal to determine the relative received power level of each frequency and then determining the surface air pressure based upon the attenuation of the transmitted frequencies.

  6. An apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACFARLANE, R G; TOMLINSON, A H

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described which uses the principle of the ballistic pendulum to measure the tensile strength of blood clots formed in special cuvettes. The method appears to have a reproducibility which would allow a study to be made of the factors influencing clot strength. A brief survey of the findings with normal blood and with blood from cases of thrombosis and haemophilia shows significant differences between the mean values for each group.

  7. Apparatus designed for very accurate measurement of the optical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombini, Hervé; Voarino, Philippe

    2007-12-20

    The described instrument is a new reflectometer designed to check the normal specular reflectance of 40,000 reflectors necessary for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). This new reflectometer has a high accuracy over the 400-950 nm wavelength range and allows the delicate measurement of shaped parts. The measurements are relative and several reference mirrors, which are low loss dielectric mirrors [R(lambda)>99.9%], are used for the standardization. The apparatus gives an excellent repeatability (spectrophotometers, our facility and its components are described. The methodology of focusing and calibration are explained. The capabilities of our device are illustrated through some measurements realized on flat or shaped samples.

  8. High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus Based on Guarded Hot Plate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Magyarlaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    An alternative calibration procedure has been applied using apparatus built in-house, created to optimize thermal conductivity measurements. The new approach compared to those of usual measurement procedures of thermal conductivity by guarded hot plate (GHP) consists of modified design of the apparatus, modified position of the temperature sensors and new conception in the calculation method, applying the temperature at the inlet section of the specimen instead of the temperature difference across the specimen. This alternative technique is suitable for eliminating the effect of thermal contact resistance arising between a rigid specimen and the heated plate, as well as accurate determination of the specimen temperature and of the heat loss at the lateral edge of the specimen. This paper presents an overview of the specific characteristics of the newly developed "high-temperature thermal conductivity measurement apparatus" based on the GHP method, as well as how the major difficulties are handled in the case of this apparatus, as compared to the common GHP method that conforms to current international standards.

  9. Development of Portable Uranium Enrichment Measurement Apparatus With CdZnTe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A portable uranium enrichment measurement apparatus with CdZnTe detector manufactured by "eV Products" company was tested in this work. The apparatus consists of a co-planar grid detector based on

  10. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  11. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick W

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  12. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-03-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  13. An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hao; MENG; Yonggang; SU; Caijun; WEN; Shizhu

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode is described. The apparatus consists of 4 functional parts: piezoelectric actuator, capacitive displacement sensor, specimen gripping mechanism and optical microscope. The configurations and specifications of these parts are elucidated in detail.Specimens used for the tensile mechanical testing are fabricated with the photolithography process. By using this apparatus, the fatigue property of polysilicon films has been measured successfully.

  14. Development of a Handmade Conductivity Measurement Apparatus and Application to Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Kita, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple handmade conductivity measurement apparatus based on a Kohlrausch bridge with inexpensive materials. We have examined the reliability of this apparatus with standard solutions and then measured juices of vegetables and fruits as well as a sports drink. Comparisons to total alkali content as…

  15. An apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels at sub-ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Klünder, T.; Hegeman, I.; Tolboom, A.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A single-sided guarded-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels of sub-meter size at sub-ambient temperatures ranging from 250 to 300 K. This apparatus allows thermal conductivity measurements to be performed at large temperature differences

  16. Apparatus Measures Friction In Vacuum Or Pressurized Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    Friction-testing apparatus in small test chamber contains special atmosphere, which could include vacuum or pressurized gas. Provides readings indicative of friction between pin specimen and plate specimen sliding under pin in reciprocating linear motion. Pin and plate specimens made of same or different material.

  17. Simple multipurpose apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2016-01-01

    , solubility measurement of solid solutes in different solvents or solvent mixtures as a function of temperature can be of great significance to the university students and researchers. In this article, comparatively inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in pure or mixture......-hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures of varying composition at different temperatures to demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the proposed solubility measurement apparatus. The proposed apparatus has been used to conduct laboratory exercises in the course “Industrial Separation Technology” offered to undergraduate...

  18. Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

  19. [Building artificial neural networks model on portable NIR integrity wheat component measuring apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hai-yan; Wen, Ming; Hao, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis model of protein in integrity wheat was built by three layers back propagation artificial neural networks for portable near infrared (NIR) integrity wheat component measuring apparatus. The structure diagram of integrity wheat component measuring apparatus, light route structure of apparatus and the spectrum of integrity wheat were given in the present paper. The theory of artificial neural network was briefly introduced and the results of quantitative analysis model of protein were given. For calibration set and prediction set, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 and 0.96 respectively; the relative standard deviation is 3.77% and 4.46% respectively. Because of the influence of light route structure, electrical circuit, and integrity sample forms on the measuring apparatus, some nonlinearity exists between the spectral parameters and chemical values. The results of artificial neural networks nonlinear model were superior to linear model.

  20. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.

  1. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  2. Air method measurements of apple vessel length distributions with improved apparatus and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...

  3. Study on the Apparatus Accessory to Seal Radioactive Samples for XRD Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xie-chun; LUO; Fang-xiang; LI; Hui-rong; XIAO; Song-tao; YANG; He; LAN; Tian; MENG; Zhao-kai

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the principle of XRD determination, we tried to seal radioactive powder effectively when it was measured by XRD. After the measure- ments, we must make sure that the surroundings are not contaminated. Now, by a few times of modifica- tions, a suit of apparatus which is able to seal radio-

  4. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  5. Development of ultrasonic heat transfer tube thickness measurement apparatus. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Katoh, Chiaki; Yanagihara, Takao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suetugu, Hidehiko; Yano, Masaya [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes of the acid recovery evaporator in corrosion test, we have developed thickness measurement apparatus for heat transfer tubes by ultrasonic immersion method with high resolution. The ultrasonic prove in a heat transfer tube can be moved vertically and radially. The results obtained by this apparatus coincident well with those obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  6. Apparatus for accurate density measurements of fluids based on a magnetic suspension balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maoqiong; Li, Huiya; Guo, Hao; Dong, Xueqiang; Wu, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    A new apparatus for accurate pressure, density and temperature (p, ρ, T) measurements over wide ranges of (p, ρ, T) (90 K to 290 K; 0 MPa to 3 MPa; 0 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3) is described. This apparatus is based on a magnetic suspension balance which applies the Archimedes' buoyancy principle. In order to verify the new apparatus, comprehensive (p, ρ, T) measurements on pure nitrogen were carried out. The maximum relative standard uncertainty is 0.09% in density. The maximum standard uncertainty in temperature is 5 mK, and that in pressure is 250 Pa for 1.5 MPa and 390 Pa for 3MPa full scale range respectively. The experimental data were compared with selected literature data and good agreements were found.

  7. The design of high-temperature thermal conductivity measurements apparatus for thin sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Syamsul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the designing, constructing and validating processes of thermal conductivity apparatus using steady-state heat-transfer techniques with the capability of testing a material at high temperatures. This design is an improvement from ASTM D5470 standard where meter-bars with the equal cross-sectional area were used to extrapolate surface temperature and measure heat transfer across a sample. There were two meter-bars in apparatus where each was placed three thermocouples. This Apparatus using a heater with a power of 1,000 watts, and cooling water to stable condition. The pressure applied was 3.4 MPa at the cross-sectional area of 113.09 mm2 meter-bar and thermal grease to minimized interfacial thermal contact resistance. To determine the performance, the validating process proceeded by comparing the results with thermal conductivity obtained by THB 500 made by LINSEIS. The tests showed the thermal conductivity of the stainless steel and bronze are 15.28 Wm-1K-1 and 38.01 Wm-1K-1 with a difference of test apparatus THB 500 are −2.55% and 2.49%. Furthermore, this apparatus has the capability to measure the thermal conductivity of the material to a temperature of 400°C where the results for the thermal conductivity of stainless steel is 19.21 Wm-1K-1 and the difference was 7.93%.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size at low concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Willemse, A.W.; Roos, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Described is an improved method for measuring the particle size of ultrasmall particles (111) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121) is scattered by the particles, and the scattered light (122) is received by a light detector (131) which provides an electrical measuring signal (Sm) which

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...

  10. An apparatus for the specific heat measurement of undercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Gatewood, J. R.; Trinh, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a drop calorimeter with an electromagnetic levitator that was specifically built for enthalpy measurements of undercooled liquids, including high-melting-point metals. Design diagrams of this device and of a furnace for making a suspended drop are presented together with results of measurements on an aluminum sample.

  11. Retention curves measured using pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hjorslev

    This report presents a proposal for a test method for the measurement of the retention curve, especially in the high moisture content range, and the pore size distribution of building materials. The test method includes the measurement of apparent density, solid density, and open porosity. The re...

  12. Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  13. Apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, P.J.; Vreeken, V.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry, comprising a filtering element (3) and driving means (4, 5, 6) for driving the slurry into the filtering element. The filtering element is connected with discharge means (8, 9) for the

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt Ott, A.; Burtscher, H.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for measuring an elemental carbon content in an aerosol of soot particles by exposing the particles to ultraviolet radiation to induce photoelectron emission of the particles, wherein whilst the particles receive ultraviolet radiation the aero sol with

  15. Spectroscopy Apparatus for the Measurement of The Hyperfine Structure of Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Malbrunot, C; Diermaier, M; Dilaver, N; Friedreich, S; Kolbinger, B; Lehner, S; Lundmark, R; Massiczek, O; Radics, B; Sauerzopf, C; Simon, M; Widmann, E; Wolf, M; Wunschek, B; Zmeskal, J

    2014-01-01

    The ASACUSA CUSP collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic spectroscopy beamline. We describe here the latest developments on the spectroscopy apparatus developed to be coupled to the antihydrogen production setup (CUSP).

  16. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  17. A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, K.; Whitby, J.; Thomas, N.

    2004-03-01

    We have constructed an instrument to make full-hemisphere bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) laboratory measurements of terrestrial samples in order to validate BRDF models and help interpret data of solar system objects.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring particle size at low concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Willemse, A.W.; Roos, R A

    1997-01-01

    Described is an improved method for measuring the particle size of ultrasmall particles (111) which are suspended in a fluid. Laser light (121) is scattered by the particles, and the scattered light (122) is received by a light detector (131) which provides an electrical measuring signal (Sm) which is representative of the intensity of the scattered light (122). According to the present invention, signal components with a relatively low characteristic frequency are removed from the electrical...

  19. Ancilla-assisted calibration of a measuring apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, G; Ciavarella, L; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Migdall, A; Mingolla, M G; Paris, M G A; Piacentini, F; Polyakov, S V

    2012-06-22

    A quantum measurement can be described by a set of matrices, one for each possible outcome, which represents the positive operator-valued measure (POVM) of the sensor. Efficient protocols of POVM extraction for arbitrary sensors are required. We present the first experimental POVM reconstruction that takes explicit advantage of a quantum resource, i.e., nonclassical correlations with an ancillary state. A POVM of a photon-number-resolving detector is reconstructed by using strong quantum correlations of twin beams generated by parametric down-conversion. Our reconstruction method is more statistically robust than POVM reconstruction methods that use classical input states.

  20. An experimental apparatus for measuring the Casimir effect at large distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, P; Carugno, G; Messineo, G [INFN sez di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bimonte, G [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli Federico II Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Bressi, G [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Galeazzi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ruoso, G, E-mail: Giuseppe.Ruoso@lnl.infn.i [INFN Lab. Naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2009-04-01

    An experimental set-up for the measurement of the Casimir effect at separations larger than a few microns is presented. The apparatus is based on a mechanical resonator and uses a homodyne detection technique to sense the Casimir force in the plane-parallel configuration. First measurements in the 3-10 micrometer range show an unexpected large force probably due to patch effects.

  1. Committee for international collaborative research of medical and welfare apparatus; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper summarized activities for an investigational study on the international collaborative research project on the medical and welfare apparatus implemented in fiscal 1995. As investigation activities, the second meeting of information exchanges with E.U. and three north European countries was held following the meeting in fiscal 1994, and at the same time, information exchanges were made with organizations/institutions of industry/government/university in Germany, France and Canada. The study made it clear that Europe is also taking a direction of low-degree action diagnosis/care as Japan is. Further, concrete exchanges of information advanced and an awareness of the common issues was made clear such as the necessity of developing apparatus which meets the apparatus market and users` needs. As international collaborative activities, new methods of information exchanges were adopted such as the satellite meeting of the International MR Society, meetings with researchers who visited Japan. The satellite meeting of the International MR Society was favorably accepted by participants, and it was pointed out that it is important to continue the meeting in view of the materialization of themes, etc. 4 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Westborg, H

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the transient rotating cylinder apparatus for the measurement of liquid-liquid interface viscosity is given. An analytical expression that allows the determination of the interfacial viscosity from observations of the interface movement is given. The expression is presented...... in tabular form for selected values of the physical parameters of the two phases, and suggestions for apparatus design are given....

  3. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  4. Development of a Test Apparatus for Measurement of Hydraulic Fluid Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt Jackson; Brian Koehler

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand for nonrenewable resources,energy conservation is critical.Efficiency gains allow more work to be performed while maintaining or even decreasing the energy expended in the process.Reducing the energy consumed by a system results in favorable economic and environmental impact.An apparatus has been developed to measure hydraulic fluid efficiency in a stationary application.The system can be used to develop more efficient fluids,leading to increased work output or decreased energy consumption.

  5. Apparatus Measures Thermal Conductance Through a Thin Sample from Cryogenic to Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus allows the measurement of the thermal conductance across a thin sample clamped between metal plates, including thermal boundary resistances. It allows in-situ variation of the clamping force from zero to 30 lb (133.4 N), and variation of the sample temperature between 40 and 300 K. It has a special design feature that minimizes the effect of thermal radiation on this measurement. The apparatus includes a heater plate sandwiched between two identical thin samples. On the side of each sample opposite the heater plate is a cold plate. In order to take data, the heater plate is controlled at a slightly higher temperature than the two cold plates, which are controlled at a single lower temperature. The steady-state controlling power supplied to the hot plate, the area and thickness of samples, and the temperature drop across the samples are then used in a simple calculation of the thermal conductance. The conductance measurements can be taken at arbitrary temperatures down to about 40 K, as the entire setup is cooled by a mechanical cryocooler. The specific geometry combined with the pneumatic clamping force control system and the steady-state temperature control approach make this a unique apparatus.

  6. Modified Shear Box Test Apparatus for Measuring Shear Strength of Unsaturated Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual soils occur in most countries of the world but the greater areas and depths are normally found in tropical humid areas. Most of these soils exhibit high suctions for most of the year. The shear strength parameters, c’ and Φ’, of soil can be obtained using conventional shear strength tests. However the conventional shear strength test equipments would not be able to measure Φb value (change of shear strength to change in suction without certain modification to them. This study describes the modifications that have been made to a standard shear box test apparatus to enable it to test soil samples in unsaturated conditions. The modifications include fabrication of an air pressure chamber, modifications of the shear box assembly inside the air pressure chamber, modification to the normal loading system, as well as additions of data acquisition devices to enhance the performance and simplify the usage of the modified shear box test apparatus.

  7. Apparatus for measuring pressure-driven transport through channels at high Knudsen numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsiou, S.; Holst, B.; Hoffmann, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    The pressure-driven gas flow through micro- and nano-porous structures is particularly interesting for innovative technologies such as microelectromechanical and nano-mechanical-electrical systems. The classical continuum assumption breaks down for rarefied flow through channels with a characteristic dimension comparable to the mean free path of the gas. Theories based on molecular interactions have been formulated to predict the flow at high Knudsen numbers. Measuring rarefied gas flow experimentally is a challenge since only a few studies have been able to determine flowrates in the molecular flow regime. Here we present the design of an experimental apparatus, which can be used to measure the flow of gases through nano- and microscale channels in the flow regimes where molecular effects are critical. The equations used to design the apparatus are given, focusing on the slip and transition flow regimes (together sometimes called "Intermediate flow regime"). A channel with a diameter of 325 μm ± 5μm and a length of 2 mm was tested experimentally with the apparatus for a wide range of Knudsen numbers (10-2 < Kn < 1 × 105) demonstrating its suitability through the slip and transition regime (2.23 × 10-2 < Kn < 2.26).

  8. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  9. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus described in this document and shown in Figure 0-1 utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification

  10. Modification of an apparatus for tumor-suppressor protein crystal growth in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    Some human diseases as tumors are being studied continuously for the development of vaccines against them. And a way of doing that is by means of proteins research. There are some kinds of proteins, like the p53 and p73 proteins, which are tumor suppressors. There are other diseases such as A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases which are protein-related. The determination of how proteins geometrically order themselves, during its biological functions is very necessary to understand how a protein's structure affects its function, to design vaccines that intercede in tumor-protein activities and in other proteins related to those other diseases. The protein crystal growth in microgravity environment produces purer crystallization than on the ground, and it is a powerful tool to produce better vaccines. Several data have already been acquired using ground-based research and in spaceflight experiments aboard the Spacelab and Space Shuttle missions, and in the MIR and in the International Space Station (ISS). Here in this paper, I propose to be performed in the ISS Biological Research Facility (which is being developed), multiple crystal growth of proteins related to cancer (as tumors suppressors and oncoproteins), A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases, for the future obtaining of possible vaccines against them. I also propose a simple and practical equipment, a modification of the crystallization plates (which use a vapor diffusion technique) inside each cylinder of the Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM), with multiple chambers with different sizes. Instead of using some chambers with the same size it is better to use several chambers with different sizes. Why is that? The answer is: the energy associated with the surface tension of the liquid in the chamber is directly related to the circle area of it. So, to minimize the total energy of the surface tension of a proteins liquid -making it more stable

  11. Techniques and Apparatus for Measuring Rotational Core Losses of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In many situations such as the cores of a rotating electrical machine and the T joints of a multiphase transformer, the local flux density varies with time in terms of both magnitude and direction, i.e. the flux density vector is rotating. Therefore, the magnetic properties of the core materials under the rotating flux density vector excitation should be properly measured, modeled and applied in the design and analysis of these electromagnetic devices. This paper presents an extensive review on the development of techniques and apparatus for measuring the rotational core losses of soft magnetic materials based on the experiences of various researchers in the last hundred years.

  12. Apparatus for Measuring Total Emissivity of Small, Low-Emissivity Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for measuring total emissivity of small, lightweight, low-emissivity samples at low temperatures. The entire apparatus fits inside a small laboratory cryostat. Sample installation and removal are relatively quick, allowing for faster testing. The small chamber surrounding the sample is lined with black-painted aluminum honeycomb, which simplifies data analysis. This results in the sample viewing a very high-emissivity surface on all sides, an effect which would normally require a much larger chamber volume. The sample and chamber temperatures are individually controlled using off-the-shelf PID (proportional integral derivative) controllers, allowing flexibility in the test conditions. The chamber can be controlled at a higher temperature than the sample, allowing a direct absorptivity measurement. The lightweight sample is suspended by its heater and thermometer leads from an isothermal bar external to the chamber. The wires run out of the chamber through small holes in its corners, and the wires do not contact the chamber itself. During a steady-state measurement, the thermometer and bar are individually controlled at the same temperature, so there is zero heat flow through the wires. Thus, all of sample-temperature-control heater power is radiated to the chamber. Double-aluminized Kapton (DAK) emissivity was studied down to 10 K, which was about 25 K colder than any previously reported measurements. This verified a minimum in the emissivity at about 35 K and a rise as the temperature dropped to lower values.

  13. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well. It comprises: drillstring sub means adapted to be connected in a drillstring above the drill bit; a pair of diametrically opposite openings extending only partially through the wall of the sub from an outer surface of the sub means; plug means in each of the openings. The plug means cooperating with the openings to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the openings; and weight sensor means in each of the opening for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  14. Fabrication of a simple apparatus for the Seebeck coefficient measurement in the temperature range of 300-620 K

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A simple apparatus for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient ({\\alpha}) in the temperature range 300-620 K has been fabricated. Our design is appropriate for the characterization of samples with different geometries like disk and rod shaped. The sample holder assembly of the apparatus has been designed in such a way that, single heater used for sample heating purpose is enough to provide a self maintain temperature gradient (1-10 K) across the sample. The value of $\\alpha$ is obtained without explicit measurement of temperature gradient. The whole apparatus is fabricated from the materials, which are commonly available, so that any part can be replaced in case of any damage. Commercially available standard Nickel (Ni) metal sample has been used as a reference material for calibration of the instrument. The experimentally observed value of {\\alpha} by our apparatus gives the similar temperature dependent behavior as reported in the literature.

  15. Method and apparatus for white-light dispersed-fringe interferometric measurement of corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An novel interferometric apparatus and method for measuring the topography of aspheric surfaces, without requiring any form of scanning or phase shifting. The apparatus and method of the present invention utilize a white-light interferometer, such as a white-light Twyman-Green interferometer, combined with a means for dispersing a polychromatic interference pattern, using a fiber-optic bundle and a disperser such as a prism for determining the monochromatic spectral intensities of the polychromatic interference pattern which intensities uniquely define the optical path differences or OPD between the surface under test and a reference surface such as a reference sphere. Consequently, the present invention comprises a snapshot approach to measuring aspheric surface topographies such as the human cornea, thereby obviating vibration sensitive scanning which would otherwise reduce the accuracy of the measurement. The invention utilizes a polychromatic interference pattern in the pupil image plane, which is dispersed on a point-wise basis, by using a special area-to-line fiber-optic manifold, onto a CCD or other type detector comprising a plurality of columns of pixels. Each such column is dedicated to a single point of the fringe pattern for enabling determination of the spectral content of the pattern. The auto-correlation of the dispersed spectrum of the fringe pattern is uniquely characteristic of a particular optical path difference between the surface under test and a reference surface.

  16. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  17. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  18. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2017-08-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  19. Development of measurement apparatus for high resolution electrical surveys; Komitsudo denki tansa sokuteiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchino, Y. [Cosmic Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the enforcement of the {rho}a-{rho}u survey method which is a type of high-density electrical survey, a multichannel resistivity measuring instrument has been developed. This instrument, in addition to the above, conducts resistivity tomography and various other kinds of high-density electrical survey. A potential produced by a low frequency rectangular current of 1Hz or lower outputted by the transmitter of this instrument is received and measured by the receiver connected to electrodes positioned at 100 or less locations. The receiver comprises a scanner that automatically switches from electrode to electrode, conditioner that processes signals, and controller. A transmitter of the standard design outputs a maximum voltage of 800V and maximum current of 2A, making a device suitable for probing 50 to several 100m-deep levels. The receiver is operated by a personal computer that the controller is provided with. The newly-developed apparatus succeeded in presenting high-precision images of the result of a {rho}a-{rho}u analysis for an apparent resistivity section and of the underground structure, verifying the high quality of the data collected by this apparatus. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Kingdon trap apparatus and technique for precise measurement of the lifetimes of metastable levels of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; Church, D.A. [Physics Department, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas77843-4242 (United States); Phaneuf, R.A. [Physics Department, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada89557-0058 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A portable system consisting of a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap and associated vacuum system and electronics has been especially designed to capture multiply charged ions from a beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and to measure the lifetimes of the decays of metastable levels of these ions, which are excited in the source. Measurements on ion charge states as high as 14+ have been completed, with precisions exceeding 1{percent} achieved with a few hours of data collection time in favorable cases. Gaseous and metallic ions of astrophysical interest have been studied. The measured lifetime of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2} level of Mn{sup 11+}, {tau}=11.16{plus_minus}0.10 ms, is discussed as an example of the apparatus capabilities. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Apparatus and methods for measuring of the film structures homogeneity degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara V. A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The designer-technological analysis of ellipsometric parameters measuring and calculation of the film refraction index and thickness scheme is conducted in this article. The flow-chart is developed and the model of apparatus for the film refraction index and thickness measuring and control of the film structures technology making is created. Package of automated programs of the film refraction index and thicknes calculating on the measured ellipsometric parameters, based on the iteration method of decision of ellipsometry equation was developed. The approbation of device, which showed the checking feature of films homogeneity both on an area and on a thickness on the example of determination of CdTe and HfO2 films refraction index and thickness is conducted.

  2. Apparatus and methods of measuring minority carrier lifetime using a liquid probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian

    2016-04-12

    Methods and apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes using liquid probes are provided. In one embodiment, a method of measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor material comprises: providing a semiconductor material having a surface; forming a rectifying junction at a first location on the surface by temporarily contacting the surface with a conductive liquid probe; electrically coupling a second junction to the semiconductor material at a second location, wherein the first location and the second location are physically separated; applying a forward bias to the rectifying junction causing minority carrier injection in the semiconductor material; measuring a total capacitance as a function of frequency between the rectifying junction and the second junction; determining an inflection frequency of the total capacitance; and determining a minority lifetime of the semiconductor material from the inflection frequency.

  3. Method and apparatus for analyzing the internal chemistry and compositional variations of materials and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for obtaining and mapping chemical compositional data for solid devices. It includes a SIMS mass analyzer or similar system capable of being rastered over a surface of the solid to sample the material at a pattern of selected points, as the surface is being eroded away by sputtering or a similar process. The data for each point sampled in a volume of the solid is digitally processed and indexed by element or molecule type, exact spacial location within the volume, and the concentration levels of the detected element or molecule types. This data can then be recalled and displayed for any desired planar view in the volume.

  4. Method and apparatus for analyzing the internal chemistry and compositional variations of materials and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1989-10-17

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for obtaining and mapping chemical compositional data for solid devices. It includes a SIMS mass analyzer or similar system capable of being rastered over a surface of the solid to sample the material at a pattern of selected points, as the surface is beingeroded away by sputtering or a similar process. The data for each point sampled in a volume of the solid is digitally processed and indexed by element or molecule type, exact spacial location within the volume, and the concentration levels of the detected element or molecule types. This data can then be recalled and displayed for any desired planar view in the volume.

  5. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  6. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  7. Validation of measured microwave absorption and temperature change for development of a single-mode-type microwave heating thermogravimetry apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisma, Achmad Dwitama; Hamaba, Taishu; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Huang, An-Ni; Segawa, Tomoomi; Fukui, Kunihiro

    2017-02-01

    The temperature distribution, microwave absorption efficiency, and dielectric properties of a copper (ii) oxide (CuO) pellet heated by microwave irradiation were investigated for use in developing a single-mode-type microwave heating thermogravimetry apparatus. The validity of the apparatus was confirmed by comparing the measured data with the results of numerical simulations. The dielectric properties and error margins of other parameters estimated using the apparatus were also examined. The temperature distribution of the CuO pellet was observed to decrease monotonously on moving from the outlet to the inlet side of the apparatus. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field accurately reproduced this temperature distribution, suggesting the one-way movement of microwaves in the single-mode-type microwave apparatus. The numerically determined dependency of the CuO absorption efficiency was also found to be in very good agreement with published data. The same was the case with the permittivity loss of the CuO at various temperatures, as estimated from the measured microwave absorption efficiency. However, a larger error was observed in the estimation of the permittivity loss of a material with a lower microwave absorption efficiency, which was apparently due to the measurement error of the absorption efficiency of such a material.

  8. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  9. Measuring Antioxidant Activity in Bioorganic Samples by the Differential Oxygen Uptake Apparatus: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Amorati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of O2 consumption during the inhibited autoxidation of an easily oxidizable substrate is one of the most reliable and predictive methods to assess antioxidant activity, especially for structure-activity relationship studies, for food and industrial applications. The differential oxygen uptake apparatus described herein represents a powerful and cost-effective way to obtain antioxidant activity from inhibited autoxidation studies. These experiments provide the rate constant and the stoichiometry of the reaction between antioxidants and peroxyl radicals (ROO∙, which are involved in the propagation of radical damage. We show the operation principles and the utility of this instrumentation in the bioorganic laboratory, with regard to the recent advances in this field, ranging from the study of natural antioxidants in biomimetic system, to the use of substrates generating hydroperoxyl radicals, and to the evaluation of novel nanoantioxidants.

  10. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well, including: drill string sub means adapted to be connected in a drill string above the drill bit; hole means for defining a pair of diametrically opposite through-hole means in the wall of the sub; plug means in each of the hole means, the plug means cooperating with the through hole means to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the through hole means; ring means in the centerbore of the drillstring sub; fastener means for connecting the plug means to the annular ring means; weight sensor means in each of the through hole means for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  11. Measuring Apparatus for Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nanofluids Using a Thermistor Temperature Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Pyo [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Fine wires made from platinum have been used as sensors to evaluate the convection performance of nanofluids. However, the wire sensor is difficult to handle due to its fragility. Additionally, an unrealistic convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is obtained if a rigorous calibration process combined with precision equipment is not used for measurement. This paper proposes a new evaluation apparatus for h of nanofluids that uses a thermistor sensor instead of the platinum wire. The working principles are also explained in detail. Validation experiments for pure engine oil comparing h from the two sensors confirmed numerous practical benefits of the thermistor. The proposed system can be used as a useful tool to justify the adoption of developed nanofluids.

  12. An Apparatus for the Measurement of Various Scattering Processes in Intermediate Energy, Ion - Atom Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the main features of an apparatus constructed at the University of Toledo for the study of various scattering processes in intermediate energy, ion - atom collisions. The main purpose of this facility is to provide experimental data which serve as benchmarks to test current scattering theories for those processes. Recent measurements of single electron detachment (SED) and double electron detachment (DED) total cross sections for 5-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on noble gases and for 10-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on CH{sub 4} molecules were conducted in this laboratory. As a result of an analysis of the scattered beam growth curves, information about other charge-changing cross sections in the hydrogen-atom (molecule) collision systems were obtain, as well.

  13. A Movable Mass Spectroscopy Sampling Apparatus for Measuring Spatial Distribution of Neutral Radicals in Silane Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-Kui; LIN Kui-Xun; LIN Xuan-Ying; QIU Gui-Ming; ZHU Zu-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ A movable mass spectroscopy gas sampling apparatus has been established and a straight-line fit ofsilane depletion fraction f is proposed.The spatial density distributions of SiHn (n = 0-3) radicals in silane radio frequency glow discharge have been measured by a mass spectrometer.The experimental results demonstrate that the densities of the neutral radicals have the peak value near the middle position of electrodes, and the densities of SiH2 and SiHs are higher than those of Si and SiH in silane plasma.This reveals that SiH2 and SiH3 may be the primary precursors in forming the a-Si:H film.

  14. Apparatus for Measuring Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dengfeng; Tan, Hong; Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Li, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Spectral emissivity measurements at high temperature are of great importance for both scientific research and industrial applications. A method to perform spectral emissivity measurements is presented based on two sample heating methods, the flat plate and tubular furnace. An apparatus is developed to measure the normal spectral emissivity of solid material at elevated temperatures from 1073 K to 1873 K and wavelengths from 2 \\upmu hbox {m} to 25 \\upmu hbox {m}. Sample heating is accomplished by a torch flame or a high temperature furnace. Two different variable temperature blackbody sources are used as standard references and the radiance is measured by a FTIR spectrometer. Following calibration of the spectral response and background radiance of the spectrometer, the effect of the blackbody temperature interval on calibration results is discussed. Measurements are performed of the normal spectral emissivity of SiC and graphite over the prescribed temperature and wavelength range. The emissivity of SiC at high temperatures is compared with the emissivity at room temperature, and the influence of an oxide layer formed at the surface of SiC on the emissivity is studied. The effect of temperature on the emissivity of graphite is also investigated. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of the uncertainty components of the emissivity measurement is performed.

  15. Apparatus and method to measure dielectric properties (epsilon(') and epsilon(")) of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllei, Attila; Vass, András; Pallai, Elisabeth; Gerzson, Miklós; Ludányi, Lajos; Mink, János

    2009-04-01

    Conventional techniques for measurement of dielectric properties of ionic liquids or electrolyte solutions fail because the samples are largely short circuited by the high electrical conductance. The object of the author's research activity was to elaborate an apparatus (microwave dielectrometer) and method suitable to measure the dielectric constant (epsilon(')) and loss factor (epsilon(")) of well conducting ionic liquids and other solvents. This process is based on a revised waveguide method completed with an automatic calibration possibility. Contrary to conventional measuring methods this technique uses about 20 W/g power density. The measurements were carried out at 2.45 GHz frequency in the temperature range from 10 up to 100 degrees C. The obtained (epsilon(')) and (epsilon(")) values of different solvents were compared with several published (calculated and measured) data. Statistical analysis was used to determine the error of measurements and distilled water was chosen as a standard for study of data dispersion. To accomplish statistical analysis, namely, the dielectric characteristics have to be determined at the same temperature. The values of variances were less or equal 1 in case of epsilon(') and decrease with increasing temperature. In case of epsilon(") the variance data were much smaller.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity of small, highly insulating specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A hot plate method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable. The invention is a hot plate method capable of using air as a standard reference material for the steady-state measurement of the thermal conductivity of very small test samples having thermal conductivity on the order of air.

  17. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  18. The internal-brooding apparatus in the bryozoan genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata: Calloporidae) and its inferred homology to ovicells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-12-01

    We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. spinifer, C. cryptoarmatus, and C. niger. These species all have a brood sac, formed by invagination of the non-calcified distal body wall of the maternal zooid, located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, and a vestigial, maternally budded kenozooidal ooecium. The brood sac comprises a main chamber and a long passage (neck) opening externally independently of the introvert. The non-calcified portion of the maternal distal wall between the neck and tip of the zooidal operculum is involved in closing and opening the brood sac, and contains both musculature and a reduced sclerite that suggest homology with the ooecial vesicle of a hyperstomial ovicell. We interpret the brooding apparatus in Cauloramphus as a highly modified form of cheilostome hyperstomial ovicell, as both types share 1) a brood chamber bounded by 2) the ooecium and 3) a component of the distal wall of the maternal zooid. We discuss Cauloramphus as a hypothetical penultimate stage in ovicell reduction in calloporid bryozoans. We suggest that the internal-brooding genus Gontarella, of uncertain taxonomic affinities, is actually a calloporid and represents the ultimate stage in which no trace of the ooecium remains. Internal brooding apparently evolved several times independently within the Calloporidae.

  19. International Mapping of Antenna-Measurement Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccia, Luigi; Breinbjerg, Olav; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive international mapping of antenna-measurement facilities. This initiative, conducted within the framework of the Antenna Centre of Excellence (ACE) of the European Union, is oriented toward all institutions having research, development, or operational activities...

  20. Pilot study on the relationship between personality traits and skin conductivity of specific surface points as measured by Motoyama's apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesay, J R; Chevalier, G

    1999-06-01

    This pilot study used Motoyama's electrodermal response-measuring apparatus to test resting skin conductivity from 28 extremity digit surface coordinates of 33 subjects who also were administered the Eysenck Personality Inventory on an alternatively assigned basis for the dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism. Correlations show significant relationships between neuroticism and extraversion raw scores on two of the 14 bilateral finger surface coordinates.

  1. The new IMGC-02 transportable absolute gravimeter: measurement apparatus and applications in geophysics and volcanology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’errico

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (formerly Istituto di Metrologia «G. Colonnetti» aiming to develop a transportable ballistic absolute gravimeter ended with a new version of the instrument, called the IMGC-02. It uses laser interferometry to measure the symmetrical free rising and falling motion of a test mass in the gravity field. Providing the same accuracy achieved with previous versions, the instrumental improvements mainly concern size, weight, data processing algorithms and operational simplicity. An uncertainty of 9 ?Gal (1 ?Gal=1×10–8 m·s?2 can be achieved within a single observation session, lasting about 12 h, while the time series of several observation sessions show a reproducibility of 4 ?Gal. At this level, gravity measurements provide useful information in Geophysics and Volcanology. A wide set of dynamic phenomena, i.e. seismicity and volcanic activity, can produce temporal gravity changes, often quite small, with an amplitude ranging from a few to hundreds of microgals. Therefore the IMGC absolute gravimeter has been employed since 1986 in surveying the Italian active volcanoes. A brief history of the gravimeter and the description of the new apparatus, together with the main results of ongoing applications in Geophysics and Volcanology are presented.

  2. Apparatus for using a time interval counter to measure frequency stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the relative stability of two signals is disclosed comprising a means for mixing the two signals down to a beat note sine wave and for producing a beat note square wave whose upcrossings are the same as the sine wave. A source of reference frequency is supplied to a clock divider and interval counter to synchronize them and to generate a picket fence for providing a time reference grid of period shorter than the beat period. An interval counter is employed to make a preliminary measurement between successive upcrossings of the beat note square wave for providing an approximate time interval therebetween as a reference. The beat note square wave and the picket fence are then provided to the interval counter to provide an output consisting of the time difference between the upcrossing of each beat note square wave cycle and the next picket fence pulse such that the counter is ready for each upcrossing and dead time is avoided. A computer containing an algorithm for calculating the exact times of the beat note upcrossings then computes the upcrossing times.

  3. Volumetric apparatus for hydrogen adsorption and diffusion measurements: sources of systematic error and impact of their experimental resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Alfonso; Maccallini, Enrico; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Cataldi, Ugo; Abate, Salvatore; Desiderio, Giovanni; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The development of a volumetric apparatus (also known as a Sieverts' apparatus) for accurate and reliable hydrogen adsorption measurement is shown. The instrument minimizes the sources of systematic errors which are mainly due to inner volume calibration, stability and uniformity of the temperatures, precise evaluation of the skeletal volume of the measured samples, and thermodynamical properties of the gas species. A series of hardware and software solutions were designed and introduced in the apparatus, which we will indicate as f-PcT, in order to deal with these aspects. The results are represented in terms of an accurate evaluation of the equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption on two well-known porous media. The contribution of each experimental solution to the error propagation of the adsorbed moles is assessed. The developed volumetric apparatus for gas storage capacity measurements allows an accurate evaluation over a 4 order-of-magnitude pressure range (from 1 kPa to 8 MPa) and in temperatures ranging between 77 K and 470 K. The acquired results are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  4. An apparatus for in situ x-ray scattering measurements during polymer injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Stanley; Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R; Bubeck, Robert A

    2009-04-01

    We report a novel instrument for synchrotron-based in situ x-ray scattering measurements during injection molding processing. It allows direct, real-time monitoring of molecular-scale structural evolution in polymer materials undergoing a complex processing operation. The instrument is based on a laboratory-scale injection molding machine, and employs customized mold tools designed to allow x-ray access during mold filling and subsequent solidification, while providing sufficient robustness to withstand high injection pressures. The use of high energy, high flux synchrotron radiation, and a fast detector allows sufficiently rapid data acquisition to resolve time-dependent orientation dynamics in this transient process. Simultaneous monitoring of temperature and pressure signals allows transient scattering data to be referenced to various stages of the injection molding cycle. Representative data on a commercial liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra(R) B950, are presented to demonstrate the features of this apparatus; however, it may find application in a wide range of polymeric materials such as nanocomposites, semicrystalline polymers and fiber-reinforced thermoplastics.

  5. Improvements of the experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids using horizontal capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids, i.e. liquids in a metastable state below the equilibrium freezing point, was designed and tested in the previous study [V. Vinš et al., EPJ Web Conf. 92, 02108 (2015]. In this work, recent modifications of both the experimental setup and the measurement analysis are described. The main aim is to improve the accuracy and the reproducibility of measured surface tension and to achieve higher degrees of supercooling. Temperature probes measuring the temperature of cooling medium near the horizontal capillary tube were calibrated in the relevant temperature range from – 31 °C to + 45 °C. An additional pressure transducer was installed in the helium distribution setup at the position close to the capillary tube. The optical setup observing the liquid meniscus at the open end of the horizontal capillary tube together with the video analysis were thoroughly revised. The red laser illuminating the liquid meniscus, used at the original apparatus, was replaced by a fiber optic light source, which significantly improved the quality of the meniscus image. The modified apparatus was used for the measurement of surface tension of supercooled water at temperatures down to – 11 °C. The new data have a lower scatter compared to the previous horizontal measurements and show a good agreement with the other data obtained with a different measurement technique based on the modified capillary rise method.

  6. Method of Measuring the Vapor Pressure and Concentration of Fluids using VLE and Vibrating Tube Densitometer Apparatuses

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Momin Elhadi; Pannir, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the vapor pressure and concentration measurement of newly discovered environmentally friendly refrigerants 1, 1-difluoroethane (R152a) and 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorbutane (R365mfc), besides their mixture. The experimental procedure used in this work was a VLE recirculation type apparatus in which the liquid phase is circulating around the equilibrium cell. Special attention was given to enable a highly accurate vapor pressure measurement up to maximum pressure of 25 bar. The li...

  7. Development of an experimental apparatus for oscillating-flow pressure-drop measurements through a stirling engine regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gekas, V.; Ahladianakis, K.; Nikolos, I. K.

    2004-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental apparatus is described, designed for oscillating-flow pressure-drop measurements through a Stirling engine regenerator. A literature survey was initially performed, in order to investigate the different experimental approaches to the measurement of oscillating flow through a Stirling engine regenerator. The test rig was designed to be modular, versatile and scalable, in order to provide the ability of introducing variable measuring devices, variable regenerator designs and variable operating conditions, without the need of building a new test rig for each different case. Adopting a modular design for the experimental apparatus, it is possible to introduce new features in the future, with a minimal cost and risk. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Measurement of internal pairs from {sup 206}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The failure to observe sharp sum-energy lines in measurements of {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta and {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th raises the issue of the correct functioning of APEX under in-beam conditions. Extensive measurements with electron and pair emitting sources were used to demonstrate the resolution and acceptance of APEX, but the possibility remains that some unforeseen background or other effects might compromise the ability to see peaks in-beam. In order to test the functioning of APEX under the most stringent conditions, we also performed a measurement of internal pairs produced in the decay of the 2.648-MeV 3{sup -} state in {sup 206}Pb to the 2{sup +} state at 0.803 MeV. The 3{sup -} state was excited in the {sup 206}Pb + {sup 206}Pb reaction at 5.9 MeV/u with a cross section of roughly 40 mb, resulting in an expected pair cross section of approximately 16 {mu}b. It should be emphasized that this measurement represents a much stricter test of the functioning of the apparatus than the observation of sum-energy lines would represent, as the internal pair measurement requires a Doppler shift correction before the transition can be seen. These data were analyzed and clearly show the expected peak. A Doppler-corrected sum-energy spectrum showing the expected IPC line at 823 keV. At present we are evaluating the acceptance of APEX for events of this type but it is clear that the observed yield is close to expectations.

  9. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-Young; Chang, S.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Song, M.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 3 refs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  10. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiating monitoring programme, measurement of uranium present in lung by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 8 refs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  11. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S.Y.; Lee, J.I.; Song, M.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium present in lung by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 4 refs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  12. Experimental apparatus for measuring heat transfer coefficients by the Wilson plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); UhIa, Francisco Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Sieres, Jaime [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Campo, Antonio [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The Wilson plot is a technique to estimate the film coefficients in several types of heat transfer processes and to obtain general heat transfer correlations. This method is an outstanding tool in practical applications and in laboratory research activities that involve analysis of heat exchangers. Moreover, the application of this method is simple enough to be taught in laboratory practices for students at university and doctoral level of physics and engineering. Therefore, an experimental apparatus has been designed and built in our laboratory that allows the students to carry out experiments based on the application of the Wilson plot method. In this note, the principles of the method are explained, the experimental apparatus is described and representative results of the experimental data taken from the apparatus and the application of the Wilson plot method are shown. (note)

  13. New rotation-balance apparatus for measuring airplane spin aerodynamics in the wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced rotation-balance apparatus has been developed for the Ames 12-ft pressure tunnel to study the effects of spin rate, angles of attack and sideslip, and, particularly, Reynolds number on the aerodynamics of fighter and general aviation aircraft in a steady spin. Angles of attack to 100 deg and angles of sideslip to 30 deg are possible with spin rates to 42 rad/sec (400 rpm) and Reynolds numbers to 30 million/m on fighter models with wing spans that are typically 0.7 m. A complete description of the new rotation-balance apparatus, the sting/balance/model assembly, and the operational capabilities is given.

  14. Space-time framework of internal measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    1998-07-01

    Measurement internal to material bodies is ubiquitous. The internal observer has its own local space-time framework that enables the observer to distinguish, even to a slightest degree, those material bodies fallen into that framework. Internal measurement proceeding among the internal observers come to negotiate a construction of more encompassing local framework of space and time. The construction takes place through friction among the internal observers. Emergent phenomena are related to an occurrence of enlarging the local space-time framework through the frictional negotiation among the material participants serving as the internal observers. Unless such a negotiation is obtained, the internal observers would have to move around in the local space-time frameworks of their own that are mutually incommensurable. Enhancement of material organization as demonstrated in biological evolutionary processes manifests an inexhaustible negotiation for enlarging the local space-time framework available to the internal observers. In contrast, Newtonian space-time framework, that remains absolute and all encompassing, is an asymptote at which no further emergent phenomena could be expected. It is thus ironical to expect something to emerge within the framework of Newtonian absolute space and time. Instead of being a complex and organized configuration of interaction to appear within the global space-time framework, emergent phenomena are a consequence of negotiation among the local space-time frameworks available to internal measurement. Most indicative of the negotiation of local space-time frameworks is emergence of a conscious self grounding upon the reflexive nature of perceptions, that is, a self-consciousness in short, that certainly goes beyond the Kantian transcendental subject. Accordingly, a synthetic discourse on securing consciousness upon the ground of self-consciousness can be developed, though linguistic exposition of consciousness upon self

  15. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers......This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems...

  16. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W;

    2015-01-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis......, the group aims to create a tool considerate of patients and providers using the input of all relevant stakeholders in assessment of disease severity and response to treatment. Herein, we delineate the procedures through which consensus is being reached and the future directions of the project....

  17. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  18. Slip Correction Measurements of Polystyrene and Polyvinyltoluene Aerosol Particles Using AN Improved Millikan Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Dana

    A slip correction equation of the form C(Kn) = 1 + Kn{(alpha) + (beta)exp(-(gamma)/Kn)} with Kn the particle Knudsen number is routinely used to correct Stokes' law for progressively lower than predicted drag force as Kn increases. The published values of the parameters ((alpha), (beta), and (gamma)) are based on Millikan's original values corrected with an improved value of mean free path for gas molecules in dry air. In this work, Millikan's most accurate raw data were carefully reviewed and the slip correction parameters were reevaluated using the latest published values of physical constants and nonlinear least squares function fitting. The values of (alpha), (beta), and (gamma) given by Millikan in 1923 adjusted for a modern value of the mean free path ((lamda) = 0.0673 (mu)m at 23(DEGREES)C and 760 mm of Hg) were 1.209, 0.406, and 0.893, respectively. Improved values of these parameters calculated by least squares using Millikan's most accurate raw data are 1.155, 0.471, and 0.596, respectively. Though these two sets of values appear significantly different, the maximum percentage difference in the calculated correction factor is less than 2.0% over the Knudsen number range of 0.001 to 100. This error is small when compared to differences which may be caused by different particle surfaces and gas compositions. An improved version of the Millikan oil-drop apparatus was built and slip correction measurements were made on ninety solid, spherical particles in air. Measurements were made on eleven polystyrene latex-divinylbenzene particles, twenty-five polyvinyltoluene particles, and fifty-four polystyrene latex particles, spanning a Knudsen number range from 0.03 to 7.2. The values of (alpha), (beta), and (gamma) computed using nonlinear least squares function fitting for a mean free path at 23(DEGREES)C of 0.0673 (mu)m and a viscosity of 1.83245 x 10('-4) gcm('-1)s(' -1) were 1.142, 0.558, and 0.99 respectively. The value of (alpha) agrees very closely with

  19. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  20. International Conference on Measurement and Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Yasumasa; Bozdogan, Hamparsum; Kanefuji, Koji; Measurement and Multivariate Analysis

    2002-01-01

    Diversity is characteristic of the information age and also of statistics. To date, the social sciences have contributed greatly to the development of handling data under the rubric of measurement, while the statistical sciences have made phenomenal advances in theory and algorithms. Measurement and Multivariate Analysis promotes an effective interplay between those two realms of research-diversity with unity. The union and the intersection of those two areas of interest are reflected in the papers in this book, drawn from an international conference in Banff, Canada, with participants from 15 countries. In five major categories - scaling, structural analysis, statistical inference, algorithms, and data analysis - readers will find a rich variety of topics of current interest in the extended statistical community.

  1. Apparatus for measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading with application to measurement of third-order elastic constants of piezoelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, J A; Karim, Md Afzalul

    2013-05-01

    We describe an apparatus for the measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading featuring a special mechanism designed to assure a uniform mechanical load on a cube-shaped sample of piezoelectric material. We demonstrate the utility of the apparatus by determining the effects of stresses on acoustic wave speed, which forms a foundation for the final determination of the third-order elastic constants of langasite and langatate single crystals. The transit time method is used to determine changes in acoustic wave velocity as the loading is varied. In order to minimize error and improve the accuracy of the wave speed measurements, the cross correlation method is used to determine the small changes in the time of flight. Typical experimental results are presented and discussed.

  2. The G0 Experiment: Apparatus for Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Measurements at Forward and Backward Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Arvieux, J; Asaturyan, R; Averett, T D; Bailey, S L; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Biselli, A; Bosted, P; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Capuano, C L; Carlini, R D; Carr, R; Chant, N; Chao, Y -C; Clark, R; Coppens, A; Covrig, S D; Cowley, A; Dale, D; Davis, C A; Ellis, C; Falk, W R; Fenker, H; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Franklin, G; Frascaria, R; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Griffioen, K A; Grimm, K; Guillard, G; Guillon, B; Guler, H; Gustafsson, K; Hannelius, L; Hansknecht, J; Hasty, R D; Allen, A M Hawthorne; Horn, T; Ito, T M; Johnston, K; Jones, M; Kammel, P; Kazimi, R; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Korkmaz, E; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laszewski, R; Lee, L; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Lung, A; MacLachlan, G A; Mammei, J; Marchand, D; Martin, J W; Mack, D J; McFarlane, K W; McKee, D W; McKeown, R D; Merchez, F; Mihovilovic, M; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Moffit, B; Morlet, M; Muether, M; Musson, J; Nakahara, K; Neveling, R; Niccolai, S; Nilsson, D; Ong, S; Page, S A; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pillot, P; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Porcelli, T A; Quemener, G; Quinn, B P; Ramsay, W D; Rauf, A W; Real, J -S; Ries, T; Roos, J Roche P; Rutledge, G A; Schaub, J; Secrest, J; Seva, T; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stepanyan, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; van de Wiele, J; van Oers, W T H; Versteegen, M; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W F; Wells, S P; Warren, G; Williamson, S E; Woo, R J; Wood, S A; Yan, C; Yun, J; Zeps, V

    2011-01-01

    In the G0 experiment, performed at Jefferson Lab, the parity-violating elastic scattering of electrons from protons and quasi-elastic scattering from deuterons is measured in order to determine the neutral weak currents of the nucleon. Asymmetries as small as 1 part per million in the scattering of a polarized electron beam are determined using a dedicated apparatus. It consists of specialized beam-monitoring and control systems, a cryogenic hydrogen (or deuterium) target, and a superconducting, toroidal magnetic spectrometer equipped with plastic scintillation and aerogel Cerenkov detectors, as well as fast readout electronics for the measurement of individual events. The overall design and performance of this experimental system is discussed.

  3. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  4. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  5. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  6. Development and testing of a new apparatus for the measurement of high-pressure low-temperature phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José M.S.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    A new apparatus for the study of high-pressure phase equilibria at low temperatures using an analytical method was designed, assembled and tested. The apparatus was specially developed for the study of multi-phase equilibria in systems containing hydrocarbons, water and hydrate inhibitors...

  7. Measurements of the streaming potential of clay soils from tropical and subtropical regions using self-made apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yi; Li, Jiu-Yu; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2014-09-01

    The streaming potential has been wildly used in charged parallel plates, capillaries, and porous media. However, there have been few studies involving the ζ potential of clay soils based on streaming potential measurements. A laboratory apparatus was developed in this study to measure the streaming potential (ΔE) of bulk clay soils' coupling coefficient (C) and cell resistance (R) of saturated granular soil samples. Excellent linearity of ΔE versus liquid pressure (ΔP) ensured the validity of measurements. The obtained parameters of C and R can be used to calculate the ζ potential of bulk soils. The results indicated that the ζ potentials measured by streaming potential method were significantly correlated with the ζ potentials of soil colloids determined by electrophoresis (r (2) = 0.960**). Therefore, the streaming potential method can be used to study the ζ potentials of bulk clay soils. The absolute values of the ζ potentials of four soils followed the order: Ultisol from Jiangxi > Ultisol from Anhui > Oxisol from Guangdong > Oxisol from Hainan, and this was consistent with the cation exchange capacities of these soils. The type and concentration of electrolytes affected soil ζ potentials. The ζ potential became less negative with increased electrolyte concentration. The ζ potentials were more negative in monovalent than in divalent cationic electrolyte solutions because more divalent cations were distributed in the shear plane of the diffuse layer as counter-cations on the soil surfaces than monovalent cations at the same electrolyte concentration.

  8. An apparatus for high temperature measurement of the resistivity and Hall coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Kasper Andersen; Toberer, Eric; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    Two instruments implementing the van der Pauw (VDP) method for measuring the specific resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures are described. Several features to minimize the measurement errors are proposed and some of the advantages compared with traditional six-probe combined...... resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements are outlined. The VDP method is convenient for use in thermoelectrics research since it accepts sample geometries compatible with measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. This allows for the thermoelectric figure of merit to be measured...... using a single sample and without shaping the sample between measurement of individual properties. The technique is simple and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. The two instruments are currently in use at Caltech...

  9. Design and construction of an apparatus to measure reaction time (RT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Achyuthan

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available "An instrument for measuring the Reaction Time (RT of individual has been developed. It is direct reading instrument, the deflection of a galvanometer being proportional to the Reaction Time Being measured. A motor controlled switch also assembled at this laboratory provides visual or auditory stimuli of short duration. The response can be given either by tapping a Morse key or by speaking into microphone. In the latter case, a correction factor of 11oms. has to be applied to the value of the RT as measured with galvanometer for getting the true RT. Simple RT, discrimination RT, discrimination and choice RT and serial RT can be measured."

  10. International Target Values for Measurement Uncertainties in Nuclear Material Accountancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hong-bin; GAO; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The IAEA has published a revised version International Target Values (ITVs) 2010 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials in 2010. The report proposes the international target values of measurement uncertainties of the routine measurement methods for the nuclear material accountancy.

  11. An apparatus with a horizontal capillary tube intended for measurement of the surface tension of supercooled liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinš Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of liquids under the metastable supercooled state has been designed and assembled in the study. The measuring technique is similar to the method employed by P.T. Hacker [NACA TN 2510] in 1951. A short liquid thread of the liquid sample was sucked inside a horizontal capillary tube partly placed in a temperature-controlled glass chamber. One end of the capillary tube was connected to a setup with inert gas which allowed for precise tuning of the gas overpressure in order of hundreds of Pa. The open end of the capillary tube was precisely grinded and polished before the measurement in order to assure planarity and perpendicularity of the outer surface. The liquid meniscus at the open end was illuminated by a laser beam and observed by a digital camera. Application of an increasing overpressure of the inert gas at the inner meniscus of the liquid thread caused variation of the outer meniscus such that it gradually changed from concave to flat and subsequently convex shape. The surface tension at the temperature of the inner meniscus could be evaluated from the overpressure corresponding to exactly planar outer meniscus. Detailed description of the new setup together with results of the preliminary tests is provided in the study.

  12. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its

  13. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its na

  14. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  15. Apparatus and method for measuring single cell and sub-cellular photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Singh, Seema; Wu, Huawen

    2013-07-09

    Devices for measuring single cell changes in photosynthetic efficiency in algal aquaculture are disclosed that include a combination of modulated LED trans-illumination of different intensities with synchronized through objective laser illumination and confocal detection. Synchronization and intensity modulation of a dual illumination scheme were provided using a custom microcontroller for a laser beam block and constant current LED driver. Therefore, single whole cell photosynthetic efficiency, and subcellular (diffraction limited) photosynthetic efficiency measurement modes are permitted. Wide field rapid light scanning actinic illumination is provided for both by an intensity modulated 470 nm LED. For the whole cell photosynthetic efficiency measurement, the same LED provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. For the subcellular photosynthetic efficiency measurement, a switched through objective 488 nm laser provides saturating pulses for generating photosynthetic induction curves. A second near IR LED is employed to generate dark adapted states in the system under study.

  16. Method of and apparatus for measuring temperature and pressure. [atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Laser beams are transmitted through gas to a reflecting target, which may be either a solid surface or particulate matter in gas or the gas molecules. The return beams are measured to determine the amount of energy absorbed by the gas. For temperature measurements, the laser beam has a wavelength at which the gas exhibits a relatively temperature sensitive and pressure insensitive absorption characteristic for pressure measurements, the laser beam has a wavelength at which the gas has a relatively pressure sensitive and temperature insensitive absorption characteristic. To reduce the effects of scattering on the absorption measurements a reference laser beam with a weak absorption characteristic is transmitted colinearly with the data beam having a strong absorption characteristic. The two signals are processed as a ratio to eliminate back scattering. Embodiments of transmitters and receivers described include a sequential laser pulse transmitter and receiver, a simultaneous laser pulse transmitter and receiver.

  17. International measures to prevent and suppress the financing of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This chapter considers the range of international measures adopted both before and after September 11, 2001 to deny terrorists and their supporters access to the international financial system including the International Convention for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism, the terrorist financing aspects of Security Council Resolution 1373 and the role played by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

  18. Design of protonation constant measurement apparatus for carbon dioxide capturing solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'mun, S.; Amelia, E.; Rahmat, V.; Alwani, D. R.; Kurniawan, D.

    2016-11-01

    Global warming phenomenon has led to world climate change caused by high concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG), e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is produced in large amount from coal-fired power plants, iron and steel production, cement production, chemical and petrochemical manufacturing, natural gas purification, and transportation. Carbon dioxide emissions seem to rise from year to year; some efforts to reduce the emissions are, therefore, required. Amine-based absorption could be deployed for post-combustion capture. Some parameters, e.g. mass transfer coefficients and chemical equilibrium constants, are required for a vapor-liquid equilibrium modeling. Protonation constant (pKa), as one of those parameters, could then be measured experimentally. Therefore, an experimental setup to measure pKa of CO2 capturing solvents was designed and validated by measuring the pKa of acetic acid at 30 to 70 °C by a potentiometric titration method. The set up was also used to measure the pKa of MEA at 27 °C. Based on the validation results and due to low vapor pressure of CO2 capturing solvents in general, e.g. alkanolamines, the setup could therefore be used for measuring pKa of the CO2 capturing solvents at temperatures up to 70 °C.

  19. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  20. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  1. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, L. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  2. Top loading cryogen-free apparatus for low temperature thermophysical properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Xu, Dong; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhang, Meimei; Xu, Peng; Li, Laifeng

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of matter, especially properties at low temperature, are extremely important for engineering and materials science. Traditional liquid helium based cryostats are in many cases no longer affordable to operate due to the high liquid helium cost. This paper describes the design and test results of a cryogen-free cryostat, based on a GM cryocooler, with 50 mm diameter top loading sample facilities for thermophysical properties measurement at low temperature. The sample temperature range is tuned between 2.6 K and 300 K and it can be continuously controlled with a high resolution. Moreover, the modular sample holder can be adapted to multiple properties measurement.

  3. Freezing Point Depressions of Aqueous MEA, MDEA, and MEA−MDEA Measured with a New Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Pedersen, Mikkel Gielsager; Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Freezing points for aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), and MEA−MDEA solutions were measured in the concentration range from 0 to 0.4 mass fractions of the alkanolamines. For the aqueous MEA−MDEA system, freezing points for 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1 molar ratios of MEA...

  4. Biases of chamber methods for measuring soil CO2 efflux demonstrated with a laboratory apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Mark Nay; Kim G. Mattson; Bernard T. Bormann

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have historically measured soil CO2 efflux as an indicator of soil microbial and root activity and more recently in calculations of carbon budgets. The most common methods estimate CO2 efflux by placing a chamber over the soil surface and quantifying the amount of CO2 entering the...

  5. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  6. Thermal Conductivity Measurements By Means of a New `Small Hot-Box' Apparatus: Manufacturing, Calibration and Preliminary Experimental Tests on Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C.; Belloni, E.; Lunghi, L.; Barbanera, M.

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation of the thermal performance building components requires a high level of accuracy. Windows, doors and thermal bridges are not homogeneous, and their thermal transmittance can be evaluated by means of Hot-Box, used for full-scale elements. For homogeneous materials and one-dimensional heat flux, the thermal conductivity can be easily measured through other experimental apparatuses, such as the guarded hot plate and the heat flow meters. This study presents a new experimental apparatus named Small Hot-Box, built at the University of Perugia. No European standards are available for this innovative facility, but it takes into account some prescriptions of EN ISO 8990 and EN ISO 12567; it was built for the evaluation of the thermal properties of small specimens. The apparatus was designed, built, and calibrated by means of preliminary measurements. It is composed of a hot and a cold side, and the external walls are made of thick insulation. The thermal conductivity can be calculated by two different methodologies: the Hot-Box and the thermal flux meter method. Preliminary calibrations were carried out and different materials with known thermal transmittance were tested. The aim is the development of a new experimental apparatus; guidance documents could be defined for the measurements methodology requirements.

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  8. Method and Apparatus for measuring Gravitational Acceleration Utilizing a high Temperature Superconducting Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R.

    1998-11-06

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operative temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling maybe accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  9. Apparatus for parity-violation study via capture gamma-ray measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Seestrom, S J; Bowman, J D; Crawford, B C; Haseyama, T; Masaike, A; Matsuda, A; Penttilae, S I; Roberson, R N; Sharapov, E I; Stephenson, S L

    1999-01-01

    The Time Reversal and Parity at Low Energy (TRIPLE) Collaboration uses a short-pulsed longitudinally polarized epithermal neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to study spatial parity violation (PV) in the compound nucleus. The typical PV experiment measures the longitudinal cross-section asymmetry by the neutron transmission method through thick samples. Neutron capture gamma-ray measurement provides an alternative method for the study of PV, which enables the use of smaller amounts of isotopically pure target material. In 1995 TRIPLE commissioned a new neutron-capture detector consisting of 24 pure CsI scintillators arranged in a cylindrical geometry around the neutron beam. The characteristics and the performance of the detector and spin transport are described.

  10. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marín, E.; Juárez, A. G.; Calderón, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-07-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties.

  11. Development of a quadrupole trap apparatus for UHV measurements of levitated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Joyce; Nagornykh, Pavel; McAdams, Ian; Kane, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Completely decoupling graphene from any substrate opens up new possibilities for measurement of its electrical and mechanical properties as well as the exploration of novel methods of crystal growth and fabrication of 2D materials. We levitate a charged micron-scale few-layer graphene-like flake in an electrical AC quadrupole trap and induce rotation using a circularly polarized laser beam. We aim to achieve an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment (stretching (via rotation at frequencies greater than 100 MHz), to perform thermodynamic measurements on the particles as they are heated by the laser, and to avoid chemical contamination of the particles. Measurements of particles in UHV require two technologies: (1) the reliable capture of particles and their introduction into a UHV environment, and (2) a center-of-mass cooling method to prevent particle loss. This talk will focus on the first challenge. We will discuss improvements to the sample preparation and to the trapping procedure, describe a method of transferring particles from the initial capture trap to a second trap in a UHV chamber, and present a model of the trap potential. Finally, we will discuss preliminary work on the deposition of particles onto a conducting substrate after they have been cooled and oriented parallel to the substrate.

  12. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  13. Internalized Heterosexism: Measurement, Psychosocial Correlates, and Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Meyer, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an integrated critical review of the literature on internalized heterosexism/internalized homophobia (IH), its measurement, and its psychosocial correlates. It describes the psychometric properties of six published measures used to operationalize the construct of IH. It also critically reviews empirical studies on correlates…

  14. The measurement of international migration in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, M

    1987-01-01

    This article examines legislation affecting international migration in Belgium from the perspective of 2 questions: 1) What types of migrants are definable by legislation? and 2) What kinds of documents may be utilized to compile statistics on international migration? The following are some of the article's main points. 1) Since January 1, 1847 each communal administration in Belgium has maintained a national population register that details births, deaths, marriages and household structures, and all movements within 1 commune, from 1 commune to another, and movements between states. 2) When a Belgian citizen leaves for a foreign destination with the intention of settling there, his name is struck from the registers. 3) To enter Belgian territory, the alien must possess the documents required under bilateral agreements between Belgium and each of the states concerned. Generally, the alien must obtain a visa to his passport from 1 of the diplomatic or consular offices of Benelux before entering Belgium. The alien must have sufficient means of subsistence to avoid being considered in need. He must not be listed as an undesirable alien in Belgium, he must not have been convicted of a crime, and he must not constitute a danger to public order or national security, The alien also should not have been expelled from Belgium less than 10 years earlier. 4) Absence from Belgium and the right to return is granted to aliens holding a valid certificate of enrollment or a settlement card. 5) Any individual who has reason to fear persecution can obtain refugee status; his stay is protected until his application is declared to be unfounded by the High Commission. 6) The National Statistical Institute issues various types of data from which international population movements can be identified. The 2 main sources of these statistics are the population censuses held every 10 years and the annual demographic statistics. 7) In 1967, the Belgian Council of Ministers authorized the

  15. Foucault's method for measuring the speed of light with modern apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce two simple and inexpensive, yet quite accurate versions of the well-known Foucault method for measuring the speed of light. In a compact footprint of just 20 cm by 270 cm with readily available laboratory items, a rotating mirror taken from a laser printer, and a webcam, we obtained c=296\\720+/- 3000 km s-1, and c=302\\295+/- 3000 km s-1, respectively, both within less than a per cent of the defined value. The experiment also prepares students for extracting data through image processing.

  16. Thermoelectric transport properties of novel nanoscaled materials via homemade and commercial apparatus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kevin C.

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials are of broad interest for alternate energy applications, specifically waste heat applications, as well as solid-state refrigeration. The efficiency of TE materials can be improved through either the enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, or through the reduction of the thermal conductivity, kappa, specifically the lattice portion of thermal conductivity, kappalatt. Nanostructuring has been proven to reduce kappalatt and therefore increase efficiency. The inability to accurately model the lattice and electronic contributions to kappa makes optimizing the reduction of kappalatt difficult. This work demonstrates that the lattice and electronic contributions to kappa in nanostructured materials can be directly measured experimentally by separating the contributions using magnetic field. We use this technique along with other characterization techniques to determine the effects of doping Ce, Sm, and Ho into Bi88Sb12. Along with enhancing the efficiency of the material, TE devices must be thermally stable in the temperature range of operation. Therefore we also study the effects of temperature cycling, annealing, oxidation, and diffusion barriers on TE devices. These studies are accomplished through both homemade and commercially available measurement equipment.

  17. Calorimetric apparatus for alternating current loss measurements on high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, N.; Hörnfeldt, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in electric power components requires the knowledge of their alternating current (ac) losses. Methods are therefore needed to characterize the conductors with respect to their ac losses under applicationlike conditions. In this article we describe a calorimetric setup for ac loss measurements on long length high-temperature superconductors carrying ac transport currents in ac external magnetic fields at variable temperatures. The variable temperature is achieved by a thermal connection between the sample and a cooling machine. Current in copper coils generates the magnetic field parallel to the plane of the tape and perpendicular to the transport current. This current can be induced in the coil-formed sample. Two slightly different methods are used to determine the ac losses, one in which the temperature rise of the sample, caused by the ac losses, is compared to the temperature rise caused by a reference heater and another in which the increase in power dissipation of the sample is compensated for by a reduction of the power dissipation in the heater. Typical results of the ac loss measurements are presented.

  18. Apparatus for measuring the flow rate of a heat carrier and injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putilov, M.F.; Bar-Sliva, V.I.; Dichenko, M.A.; Nikiforov, Yu.V.; Petrov, A.I.; Turchaninov, Yu.N.

    1981-01-01

    A device is proposed for measuring the flow rate of the heat carrier in N wells, which contains a housing, turbine ( a permanent magnet is attached to the shaft eccentrically), a reed relay, a secondary converter and a power supply. In order to expand the measurement range by developing torque in the turbine it is equipped with additional reed relay, which is installed diametrically opposite the primary reed relay, and it also has a breaking unit made in the form of an additional permanent magnet placed on the turbine shaft. There was also a torodial core with a two-section winding and a winding power supply polarity switch in the frame. The primary and secondary reed relays are connected to the winding power supply polarity switch circuit. It in turn is connected to the secondary converter. In order to assure the possibility of changing the slope of the flow rate converter into a number of turbine revolutions it is equipped with a frequency to voltage converter with a setting mechanism. The frequency to voltage converter input is connected to the secondary converter, and the output is connected to the power supply source.

  19. International and internal migration measured from the School Census in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ludi; Marquis, Naomi; Jivraj, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The School Census is the only regularly updated dataset covering almost all of the population of a specific age, which records changes of address along with ethnicity and some family economic circumstances. It can be used to measure internal and international family migration as shown in this report. The School Census is suited to identify and quantify new local migration streams between censuses, successfully identifying the local distribution of Eastern European immigration in the decade since 2000. The measures do not provide a complete measure of migration, either internally or internationally. The exclusion of those outside the state school system means that internal migration is under-estimated, and international migration is approximately measured. The advantages of the School Census are its frequent updates, its fine geographical information, and its indicators of ethnicity and low family income, which powerfully complement other sources.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  1. Implications of Dynamic Pressure Transducer Mounting Variations on Measurements in Pyrotechnic Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, Andreas; Crisafulli, Jeffrey; Hagopia, Michael; McDougle, Stephen H.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate dynamic pressure measurements are often difficult to make within small pyrotechnic devices, and transducer mounting difficulties can cause data anomalies that lead to erroneous conclusions. Delayed initial pressure response followed by data ringing has been observed when using miniaturized pressure transducer mounting adapters required to interface transducers to small test chambers. This delayed pressure response and ringing, combined with a high data acquisition rate, has complicated data analysis. This paper compares the output signal characteristics from different pressure transducer mounting options, where the passage distance from the transducer face to the pyrotechnic chamber is varied in length and diameter. By analyzing the data and understating the associated system dynamics, a more realistic understanding of the actual dynamic pressure variations is achieved. Three pressure transducer mounting configurations (elongated, standard, and face/flush mount) were simultaneously tested using NASA standard initiators in closed volume pressure bombs. This paper also presents results of these pressure transducer mounting configurations as a result of a larger NASA Engineering and Safety Center pyrovalve test project. Results from these tests indicate the improved performance of using face/flush mounted pressure transducers in this application. This type of mounting improved initial pressure measurement response time by approximately 19 s over standard adapter mounting, eliminating most of the lag time; provided a near step-function type initial pressure increase; and greatly reduced data ringing in high data acquisition rate systems. The paper goes on to discuss other issues associated with the firing and instrumentation that are important for the tester to understand.

  2. Measurements of the radiolytic oxidation of aqueous CsI using a sparging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.B.; Brown, D.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gwyther, J.R. [NE plc Berkeley Technology Centre, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Radiolytic oxidation is considered to be the main mechanism for the formation of I{sub 2} from aqueous CsI in containment of a water cooled reactor after a LOCA. Despite the amount of study over the last 60 years on the radiation chemistry of iodine there has been no consistent set of experiments spanning a wide enough range of conditions to verify models with confidence. This paper describes results from a set of experiments carried out in order to remedy this deficiency. In this work the rate of evolution of I{sub 2} from sparged irradiated CsI solution labeled with {sup 131}I was measured on-line over a range of conditions. This work involved the measurement of the effects of pH, temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, I{sup -} concentration, phosphate concentration, dose-rate and impurities on the rate of evolution of I{sub 2}. The range of conditions was chosen in order to span as closely as possible conditions expected in a LOCA but also to help to elucidate some of the mechanisms especially at high pH. pH was found to be a very important factor influencing iodine volatility, over the temperature range studied the extent of oxidation reduced with temperature but this was compensated for by the decrease in partition coefficient. Oxygen concentration was more important in solutions not containing phosphate. The fractional oxidation was not particularly dependent on iodide concentration but G{sub I2} was very dependent on [I{sup -}]. There was no effect of added impurities, Fe, Mn, Mo or organics although in separate work silver was found to have a very important effect. During attempts to interpret the data it was found that it was necessary to include the iodine atom as a volatile species with a partition coefficient of 1.9 taken from thermodynamic data. The modelling work is described in a separate paper. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs.

  3. Measurement of Social Development: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    PQLI and HDI are the two most popular measures of development, besides per capita income. Over the years, PQLI appears to be not much in use for regional comparisons, especially after the introduction of HDI. While PQLI considers only the physical variables--adult literacy, life expectancy at birth and infant survival rate, HDI has life expectancy…

  4. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  5. A Comparison of Selected International Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-27

    the cervicale landmark indicating the protrusion of the spinous process of the 7th cervical vertebra . SURVEY PERCENTILES GROUP YEAR 3 5 50 95 98 * U.S...3-29 Ear Height, Standing (Tragion Height) ............... 3-30 Cervicale Height ............................... .... 3-31... CERVICALE HEIGHT Subject stands erect, his head in the Frankfort plane. Using the anthropometer, measure the vertical distance from the standing surface to

  6. Measure Guideline. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  7. Measure Guideline: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  8. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-01-01

    The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157), comp...

  9. Multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for measuring local mechanical properties of materials in external magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Faxin; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-scale mechanical properties of multiferroic materials can be controlled by the external magnetic or electric field due to the coupling interaction. For the first time, a modularized multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for carrying out testing on materials in external magnetostatic/electrostatic field is constructed. Technical issues, such as the application of magnetic/electric field and the processes to diminish the interference between external fields and the other parts of the apparatus, are addressed. Tests on calibration specimen indicate the feasibility of the apparatus. The load-displacement curves of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric materials in the presence/absence of external fields reveal the small-scale magnetomechanical and electromechanical coupling, showing as the Delta-E and Delta-H effects, i.e. the magnetic/electric field induced changes in the apparent elastic modulus and indentation hardness.

  10. An apparatus for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity and thermopower of thin films in the temperature range of 300-750 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J; Kardel, J T; Scullin, M L; Bahk, J-H; Heijmerikx, H; Bowers, J E; Majumdar, A

    2011-01-01

    An automated apparatus capable of measuring the electrical conductivity and thermopower of thin films over a temperature range of 300-750 K is reported. A standard dc resistance measurement in van der Pauw geometry was used to evaluate the electrical conductivity, and the thermopower was measured using the differential method. The design of the instrument, the methods used for calibration, and the measurement procedure are described in detail. Given the lack of a standard National Institute of Standards and Technology (Gaithersburg, Md.) sample for high temperature thermopower calibration, the disclosed calibration procedure shall be useful for calibration of new instruments.

  11. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  12. Flowing afterglow: construction of an apparatus, measurement of rate constants, and consideration of the diffusive behavior of charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki (Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.); Fujii, Toshihiro

    1984-06-01

    A flowing afterglow apparatus was constructed and the operation of the afterglow system including data analysis was tested by measuring the rate constants for the reactions N/sup +/ + NO, N/sub 2//sup +/ + NO, He/sup +/ + N/sub 2/, and SF/sub 6/ + e; the results were 5.8 x 10/sup -10/, 3.9 x 10/sup -10/, 1.20 x 10/sup -9/, and 2.1 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/s/sup -1/ respectively. In the measurements an extraction voltage for ion sampling was not applied to the nose cone in order not to introduce an electric field into the reaction region. A ''non-ambipolar'' model developed by us was used for the data analysis of the ion/molecule reactions. For the data analysis of the electron attachment, a typical curve fit mehtod to the product ion signal was used. However, no theoretical curves fit the experimental points. This disagreement is attributed to a change of the ion-sampling efficiency through the nose-cone aperture arising from a change of the electron-dominated plasma to a negative-ion-dominated plasma with an increasing flow rate of SF/sub 6/. Nevertheless, the attachment rate could be determined by fitting the theoretical and experimantal curves in the limited region of the SF/sub 6/ flow rate where the negative-ion-dominated plasma is established at the sampling aperture. All the rate constants obtained here agree reasonably well with literature values. Next, errors in the positive ion/molecule reaction rate constants, which would occur if the diffusion coefficients of the ions and neutrals each have a + 10 % error were calculated for the flow model to be -0.4 and +1.2 % respectively, demonstrating that these parameters are not important in the analysis of data. This insensitivity explains why the nose-cone voltage applied in a typical flowing afterglow operation has not caused a significant error in the published rate constants although it disturbs the ion diffusive behavior.

  13. Internal Defect Measurement of Scattering Media by Optical Coherence Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong-kai; ZHAO Hong; WANG Zhao; WANG Jun-li

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy is applied to measure scattering media's internal defect, which based on low coherence interferometry and confocal microscopy. Optical coherence microscopy is more effective in the rejection of out of focus and multiple scattered photons originating further away of the focal plane. With the three-dimension scanning, the internal defect is detected by measuring the thickness of different points on the sample. The axial resolution is 6 μm and lateral resolution is 1.2 μm. This method is possessed of the advantages over the other measurement method of scattering media, such as non-destruction and highresolution.

  14. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  15. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  16. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  17. Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua; Nolas, George S

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a custom apparatus for the consecutive measurement of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of materials between 300 K and 12 K. These three transport properties provide for a basic understanding of the thermal and electrical properties of materials. They are of fundamental importance in identifying and optimizing new materials for thermoelectric applications. Thermoelectric applications include waste heat recovery for automobile engines and industrial power generators, solid-state refrigeration, and remote power generation for sensors and space probes. The electrical resistivity is measured using a four-probe bipolar technique, the Seebeck coefficient is measured using the quasi-steady-state condition of the differential method in a 2-probe arrangement, and the thermal conductivity is measured using a longitudinal, multiple gradient steady-state technique. We describe the instrumentation and the measurement uncertainty associated with each transport property, each of which is presented with representative measurement comparisons using round robin samples and/or certified reference materials. Transport properties data from this apparatus have supported the identification, development, and phenomenological understanding of novel thermoelectric materials.

  18. Apparatus for the measurement of electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials between 300 K and 12 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua; Nolas, George S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a custom apparatus for the consecutive measurement of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of materials between 300 K and 12 K. These three transport properties provide for a basic understanding of the thermal and electrical properties of materials. They are of fundamental importance in identifying and optimizing new materials for thermoelectric applications. Thermoelectric applications include waste heat recovery for automobile engines and industrial power generators, solid-state refrigeration, and remote power generation for sensors and space probes. The electrical resistivity is measured using a four-probe bipolar technique, the Seebeck coefficient is measured using the quasi-steady-state condition of the differential method in a 2-probe arrangement, and the thermal conductivity is measured using a longitudinal, multiple gradient steady-state technique. We describe the instrumentation and the measurement uncertainty associated with each transport property, each of which is presented with representative measurement comparisons using round robin samples and/or certified reference materials. Transport properties data from this apparatus have supported the identification, development, and phenomenological understanding of novel thermoelectric materials.

  19. Measuring perinatal health equity and migration indicators for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Small, Rhonda; Sarasua, Irene; Lang, Carly

    2015-01-01

    An international research collaboration answered, "Can equity in perinatal health for migrant women be measured for comparison across countries?" In nine countries, perinatal databases were assessed for the availability of equity indicators. Equity data were also sought from women and health records. Optimal sources of data differed depending on the migrant perinatal health equity indicator. Health and migration data, required to capture equity, were often not reported in the same location. Migration indicators other than country of birth were underreported. Perinatal health equity can be measured for international comparisons, although a standardized protocol is required to capture all indicators.

  20. The radon EDM apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  1. International Human Trafficking: Measuring Clandestinity by the Structural Equation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rudolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide human trafficking is the third most often registered international criminal activity, ranked only after drug and weapon trafficking. This article focusses on three questions: 1 How can human trafficking be measured? 2 What are the causes and indicators of this criminal activity which exploits individuals? 3 Which countries observe a high (or low level of human trafficking inflow? We apply the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural equation model to measure human trafficking inflows in a way which includes all potential causes and indicators in one estimation model. The human trafficking measurement focusses on international human trafficking. We use freely available existing data and thus generate an objective measure of the extent of trafficking. Countries are ranked according to their potential to be a destination country based on various characteristics of the trafficking process.

  2. Apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, John C.; Shannon, Mark A.

    2007-09-01

    Details are given for the design, calibration, and operation of an apparatus for measuring the finite load-deformation behavior of a sheet of living epithelial cells cultured on a mesoscopic freestanding elastomer membrane, 10μm thick and 5mm in diameter. Although similar in concept to bulge tests used to investigate the mechanical properties of micromachined thin films, cell-elastomer composite diaphragm inflation tests pose a unique set of experimental challenges. Composite diaphragm (CD) specimens are extremely compliant (Eexperience large displacements when subject to small inflation pressures (˜100Pa), and must be continuously immersed in a bath of liquid culture medium during the acquisition of load-deformation measurements. Given these considerations, we have constructed an inflation apparatus consisting of an air-piston-cylinder pump integrated with a modular specimen mounting fixture that constitutes a horizontally semi-infinite reservoir of liquid culture medium. In a deformation-controlled inflation test, pressurized air is used to inflate a CD specimen into the liquid reservoir with minimum disturbance of the liquid-air interface. Piston displacements and absolute pump chamber air pressures are utilized as feedback to cycle the displaced (or inflated) CD volume V in a 0.05Hz triangular or sinusoidal wave form (VMIN=0μl, VMAX⩽40μl) while simultaneously recording the inflation pressure acting at the fixed boundary of the specimen, p(r =a). Using a carefully prescribed six-cycle inflation test protocol, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the [V,p(r=a)] inflation response of a cell-elastomer CD with random uncertainties estimated at ±0.45μl and ±2.5Pa, respectively.

  3. OMERACT: An international initiative to improve outcome measurement in rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OMERACT is the acronym for an international, informally organized network initiated in 1992 aimed at improving outcome measurement in rheumatology. Chaired by an executive committee, it organizes consensus conferences in a 2-yearly cycle that circles the globe. Data driven recommendations are prepared and updated by expert working groups. Recommendations include core sets of measures for most of the major rheumatologic conditions. Since 2002 patients have been actively engaged in the process.

  4. Apparatus for Comparing Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids and Base Fluid Using Simultaneously Measured Resistance Variation Signals from Two Hot Wire Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shin Pyo [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Exact comparisons of the thermal conductivities of the base fluid and a nanofluid are very important in the early stages of nanofluid development. A simple procedure of measuring the thermal conductivity of the two fluids by the transient hot wire method and numerically dividing these values is used for this purpose. However, because the experiments are not performed simultaneously and the physical properties of the measurement system are sometimes not properly known, large errors are incurred during the evaluation process. This article proposes a new apparatus for thermal conductivity comparison where the working principle is mainly based on relative measurement rather than absolute measurement. The measuring circuit and data processing steps are explained in detail; a validation test was performed using the well-known glycerine and engine oil.

  5. How to measure the internationality of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Zych, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Although the term "internationality" has never been defined by consensus, it is commonly used as a synonym of quality. Even though its meaning has never been established, internationality is frequently used to evaluate scientists, publications, or universities in many different countries. The present investigation is based on the opinion about the meaning of the concept "internationality" of the members of scientific community, represented by a broad sample of 16,056 scientists from 109 countries working in all the fields of knowledge defined by UNESCO. The sample was randomly selected from the Web of Science database from the scientists who have published at least one article in one of the journals indexed by the database. A questionnaire based on eleven criteria was designed for the purpose of the study. As a result, the first measure of internationality has been obtained. The most important criteria of internationality are: the publication language, online access, and international publication standards. There are significant differences among geographic zones and fields of knowledge.

  6. Optimization of apparatus design and behavioral measures for the assessment of visuo-spatial learning and memory of mice on the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-15

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were trained with a stable or random escape hole location and the sensitivities (statistical power) of four commonly used measures of learning and three measures of memory to detect differences between these training procedures were compared on each maze design. A maze design with a large diameter and no wall was optimal, because mice showed a reliable use of extra-maze visual cues, visuo-spatial search strategies, and spatial memory. A maze design with a small diameter, surrounding wall, and intra-maze visual cues was the least sensitive for determining visuo-spatial learning and memory, because mice showed little evidence of extra-maze cue use. Errors, distance traveled, and hole deviation scores were more sensitive measures of learning than latency to find the escape hole. Measures based on locating the escape hole (primary measures) were more sensitive than measures based on entering the escape hole (total measures). Measures of memory had similar levels of sensitivity on each maze. This experiment demonstrates that both apparatus design and the behavioral measures used as indicators of learning and memory can influence the ability of the Barnes maze to detect visuo-spatial learning and memory impairments in mice.

  7. Fiscal 1996 report on the committee for international collaborative research of medical and welfare apparatus; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    From a viewpoint that cancer, cerebral hemorrhage, heart disease, etc. caused by the progress in aging are problems not only to Japan but to all developed countries, a possibility of Japan`s joint study with other countries was examined to promote efficiently and effectively research/development of the apparatus required. Moreover, from a viewpoint of being the same Asian countries, a possibility of the joint study was examined also with developing countries which are largely different in disease structure and environment of the use of apparatus from developed countries. In the examination on medical/welfare apparatus technology of China, before the site examination, a book of data was arranged on the actual state of population and disease structure and the R and D situation of medical/welfare apparatus in Japan, and at the same time, celebrated persons in China were introduced by the scientific society side as widely as possible. By this preliminary study, the original objective of the examination could be achieved. In the examination with the U.S. and Europe, Japan held meetings with engineers of the U.K., France and the U.S. Japan`s `load control type walking supporting apparatus,` of which the development was finished, was very highly evaluated by each organ of the countries

  8. Multiple effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of Avicennia germinans L. as probed by OJIP chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales-Mendoza, D.; Zapata-Perez, O. [Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico). Dept. de Recursos del Mar; Espadas y Gil, F.; Santamaria, J.M. [Unidad de Biotecnologia, CICY, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of Avicennia germinans were evaluated by means of the chlorophyll fluorescence transient O-J-I-P. The chlorophyll fluorescence transients were recorded in vivo with high time resolution and analyzed according to the OJIP-test that can quantify the performance of photosystem II. Cadmium-treated plants showed a decrease in yield for primary photochemistry, TR{sup 0}/ABS. The performance index of photosystem II (PSII), PI{sub ABS}, decreased due to cadmium treatment. This performance index is the combination of the indexes of three independent parameters: (1) total number of active reaction centers per absorption (RC/ABS), (2) yield of primary photochemistry (TR{sup 0}/ABS), and (3) efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain (ET{sup 0}/TR{sup 0}). Additionally, the F{sub 0}/F{sub v} registered the highest sensitivity to the metal, thus indicating that the water-splitting apparatus of the oxidizing side of PSII is the primary site of action of cadmium. In summary, cadmium affects several targets of photosystem II. More specifically the main targets of cadmium, according to the OJIP-test, can be listed as a decrease in the number of active reaction centers and damage to the activity of the water-splitting complex. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  10. Measurement of fragmentation cross sections of 12C ions on a thin gold target with the FIRST apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppi, M.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Böhlen, T. T.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; de Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernández-García, J. P.; Finck, Ch.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kummali, A. H.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Randazzo, N.; Rescigno, R.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Salvador, S.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Tropea, S.; Vanstalle, M.; Younis, H.; Patera, V.; FIRST Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of the light ions interaction processes with matter is of great interest in basic and applied physics. As an example, particle therapy and space radioprotection require highly accurate fragmentation cross-section measurements to develop shielding materials and estimate acute and late health risks for manned missions in space and for treatment planning in particle therapy. The Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy experiment at the Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion research (GSI) was designed and built by an international collaboration from France, Germany, Italy, and Spain for studying the collisions of a 12C ion beam with thin targets. The collaboration's main purpose is to provide the double-differential cross-section measurement of carbon-ion fragmentation at energies that are relevant for both tumor therapy and space radiation protection applications. Fragmentation cross sections of light ions impinging on a wide range of thin targets are also essential to validate the nuclear models implemented in MC simulations that, in such an energy range, fail to reproduce the data with the required accuracy. This paper presents the single differential carbon-ion fragmentation cross sections on a thin gold target, measured as a function of the fragment angle and kinetic energy in the forward angular region (θ ≲6° ), aiming to provide useful data for the benchmarking of the simulation softwares used in light ions fragmentation applications. The 12C ions used in the measurement were accelerated at the energy of 400 MeV/nucleon by the SIS (heavy ion synchrotron) GSI facility.

  11. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  12. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  13. Measuring the internal-market orientation in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of internal market orientation in the public sector, and the Military Fire Department of the State of Espírito Santo (MFDESS was surveyed using quantitative research. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which follows the model used by Gounaris (2006 in research with employees of a hotel chain in Greece. 522 firefighters were surveyed. The choice of this organization was due to the importance of the service performed and the society visibility, given the direct relationship with life and assets of the taxpayers. Therefore, the level of job satisfaction of firefighters is relevant for the achievement of excellence in their missions. The results showed that firefighters have the perception that there is little internal-market orientation in the Military Fire Department and the level of job satisfaction is low. The research result converged with the literature on the direct relationship of the internal-market orientation with job satisfaction. Furthermore, the research concluded that job satisfaction is influenced by the identification of the exchange of value, segment internal market, job description, management concern and training.

  14. A measure of internal synergy of the collective system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors examine the methodology of HRM personnel management based on ratings. Proposed to represent a collective system that uses a matrix of pair relations as a system of linear differential equations. The condition of auto generation of an autonomous system can be determined by the application of the Laplace transformation to the system. This condition mainly depends on the main eigenvalue of dating relationships matrix. Assuming the oscillation frequency is straightly proportional to the system's synergy rating, a special algorithm of comparative evaluation of several collective systems was suggested. Methods: The calculation of the rating of internal synergies is based on the representation of the collective system as a system of linear differential equations, the coefficients of which are obtained by questionnaire survey of all members of the team. Internal representation of the system's synergism as a stimulation of an autonomous system allows using the eigenvector of the system as a measure of internal synergies. Results: The result of this method is the rating of members of interacting collective systems in terms of their contribution to the self-organization sharing behavior.  Conclusions:  Using a matrix of pair relations allows without direct programming and only using MathCad determines the measure of internal synergy of a collective system.  

  15. Measurement and correlates of internalized homophobia: a factor analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Rosser, B R

    1996-01-01

    We developed a scale to measure internalized homophobia in men who have sex with men, which is comprised of items derived from theoretical and clinical reports of internalized homophobia. Two hundred two men who have sex with men and who attend "Man to Man" sexual health seminars in a midwestern U.S. city completed the scale at baseline. Orthogonal factor analysis revealed four dimensions of internalized homophobia: public identification as gay, perception of stigma associated with being homosexual, social comfort with gay men, and the moral and religious acceptability of being gay. Factor scoring of these dimensions indicated that they were associated significantly with relationship satisfaction, duration of longest relationship, extent of attraction to men and women, proportion of social time with gay people, membership of gay/bisexual groups, HIV serostatus, and disclosure of sexual orientation. Internalized homophobia is measurable and consists of four dimensions that are associated significantly with low disclosure, shorter length of and satisfaction with relationships, lower degree of sexual attraction to men and higher degree of attraction to women, and lower social time with gay people.

  16. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  17. Measuring the value of internal audit in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Iulia Zinca (Voiculescu

    2016-09-01

    The results of the study suggest that most organizations use methods that contain mainly quantitative and less qualitative elements. There are differences between banks and other types of organizations in terms of the methods and practices used, but also on the importance showed to measurement of internal audit value. In addition, the findings confirm that there is room for improving the methods and practices used, so that the audit function gains value and credibility.

  18. Exploitation of a noninvasive small animal's heart rate measuring apparatus%小动物无创式心率监测仪的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳茹; 司伟; 易小林; 孟燕军; 范振中

    2012-01-01

    目的:研制一种无创测量小动物心率及存活时间的监测仪.方法:采用MB-6型鼠尾脉搏波传感器,无创伤状态下拾取鼠尾脉搏波信号,应用单片机对脉搏波信号进行识别,寻找出正确的心动周期,计算小动物的实时心率,并与对应的记忆示波器测量的数据进行统计分析.结果:监测仪和示波器所测大鼠心率分别为(370.0±45.3) min-1和(371.0±46.0) min-1,小鼠心率(598.4±78.0) min-1和(597.5±74.9) min-1,差异均无统计学意义(t大鼠=0.026,P=0.979;t小鼠=0.049,P=0.961).大、小鼠的两种测量数据的直线相关系数值皆为0.996.结论:该仪器可用于无创测量小动物心率及存活期.%Aim:To develop a noninvasive measuring apparatus in order to measure the heart rate and survival time of small animals. Methods:By using the MB-6-type tail pulse wave sensor,the pulse wave signals of small animals were obtained without hurting. Then by analyzing these signals with a microcontroller,and to acquire the right cardiac cycle,which can be used to calculate the real time heart rate. Furthermore, we contrasted the results with those obtained by the oscilloscope. Results: The heart rates of rats/mice measured by the apparatus and the oscilloscope were ( 370. 0 ± 45. 3 ) min -1/ (598.4±78.0) min-1 and ( 371. 0 ±46. 0 ) min-1/(597.5 ±74.9) min-1,respectively. There was no significant difference between the values measured by the two methods( t-rat = 0.026 ,P = 0. 979 ;t-mouse = 0. 049 ,P = 0. 961 ). Linear correlation analyses of the two data sets showed that the coefficients of correlation were both 0.996. Conclusion: The developed apparatus could hold promise for the application in measuring the heart rate noninvasively.

  19. International standards for optical circuit board fabrication, assembly and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitwon, Richard; Immonen, Marika; Wang, Kai; Itoh, Hideo; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Wu, Jinhua; Zhu, Long Xiu; Yan, Hui Juan; Worrall, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The commercial adoption of electro-optical printed circuit board (EOCB) technology will be accelerated by the development of industrial and conformity standards for high volume fabrication, connector assembly and waveguide measurement. In this paper, we introduce international standardisation activities surrounding EOCBs and report on industrial processes developed for the high volume fabrication of complex EOCBs with embedded multimode polymer waveguides including a first connector standard for polymer waveguide termination. We focus on solving a serious historic problem with the measurement of optical waveguide systems, namely the lack of harmonised measurement conditions for optical waveguides, which to this day gives rise to strong inconsistencies in the results of measurements by different parties on the same waveguide. We report on the development of a standard to ensure repeatable measurement of optical waveguides, whereby we demonstrate how the application of a measurement identification system and proposed reference measurement conditions can bring variation in measurement results to within 5%, thereby serving as the basis for a formal reliable optical waveguide measurement methodology.

  20. Applicability of internationally available health literacy measures in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, M P; Van Schaik, T M; Twickler, T B; Essink-Bot, M L

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy measures for use in clinical-epidemiological research have all been developed outside Europe. In the absence of validated Dutch measures, we evaluated the cross-cultural applicability of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ), and the measure of Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL). Each measure was translated into Dutch following standardized procedures. We assessed feasibility, internal consistency, and construct validity among patients with coronary artery disease (n = 201) and patients with diabetes type 2 (n = 88). Patients expressed most problems in responding to the NVS-D. They were not familiar with the type of food label and had difficulties calculating in portions instead of grams. The FCCHL-D items seemed too theoretical for many patients. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable for all measures. Correlation patterns between the measures were moderately coherent with a priori hypotheses. All translated measures were able to distinguish between high- and low-educated groups of patients, with the NVS-D performing best. Despite reasonable psychometric properties as demonstrated so far, these measures need to be further developed in order to increase applicability for assessing health literacy in clinical-epidemiological research in the Netherlands.

  1. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM, and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  2. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  3. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotre T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Malchor, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Maurer, Richard J. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Adams, Henry L. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  4. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  5. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  6. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  7. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  8. Internal space charge measurement of materials in a space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griseri, V.; Fukunaga, K.; Maeno, T.; Payan, D.; Laurent, C.; Levy, L.

    2003-09-01

    The charging/discharging effect produced by space environment on space vehicles are known but not fully identified yet. Experiments performed in laboratory in vacuum chamber that simulates spatial environment and the most realistic charge condition occurring in space have been developed in the last past forty years. A very small Pulse Electro-Acoustic space charge detection unit (mini-PEA) that can be mounted in a vacuum chamber, to measure internal space charges of materials in-situ during the irradiation has been developed. Several materials used in spatial environment such as Teflon®, and Kapton ® films on addition to PMMA films have been studied. The comparison and the good agreement between measured and calculated depth of penetration for electrons of given energy depending on the material nature contribute in the validation of the detection system and encourage us for further studies and development.

  9. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  10. Matroshka DOSTEL measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrenz Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate measurements achieved with the DOSimetry TElescope (DOSTEL during the two Matroshka (MTR experiment campaigns in 2004/2005 (MTR-1 and 2007/2008 (MTR-2B. The comparison between the inside (MTR-2B and outside (MTR-1 mission has shown that the shielding thickness provided by the International Space Station (ISS spacecraft hull has a minor effect on the radiation exposure caused by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR. The exposure varies with the solar modulation of the GCR, too. Particles from Earth’s radiation belts are effectively shielded by the spacecraft hull, and thus the contribution to the radiation exposure is lower for the inside measurement during MTR-2B. While the MTR-DOSTEL absorbed dose rate shows a good agreement with passive detectors of the MTR experiment for the MTR-2B mission phase, the MTR-1 absorbed dose rates from MTR-DOSTEL measurements are much lower than those obtained by a nearby passive detector. Observed discrepancies between the MTR-DOSTEL measurements and the passive detectors located nearby could be explained by the additional exposure to an enhanced flux of electrons trapped between L-parameter 2.5 and 3.5 caused by solar storms in July 2004.

  11. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  12. Measurement of internal conversion electrons from Gd neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlakunta, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, L.R., E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mulligan, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Gadolinium (Gd) is a suitable material for neutron conversion because of its superior neutron absorption cross-section. However, the principal secondary particles that generate electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor detector after Gd neutron capture are low-energy internal conversion (IC) electrons. We measured the IC electron spectrum due to Gd neutron capture by using a thermal neutron beam and a digitizer-based multidetector spectroscopy. We also discussed the effective use of the IC electrons in the context of a twin-detector design and the associated gamma-ray rejection issues. Extensive simulations of the spectra of IC electrons and gamma rays agreed well with the experimental results; both types of results support the feasibility of the proposed n–γ separation method.

  13. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  14. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  15. Construction Of An Apparatus And Preliminary Measurements For A Search For The Electric Dipole Moment Of The Electron Using Lead Monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, F

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a vapor cell and heater for an experiment to search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron using the metastable state a(1)[3Σ+] of lead monoxide. Using our apparatus and the method of quantum beat spectroscopy, we have measured the g-factors of the a(1)(3Σ+) state. We obtain (g∥)− = 1.8571 ± 0.0041 for the J = 1− component and ( g∥)+ = 1.8584 ± 0.0045 for the J = 1+ component. We also establish a limit on the difference of the g-factors of dgg=2˙ g&dvbm0;- -g&dvbm0;+ g∥- + g∥+ < 2.3 · 10−3 (90% CL). In the course of our measurements, we have demonstrated shot-noise limited sensitivity to the Zeeman quantum beat frequency of 35HzHz . We point out relatively straightforward improvements, which should increase the statistical sensitivity to 100mHzHz in the near future. With this level of sensitivity, it should be possible to measure an...

  16. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a measure of vestibular function in guinea pigs while in a recompression chamber: apparatus design and effects of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D M; Dutka, A J; Snyder, J E

    1995-05-01

    There are several mechanisms whereby alteration of barometric pressure can produce vertigo in divers or aviators. Development of a reliable measure of vestibular function in an animal model is the first requirement for further study of these mechanisms. This report presents the development of a rotatory table device capable of evoking the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of a guinea pig while in a hyperbaric chamber. To assess the reproducibility of this response, eight animals were monitored by electronystagmography during rotations at three table velocities (62.4, 83.3, and 100 degrees/s). Two test sessions were performed on each animal with a 6-hour interval between sessions. The VOR gain was calculated by dividing the average peak velocity of the slow phase component of the nystagmus by the peak stimulus velocity. At least eight observations per test speed were averaged; calibration of eye movement was performed prior to each session by forced ocular abduction. Multifactorial analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (p > .05) between the differing rotation speeds nor between test sessions for individual animals. However, there was a significant difference in VOR gain between animals (p nitrogen narcosis. Pre- and post-dive VOR gains were significantly greater than those measured at depth (p nitrogen narcosis and the controversial theory that central nervous system depressants decrease the VOR gain. The results also demonstrate the ability of this inexpensive apparatus to provide a sensitive measure of pressure-induced changes of vestibular function in guinea pigs.

  17. Measurement of local internal friction in metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H.; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, M.; Luo, Y.; Samwer, K. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Kumar, A. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Arnold, W., E-mail: w.arnold@mx.uni-saarland.de [I. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Materials and Materials Technology, Saarland University, Campus D 2.2, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-04-07

    Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), an advanced scanning probe microscopy technique, has been used to measure local elastic properties with a spatial resolution given by the tip-sample contact radius. AFAM is based on inducing out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen. The vibrations are sensed by the AFM cantilever from by the photodiode signal when its tip is in contact with the material under test. To measure local damping, the inverse quality factor Q{sup −1} of the resonance curve is usually evaluated. Here, from the contact-resonance spectra obtained, we determine the real and imaginary part of the contact stiffness k* and from these two quantities the local damping factor Q{sub loc}{sup −1} is obtained which is proportional to the imaginary part γ of the contact stiffness. The evaluation of the data is based on the cantilever's mass distribution with damped flexural modes and not on an effective point-mass approximation for the cantilever’s motion. The given equation is simple to use and has been employed to study the local Q{sub loc}{sup −1} of amorphous PdCuSi metallic glass and its crystalline counterpart as a function of position of the AFM tip on the surface. The width of the distribution changes dramatically from the amorphous to the crystalline state as expected from the consequences of the potential-energy landscape picture. The center value of the distribution curve for Q{sub loc}{sup −1} coincides very well with published data, based on global ultrasonic or internal friction measurements. This is compared to Q{sub loc}{sup −1} measured in crystalline SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits a narrow distribution, as expected.

  18. MEASURING AND ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL AUDIT#8217;S EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palfi Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of internal auditing in the last period was a very dynamic one, being affected by the increasing attention for its role in corporate governance, especially because of its links with internal control and risk management systems. Internal audi

  19. International 24-Hour LEO Space Debris Measurement Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joseph; Letsch, Klemens; Blackwell, Christopher; McSheehy, Richard; Quanette, Juarez

    2017-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) provides the organizational framework for sponsoring periodic international measurement campaigns of the space debris environment. The IADC has conducted two types of campaigns: high altitude campaigns designed to measure the debris environment at near-geostationary altitudes using mostly optical telescopes, and low altitude campaigns using primarily radars. One of the goals of the low altitude campaigns is to collect data for 24 contiguous hours. This way, all orbit planes can be sampled. Multiple sensors are used, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, to provide a more complete understanding of the environment. Comparing results between sensors also provides a better understanding of the potential biases resulting from any one sensor. Conducting the campaigns at roughly regular intervals over a long period also allows researchers to examine trends and growth of the environment over time. For this reason, low altitude campaigns are anticipated at two-year intervals. This is the eighth IADC low altitude campaign conducted. The first campaign was conducted in 1996 and two campaigns were conducted in 1999. The 2002 campaign was delayed until January 2003 because of scheduling conflicts, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh campaigns were conducted in 2004, 2008, and 2013 respectively. The eighth campaign was conducted on 8 December 2015.

  20. PIV measurement of internal structure of diesel fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z.M. [Ecotechnology System Lab., Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Nishino, K. [Div. of Artificial Environment and Systems, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Mizuno, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Torii, K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of diesel fuel spray injected from a single-hole nozzle at injection pressures ranging from 30 to 70 MPa, which are comparable to partial-load operating conditions of commercial diesel engines. The fuel is injected into a non-combusting environment pressurized up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique is utilized to visualize internal structures of fuel sprays formed by densely-distributing droplets. A specially designed synchronization system is developed to acquire double-frame spray images at an arbitrary time delay after injection. A direct cross-correlation PIV technique is applied to measure instantaneous droplet velocity distribution. Unique large-scale structures in droplet concentration, called 'branch-like structures' by Azetsu et al. (1990), are observed and shown to be associated with active vortical motions, which appear to be responsible for the mixing between droplets and the surrounding gas. It is found that the droplets tend to move out of the vortical structures and accumulate in the regions of low vorticity. Some other interesting features concerning droplet velocity fields are also presented. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonic measurements of single-crystal gold under hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG MaoShuang; Akira YONEDA; Eiji ITO

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements were conducted on single-crystal gold at ambient condition and hydrostatic pressures up to 8 GPa at room temperature in a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus.The P-wave velocities measured at high pressures were in good agreement with Daniels and Smith's ultrasonic tudy.The three independent elastic constants of gold at ambient condition were determined to be C11=192.7 GPa,C12=162.9 GPa,and C44=42.4 GPa.On the basis of an analysis of previous elastic data and the present ultrasonic data,the pressure derivatives of three elastic constants were estimated to be C11=7.12,C12=6.24,and C44=1.82.The calculated values of isothermal bulk modulus(KTO)and its pressure derivatives(K'TO)are KTO=166.44 GPa and K'TO=6.56.This indicates that Anderson et al.'s model of equation of state of gold might underestimates pressure about 1 GPa at pressure around 23 GPa and ambient temperature.Our results explained the discrepancies among the models of equation f state of gold proposed previously.

  2. Negative chemiions formed in jet fuel combustion: new insights from jet engine and laboratory measurements using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclaear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements were made of mass numbers and composition of negative chemiions produced in jet fuel combustion in the exhaust of a jet engine and of a burner in the laboratory. The measurements made by a novel quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer apparatus revealed the presence of three major ion families: ions containing an HSO{sub 4}{sup -} ''core's' or an NO{sub 3}{sup -} ''core's' and {sup O}HC-ions{sup .} The latter which contain C and H atoms and in part also 0 atoms can be divided into two subfamilies with even and odd mass numbers. It is proposed that the O HC ions are formed by free-electron attachment to HC and OHC molecules and/or ion-molecule reactions of primary negative chemiions with HC and OHC molecules. It is also proposed that HSO{sub 4}{sup -}- and NO{sub 3}{sup -}- containing ions are formed by ion-molecule reactions involving OHC ions and the sulfur- and reactive nitrogen-containing molecules H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, SO{sub 3} and NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}. (author)

  3. Concept and architecture of a new apparatus for cylindrical form measurement with a nanometric level of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissiere, A.; Nouira, H.; Damak, M.; Gibaru, O.; David, J.-M.

    2012-09-01

    In relation to the industrial need and to the progress of technology, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d’Essais (LNE) would like to improve the measurement of its primary pressure standards, spherical and flick standards. The spherical and flick standards are, respectively, used to calibrate the spindle motion error and the probe, which equip commercial conventional cylindricity-measuring machines. The primary pressure standards are obtained using pressure balances equipped with rotary pistons. To reach a relative uncertainty of 10-6 in the pressure measurement, it is necessary to know the diameters of both the piston and the cylinder with an uncertainty of 5 nm for a piston diameter of 10 mm. Conventional machines are not able to reach such an uncertainty level. That is why the development of a new machine is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to present the concepts and the architecture adopted in the development of the new equipment dedicated to cylindricity measurement at a nanometric level of a accuracy. The choice of these concepts is based on the analysis of the uncertainty sources encountered in conventional architectures. The architecture of the new ultra-high equipment as well as the associated calibration procedures will be described and detailed.

  4. A Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton through Parity Violating Electron Scattering using the Qweak Apparatus: A 21% Result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    After a decade of preparations, the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is making the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q^p_W. This quantity is suppressed in the Standard Model making a good candidate for search for new physics beyond the SM at the TeV scale. Operationally, we measure a small (about -0.200 ppm) parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering in integrating mode while flipping the helicity of the electrons 1000 times per second. Commissioning took place Fall 2010, and we finished taking data in early summer 2012. This dissertation is based on the data taken on an initial two weeks period (Wien0). It will provide an overview of the Qweak apparatus, description of the data acquisition and analysis software systems, and final analysis and results from the Wien0 data set. The result is a 16% measurement of the parity violating electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A = -0.2788 +/- 0.0348 (stat.) +/- 0.0290 (syst.) ppm at Q^2 = 0.0250 +/- 0.0006 (GeV)^2. From this a 21% measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q_w^p(msr)= +0.0952 +/- 0.0155 (stat.) +/- 0.0131 (syst.) +/- 0.0015 (theory) is extracted. From this a 2% measurement of the weak mixing angle, sin^2theta_W(msr)= +0.2328 +/- 0.0039 (stat.) +/- 0.0033 (syst.) +/- 0.0004 (theory) and improved constraints on isoscalar/isovector effective coupling constants of the weak neutral hadronic currents are extracted. These results deviate from the Standard Model by one standard deviation. The Wien0 results are a proof of principle of the Qweak data analysis and a highlight of the road ahead for obtaining full results.

  5. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  6. Use of Closed Vessel as a Constant Pressure Apparatus for the Measurement of the Rate of Burning of Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vittal

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of burning rates of propellants whose from function is unknown is introduced. The method consists of burning in the closed vessel, a known charge weight of the test propellant alongwith a known pressure which remains nearly constant during the burning of the test propellant whose web size is the only quantity required for the evaluation of its rate of burning. The test propellants burns at near constant pressure conditions just as in the strand burner technique. This method can be applied to any unknown propellant of any shape whose web size can be measured and very large webs also can be used. In addition, the measurement of the records and the computation are very simple.

  7. Wave transmission through silicone foam pads in a compression Kolsky bar apparatus. Comparisons between simulations and measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This memo concerns the transmission of mechanical signals through silicone foam pads in a compression Kolsky bar set-up. The results of numerical simulations for four levels of pad pre-compression and two striker velocities were compared directly to test measurements to assess the delity of the simulations. The nite element model simulated the Kolsky tests in their entirety and used the hyperelastic `hyperfoam' model for the silicone foam pads. Calibration of the hyperfoam model was deduced from quasi-static compression data. It was necessary, however, to augment the material model by adding sti ness proportional damping in order to generate results that resembled the experimental measurements. Based on the results presented here, it is important to account for the dynamic behavior of polymeric foams in numerical simulations that involve high loading rates.

  8. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

  9. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  10. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  11. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  12. Annihilation detector for an in-beam spectroscopy apparatus to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Capon, Aaron A.; Diermaier, Martin; Fleck, Markus; Kolbinger, Bernadette; Malbrunot, Chloé; Massiczek, Oswald; Simon, Martin C.; Vamosi, Stefan; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    The matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in the universe today still lacks a quantitative explanation. One possible mechanism that could contribute to the observed imbalance is a violation of the combined Charge-, Parity- and Time symmetries (CPT). A test of CPT symmetry using anti-atoms is being carried out by the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator using a low temperature beam of antihydrogen-the most simple atomic system built only of antiparticles. While hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, antihydrogen is produced in very small quantities in a laboratory framework. A detector for in-beam measurements of the ground state hyperfine structure of antihydrogen has to be able to detect very low signal rates within high background. To fulfil this challenging task, a two layer barrel hodoscope detector was developed. It is built of plastic scintillators with double sided readout via Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The SiPM readout is done using novel, compact and cost efficient electronics that incorporate power supply, amplifier and discriminator on a single board. This contribution will evaluate the performance of the new hodoscope detector.

  13. Are All Measures of International Reserves Created Equal? An Empirical Comparison of International Reserve Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Yuk-Pang Wong, Clement

    2007-01-01

    Using available annual data of 174 economies since 1957, we examine the similarities and differences of seven international reserve ratios. While individual international reserve ratios display substantial variations across economies, they are associated with an economy?s characteristics including geographic location, income level, stage of development, degree of indebtedness, and exchange rate regime. The association pattern varies across time and type of international reserve ratios. Intere...

  14. Measurements of Creep Internal Stress Based on Constant Strain Rate and Its Application to Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Wen-liang; WEI Tao

    2006-01-01

    This research is carried out on the basis of Constant Strain Rate(CSR) to measure creep internal stress. Measurements of creep internal stress are conducted on the material test machine by using the CSR method. A mathematical model of creep internal stress is also proposed and its application is presented in this paper.

  15. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  16. The CES-D as a Measure of Psychological Distress Among International Students: Measurement and Structural Invariance Across Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G

    2017-10-01

    Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.

  17. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  18. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  19. Measuring student performance in an international MSc programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The European Bologna Process initiated by the Bologna Declaration has increased the student mobility. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) offers two years international Master of Science in Engineering programmes, and the present work addresses the question whether there is a difference in ...... in the student performance of international compared to Danish students in one of these programmes. The comparison is based on weighted grade average and course of study. The engineering education structure at DTU is explained and a number of results are discussed.......The European Bologna Process initiated by the Bologna Declaration has increased the student mobility. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) offers two years international Master of Science in Engineering programmes, and the present work addresses the question whether there is a difference...

  20. Method and Apparatus for Determining Operational Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybała, Rafał; Schmidt, Maksymilian; Kaszyca, Kamil; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Mirosław J.; Pietrzak, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this work was to construct and test an apparatus for characterization of high temperature thermoelectric modules to be used in thermoelectric generator (TEGs) applications. The idea of this apparatus is based on very precise measurements of heat fluxes passing through the thermoelectric (TE) module, at both its hot and cold sides. The electrical properties of the module, under different temperature and load conditions, were used to estimate efficiency of energy conversion based on electrical and thermal energy conservation analysis. The temperature of the cold side, T c, was stabilized by a precise circulating thermostat (≤0.1°C) in a temperature range from 5°C to 90°C. The amount of heat absorbed by a coolant flowing through the heat sink was measured by the calibrated and certified heat flow meter with an accuracy better than 1%. The temperature of the hot side, T h, was forced to assumed temperature ( T max = 450°C) by an electric heater with known power ( P h = 0-600 W) with ample thermal insulation. The electrical power was used in calculations. The TE module, heaters and cooling plate were placed in an adiabatic vacuum chamber. The load characteristics of the module were evaluated using an electronically controlled current source as a load. The apparatus may be used to determine the essential parameters of TE modules (open circuit voltage, U oc, short circuit current, I sc, internal electrical resistance, R int, thermal resistance, R th, power density, and efficiency, η, as a function of T c and T h ). Several commercially available TE modules based on Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 alloys were tested. The measurements confirmed that the constructed apparatus was highly accurate, stable and yielded reproducible results; therefore, it is a reliable tool for the development of thermoelectric generators.

  1. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  2. The Measurement of Internal (Intra-Article) Reading Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Earl F.; Hess, Allen K.

    The effects of training on internal reading flexibility (intra-article flexibility) and the relationships between such flexibility and overall reading speed, reading comprehension, anxiety level, and introversion-extraversion were investigated. Flexibility coefficients were computed before and after training for the total group of 255 college…

  3. Light shielding apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  4. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  5. Spin coating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  6. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  7. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  8. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  9. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA324 International Conservation and Management... publish from time to time in the Federal Register a list of international conservation and management... international conservation and management measures was first published in the Federal Register in 1996....

  10. The International State of Research on Measurement of Competency in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Kuhn, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    With the Program for International Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study surveys, competency assessment became an important policy instrument in the school sector; only recently has international competency measurement gained attention in higher education with the Assessment of Higher Education Learning…

  11. Internal flow measurements of drop impacting a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Karn, Ashish; Arndt, Roger E. A.; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the fundamental physical process involved in drop impacts is important for a variety of engineering and scientific applications. Despite exhaustive research efforts on the dynamics of drop morphology upon impact, very few studies investigate the fluid dynamics induced within a drop upon impact. This study employs planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) with fluorescent particles to quantify the internal flow field of a drop impact on a solid surface. The image distortion caused by the curved liquid-air interface at the drop boundary is corrected using a ray-tracing algorithm. PIV analysis using the corrected images has yielded interesting insights into the flow initiated within a drop upon impact. Depending on the pre-impact conditions, characterized by impact number, different vortex modes are observed in the recoil phase of the drop impact. Further, the strength of these vortices and the kinetic energy of the internal flow field have been quantified. Our studies show a consistent negative power law correlation between vortex strength, internal kinetic energy and the impact number.

  12. 75 FR 28672 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures Against Two... measures on two Russian entities. DATES: Effective Date: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  13. International intercomparison of environmental measurements. Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This program was designed to address the following concerns: produce a quick snapshot of measurement capability in the international arena; identify the types and locations of gaps and measurement deficiencies; determine the feasibility to remediate the weaknesses identified; identify those laboratories of exceptional quality that may be used to evaluate international forensic problems.

  14. How International Studies Contributed to Educational Theory and Methods through Measurement of Opportunity to Learn Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2017-01-01

    The international comparative studies in 1959 were conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) researchers who recognized that differences in student achievement measures in mathematics across countries could be caused by differences in curricula. The measurements of opportunity to learn (OTL) grew…

  15. An International Comparison of Absolute Radiant Power Measurement Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Douglas B.

    1990-01-01

    We report the results of an intercomparison of monochromatic radiant power measurement capabilities recently completed by 11 national laboratories. The intercomparison radiometers, distributed in pairs, included an amplifier with six decades of precision gain and one of two types of silicon photodiode (pn or np-type construction). Eleven of the laboratories measured the absolute responsivity of the radiometers at 633 nm and nine at 488 nm. The standard deviation of the overall difference was ...

  16. International Conference on Instrumentation, Measurement, Circuits and Systems (ICIMCS 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Instrumentation, Measurement, Circuits and Systems

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology, held on London, UK, November 24-25, 2011.   Mechanical engineering technology is the application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.   This volume covers the subject areas of mechanical engineering and technology, and also covers interdisciplinary subject areas of computers, communications, control and automation...

  17. Neutron diffraction facility for internal stress measurements at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The Neutron Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis (RESA) is a two axis type neutron diffractometer with a goniometer controllable to specimen position in high precision for spatial distribution measurement of residual stress and with one- and zero-dimensional detectors, and has a characteristics of providing a pin-hole type neutron ray diaphragm to obtain local informations of the specimen. It is elucidated from the reported examples that the RESA in JAERI has a capacity of sufficient detection to a local strain with 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4}. The residual stress measurement in JAERI is just in beginning state, and has many necessities to do a lot of trial measurements on various materials in future. And, when finishing the construction of pulsed neutron source under planning in JAERI, it can be expected to realize a neutron intensity of more than one hundred for the residual stress measurement and to construct a powerful measurement instrument in combination with introduction of testing method for TOF. (G.K.)

  18. The “PHOENIX” Space Experiment: Study of Space Radiation Impact on Cells Genetic Apparatus on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karganov, M. Yu; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Kushin, V. V.; Inozemtsev, K. O.; Strádi, A.; Szabó, J.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Tolochek, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    The preliminary results of the 1st session of Russian “PHOENIX” long-term space experiment are presented. The survival of dried human lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells in 199 days space flight is studied. The degree of DNA fragmentation is analysed for samples flown in different ISS compartments. It is shown that biological data correlates with the results of space radiation dose measurements.

  19. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Grah; on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The detectors of the ILC will feature a calorimeter system in the very forward region. The system comprises mainly two electromagnetic calorimeters: LumiCal, which is dedicated to the measurement of the absolute luminosity with highest precision and BeamCal, which uses the energy deposition from beamstrahlung pairs for a fast luminosity measure and the determination of beam parameters. The FCAL system is designed as a universal system fitting all detector concepts. It was implemented and simulated as a subsystem of the large detector concept [1]. The studies are carried out within the FCAL collaboration.

  20. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings fr

  1. An international round-robin calibration protocol for nanoindentation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibbo, M; Ricci, P; Cecchini, R; Rymuza, Z; Sullivan, J; Dub, S; Cohen, S

    2012-02-01

    Nanoindentation has become a common technique for measuring the hardness and elastic-plastic properties of materials, including coatings and thin films. In recent years, different nanoindenter instruments have been commercialised and used for this purpose. Each instrument is equipped with its own analysis software for the derivation of the hardness and reduced Young's modulus from the raw data. These data are mostly analysed through the Oliver and Pharr method. In all cases, the calibration of compliance and area function is mandatory. The present work illustrates and describes a calibration procedure and an approach to raw data analysis carried out for six different nanoindentation instruments through several round-robin experiments. Three different indenters were used, Berkovich, cube corner, spherical, and three standardised reference samples were chosen, hard fused quartz, soft polycarbonate, and sapphire. It was clearly shown that the use of these common procedures consistently limited the hardness and reduced the Young's modulus data spread compared to the same measurements performed using instrument-specific procedures. The following recommendations for nanoindentation calibration must be followed: (a) use only sharp indenters, (b) set an upper cut-off value for the penetration depth below which measurements must be considered unreliable, (c) perform nanoindentation measurements with limited thermal drift, (d) ensure that the load-displacement curves are as smooth as possible, (e) perform stiffness measurements specific to each instrument/indenter couple, (f) use Fq and Sa as calibration reference samples for stiffness and area function determination, (g) use a function, rather than a single value, for the stiffness and (h) adopt a unique protocol and software for raw data analysis in order to limit the data spread related to the instruments (i.e. the level of drift or noise, defects of a given probe) and to make the H and E(r) data intercomparable.

  2. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  3. Construction and performance of a photobleaching recovery apparatus with microsecond time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H P; Verkman, A S

    1996-03-01

    A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) apparatus was constructed to measure sub-millisecond fluorescence recovery processes in living cells. The photobleaching pulse and probe beams were generated by modulating the intensity of a continuous wave Argon laser (4 W) by two acousto-optic modulators in series. The maximum intensity modulation was > 10(6):1 with a rise time of Mosfet optoisolators. The switching circuit produced a optoisolators. The switching circuit produced a transient anode current (t approximately 15 microseconds) which was subtracted for measurement of recoveries of < 50-100 microseconds. The apparatus was coupled to an inverted microscope for measurement of fluorescence by epi-illumination or total internal reflection. Instrument performance was evaluated by measurement of the rapid fluorescence recoveries of fluorescein and fluorescein-dextrans in solutions and living cells.

  4. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  5. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  6. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  7. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  8. 6. International FIG-symposium on deformation measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.; Heer, R. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the diversified fields of specialization of the authors, the papers span a very wide spectrum of theories, applications and case studies, concerning various problems of deformation studies in structural, geotechnical and mining engineering, in rock mechanics and earth crustal movements, covering such topics as: Design and analysis of deformations surveys; Integration of terrestrial, and space measurement techniques; New instrumental developements for automatic, continuous and telemetric data-acquisition with respect to geotechnical and geodetic applications; Monitoring and prediction of ground subsidence in mining areas, land slides and tectonic movements; Modeling and computation of deformations by Kalman-filtering techniques, finite element analysis and a special view to continuum mechanics; Application of expert systems and artificial intelligence; Description and analysis of dynamical deformation problems; special views in rock- and groundmechanics; Demonstration of mechanical engineering problems with respect to the supervision of industrial production and quality control. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  10. International Workshop on Comparing Ice Nucleation Measuring Systems 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziczo, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-04-30

    The relationship of ambient aerosol particles to the formation of ice-containing clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the Earth’s climate. The uncertainty is due to several poorly understood processes and measurements including, but not limited to: (1) the microphysics of how particles nucleate ice, (2) the number of ice forming particles as a function of atmospheric properties such as temperature and relative humidity, (3) the atmospheric distribution of ice forming particles and (4) the role of anthropogenic activities in producing or changing the behavior of ice forming particles. The ways in which ice forming particles can impact climate is also multi-faceted. More ice forming particles can lead to clouds with more ice crystals and different optical properties than clouds with less ice forming particles. More effective ice forming particles can lead to ice at higher temperature and/or lower saturation, resulting in clouds at lower altitude or latitude which also changes the Earth’s radiative balance. Ice nucleation also initiates most of the Earth’s precipitation, even in the mid- and low-latitudes, since cloud-top temperatures are often below freezing. The limited measurements and lack of understanding directly translates to restrictions in our ability to model atmospheric ice formation and project changes into the future. The importance of ice nucleation research is further exemplified by Figure 1 which shows the publications per decade and citations per year on the topic of ice nucleation [DeMott et al., 2011]. After a lull at the end of the last century, there has been a dramatic increase in both publications and citations related to ice nucleation; this directly corresponds to the importance of ice nucleation on the Earth’s climate and the uncertainty in this area noted by the Solomon [2007].

  11. Internal magnetic pitch angle measurements at KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Messmer, M. C. C. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Specification of the hardware for photo-detecting and digitizing electronics has almost complete as well and many of them are ready for procurement. The main collaboration party is Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands, whose main responsibilities include the development of filter module design and off-line and real-time analysis schemes along with overall consultations. The following sections describe some major parts of the design progress. 3D MSE stokes-vector simulations have been tuned to match the MSE spectra measured in KSTAR and used to design the band-pass filters. From these simulations, 0.4-nm 2-cavity interference filters have been chosen to minimize pitch angle errors. Figure 4 shows an example of the MSE spectrum calculated from the simulation that is compared with the measured spectrum. Also shown in Figure 4 are the possible passband (shaded in green) of the spectrum where the redmost shifted polarization component (+4π) is chosen, the pitch angles and their errors. Due to the overlap of the spectra among ion sources, the second ion source of NBI1 (NBI1-2) should operate at about 15% lower voltage than that of the first ion source (NBI1-1). An example of this overlap in the spectrum and the large error in pitch angle it causes is shown in Figure 5. Pass-band control by the filter-angle tuning is under development to fully cover most of the KSTAR plasmas which include Ip = 0.5 - 1 MA, Bt = 1.5 - 3.5 T, and the beam energy (for the ion source 1 from NBI1) = 70 - 100 keV. The accuracy obtained is in the order of 0.5 % and compatible with the MSE requirement. The software also allows sequences creation, which consists of executing a series of a predefined central wavelength and a corresponding time delay. One PC can control 5 controller hubs each of which can accommodate up to 6 rotational stage/controller sets, resulting in the maximum 30 sets.

  12. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  13. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  14. Application of total bacteria measuring apparatus for detecting total bacteria in raw milk%生乳细菌总数检测仪测定生乳细菌总数的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富鑫; 田雨; 管勇佳; 房乔; 李湘怡; 田波

    2012-01-01

    以还原法为理论基础,研制生乳细菌总数检测仪进行生乳细菌总数快速检测,以克服经典还原法目测比色主观性强的缺点,而且检测结果可以定量表示。该仪器连续检测加入试剂后的生乳样品颜色(RGB),通过数理统计分析,采用斜率法以R值斜率表示样品颜色的变化速度。研究以标准平板计数法(SPC法)为标准,建立了R值斜率与菌落总数之间的标准方程,经验证生乳细菌总数检测仪检测结果与SPC法检测结果差异不显著。与流式细胞仪比较,在与SPC法的相关性、运行成本及便携性等方面具有一定优势。%A total bacteria measuring apparatus was developed for detecting total bacteria in raw milk, which overcame the defects of traditional reduction test measured by eyes,and might make a quantitative expression of total bacteria.The apparatus detected continuously the color (RGB) of the milk samples which had been added reagents,and the rate of color change was showed as R slope by statistical analysis. A standard curve was established to show the relation between R slope and total plate count.There was no significant difference between the two results of total bacteria measuring apparatus and standard plate count method. Comparing with flow cytometry,the total bacteria measuring apparatus had some advantages about better relativity with SPC, lower operating cost and more efficiency.

  15. Use of internal building mass for room temperature measurements; Gebruik van interne gebouwmassa voor metingen kamertemperatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J. [Sydtotal, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, D. [Research and Development, Swegon AB, Tomelilla (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The indoor temperature is an important parameter for indoor comfort. Therefore, the indoor temperature is always measured during field tests related to the indoor environment of a house. Sometimes the daily average air temperature is of interest and sometimes it is the daily average operational temperature. [Dutch] De binnentemperatuur is een belangrijke parameter voor het binnencomfort. Daarom moet de binnentemperatuur altijd worden gemeten tijdens veldonderzoeken die gerelateerd zijn aan het binnenklimaat van een willekeurig huis. Soms is de dagelijkse gemiddelde luchttemperatuur van belang en soms de dagelijkse gemiddelde operatieve temperatuur.

  16. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  17. Electric Birefringence: A Simple Apparatus for Determining Physical Parameters of Macromolecules and Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimm, Harold H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a birefringence apparatus that can be assembled for less than $100 and can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules. Details are given of the construction and manipulation of the apparatus. (JN)

  18. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  19. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods...

  20. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  1. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  2. Heat exchange apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  3. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  4. A low cost apparatus for measuring the xylem hydraulic conductance in plants Um aparato de baixo custo para medição da condutância hidráulica do xilema em plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant yield and resistance to drought are directly related to the efficiency of the xylem hydraulic conductance and the ability of this system to avoid interrupting the flow of water. In this paper we described in detail the assembling of an apparatus proposed by TYREE et al. (2002, and its calibration, as well as low cost adaptations that make the equipment accessible for everyone working in this research area. The apparatus allows measuring the conductance in parts of roots or shoots (root ramifications or branches, or in the whole system, in the case of small plants or seedlings. The apparatus can also be used to measure the reduction of conductance by embolism of the xylem vessels. Data on the hydraulic conductance of eucalyptus seedlings obtained here and other reports in the literature confirm the applicability of the apparatus in physiological studies on the relationship between productivity and water stress.A produtividade das plantas e a capacidade de resistência à seca estão diretamente relacionadas com a eficiência da condutância hidráulica do xilema e a capacidade desse sistema em evitar a interrupção do fluxo de água. No presente trabalho, detalha-se a montagem de um aparato proposto por TYREE et al. (2002, e sua calibração, bem como adaptações com peças de menor custo que tornam o aparelho acessível a qualquer um trabalhando nesta linha de pesquisa. Esse aparato possibilita medir a condutância de partes do sistema radicular ou da parte aérea (ramificações radiculares ou ramos, ou em todo o sistema, no caso de plantas de porte pequeno ou plântulas. O aparato também pode ser usado para medir a redução da condutância pela embolização dos vasos do xilema. Medições de condutância hidráulica feitas em plântulas de eucalipto e outros trabalhos encontrados na literatura confirmaram a aplicabilidade desse aparato em estudos fisiológicos de produtividade relacionada ao estresse hídrico.

  5. A method to measure internal contact angle in opaque systems by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiqin; Tian, Ye; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-23

    Internal contact angle is an important parameter for internal wettability characterization. However, due to the limitation of optical imaging, methods available for contact angle measurement are only suitable for transparent or open systems. For most of the practical situations that require contact angle measurement in opaque or enclosed systems, the traditional methods are not effective. Based upon the requirement, a method suitable for contact angle measurement in nontransparent systems is developed by employing MRI technology. In the Article, the method is demonstrated by measuring internal contact angles in opaque cylindrical tubes. It proves that the method also shows great feasibility in transparent situations and opaque capillary systems. By using the method, contact angle in opaque systems could be measured successfully, which is significant in understanding the wetting behaviors in nontransparent systems and calculating interfacial parameters in enclosed systems.

  6. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  7. Lidiam - direct-link computer for the photo measurement apparatus of a bubble chamber; Lidiam - liaison directe d'une calculatrice aux appareils de mesure de photos de chambre a bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deler, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The treatment of bubble chamber pictures can be considerably improved by connecting conventional measuring machines to a small computer providing continuous control of the later as well as the immediate detection of errors and their immediate corrections. The computer will also perform first processing of the measured data. In addition the system described will improve the effective yield of each apparatus and facilitates the control of the data. A description is given here of the apparatus and of some future extensions. (author) [French] L'exploitation des cliches de chambre a bulles peut etre sensiblement amelioree par la jonction directe des appareils de mesure a une calculatrice qui permettra la detection immediate des erreurs et leurs corrections, le controle continu des appareils et un premier traitement des evenements mesures. De plus, le rendement effectif des appareils de mesure sera notablement augmente et la gestion ainsi que l'exploitation des mesures grandement facilitees. Nous presentons ici la description d'un dispositif de ce genre ainsi que les projets d'extensions envisagees.

  8. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    OpenAIRE

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  9. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Sakai, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-02-17

    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased towards small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with more than 6 nucleotides that occur frequently in viral RNA. This paper presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Protonated cytosine and uracil base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with more than 6 nucleotides are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2x2 have been measured (Mathews 2004). These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites.

  10. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  11. Internal Strain Measurement in 3D Braided Composites Using Co-braided Optical Fiber Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenfang YUAN; Rui HUANG; Yunjiang RAO

    2004-01-01

    3D braided composite technology has stimulated a great deal of interest in the world at large. But due to the threedimensional nature of these kinds of composites, coupled with the shortcomings of currently-adopted experimental test methods, it is difficult to measure the internal parameters of this materials, hence causes it difficult to understand the material performance. A new method is introduced herein to measure the internal strain of braided composite materials using co-braided fiber optic sensors. Two kinds of fiber optic sensors are co-braided into 3D braided composites to measure internal strain. One of these is the Fabry-Parrot (F-P) fiber optic sensor; the other is the polarimetric fiber optic sensor. Experiments are conducted to measure internal strain under tension, bending and thermal environments in the 3D carbon fiber braided composite specimens, both locally and globally. Experimental results show that multiple fiber optic sensors can be braided into the 3D braided composites to measure the internal parameters, providing a more accurate measurement method and leading to a better understanding of these materials.

  12. Poloidal beta and internal inductance measurement on HT-7 superconducting tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B; Sun, Y W; Wan, B N; Qian, J P

    2007-09-01

    Poloidal beta beta(theta) and internal inductance l(i) measurements are very important for tokamak operation. Much more plasma parameters can be inferred from the two parameters, such as the plasma energy confinement time, the plasma toroidal current profile, and magnetohydrodynamics instability. Using diamagnetic and compensation loop, combining with poloidal magnetic probe array signals, poloidal beta beta(theta) and internal inductance l(i) are measured. In this article, the measurement system and arithmetic are introduced. Different experimental results are given in different plasma discharges on HT-7 superconducting tokamak.

  13. Cultural distance in international business and management : from mean-based to variance-based measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Maseland, Robbert; Onrust, Marjolijn; van Hoorn, Andre; Slangen, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Extant practice in international management is to measure cultural distance as a nation-to-nation comparison of country means on cultural values, thereby ignoring the cultural variation that exists within countries. We argue that these traditional mean-based measures of cultural distance should take

  14. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienpont, L.M.; Beastall, G.H.; Christofides, N.D.; Faix, J.D.; Ieiri, T.; Jarrige, V.; Miller, W.G.; Miller, R.; Nelson, J.C.; Ronin, C.; Ross, H.A.; Rottmann, M.; Thijssen, J.H.; Toussaint, B.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis

  15. High-Speed Measurement of the Internal Diameter of Tubes: A Comparison of Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Agerup, C.C.; Nielsen, N.

    1974-01-01

    The authors have compared various methods of tube measurement and have made the striking conclusion that the continuous measurement of the internal diameter of precision tubes with an air gauge is often useless in practice. The methods selected for experiment were all contactless and so included ...... with ultrasonic immersion testing for flaws to make a complete tube testing facility....

  16. Using Cross-Cultural Dimensions Exercises to Improve and Measure Learning Outcomes in International Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures…

  17. Toward a Set of Internationally Applicable Indicators for Measuring University Internationalization Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This article emphasizes the urgent demand for measurements of university internationalization and proposes a new approach to develop a set of internationally applicable indicators for measuring university internationalization performance. The article looks into existing instruments developed for assessing university internationalization,…

  18. INDICATORS THAT CAN BE USED TO MEASURE PERFORMANCE IN THE INTERNAL AUDITING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin BOGHEAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal auditing has evolved from an approach based essentially on accounting aspects to a profession oriented towards management of entities and essentially destined for them. Modern internal auditing provides services that incorporate the examination and appreciation of regulations, performances, risk management and governance of all kind of property types – public or private bodies. The financial aspects represent just a part of the internal auditing view. In this paper, we will try to submit a series of indicators that can be used to measure the added value generated in an entity. Internal auditors provide to managers the information they need in order to download their responsibilities. Internal auditors are vitally involved in aspects that address to the risks and governance of the organization.

  19. Efficiency and internal noise for detection of suprathreshold patterns measured using simple reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A; Findlay, Kellyanne; Manahilov, Velitchko

    2003-05-01

    Studies of the detection of simple visual patterns at threshold contrast have found that human performance is limited by the addition of internal noise and by the sub-optimal sampling efficiency of the visual system. Many common visual tasks require the detection of a signal having a contrast well above threshold, and we sought to measure the internal noise and sampling efficiency for such signals using simple reaction time (RT). Observers were presented with suprathreshold Gabors in dynamic Gaussian white noise and were required to hit a button as soon as each was detected. By comparing the RT variances from humans to those of an ideal observer, visuomotor internal noise and sampling efficiency were measured. The internal noise remains constant and the sampling efficiency increases as the signal contrast increases.

  20. Orthopedics tool measurement apparatus based on three-dimensional space measurement%依据三维空间测量原理设计的关节角度测量器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明; 邱贵兴; 翁习生

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cybex NORMTM isokinetic dynamometer exhibits precise measurement,but the operation is too complex and the cost is too high to apply on routine examination.OBJECTIVE:To compare orthopedics tool measurement apparatus(OTMA)and Cybex NORMTM dynamometer in evaluating the range of motion after the treatment of shoulder.hip and knee joint diseases,and to verify tlle practical value of OTMA as a scientitic patent achievement.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Clinical randomized control trial was carried out in the Rcsearch Center for Orthopaedics and Artificial Joint.Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2004 to March 2005.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 121 patients were randomly divided into two groups.OTMA group comprised 22 patients with shoulder periarthritis(22 shoulders).1 5 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).Cybex group comprised 21 patients with shoulder periarthritis(21 shoulders),16 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head(21 hips),and 23 patients with knee osteoarthritis(33 knees).METHODS:Two groups patients were treated with OTMA or Cybex NORMTM dynamometer,respectively,the range of motion was measured before treatment and 3 months,1 year after treatment.The Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS)knee rating scale,Karisson evaluation criterion of shoulder function and Harris hip score were applied to evaluate the patients,Visual analog scale(VAS)pain scale and short-form health survey(SF-36)were also used in this study.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The range of motion in shoulder,hip and knee;Karlsson,Harris and HSS scores;VAS pain score and SF-36 score.RESULTS:OTMA measurement had a coincidence with Cybex NORMTM dynamometer measurement as 98.3%.All patients accepted and completed the measurement.The range of motion Was associated with HSS.Karlsson and Harris scores (P=0.002).CONCLUSION:According to three-dimensional space measurement,the digital OTMA may obtain the outcomes

  1. The advising alliance for international and domestic graduate students: Measurement invariance and implications for academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Suh, Hanna; Yang, Xiaohui; Choe, Elise; Davis, Don E

    2016-04-01

    We expanded the focus of a prior study of international graduate student advising relationships (Rice et al., 2009) to examine advising experiences of both international and domestic students. International (n = 434) and domestic (n = 387) students completed the Advisory Working Alliance Inventory (AWAI-S; Schlosser & Gelso, 2001) and measures of advising experiences, perceived academic stress, and desire to change advisor. Measurement invariance analyses suggested that a 23-item AWAI-S showed support for scalar invariance. A bifactor structure showed superior fit to the 3-factor model or a second-order factor model for the AWAI-S. International and domestic graduate students did not differ in ratings of general alliance, academic stress, or desire to change advisors. General alliance was strongly related to less academic stress and less desire to change advisors. International students who felt disrespected by their advisors were more likely to be academically stressed than domestic students. Structured mentoring experiences were associated with lower stress and less desire to change, and this effect was similar in both international and domestic students. Overall, results suggested that the current level of measurement, and possibly theory development, regarding the advisory alliance is good at identifying generic satisfaction but weaker at differentiating components of the alliance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Novel True Triaxial Apparatus to Study the Geomechanical and Fluid Flow Aspects of Energy Exploitations in Geological Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Yin, Guangzhi; Xu, Jiang; Li, Wenpu; Song, Zhenlong; Jiang, Changbao

    2016-12-01

    Fluid-solid coupling investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and natural gas exploitations are mostly conducted under conventional triaxial stress conditions ( σ 2 = σ 3), ignoring the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks (shale, coal and sandstone). A novel multi-functional true triaxial geophysical (TTG) apparatus was designed, fabricated, calibrated and tested to simulate true triaxial stress ( σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3) conditions and to reveal geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks. The apparatus was developed with the capacity to carry out geomechanical and fluid flow experiments at high three-dimensional loading forces and injection pressures under true triaxial stress conditions. The control and measurement of the fluid flow with effective sealing of rock specimen corners were achieved using a specially designed internally sealed fluid flow system. To validate that the apparatus works properly and to recognize the effects of each principal stress on rock deformation and permeability, stress-strain and permeability experiments and a hydraulic fracturing simulation experiment on shale specimens were conducted under true triaxial stress conditions using the TTG apparatus. Results show that the apparatus has advantages in recognizing the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks. Results also demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the novel TTG apparatus. The apparatus provides a new method of studying the geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks under true triaxial stress conditions, promoting further investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and gas exploitations.

  3. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  4. Solder dross removal apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  5. Distinguishing Between Related and Unrelated International Geographic Diversification: A Comprehensive Measure of Global Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Vachani

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that it is important to distinguish between related and unrelated international geographic diversification when measuring impact of diversification on performance. It then extends the Jacquemin-Berry entropy measure to propose a comprehensive measure of global diversification that comprises related and unrelated product diversification. It suggests a classification of firms based on diversification strategies and proposes hypotheses for future research.© 1991 JIBS. Journal o...

  6. Online junction temperature measurement via internal gate resistance during turn-on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Liserre, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement exploits the temperature dependent resistance of the temperature sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP): the internal gate resistance. This dependence can be observed during the normal s...... TSEP based measurement methods, primarily being: an absence of any dependence on operating conditions such as load current, and the potential to achieve higher sensitivity (20mV/C or more) than alternative TSEPs....

  7. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Bartlett, Susan J; Rose, Matthias; Aaronson, Neil K; Chaplin, John E; Efficace, Fabio; Leplège, Alain; Lu, Aiping; Tulsky, David S; Raat, Hein; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Revicki, Dennis; Terwee, Caroline B; Valderas, Jose M; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B

    2013-12-20

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMIS® network.PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making.The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item

  8. EDITORIAL: The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009) The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugui, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    The papers for this special feature have been selected for publication after the successful measurement forum that took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2009. ISMTII-2009 presented state-of-the-art approaches and solutions in the most challenging areas and focused on microscale and nanoscale measurements and metrology; novel measurements and diagnostic technologies, including nondestructive and dimensional inspection; measurements for geometrical and mechanical quantities, terahertz technologies for science, industry and biomedicine; intelligent measuring instruments and systems for industry and transport; optical and x-ray tomography and interferometry, metrology and characterization of materials, measurements and metrology for the humanitarian fields; and education in measurement science. We believe that scientists and specialists around the world found there the newest information on measurement technology and intelligent instruments, and this will stimulate work in these areas which is an essential part of progress in measurement. The ISMTII Symposia have been held successfully every two years from 1989 in the People's Republic of China, Hungary, Egypt, Hong Kong, UK and Japan under the direction of ICMI. In 2009 the ISMTII measuring forum took place in Russia, and it is a great honour for our country, as well as for the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian Branch—Novosibirsk Scientific Center. This Symposium was located in historic Saint Petersburg, which from its foundation has been a unique bridge of communication between countries on all continents, and participation provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experience, information and knowledge between specialists from different countries and fields. On behalf of the Organizers, Steering Committee and International Program Committee I would like to thank all the participants for their valuable contributions without which this special feature would not have become reality, as well

  9. The Internal Conversion Electron and Gamma Spectroscopy in the 14N + 197Au Reaction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrXf3l, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Perkowski, J.; Sobczak, K.; Kisielinski, M.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kownacki, J.; Korman, A.

    2008-02-01

    The first ``in-beam'' spectra of the internal conversion electrons were collected in the 197Au(14N,5n)206Rn fusion evaporation reaction by new constructed electron spectrometer. The measurements were carried out in electron-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence mode with use of electron spectrometer coupled to OSIRIS II gamma array at Heavy Ion Laboratory (HIL) of the Warsaw University. The analysis of the data for gamma -gamma coincidence measurement disclosed new transitions in 206Rn excited nucleus. Experimentally obtained internal conversion coefficient allowed to determine multipolarity of the new observed transition in 206Rn nucleus.

  10. Comparative analysis of internal friction and natural frequency measured by free decay and forced vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Z; Ding, X D; Xiong, X M; Zhang, J X

    2007-10-01

    Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgdelta, Q(-1), Q(-1*), and Lambda/pi) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay omega(FD), displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration omega(d), and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration omega(0) are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements.

  11. Exploiting different active silicon detectors in the International Space Station: ALTEA and DOSTEL galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livo; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Di Fino, Luca; Rizzo, Alessandro; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The solar system exploration by humans requires to successfully deal with the radiation exposition issue. The scientific aspect of this issue is twofold: knowing the radiation environment the astronauts are going to face and linking radiation exposure to health risks. Here we focus on the first issue. It is generally agreed that the final tool to describe the radiation environment in a space habitat will be a model featuring the needed amount of details to perform a meaningful risk assessment. The model should also take into account the shield changes due to the movement of materials inside the habitat, which in turn produce changes in the radiation environment. This model will have to undergo a final validation with a radiation field of similar complexity. The International Space Station (ISS) is a space habitat that features a radiation environment inside which is similar to what will be found in habitats in deep space, if we use measurements acquired only during high latitude passages (where the effects of the Earth magnetic field are reduced). Active detectors, providing time information, that can easily select data from different orbital sections, are the ones best fulfilling the requirements for these kinds of measurements. The exploitation of the radiation measurements performed in the ISS by all the available instruments is therefore mandatory to provide the largest possible database to the scientific community, to be merged with detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) models, in the quest for a full model validation. While some efforts in comparing results from multiple active detectors have been attempted, a thorough study of a procedure to merge data in a single data matrix in order to provide the best validation set for radiation environment models has never been attempted. The aim of this paper is to provide such a procedure, to apply it to two of the most performing active detector systems in the ISS: the Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts (ALTEA

  12. Laboratory measurements of the effect of internal waves on sound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.; Lin, Ying-Tsong

    2016-11-01

    The fidelity of acoustic signals used in communication and imaging in the oceans is limited by density fluctuations arising from many sources, particularly from internal waves. We present results from laboratory experiments on sound propagation through an internal wave field produced by a wave generator consisting of multiple oscillating plates. The fluid density as a function of height is measured and used to determine the sound speed as a function of the height. Sound pulses from a transducer propagate through the fluctuating stratified density field and are detected to determine sound refraction, pulse arrival time, and sound signal distortion. The results are compared with sound ray model and numerical models of underwater sound propagation. The laboratory experiments can explore the parameter dependence by varying the fluid density profile, the sound pulse signal, and the internal wave amplitude and frequency. The results lead to a better understanding of sound propagation through and scattered by internal waves.

  13. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2016-11-24

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection.

  14. Improved apparatus for continuous culture of hydrogen-fixing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. F.; Litchfield, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Improved apparatus permits the continuous culture of Hydrogenomonas eutropha. System incorporates three essential subsystems - /1/ environmentally isolated culture vessel, /2/ analytical system with appropriate sensors and readout devices, /3/ control system with feedback responses to each analytical measurement.

  15. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-C7-TC13 was organised by the University of Genova - DIME/MEC, Measurement Laboratory, Italy, on 4-6 September 2013. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: TC1 Education and Training in Measurement and Instrumentation TC7 Measurement Science TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine This is in keeping with the tradition set by the previous events of this well established series. There has been a special focus on measurement across physical and behavioural sciences, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and of promoting constructive interactions with scientists in other disciplines. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in psychophysics, psychometrics and quantum physics. The symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Australia and Japan, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume, organised according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Genova, which was the European Capital of Culture in 2004, and took place in Palazzo Ducale, an important historical building whose construction started in the 13th century, and that has been the house of the Duke of Genova from the 14th century. Genova, whose name comes from the Latin word 'Janua' (meaning 'door', as January is the door month of the year), has been regarded over the centuries as a door connecting Europe with the different countries and cultures of the Mediterranean basin and thus was an appropriate site for an international symposium involving different and new scientific visions and approaches to

  16. Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty for the Determination of Nitrogen Content in the Fertilizer by Kjeldahl Apparatus%定氮仪测定化肥中总氮含量不确定度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国雄; 林兴发; 魏苗; 黎薇薇

    2011-01-01

    对使用凯氏定氮仪测定肥料中总氮含量方法进行不确定度评定,分析该测定方法中不确定度的来源,通过数字模型对各不确定度分量进行评定,并给出了结果的报告形式。%The uncertainty of measurement for the determination of nitrogen content in the fertilizer by Kjeldahl apparatus was evaluated in the paper.The determination of the sources of uncertainty for the method was analyzed.Through the digital model of the uncertainty components were assessed,and gives the results of the report form.

  17. An extraordinary tabletop speed of light apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Guido

    2017-09-01

    A compact, low-cost, pre-aligned apparatus of the modulation type is described. The apparatus allows accurate determination of the speed of light in free propagation with an accuracy on the order of one part in 104. Due to the 433.92 MHz radio frequency (rf) modulation of its laser diode, determination of the speed of light is possible within a sub-meter measuring base and in small volumes (some cm3) of transparent solids or liquids. No oscilloscope is necessary, while the required function generators, power supplies, and optical components are incorporated into the design of the apparatus and its receiver can slide along the optical bench while maintaining alignment with the laser beam. Measurement of the velocity factor of coaxial cables is also easily performed. The apparatus detects the phase difference between the rf modulation of the laser diode by further modulating the rf signal with an audio frequency signal; the phase difference between these signals is then observed as the loudness of the audio signal. In this way, the positions at which the minima of the audio signal are found determine where the rf signals are completely out of phase. This phase detection method yields a much increased sensitivity with respect to the display of coincidence of two signals of questionable arrival time and somewhat distorted shape on an oscilloscope. The displaying technique is also particularly suitable for large audiences as well as in unattended exhibits in museums and science centers. In addition, the apparatus can be set up in less than one minute.

  18. Automatic Measurement for Internal Resistance of Battery in Uninterruptible Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezitis, Mareks; Karevs, Vladimirs

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the approach to the measurement of internal resistance of the battery in the uninterruptible power sources (UPSs [1]). Advantages of the approach are the measurements in power supplies without switching-off the battery, simplicity in realization of algorithm. The basic expressions of the theory used in the method about internal resistance of the storage battery are considered. The function chart of construction of an analog part of the scheme, and also algorithm of action of the scheme of logic of decision-making are considered. Construction of the tracing generator of load, the important part in realization of the method is stated. The use of the analog machine for processing of the results of measurements and a differential method of measurement with the purpose of increase the accuracy of the method is offered.

  19. The development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/steam interaction. Final report 9-21-90--3-31-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biney, P.O.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this research to experimentally determine the hydrogen generation rate during the beginning and subsequent stages of liquid metal (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) and water reaction. The experimental set-up has been built. It includes a metal sample preparation apparatus, a reaction system, a measurement system and a PC based data acquisition and control system. The most important feature of the reaction system is a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature, all stainless steel valve used the system for reaction time control. The PC system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all the systems except the metal preparation apparatus. Due to the reactivity of the lithium, all the metal sampling, preparation and loading procedures are executed in a glove box under argon protection. The metal temperature was varied between 350{degrees}C-650{degrees}C and water temperature fixed at 60{degrees}C during the experiments. A set of experimental procedures and two analyses methods: (1) thermodynamics method and (2) heat transfer method are discussed. All the measurements and data collections are executed under the PC system control. A data analysis program is used to calculate both the partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogen generation rate. The experiment results indicate that the amount of hydrogen generated is relate to the initial liquid metal temperature when the reaction surface is fixed. The mass of hydrogen generated as a function of initial liquid metal temperature and time of reaction is presented, The hydrogen generation over a time period of 240 seconds and the calculated errors are summarized in Table 1.

  20. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  1. The Effects of Participation Rate on the Internal Reliability of Peer Nomination Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Babcock, Ben; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2013-01-01

    Although low participation rates have historically been considered problematic in peer nomination research, some researchers have recently argued that small proportions of participants can, in fact, provide adequate sociometric data. The current study used a classical measurement perspective to investigate the internal reliability (Cronbach's…

  2. Radioactivity: Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (1962), (ICRU) Report 10 c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents recommendations agreed upon at the meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) held in Montreux, Switzerland, in April 1962. It is written in a report form with a preface including symbols, abbreviations and definitions of terms used in the report. The report consists of four…

  3. Understanding and Measuring Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Kikas, Eve; Shin, Hyeonsook; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Cefai, Carmel; Negovan, Valeria; Stanculescu, Elena; Yang, Hongfei; Liu, Yi; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Nelson, Brett; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a scale that is appropriate for use internationally to measure affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions of student engagement. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data of 3,420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th grade) from 12 countries (Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia,…

  4. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  5. Internal tibial torsion correction study. [measurements of strain for corrective rotation of stressed tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, J. M.; Madigan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative study of internal torsion in the entire tibial bone was performed by using strain gauges to measure the amount of deformation occuring at different locations. Comparison of strain measurements with physical dimensions of the bone produced the modulus of rigidity and its behavior under increased torque. Computerized analysis of the stress distribution shows that more strain occurs near the torqued ends of the bones where also most of the twisting and fracturing takes place.

  6. Nuclei Measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Melanie

    2017-03-01

    The exact behavior of nuclei fluxes in cosmic rays and how they relate to each other is important for understanding the production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of charged cosmic rays. Precise measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of light nuclei fluxes and their ratios in primary cosmic rays with rigidities from GV to TV are presented. The high statistics of the measurements require detailed studies and in depth understanding of associated systematic uncertainties.

  7. Nuclei Measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact behavior of nuclei fluxes in cosmic rays and how they relate to each other is important for understanding the production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of charged cosmic rays. Precise measurements with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of light nuclei fluxes and their ratios in primary cosmic rays with rigidities from GV to TV are presented. The high statistics of the measurements require detailed studies and in depth understanding of associated systematic uncertainties.

  8. Heat Treating Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  9. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  10. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  11. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.

    2016-11-01

    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  12. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  13. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  14. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  15. Measurement of the internal magnetic fluctuation by the transport of runaways on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Jiang, Z. H.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, Z. P.; Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of internal magnetic fluctuation is important for the study of transport in tokamak plasmas. The runaway electron transport induced by the sawtooth crash can be used to obtain the internal magnetic fluctuation. Inversed sawtooth-like activities on hard x-ray (HXR) fluxes following sawtooth activities were observed after the application of electrode biasing on J-TEXT tokamak. The runaway diffusion coefficient Dr is deduced to be about 30 m2/s according to the time delay of HXR flux peaks to the sawtooth crashes. The averaged value of normalized magnetic fluctuation in the discharges with electrode biasing was increased to the order of 1 × 10-4.

  16. Development of Internal Chargin Measurement System for Dielectric Material of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Tomita, Nobuyuki; Takada, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Goka, Tateo

    Spacecraft charging occurs in space environment. There are two types of spacecraft charging. “Surface Charging” and “Internal Charging.” The former has been investigated for about 30 years. Until now, however, the latter has not been studied deeply enough and, as far as we know, measurement of internal charging in the spacecraft has not been made yet. Under these circumstances, we tried to develop equipment for measurement of internal charging in space environment, applying PIPWP (Piezo-electric Induced Pressure Wave Propagation) method, which enables us to measure electric charge distribution in dielectrics. The equipment was designed smaller and lighter in order to be able to be installed into spacecraft. The specific feature of this equipment is that it is capable of measuring charge distribution continuously in real-time. Using the equipment, we succeeded in measuring charge distribution in PMMA (Poly Methyl Methacrylate) film during and after electron beam irradiation and, we could obtain basis data to proceed to spacecraft borne equipment.

  17. In-Situ Measurement of Internal Temperature Distribution of Sintered Materials Using Ultrasonic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, I.; Tomomatsu, T.

    2011-03-01

    It is often required to measure internal temperature distribution of a heated material because it is closely related to the materials properties and behavior. In this work, an effective ultrasonic method has been applied to the monitoring of internal temperature distributions of an alumina being heated. The principle of the method is based on the temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound propagating through a heated material. In the method, a combined technique of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and a finite difference calculation is employed to determine the one-dimensional temperature distribution in a heated material. Shear wave is used for the ultrasonic measurements to improve the accuracy in determining temperature. To verify the feasibility of the method, pulse-echo measurements with a shear wave transducer have been performed for an alumina rod of 14 mm diameter and 25 mm length whose single-end is being heated. The internal temperature distribution and its variation of the alumina are then measured during the heating. The temperature distributions determined by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those obtained by an infrared method. Thus, it is demonstrated that the ultrasonic method has the potential for in-process monitoring of the transient temperature variation of ceramics being processed at high temperatures.

  18. Measurements of the communication noise level on the internal roads of the manufacturing metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication shows the results of measurements of the noise level emitted by the motor trucks on the internal roads of the steelworks. The distribution of the metallurgical products with the use of trucks is, next to the rail transport, one of the main logistic forms of products delivery to the customer. The research was conducted on one of the busiest internal roads of metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland in Dąbrowa Górnicza. The enterprise conducts the whole production cycle and is the biggest steel producer in Poland. On the premises of the steelworks there were five points of measurements marked where the noise level is measured and the results were compared with the acceptable noise levels defined in the norms.

  19. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  20. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  1. Helium mass flow measurement in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.

    1986-08-01

    The measurement of helium mass flow in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) is an important aspect in the operation of the facility's cryogenic system. Data interpretation methods that lead to inaccurate results can cause severe difficulty in controlling the experimental superconducting coils being tested in the facility. This technical memorandum documents the methods of helium mass flow measurement used in the IFSMTF for all participants of the Large Coil Program and for other cryogenic experimentalists needing information on mass flow measurements. Examples of experimental data taken and calculations made are included to illustrate the applicability of the methods used.

  2. Research on Measurements for Temperature and Stress of Pistons in Internal Combustion Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao-rui; TAN Jian-song

    2008-01-01

    In both numerical simulation and experimental research for the piston of internal combustion engine, the verification foundations are always insufficient. The reason is the measurements for its transient temperature and stress under actual operation conditions are very difficult. A multi-channel measurement-storage technology is used in the engine bench experiment to measure the piston temperature and stress in real time. The temperature and stress changes in the engine operation process are obtained. They provide reliable instructive criteria for numerical analysis and experiment of the piston working state.

  3. Development and Psychometric Assessment of a Multidimensional Measure of Internalized HIV Stigma in a sample of HIV-positive Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Hays, Ron D.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Mahajan, Anish P.; Spritzer, Karen L.; Cunningham, William E.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for a psychometrically sound measure of the stigma experienced by diverse persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a multidimentional measure of internalized HIV stigma that captures stigma related to treatment and other aspects of the disease among sociodemographically diverse PLHA. We developed a 28-item measure of internalized HIV stigma composed of four scales based on previous qualitative work. Internal consistency reliabilit...

  4. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  5. Analysis of Thermal-Conductivity Measurement Data from International Comparison of National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, B.; Zarr, R.; Stacey, C.; Lira-Cortes, L.; Hammerschmidt, U.; Sokolov, N.; Zhang, J.; Filtz, J.-R.; Fleurence, N.

    2013-05-01

    For the first time under the auspices of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), seven national metrology institutes (NMIs) participated in an international interlaboratory comparison on thermal-conductivity measurements by the guarded hot-plate method. Measurements were conducted successively by all participants on the same set of specimens of insulating materials (mineral wool and expanded polystyrene) at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 40 °C, according to the International Standard ISO 8302. This protocol aims to minimize issues of material variability by circulating the same pairs of specimens among the laboratories following the strict format of a round-robin test program. This comparison is a pilot study which is intended as a first stage for future key comparisons between NMIs. The descriptive analysis of obtained results shows good agreement between laboratories for the mineral wool (MW) specimens and the thicker specimens of expanded polystyrene (EPS), with relative deviations within the uncertainties of measurement. A positive drift of thermal-conductivity values, which has appeared progressively during the comparison process, seems to be correlated with the size of the metering area of the guarded hot plates used. A statistical analysis was applied to repeated thermal-conductivity measurements at 23 °C, to identify anomalous and outlying data, to assess the within- and between-laboratory variability, and to evaluate the participant laboratories' performance.

  6. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a

  7. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  8. An apparatus for conducting physical, chemical, or biological interaction between gases and solid particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an apparatus for conducting interaction between gases and solid particles. The apparatus has a vertical hollow shaft with a vertical row of constrictions formed internally and defining a series of intercommunicating chambers in the shaft for guiding the gas and particles e....

  9. Exposing the Film Apparatus: The Film Archive as a Research Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossati, G.; van den Oever, A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine opening the gates to a vault full of media apparatuses and letting loose thirty-two international media scholars and professionals on its heterogeneous content... Exposing the Film Apparatus collects the results of such an experiment. This book addresses the keen awareness of the prominence

  10. Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.

  11. Improved measures for the cross-national comparison of age profiles of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude; Bell, Martin; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate the application of a concise set of measures intended to encapsulate key features of the age profile of internal migration and highlight the significant differences that exist between nations in these profiles. Model schedules have been the most common method of comparing internal migration patterns but issues related to the estimation and interpretation of their parameters hinder their use for cross-national comparison. We demonstrate that the interpretation of exponential coefficients as rates of ascent and descent does not best reflect the slopes of migration age profiles, and we propose more consistent measures based on the rate of change in migration intensity. We demonstrate, through correlation and factor analysis, that most of the inter-country variance in migration age profiles is captured by the age at and intensity of peak migration. The application of these two indicators to 25 countries reveals significant differences between regions.

  12. A Spectrometric Setup for Synchronous Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Measurement at the Solid/Liquid Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A spectrometric setup to perform total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and synchronous TIRF measurements at solid/liquid interfaces is presented. The combination of TIRF and synchronous fluorescence was proposed to analyze simultaneously different components at interfaces. The TIRF excitation, emission and synchronous spectra of a water-soluble porphyrin were obtained from water/glass interface using this setup without the existence of a surfactant.

  13. High temperature internal friction measurements of 3YTZP zirconia polycrystals. High temperature background and creep

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, P.; Castillo-Rodríguez, Miguel; Nó, M. L.; De-Bernardi, S.; Gómez-García, D.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; San Juan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the high-temperature mechanic properties of a 3 mol % yttria zirconia polycrystals (3YTZP), fabricated by hot-pressureless sintering. Systematic measurements of mechanical loss as a function of temperature and frequency were performed. An analytical method, based on the generalised Maxwell rheological model, has been used to analyse the high temperature internal friction background (HTB). This method has been previously applied to intermetallic compounds...

  14. SU-E-T-542: Measurement of Internal Neutrons for Uniform Scanning Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Zheng, Y; Rana, S [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Collums, T [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Monsoon, J; Benton, E [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In proton radiotherapy, the production of neutrons is a wellknown problem since neutron exposure can lead to increased risk of secondary cancers later in the patient’s lifetime. The assessment of neutron exposure is, therefore, important for the overall quality of proton radiotherapy. This study investigates the secondary neutrons created inside the patient from uniform scanning proton beams. Methods: Dose equivalent due to secondary neutrons was measured outside the primary field as a function of distance from beam isocenter at three different angles, 45, 90 and 135 degree, relative to beam axis. Plastic track nuclear detector (CR-39 PNTD) was used for the measurement of neutron dose. Two experimental configurations, in-air and cylindrical-phantom, were designed. In a cylindrical-phantom configuration, a cylindrical phantom of 5.5 cm diameter and 35 cm long was placed along the beam direction and in an in-air configuration, no phantom was used. All the detectors were placed at nearly identical locations in both configurations. Three proton beams of range 5 cm, 18 cm, and 32 cm with 4 cm modulation width and a 5 cm diameter aperture were used. The contribution from internal neutrons was estimated from the differences in measured dose equivalent between in-air and cylindrical-phantom configurations at respective locations. Results: The measured ratio of neutron dose equivalent to the primary proton dose (H/D) dropped off with distance and ranged from 27 to 0.3 mSv/Gy. The contribution of internal neutrons near the treatment field edge was found to be up to 64 % of the total neutron exposure. As the distance from the field edge became larger, the external neutrons from the nozzle appear to dominate and the internal neutrons became less prominent. Conclusion: This study suggests that the contribution of internal neutrons could be significant to the total neutron dose equivalent.

  15. Toward a Human Rights Method for Measuring International Copyright Law’s Compliance with International Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Sharieh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available States parties to international copyright instruments are required to give effect to their obligations under international copyright law and fulfil their international human rights obligations with respect to striking a balance between the human rights of the authors of intellectual works and human rights of the users of those same works. The High Commissioner of Human Rights has concluded that such balance ‘is one familiar to intellectual property law’. This conclusion assumes that international copyright law is already compliant with international human rights law. However, international copyright law instruments are not clear about how to reach an appropriate balance between these rights and, as a result, different stakeholders in the international copyright community seek and defend varied versions of balance which are not necessarily consistent. Concurrently, international human rights law bodies and scholars have examined the human rights of authors and users of intellectual works through a copyright law lens, missing a chance to articulate a clear human rights principle of balance. A proper human rights balance between authors’ and users’ human rights recognises the limited nature of both sets of human rights, rejects any hierarchy between them, and interprets them in conformity with the notion of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights.

  16. Development of Tunneling Spectroscopy Apparatus for Kelvin and Sub-Kelvin Measurements of Superconducting Energy Gaps by Multi-disciplinary students at a Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling spectroscopy is an important technique used to measure the superconducting energy gap, a feature that is at the heart of the nature of superconductivity in various materials. In this presentation, we report the progress and results in developing high-resolution tunneling spectroscopy experimental platforms in a helium three cryostat, a 3 Kelvin cryocooler and a helium dip-tester. The experimental team working in a liberal arts university is a multi-disciplinary group consisting of one physics major, chemisty majors and a biology major. Students including non-physics majors learned and implemented current-voltage measurement techniques, vacuum system engineering, built electronic boxes and amplifier circuits from scratch, built custom multi-conductor cables for thermometry and current-voltage measurements, and performed conductance measurements. We report preliminary results. Acknowledgments: We acknowledge support from National Science Foundation Grant # DMR-1206561.

  17. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  18. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  19. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  20. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  1. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  2. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  3. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  4. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  5. Mapping edge-based traffic measurements onto the internal links in MPLS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guofeng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2004-09-01

    Applying multi-protocol label switching techniques to IP-based backbone for traffic engineering goals has shown advantageous. Obtaining a volume of load on each internal link of the network is crucial for traffic engineering applying. Though collecting can be available for each link, such as applying traditional SNMP scheme, the approach may cause heavy processing load and sharply degrade the throughput of the core routers. Then monitoring merely at the edge of the network and mapping the measurements onto the core provides a good alternative way. In this paper, we explore a scheme for traffic mapping with edge-based measurements in MPLS network. It is supposed that the volume of traffic on each internal link over the domain would be mapped onto by measurements available only at ingress nodes. We apply path-based measurements at ingress nodes without enabling measurements in the core of the network. We propose a method that can infer a path from the ingress to the egress node using label distribution protocol without collecting routing data from core routers. Based on flow theory and queuing theory, we prove that our approach is effective and present the algorithm for traffic mapping. We also show performance simulation results that indicate potential of our approach.

  6. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the determination of ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) using a simple automated ankle pressure measurement device in comparison with the Doppler technique. DESIGN: ABI was measured in 61 patients (122 legs) admitted to the department of vascular surgery, Rigshospitalet. ABI...... was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  7. Heat transfer measurements on smooth and finned tubes in a standard apparatus for boiling experiments. Waermeuebergangsmessungen an Glatt- und Rippenrohren in einer Standardapparatur fuer Siedeversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fath, W.

    1986-07-28

    The use of Rankine cycles with refrigerants or other organic working fluids for waste heat recovery has been a matter of discussion lately. The evaporating pressure is higher in these systems than in conventional application of finned tubes, so the problems of heat transfer in nucleate boiling on finned tubes are investigated here. Measurements were made on smooth and finned tubes and on surface-treated smooth and finned tubes. Refrigerant R-22 was used for the experiments; the measurements cover a wide range of pressures. (HAG).

  8. Tokamak Plasmas : Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak plasmas using a Zeeman polarimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Jagadeeshwari; J Govindarajan

    2000-11-01

    In a tokamak plasma, the poloidal magnetic field profile closely depends on the current density profile. We can deduce the internal magnetic field from the analysis of circular polarization of the spectral lines emitted by the plasma. The theory of the measurement and a detailed design of the Zeeman polarimeter constructed to measure the poloidal field profile in the ADITYA tokamak are presented. The Fabry-Perot which we have employed in our design, with photodiode arrays followed by lock-in detection of the polarization signal, allows the measurement of the fractional circular polarization. In this system He-II line with wavelength 4686 Å is adopted as the monitoring spectral line. The line emission used in the present measurement is not well localized in the plasma, necessiating the use of a spatial inversion procedure to obtain the local values of the field.

  9. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  10. EAST equilibrium current profile reconstruction using polarimeter-interferometer internal measurement constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. P.; Lao, L. L.; Liu, H. Q.; Ding, W. X.; Zeng, L.; Luo, Z. P.; Ren, Q. L.; Huang, Y.; Huang, J.; Brower, D. L.; Hanada, K.; Chen, D. L.; Sun, Y. W.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xiao, B. J.; Wan, B. N.

    2017-03-01

    The first equilibrium reconstruction of EAST current-density profile based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) diagnostic is demonstrated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. EFIT incorporates 11 simultaneous line-integrated density and Faraday effect measurements from POINT to self-consistently reconstruct the equilibrium toroidal current density profile using a Faraday rotation reconstruction algorithm. It is shown that the POINT measurements can be applied to improve the accuracy of core plasma current density and q profile on EAST. Comparisons of magnetic surfaces and the q profile reconstructed using external magnetic data against those using magnetic and POINT data are presented. Equilibrium reconstructions using POINT data are found to be consistent with sawtooth phenomena. The sensitivity of equilibrium reconstruction to POINT measurements indicates Faraday rotation provides important constraints for determining the current profile.

  11. Experimental measurement of vapor pressures and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for {l_brace}1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) + propane (R290){r_brace} by a recirculation apparatus with view windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gong Maoqiong, E-mail: gongmq@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Junsheng [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wu Jianfeng, E-mail: jfwu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The saturated vapor pressures of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and propane (R290), and the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data at (255.000, 265.000, 275.000, and 285.000) K for the (R134a + R290) system were measured by a recirculation apparatus with view windows. The uncertainty of the temperatures, pressures, and compositions are less than {+-}5 mK, {+-}0.0005 MPa, and {+-}0.005, respectively. The saturated vapor pressures data were correlated by a Wagner type equation and compared with the reference data. The binary VLE data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) incorporating the Huron-Vidal (HV) mixing rule utilizing the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. For mixtures, the maximum average absolute relative deviation of pressure is 0.15%, while the maximum average absolute deviation of vapor phase mole fraction is 0.0045. Azeotropic behavior can be found for the (R134a + R290) system at measured temperatures.

  12. Impedance measurement for microstructure characterization and internal surface estimation of macroporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RoyChaudhuri, C. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103 (India); Jana, M.; Bandopadhyay, N.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, a simple and convenient method based on impedance measurement has been proposed for the first time to evaluate the average porosity, pore radius, and internal surface area of macroporous silicon structure fabricated by electrochemical method. The porosity and the average pore radius have been obtained by developing a geometrical model and applying the generalized effective medium approximation theory to the dc and ac impedance measurement of both unoxidized and thermally oxidized macroporous silicon. The internal surface area per unit volume is then computed from the porosity and the pore radius using the same model. The method has been applied to a wide range of porosity from 30 to 58% fabricated on p-type <100> silicon with a resistivity of 10-20 {omega} cm. Experimental verification of porosity, mean pore radius, and internal surface area have been performed by standard gravimetric technique and by top-view and cross-section SEM imaging, respectively. A typical mean pore radius, porosity, and internal surface area of a macroporous silicon sample has been obtained to be 1.52 {mu}m, 54.2%, and 3565.7 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, respectively, from the impedance measurement and 1.5 {mu}m, 55%, and 3666.7 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3} from SEM and gravimetric analysis which shows that the results are within 2% of the values obtained by conventional methods. The advantages of this method over the other recently reported techniques for similar characterization have been discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  14. Hypnosis modulates behavioural measures and subjective ratings about external and internal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Noirhomme, Quentin; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Laureys, Steven

    2015-12-01

    In altered subjective states, the behavioural quantification of external and internal awareness remains challenging due to the need for reports on the subjects' behalf. With the aim to characterize the behavioural counterpart of external and internal awareness in a modified subjective condition, we used hypnosis during which subjects remain fully responsive. Eleven right-handed subjects reached a satisfactory level of hypnotisability as evidenced by subjective reports on arousal, absorption and dissociation. Compared to normal wakefulness, in hypnosis (a) participants' self-ratings for internal awareness increased and self-ratings for external awareness decreased, (b) the two awareness components tended to anticorrelate less and the switches between external and internal awareness self-ratings were less frequent, and (c) participants' reaction times were higher and lapses in key presses were more frequent. The identified imbalance between the two components of awareness is considered as of functional relevance to subjective (meta)cognition, possibly mediated by allocated attentional properties brought about by hypnosis. Our results highlight the presence of a cognitive counterpart in resting state, indicate that the modified contents of awareness are measurable behaviourally, and provide leverage for investigations of more challenging altered conscious states, such as anaesthesia, sleep and disorders of consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  16. Calibration of the isomer shift of {sup 133}Cs from internal conversion measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiroko; Tanaka, Eiji; Muramatsu, Hisakazu [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, for 81 KeV transition of 133-Cs which is one of Moessbauer nuclides belonged to alkaline element and can be useful probe on study of binding state in a compound with high ionic boundability specific to alkaline element, an experiment to obtain {Delta}R/R was conducted by measurement of Moessbauer isomer shift and of internal conversion intensity of outer shell electron, using an internal conversion method, one of obtaining methods of {Delta} at the most accuracy. 133-Xe was buried at shallow surface of a host metal, reduced energy loss of internal conversion electron to realize high resolution and aimed to separate O-shell from P-shell to reduce injected ionic spaced and prepare a source. In range measurement of various energy to confirm actual speed reduction of ion, transmittance of 133-Xe on Cu layer vapor-deposited 2 to 10 micro g/sq cm thick on an Ni-foil was conducted. As a result, mean ranges of each energy were 5:2.2, 10:3.7, 15:4.8, and 20:5.6 micro g/sq cm, respectively. It was thought to be proved that speed reduction was certainly conducted by facts that the range increased with increase of the incident energy which showed good agreement with calculation results due to TRIM-95 code. (G.K.)

  17. Measuring the extent and width of internal energy deposition in ion activation using nanocalorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, William A; Williams, Evan R

    2010-04-01

    The recombination energies resulting from electron capture by a positive ion can be accurately measured using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry in which the internal energy deposition is obtained from the number of water molecules lost from the reduced cluster. The width of the product ion distribution in these experiments is predominantly attributable to the distribution of energy that partitions into the translational and rotational modes of the water molecules that are lost. These results are consistent with a singular value for the recombination energy. For large clusters, the width of the energy distribution is consistent with rapid energy partitioning into internal vibrational modes. For some smaller clusters with high recombination energies, the measured product ion distribution is narrower than that calculated with a statistical model. These results indicate that initial water molecule loss occurs on the time scale of, or faster than energy randomization. This could be due to inherently slow internal conversion or it could be due to a multi-step process, such as initial ion-electron pair formation followed by reduction of the ion in the cluster. These results provide additional evidence for the accuracy with which condensed phase thermochemical values can be deduced from gaseous nanocalorimetry experiments.

  18. Measurement of Young’s Modulus and Internal Damping of Pork Muscle in Dynamic Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Moez; Ghozlen, Med Hédi Ben

    2016-09-01

    Automotive shocks involve various tiers’ speed for different human body tissues. Knowing the behavior of these tissues, including muscles, in different vibration frequency is therefore necessary. The muscle has viscoelatic properties. Dynamically, this material has variable mechanical properties depending on the vibration frequency. A novel technique is being employed to examine the variation of the mechanical impedance of pork muscle as a function of frequency. A force is imposed on the lower surface of the sample and acceleration is measured on its upper surface. These two parameters are measured using sensors. The sample is modeled by Kelvin-Voigt model. These measures allow deducing the change in the mechanical impedance modulus (/Zexp/ = /Force: Acceleration/) of pork muscle as a function of vibration frequency. The measured impedance has a resonance of approximately 60Hz. Best-fit parameters of theoretical impedance can be deduced by superposition with the experiment result. The variation of Young’s modulus and internal damping of pig’s muscle as a function of frequency are determined. The results obtained between 5Hz and 30Hz are the same as determined by Aimedieu and al in 2003, therefore validating our technique. The Young’s modulus of muscle increases with the frequency, on the other hand, we note a rating decrease of internal damping.

  19. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  20. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  1. Polarization Imaging Apparatus with Auto-Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5 deg, a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45 deg, a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I(sub 0), I(sub 1), I(sub 2) and I(sub 3) of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (pi,0), (pi,pi) and (pi/2,pi), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S(sub 0), S(sub 1), S(sub 2) and S(sub 3) were calculated using the four intensity images.

  2. Measurement of International Roughness Index by Using Z-Axis Accelerometers and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Roughness Index (IRI is a well-recognized standard in the field of pavement management. Many different types of devices can be used to measure the IRI, but these devices are mainly mounted on a full-size automobile and are complicated to operate. In addition, these devices are expensive. The development of methods for IRI measurement is a prerequisite for pavement management systems and other parts of the road management industry. Based on the quarter-car model and the vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, there is a strong correlation between the in-car Z-axis acceleration and the IRI. The variation of speed of the car during the measurement process has a large influence on IRI estimation. A measurement system equipped with Z-axis accelerometers and a GPS device was developed. Using the self-designing measurement system based on the methodology proposed in this study, we performed a small-scale field test. We used a one-wheel linear model and two-wheel model to fit the variation of the Z-axis acceleration. The test results demonstrated that the low-cost measurement system has good accuracy and could enhance the efficiency of IRI measurement.

  3. PainVision® Apparatus for Assessment of Efficacy of Pulsed Radiofrequency Combined with Pharmacological Therapy in the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia and Correlations with Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. PainVision device was a developed application for the evaluation of pain intensity. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF combined with pharmacological therapy in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. We also discussed the correlation of the measurements. Method. Forty patients with PHN were randomized for treatment with PRF combined with pharmacological therapy (PRF group, n=20 or pharmacological therapy (control group, n=20 at postoperative 48 hours. The efficacy measure was pain degree (PD that was assessed by PainVision and visual analog scale (VAS, short form Mcgill pain questionnaire (SF-Mcgill, and numeric rate scale sleep interference score (NRSSIS. Correlations between PD, VAS, SF-Mcgill, and NRSSIS were determined. Results. The PD for persistent pain (PP and breakthrough pain (BTP at postoperative 48 hours assessed by PainVision were significantly lower in PRF group than in control group (PD-PP, P<0.01; PD-BTP, P<0.01. PD and VAS were highly correlated for both persistent pain (r=0.453, ρ=0.008 and breakthrough pain (r=0.64, ρ=0.001. Conclusion. PRF was well tolerated and superior to isolated pharmacological therapy in the treatment of PHN. PainVision device showed great value in the evaluation of pain intensity and PD had an excellent correlation with VAS and SF-Mcgill.

  4. Ultrasonic thickness structural health monitoring photoelastic visualization and measurement accuracy for internal pipe corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Oil refinery production of fuels is becoming more challenging as a result of the changing world supply of crude oil towards properties of higher density, higher sulfur concentration, and higher acidity. One such production challenge is an increased risk of naphthenic acid corrosion that can result in various surface degradation profiles of uniform corrosion, non-uniform corrosion, and localized pitting in piping systems at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C. The irregular internal surface topology and high external surface temperature leads to a challenging in-service monitoring application for accurate pipe wall thickness measurements. Improved measurement technology is needed to continuously profile the local minimum thickness points of a non-uniformly corroding surface. The measurement accuracy and precision must be sufficient to provide a better understanding of the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper discusses potential technologies for measuring localized internal corrosion in high temperature steel piping and describes the approach under investigation to apply flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process. Next, the elastic wave beam profile of a sol-gel transducer is characterized via photoelastic visualization. Finally, the variables that impact measurement accuracy and precision are discussed and a maximum likelihood statistical method is presented and demonstrated to quantify the measurement accuracy and precision of various time-of-flight thickness calculation methods in an ideal environment. The statistical method results in confidence values analogous to the a90 and a90/95 terminology used in Probability-of-Detection (POD) assessments.

  5. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  6. Measuring the Absorption Rate of CO 2 in Nonaqueous CO 2 -Binding Organic Liquid Solvents with a Wetted-Wall Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Paul M. [Process Technology, Fluor Corporation, 3 Polaris Way Aliso Viejo CA 92698 USA; Zheng, Feng [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Heldebrant, David J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Zwoster, Andy [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Freeman, Charles M. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Bearden, Mark D. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA; Koech, Phillip [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99352 USA

    2015-09-17

    The kinetics of the absorption of CO2 into two nonaqueous CO2-binding organic liquid (CO2BOL) solvents were measured at T=35, 45, and 55 °C with a wetted-wall column. Selected CO2 loadings were run with a so-called “first-generation” CO2BOL, comprising an independent base and alcohol, and a “second-generation” CO2BOL, in which the base and alcohol were conjoined. Liquid-film mass-transfer coefficient (k'g) values for both solvents were measured to be comparable to values for monoethanolamine and piperazine aqueous solvents under a comparable driving force, in spite of far higher solution viscosities. An inverse temperature dependence of the k'g value was also observed, which suggests that the physical solubility of CO2 in organic liquids may be making CO2 mass transfer faster than expected. Aspen Plus software was used to model the kinetic data and compare the CO2 absorption behavior of nonaqueous solvents with that of aqueous solvent platforms. This work continues our development of the CO2BOL solvents. Previous work established the thermodynamic properties related to CO2 capture. The present paper quantitatively studies the kinetics of CO2 capture and develops a rate-based model.

  7. Reliability of shoulder internal rotation passive range of motion measurements in the supine versus sidelying position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Jason B; Muffenbier, Mike; Giveans, M Russell; Cieminski, Cort J

    2010-09-01

    Clinical measurement, reliability. To compare intrarater and interrater reliability of shoulder internal rotation (IR) passive range of motion measurements utilizing a standard supine position and a sidelying position. Glenohumeral IR range of motion deficits are often noted in patients with shoulder pathology. Excellent intrarater reliability has been found when measuring this motion. However, interrater reliability has been reported as poor to fair. Some clinicians currently use a sidelying position for IR stretching with patients who have shoulder pathology. However, no objective data exist for IR passive range of motion measured in this sidelying position, either in terms of reliability or normative values. Seventy subjects (mean age, 36.8 years), with (n = 19) and without (n = 51) shoulder pathology, were included in this study. Shoulder IR passive range of motion of the dominant shoulder or involved shoulder was measured by 2 investigators in 2 positions: (1) a standard supine position, with the shoulder at 90 degrees of abduction, and (2) in sidelying on the tested side, with the shoulder flexed to 90 degrees . Intrarater reliability for supine measurements was good to excellent (ICC3,1 = 0.70-0.93) and for sidelying measurements was excellent (ICC3,1 = 0.94-0.98). Interrater reliability was fair to good for the supine measurement (ICC2,2 = 0.74-0.81) and good to excellent for the sidelying measurement (ICC2,2 = 0.88-0.96). The mean (range) value of the dominant shoulder sidelying IR passive range of motion was 40 degrees (11 degrees to 69 degrees ) for healthy subjects and 25 degrees (-16 degrees to 49 degrees) for subjects with shoulder pathology. For subjects with shoulder pathology, measurements of shoulder IR made in the sidelying position had superior intrarater and interrater reliability compared to those in the standard supine position.

  8. Manchester Ice Nucleus Counter (MINC measurements from the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An ice nucleus counter was developed and constructed to enable investigation of potential ice nucleating materials. The Manchester Ice Nucleus Chamber (MINC is a concentric-cylinder continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC. A full explanation of the MINC instrument is given here, along with first results and a comparison to an established instrument of similar design (Colorado State University CFDC during sampling of common ice nucleating aerosols at the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007. Both instruments detected the onset of ice nucleation under similar conditions of temperature and supersaturation for several different types of ice nuclei. Comparisons of the ratio of ice nuclei to total aerosol concentrations as a function of relative humidity (RH showed agreement within one order of magnitude. Possible reasons for differences between the two instruments relating to differences in their design are discussed, along with suggestions to future improvements to the current design.

  9. Manchester Ice Nucleus Counter (MINC) measurements from the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. M.; Flynn, M. J.; Demott, P. J.; Möhler, O.

    2011-01-01

    An ice nucleus counter was developed and constructed to enable investigation of potential ice nucleating materials. The Manchester Ice Nucleus Chamber (MINC) is a concentric-cylinder continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC). A full explanation of the MINC instrument is given here, along with first results and a comparison to an established instrument of similar design (Colorado State University CFDC) during sampling of common ice nucleating aerosols at the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007). MINC and CSU-CFDC detected the onset of ice nucleation under similar conditions of temperature and supersaturation for several different types of ice nuclei. Comparisons of the ratio of ice nuclei to total aerosol concentrations as a function of supersaturation with respect to water (SSw) showed agreement within one order of magnitude. Possible reasons for differences between the two instruments relating to differences in their design are discussed, along with suggestions to future improvements to the current design.

  10. Induced Dual-Nanospray: A Novel Internal Calibration Method for Convenient and Accurate Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Yueming; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2013-09-01

    Accurate mass information is of great importance in the determination of unknown compounds. An effective and easy-to-control internal mass calibration method will dramatically benefit accurate mass measurement. Here we reported a simple induced dual-nanospray internal calibration device which has the following three advantages: (1) the two sprayers are in the same alternating current field; thus both reference ions and sample ions can be simultaneously generated and recorded. (2) It is very simple and can be easily assembled. Just two metal tubes, two nanosprayers, and an alternating current power supply are included. (3) With the low-flow-rate character and the versatility of nanoESI, this calibration method is capable of calibrating various samples, even untreated complex samples such as urine and other biological samples with small sample volumes. The calibration errors are around 1 ppm in positive ion mode and 3 ppm in negative ion mode with good repeatability. This new internal calibration method opens up new possibilities in the determination of unknown compounds, and it has great potential for the broad applications in biological and chemical analysis.

  11. How to measure the international development of palliative care? A critique and discussion of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucka, Martin; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A number of research projects have been conducted that aim to gather data on the international development of palliative care. These data are important for policy makers and palliative care advocates. The aim of this article was to provide a critical comparative analysis of methodological approaches used to assess the development and status of palliative care services and infrastructure at an international level. A selective literature review that focused on the methodological features of eight identified reports was undertaken. Reviewed reports were found to differ in adopted methodologies and provided uneven amounts of methodological information. Five major methodological limitations were identified (lack of theory, use of experts as source of information, grey literature, difficulties in ranking, and the problematic nature of data on service provision). A set of recommendations on how to deal with these issues in future research is provided. Measuring the international development of palliative care is a difficult and challenging task. The results of this study could be used to improve the validity of future research in this field. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How do american students measure up? Making sense of international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In response to frequent news media reports about how poorly American students fare compared with their peers abroad, Daniel Koretz takes a close look at what these comparisons say, and do not say, about the achievement of U.S. high school students. He stresses that the comparisons do not provide what many observers of education would like: unambiguous information about the effectiveness of American high schools compared with those in other nations. Koretz begins by describing the. two principal international student comparisons-the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Both assessments, he stresses, reflect the performance of students several years before they complete high school. PISA, which targets fifteen-year-old students, measures students' abilities to apply what they have learned in school to real-world problems. By contrast, TIMSS tests fourth and eighth graders. Unlike PISA, TIMSS follows the school curriculum closely. Because the findings of the two tests are sometimes inconsistent, Koretz stresses the importance of considering data from both sources. He cautions against comparing U.S. students with an "international average," which varies widely from survey to survey depending on which countries participate, and recommends instead comparing them with students in other nations that are similar to the United States or that are particularly high-achieving. Many observers, says Koretz, speculate that the lackluster average performance of American students in international comparisons arises because many, especially minority and low-income U.S. students, attend low-performing schools. But both TIMSS and PISA, he says, show that the performance of American students on the exams is not much more variable than that of students in countries that are socially more homogeneous or that have more equitable educational systems. Koretz emphasizes that the international comparisons

  13. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  14. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  15. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  16. Laser-induced fluorescence measurement of the oil film thickness in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroski, Greg M.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.

    1997-11-01

    The use of a fluorescent dopant molecule to enhance the natural fluorescence of motor oils, and allow quantitative determination of temperature and film thickens in internal combustion engines has been investigated. Measurement of the fluorescence as a function of temperature were made with neat Mobil 1, and solutions of the dopant BTBP in mineral oil and Mobil 1. The fluorescence yield of neat Mobil 1 was found to vary by 30 percent over the temperature range explored, but the spectral characteristics, as measured with bandpass filters, were unaffected by temperature. The BTBP fluorescence was found to increase significantly with temperature, and it was found the narrower regions in the spectrum increased proportionally more than the fluorescence collected over the entire spectrum, allowing a determination of temperature to be made which can then be used to correct for the change in fluorescence yield. Solutions in Mobil 1 showed a smaller increase than that observed in mineral oil.

  17. Phase space density as a measure of cooling performance for the international muon ionization cooling experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment to demonstrate ionization cooling of a muon beam in a beamline that shares characteristics with one that might be used for a muon collider or neutrino factory. I describe a way to quantify cooling performance by examining the phase space density of muons, and determining how much that density increases. This contrasts with the more common methods that rely on the covariance matrix and compute emittances from that. I discuss why a direct measure of phase space density might be preferable to a covariance matrix method. I apply this technique to an early proposal for the MICE final step beamline. I discuss how matching impacts the measured performance.

  18. Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below $1\\times 10^{-15}$ using International Atomic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Ido, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the $^{87}{\\rm Sr}$ clock transition measured in 2015 was reevaluated using an improved frequency link to the SI second. The scale interval of International Atomic Time (TAI) that we used as the reference was calibrated for an evaluation interval of five days instead of the conventional interval of one month which is regularly employed in Circular T. The calibration on a five-day basis removed the uncertainty in assimilating the TAI scale of the five-day mean to that of the one-month mean. The reevaluation resulted in the total uncertainty of $10^{-16}$ level for the first time without local cesium fountains. Since there are presumably no correlations among systematic shifts of cesium fountains worldwide, the measurement is not limited by the systematic uncertainty of a specific primary frequency standard.

  19. Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below 1× 10^{-15} using International Atomic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisu, Hidekazu; Petit, Gérard; Ido, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the ^{87}Sr clock transition measured in 2015 (Jpn J Appl Phys 54:112401, 2015) was reevaluated using an improved frequency link to the SI second. The scale interval of International Atomic Time (TAI) that we used as the reference was calibrated for an evaluation interval of 5 days instead of the conventional interval of 1 month which is regularly employed in Circular T. The calibration on a 5-day basis removed the uncertainty in assimilating the TAI scale of the 5-day mean to that of the 1-month mean. The reevaluation resulted in the total uncertainty of 10^{-16} level for the first time without local cesium fountains. Since there are presumably no correlations among systematic shifts of cesium fountains worldwide, the measurement is not limited by the systematic uncertainty of a specific primary frequency standard.

  20. Blind source separation of internal combustion engine piston slap from other measured vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Randall, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    Internal combustion engines have several vibration sources, such as combustion, fuel injection, piston slap and valve operation. For machine condition monitoring or design improvement purposes, it is necessary to separate the vibration signals caused by different sources and then analyse each of them individually. However, traditional frequency analysis techniques are not very useful due to overlap of the different sources over a wide frequency range. This paper attempts to separate the vibration sources, especially piston slap, by using blind source separation techniques with the intention of revealing the potential of the new technique for solving mechanical vibration problems. The BSS method and the Blind least mean square algorithm using Gray's variable norm as a measure of non-Gaussianity of the sources is briefly described and separation results for both simulated and measured data are presented and discussed.

  1. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  2. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  3. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.

    1980-08-30

    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  4. Heavy-ion anisotropy measured by ALTEA in the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fino, L; Casolino, M; De Santis, C; Larosa, M; La Tessa, C; Narici, L; Picozza, P; Zaconte, V

    2011-09-01

    The uneven shielding of the International Space Station from the vessel hull, racks and experiments produces a modulation of the internal radiation environment. A detailed knowledge of this environment, and therefore of the Station's shielding effectiveness, is mandatory for an accurate assessment of radiation risk. We present here the first 3D measurements of the Station's radiation environment, discriminating particle trajectories and LET, made possible using the detection capability of the ALTEA-space detector. We provide evidence for a strong (factor ≈ 3) anisotropy in the inner integral LET for high-LET particles (LET > 50 keV/µm) showing a minimum along the longitudinal station axis (most shielded) and a maximum normal to it. Integrating over all measured LETs, the anisotropy is strongly reduced, showing that unstopped light ions plus the fragments produced by heavier ions approximately maintain flux/LET isotropy. This suggests that, while changing the quality of radiation, the extra shielding along the station main axis is not producing a benefit in terms of total LET. These features should be taken into account (1) when measuring radiation with detectors that cannot distinguish the direction of the impinging radiation or that are unidirectional, (2) when planning radiation biology experiments on the ISS, and (3) when simulating the space radiation environment for experiments on the ground. A novel analysis technique that fully exploits the ability to retrieve the angular distribution of the radiation is also presented as well as the angular particle flux and LET characteristic of three geomagnetic zones measured during 2009 by the ALTEA-space detector. This technique is applied to the ALTEA-space detector, but a wider applicability to other detectors is suggested.

  5. Oxygen Diffusion Measurements in Unsaturated Porous Media on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinse, R.; Jones, S. B.; Or, D.; Topham, T. S.; Podolskiy, I. G.; Bingham, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Oxygen supply to plant roots in unsaturated porous media is regulated by the amount of water and its distribution pattern. The design of optimal plant growth media must strike a balance between the retention of sufficient amounts of water in pore spaces by capillarity and maintenance of sufficient air-filled pore connectivity for gaseous diffusion. The challenges presented by microgravity conditions aboard spacecraft require novel management approaches to ensure optimal conditions for plant roots. We developed and tested a system for measurement of oxygen diffusion in partially saturated porous media under microgravity conditions. A sealed dual-chamber diffusion cell was constructed and controlled by an automated measurement system capable of controlling porous media water content using a metered pumping system through a porous membrane, and tensiometers to measure matric potentials concurrently. Continuous measurements of oxygen concentrations in the cells were conducted with Galvanic-based sensors providing transient response data for estimating water content-dependent diffusion coefficients. Gas diffusion was modeled as a function of air-filled porosity in mm- sized aggregated particles. Data were collected on the International Space Station between July and September 2007 as part of the ORZS-MIS experimental flight package (http://www.sdl.usu.edu/programs/orzs). Oxygen diffusion measurements in microgravity were compared with earth-based data using triplicate cell measurements in three different porous media. Preliminary results point to enhanced hysteresis in oxygen diffusion dependency on air-filled porosity in microgravity, indicating altered water distribution patterns relative to earth-based measurements. Considering air invasion during drainage, we hypothesize that a critical air-filled pathway forms at lower saturation in microgravity due to the absence of hydrostatic water distribution. A shift in the critical air-filled in microgravity would require

  6. Apparatus for determining changes in limb volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Wu, V. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Measuring apparatus for determining changes in the volume of limbs or other boty extremities by determining the cross-sectional area of such limbs many comprise a transmitter including first and second transducers for positioning on the surface of the limb at a predetermined distance there between, and a receiver including a receiver crystal for positioning on the surface of the limb. The distance between the receiver crystal and the first and second transducers are represented by respective first and second chords of the cross-section of the limb and the predetermined distance between the first and second transducers is represented by a third chord of the limb cross section.

  7. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Evaluation of the international vehicle emission (IVE) model with on-road remote sensing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui

    2007-01-01

    International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model funded by U.S. Environmental Protection (USEPA) is designed to estimate emissions from motor vehicles in developing countries. In this study, the IVE model was evaluated by utilizing a dataset available from the remote sensing measurements on a large number of vehicles at five different sites in Hangzhou, China, in 2004 and 2005. Average fuel-based emission factors derived from the remote sensing measurements were compared with corresponding emission factors derived from IVE calculations for urban, hot stabilized condition. The results show a good agreement between the two methods for gasoline passenger cars' HC emission for all IVE subsectors and technology classes. In the case of CO emissions, the modeled results were reasonably good, although systematically underestimate the emissions by almost 12%-50% for different technology classes. However, the model totally overestimated NOx emissions. The IVE NOx emission factors were 1.5-3.5 times of the remote sensing measured ones. The IVE model was also evaluated for light duty gasoline truck (LDGT), heavy duty gasoline vehicles (HDGV) and motor cycles (MC). A notable result was observed that the decrease in emissions from technology class State Ⅱ to State Ⅰ were overestimated by the IVE model compared to remote sensing measurements for all the three pollutants. Finally, in order to improve emission estimation, the adjusted base emission factors from local studies are strongly recommended to be used in the IVE model.

  9. Identifying the concepts contained in outcome measures of clinical trials on four internal disorders using the international classification of functioning, disability and health as a reference

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically identify and compare the concepts contained in outcome measures of clinical trials on chronic ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and obstructive pulmonary disease, including asthma using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. Methods: Randomized controlled trials between 1993 and 2003 were located in MEDLINE and selected according predefined criteria. The outcome measures were extracted and...

  10. PREFACE: The 6th International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi

    2009-02-01

    Research on multi-phase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing, and so on. Also, from the environmental viewpoint, multi-phase flows need to be investigated to overcome global warming. Multi-phase flows originally have non-linear features because they are multi-phased. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The non-linear interaction causes the multi-phase flows to be very difficult to understand phenomena. The International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multi-phase Flows (ISMTMF) is a unique symposium. The target of the symposium is to exchange the state-of-the-art knowledge on the measurement techniques for non-linear multi-phase flows. Measurement technique is the key technology to understanding non-linear phenomena. The ISMTMF began in 1995 in Nanjing, China. The symposium has continuously been held every two or three years. The ISMTMF-2008 was held in Okinawa, Japan as the 6th symposium of ISMTMF on 15-17 December 2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China and Japan have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for more than 1000 years. Please enjoy Okinawa and experience its history to enhance our international communication. The present symposium was attended by 124 participants, the program included 107 contributions with 5 plenary lectures, 2 keynote lectures, and 100 oral regular paper presentations. The topics include, besides the ordinary measurement techniques for multiphase flows, acoustic and electric sensors, bubbles and microbubbles, computed tomography, gas-liquid interface, laser-imaging and PIV, oil/coal/drop and spray, solid and powder, spectral and multi-physics. This volume includes the presented papers at ISMTMF-2008. In addition to this volume, ten selected papers will be published in a special issue of Measurement Science and Technology. We would like to express special thanks to all

  11. Measuring the Higgs self-coupling at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerig, Claude Fabienne

    2016-10-15

    In this thesis, the experimental prospects of measuring the Standard Model (SM) Higgs self-coupling λ{sub SM} at the International Linear Collider (ILC) are investigated. The observation of double Higgs production is necessary to directly establish a non-zero Higgs self-coupling. Information on λ{sub SM} can be extracted from a measurement of the cross section for this process. At a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=500 GeV double Higgs-strahlung is the dominant Higgs-pair production process. This measurement is extremely challenging due to very small production cross sections and multi-jet final states which pose large challenges to detector technologies and event reconstruction techniques. A detailed full detector simulation of the International Large Detector is performed for a Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV. The analysis is based on ILC beam parameters according to the Technical Design Report and investigates several improvements compared to earlier studies. These include an isolated lepton selection strategy and the application of kinematic fits to final states with heavy-flavoured jets. Depending on the decay mode of the Z boson, relative improvements of up to 25% are obtained in the selection of ZHH (HH → bbbb) events. This results in a relative improvement of 10% in the measurement of σ{sub ZHH} when combining all channels. For the SM scenario, an evidence of 3.5σ for the observation of double Higgs-strahlung and a measurement precision of 30% on σ{sub ZHH} is reached with an integrated luminosity of L=2ab{sup -1} and a beam polarisation of P(e{sup +}e{sup -})=(0.3,-0.8). The result extrapolates to an achievable precision of 21% on σ{sub ZHH} after the full ILC running scenario, which corresponds to a 5.9σ discovery for the observation of double Higgs-strahlung. Combined with the channel HH→bbWW, σ{sub ZHH} can even be measured to a precision of 16%, which corresponds to a precision of 26% on λ{sub SM}. Additionally, the impact of

  12. An analytic determination of beta poloidal and internal inductance in an elongated tokamak from magnetic probe measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorci, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Analytic calculations of the magnetic fields available to magnetic diagnostics are performed for tokamaks with circular and elliptical cross sections. The explicit dependence of the magnetic fields on the poloidal beta and internal inductances is sought. For tokamaks with circular cross sections, Shafranov's results are reproduced and extended. To first order in the inverse aspect ratio expansion of the magnetic fields, only a specific combination of beta poloidal and internal inductance is found to be measurable. To second order in the expansion, the measurements of beta poloidal and the internal inductance are demonstrated to be separable but excessively sensitive to experimental error. For tokamaks with elliptical cross sections, magnetic measurements are found to determine beta poloidal and the internal inductance separately. A second harmonic component of the zeroth order field in combination with the dc harmonic of the zeroth order field specifies the internal inductance. The internal inductance in hand, measurement of the first order, first harmonic component of the magnetic field then determined beta poloidal. The degeneracy implicit in Shafranov's result (i.e. that only a combination of beta poloidal and internal inductance is measurable for a circular plasma cross section) reasserts itself as the elliptic results are collapsed to their circular limits.

  13. An analytic determination of beta poloidal and internal inductance in an elongated tokamak from magnetic probe measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorci, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Analytic calculations of the magnetic fields available to magnetic diagnostics are performed for tokamaks with circular and elliptical cross sections. The explicit dependence of the magnetic fields on the poloidal beta and internal inductances is sought. For tokamaks with circular cross sections, Shafranov`s results are reproduced and extended. To first order in the inverse aspect ratio expansion of the magnetic fields, only a specific combination of beta poloidal and internal inductance is found to be measurable. To second order in the expansion, the measurements of beta poloidal and the internal inductance are demonstrated to be separable but excessively sensitive to experimental error. For tokamaks with elliptical cross sections, magnetic measurements are found to determine beta poloidal and the internal inductance separately. A second harmonic component of the zeroth order field in combination with the dc harmonic of the zeroth order field specifies the internal inductance. The internal inductance in hand, measurement of the first order, first harmonic component of the magnetic field then determined beta poloidal. The degeneracy implicit in Shafranov`s result (i.e. that only a combination of beta poloidal and internal inductance is measurable for a circular plasma cross section) reasserts itself as the elliptic results are collapsed to their circular limits.

  14. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  15. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  16. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  17. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  18. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  19. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  20. Material transport method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Ramsey, Roswitha S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  1. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  2. Experimental study on treatment of acetabular anterior column fractures: applyment of a minimally invasive percutaneous lag screw guide apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li-hai; Zhang, Li-cheng; Si, Qing-hua; Gao, Yuan; Su, Xiu-Yun; Zhao, Zhe; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to design a new minimally invasive percutaneous lag screw guide apparatus and to verify its adjuvant treatment of acetabular anterior column fracture on pelvis specimens. Methods This guide apparatus was self-developed based on the principles of “two points form a line” and “Rectangle”. Using C-arm fluoroscopy, this guide apparatus was used to conduct minimally invasive percutaneous lag screw internal fixation of acetabular anterior column fractures. Ten h...

  3. PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.

  4. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  5. Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderspek, R.

    1980-04-01

    The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10/sup -24/ per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures.

  6. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials.......To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  7. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt): a project to measure the diffused sky polarization from the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiglioni, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), a project to measure the diffused sky polarization in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz from the International Space Station, is described in its current configuration. Some preliminary considerations about the general topic of polarization in radiometric observations are made, in order to introduce the importance of polarimetric measurements in the more general context of Cosmic Microwave Background observations. The International Space Station is also introduced as a quite good opportunity to address such problematics.

  8. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  9. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  10. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  11. A crystal detector for measuring beta and internal conversion electrons in flowing air containing fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-02-01

    Low levels of radioactive gases are released from nuclear electric power generation, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear weapons tests and from diagnostic medical uses of radioactive gas tracers. A prototype model of an inorganic scintillator - Crystal Gas Electron Detector (CGED) - was built for measurements of xenon isotopes in-line by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electrons present in atmospheric samples. The detection and quantification of the radionuclide spectra are accomplished, during air flow, without complete purification of the fission gases. Initial operational tests and calibrations made permit the integration of the CGED into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification (GASP) system [1-3]. The CGED detector, Pulse Shaping and Timing (PSA) electronics, and mathematical treatment of the accumulated spectra are used to resolve the K and LMNO-IC electrons and beta continuum. These data are used, in-line, for dating the age of an air parcel containing fission gases released from nuclear reactors and/or from nuclear weapons tests, as part of the monitoring equipment required to enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT. This report is one of a series of papers providing the design features, operational methods, calibration, and applications of radioactive gas analysis system to the International CTBT.

  12. Model of a Generic Natural Uranium Conversion Plant ? Suggested Measures to Strengthen International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.

  13. International scientific consensus on medical plantar pressure measurement devices: technical requirements and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS has been conducting independent scientific activities to standardize the technical assessment of plantar pressure measurement devices (PMDs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: On the basis of the ISS results, in 2010 the Pedobarographic Group of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics community (i-FAB-PG promoted a consensus activity about the main technical requirements for the appropriate use of PMDs. The activity relied on a moodlebased on-line forum, documents exchange, discussions, reviews, meetings and a final survey. RESULTS: The participation of clinical and technical researchers, users, and manufacturers, contributed to the delivery of the hereby reported recommendations which specifically regard Medical PMDs in the form of platforms. CONCLUSIONS: The i-FAB-PG community reached overall agreement on the recommendations, with a few minor objections which are reported and commented in the document. RELEVANCE: The present document, the highest result achievable within a small scientific community, will hopefully represent the starting point of the wider process of establishing official international guidelines or standards, within scientific communities and standardization organizations.

  14. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Eds.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen demonstrations using a capacitor-start induction motor fitted with an aluminum disk are described. Demonstrations illustrate principles from mechanics, fluids (Bernoulli's principle), waves (chladni patterns and doppler effect), magnetism, electricity, and light (mechanical color mixing). In addition, the instrument can measure friction…

  15. Apparatus for Assisting Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lawson, Seth W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention consists of novel, scissors-like forceps in combination with optical monitoring hardware for measuring the extraction forces on a fetal head. The novel features of the forceps together with knowledge of real time forces on the fetal head enable a user to make a much safer delivery for mother and baby.

  16. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  17. Manchester Ice Nucleus Counter (MINC measurements from the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ice nucleus counter was developed and constructed to enable investigation of potential ice nucleating materials. The Manchester Ice Nucleus Chamber (MINC is a concentric-cylinder continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC. A full explanation of the MINC instrument is given here, along with first results and a comparison to an established instrument of similar design (Colorado State University CFDC during sampling of common ice nucleating aerosols at the 2007 International workshop on Comparing Ice nucleation Measuring Systems (ICIS-2007. MINC and CSU-CFDC detected the onset of ice nucleation under similar conditions of temperature and supersaturation for several different types of ice nuclei. Comparisons of the ratio of ice nuclei to total aerosol concentrations as a function of supersaturation with respect to water (SSw showed agreement within one order of magnitude. Possible reasons for differences between the two instruments relating to differences in their design are discussed, along with suggestions to future improvements to the current design.

  18. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  19. Measuring the dissimilarity of multiplex networks: An empirical study of international trade networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Cui, Huiyuan; Zhu, Ji; Du, Yu; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenhua

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, multiplex networks are becoming a research focus in the domain of complex networks. Discovering significant correlations between layers in multiplex networks can provide an insight to their structures. In this study, we propose some methods to measure the dissimilarities of different layers in directed and weighted multiplex networks. The dissimilarity is defined on two levels: node level and layer level. The node dissimilarity is computed based on the distance of the probability distribution of its link weights vectors in different layers; and the layer-level dissimilarity is the weighted sum of the nodes' dissimilarities. Furthermore, the dissimilarity is disintegrated into the connection-based dissimilarity and the weight-based dissimilarity, which represent the topological structure changes and the link weight changes, respectively. The proposed methods are applied to international trade networks.

  20. Measurement of the Internal Magnetic Field of Plasmas using an Alpha Particle Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben; D.S. Darrow; P.W. Ross; J.L. Lowrance; G. Renda

    2004-05-13

    The internal magnetic fields of plasmas can be measured under certain conditions from the integrated v x B deflection of MeV alpha particles emitted by a small radioactive source. This alpha source and large-area alpha particle detector would be located inside the vacuum vessel but outside the plasma. Alphas with a typical energy of 5.5 MeV (241Am) can reach the center of almost all laboratory plasmas and magnetic fusion devices, so this method can potentially determine the q(r) profile of tokamaks or STs. Orbit calculations, background evaluations, and conceptual designs for such a vxB (or ''AVB'') detector are described.

  1. Cross-Stream PIV Measurements of Jets With Internal Lobed Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    With emphasis being placed on enhanced mixing of jet plumes for noise reduction and on predictions of jet noise based upon turbulent kinetic energy, unsteady measurements of jet plumes are a very important part of jet noise studies. Given that hot flows are of most practical interest, optical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applicable. When the flow has strong azimuthal features, such as those generated by chevrons or lobed mixers, traditional PIV, which aligns the measurement plane parallel to the dominant flow direction is very inefficient, requiring many planes of data to be acquired and stacked up to produce the desired flow cross-sections. This paper presents PIV data acquired in a plane normal to the jet axis, directly measuring the cross-stream gradients and features of an internally mixed nozzle operating at aircraft engine flow conditions. These nozzle systems included variations in lobed mixer penetration, lobe count, lobe scalloping, and nozzle length. Several cases validating the accuracy of the PIV data are examined along with examples of its use in answering questions about the jet noise generation processes in these nozzles. Of most interest is the relationship of low frequency aft-directed noise with turbulence kinetic energy and mean velocity.

  2. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs.

  3. Spin transport at the international linear collider and its impact on the measurement of polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Moritz

    2013-12-15

    At the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), the longitudinal beam polarization needs to be determined with an unprecedented precision. For that purpose, the beam delivery systems (BDS) are equipped with two laser Compton polarimeters each, which are foreseen to achieve a systematic uncertainty of {<=} 0.25 %. The polarimeters are located 1.6 km upstream and 150 m downstream of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point (IP). The average luminosity-weighted longitudinal polarization P{sup lumi}{sub z}, which is the decisive quantity for the experiments, has to be determined from these measurements with the best possible precision. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the spin transport in the BDS is mandatory to estimate how precise the longitudinal polarization at the IP is known from the polarimeter measurements. The envisaged precision for the propagation of the measurement value is {<=} 0.1 %. This thesis scrutinizes the spin transport in view of the achievable precision. A detailed beamline simulation for the BDS has been developed, including the simulation of the beam-beam collisions at the IP. The following factors which might limit the achievable precision is investigated: a variation of the beam parameters, the beam alignment precision at the polarimeters and the IP, the bunch rotation at the IP, the detector magnets, the beam-beam collisions, the emission of synchrotron radiation and misalignments of the beamline elements. In absence of collisions, a precision of 0.085% on the propagation of the measured longitudinal polarization has been found achievable. This result however depends mainly on the presumed precisions for the parallel alignment of the beam at the polarimeters and for the alignment of polarization vector. In presence of collisions, the measurement at the downstream polarimeter depends strongly on the intensity of the collision and the size of the polarimeter laser spot. Therefore, a more detailed study of the laser-bunch interaction is

  4. International workshop on measuring techniques for liquid metal flows (MTLM). Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    The international workshop on 'Measuring techniques in liquid metal flows' (MTLM workshop) was organised in frame of the Dresden 'Innovationskolleg Magnetofluiddynamik'. The subject of the MTLM workshop was limited to methods to determine physical flow quantities such as velocity, pressure, void fraction, inclusion properties, crystallisation fronts etc. The present proceedings contain abstracts and viewgraphs of the oral presentations. During the last decades numerical simulations have become an important tool in industry and research to study the structure of flows and the properties of heat and mass transfer. However, in case of liquid metal flows there exists a significant problem to validate the codes with experimental data due to the lack of available measuring techniques. Due to the material properties (opaque, hot, chemical aggressive) the measurement of flow quantities is much more delicate in liquid metals compared to ordinary water flows. The generalisation of results obtained by means of water models to real liquid metal flows has often to be considered as difficult due to the problems to meet the actual values of n0n-dimensional flow parameters (Re, Pr, Gr, Ha, etc.). Moreover, a strong need has to be noted to make measuring techniques available tomonitor and to control flow processes in real industrial facilities. The objectives of the MTLM workshop were to: Review of existing information on a available techniques and experiences about the use in liquid metal flows, initiate a discussion between developers and potential users with respect to the actual need of information about the flow structure as well as the capabilities of existing and developing measuring techniques. Explore opportunities for co-operative R and D projects to expedite new developments and results, to share expertise and resources. (orig.)

  5. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  6. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and the...

  7. Design of dielectric loss factor measurement with DSP for high voltage capacitive apparatus%基于DSP的高压容型电气设备介质损耗测量仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建庆

    2012-01-01

    针对电气设备易受电网频率波动和非整周期采样的影响,造成介质损耗因数tan δ测量精度和分辨率偏低的问题,提出一种基于DSP的高压电气设备介质损耗因数测量仪设计方案.将归一化工频电压信号和电流信号分别移相90°构成Hilbert变换对,再将两组复信号构造新的复三角信号模型实现对采样信号的去角频率处理.介绍了tanδ测量原理,给出了硬件各主要模块和系统软件实现方案.试验结果表明:该测量装置有效地解决了由于频率波动引起的非同步采样和非整周期截断问题,tan δ实际测量的绝对误差小于0.000 1,具有一定的实际推广价值.%Electrical equipment is vulnerable to fluctuations in the network frequency and non-integral period truncation conditions, and caused the dielectric loss factor measurement accuracy and resolution is low. An approach of dielectric loss factor measurement with DSP for high voltage capacitive apparatus is proposed. A Hilbert transform is build through moving voltage or current signals to 90 rad. The two signals are constructed a new complex triangle signal model. Introduced the dielectric loss factor measuring principle . The main modules and hardware system software scheme was given. Simulation and test results show that this algorithm reduced influence of non-synchronized sampling and non-integral period truncation caused by fluctuations in the network frequency. The absolute error of the dielectric loss factor is less than 0. 000 1. It has practical application value.

  8. Development and psychometric assessment of a multidimensional measure of internalized HIV stigma in a sample of HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N; Hays, Ron D; Sarkisian, Catherine A; Mahajan, Anish P; Spritzer, Karen L; Cunningham, William E

    2008-09-01

    There is a need for a psychometrically sound measure of the stigma experienced by diverse persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a multidimentional measure of internalized HIV stigma that captures stigma related to treatment and other aspects of the disease among sociodemographically diverse PLHA. We developed a 28-item measure of internalized HIV stigma composed of four scales based on previous qualitative work. Internal consistency reliability estimates in a sample of 202 PLHA was 0.93 for the overall measure, and exceeded 0.85 for three of the four stigma scales. Items discriminated well across scales, and correlations of the scales with shame, social support, and mental health supported construct validity. This measure should prove useful to investigators examining in the role of stigma in HIV treatment and health outcomes, and evaluating interventions designed to mitigate the impacts of stigma on PLHA.

  9. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy {radical}(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L{sub Peak}=2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d{radical}(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c{sup 2} to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of {sigma}{sub E}=0.0014 for electrons and {sigma

  10. Improved Measurement Performance of Inorganic Elements in Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Internal Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Bai, Kaijie; Lu, Jidong

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine the inorganic elements in coal. To improve the measurement's accuracy and precision, a new internal standardization scheme, which we named changed internal standardization, was compared with the traditional internal standardization and no internal standardization for the analysis of inorganic elements. The new internal standardization scheme used the atomic line of carbon at 247.86 nm and the molecular band of CN at 388.34 nm and C2 at 516.32 nm to normalize the lines of inorganic elements that were distributed in the same spectral channel. The performance of the utilization of the new internal standardization scheme was evaluated using a set of coal samples, including twenty calibration samples and five validation samples. The results show that the coefficients of determination R2 and the slope of calibration models coupled with changed internal standardization are better than that of the calibration models coupled with fixed internal standardization and no internal standardization. Moreover, the measurement accuracy and reproducibility of changed internal standardization for the analysis of five validation samples also yielded further improvement. The results that we obtained suggest that changed internal standardization could compensate for the matrix effects, as well as the influence of the difference in the spectral response of the light collection system. supported by Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology of China (No. SKL2013KF03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51206055, 51476061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014ZZ0014), the New Star of Pearl River on Science and Technology of Guangzhou, China (No. 2014J2200054), the Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes of China (No. KLB10004) and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and

  11. Axial Globe Position Measurement: A Prospective Multicenter Study by the International Thyroid Eye Disease Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Chad M; Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer A; Gurka, Matthew J; Nguyen, John; Hogg, Jeffery P; Feldon, Steve E; Fay, Aaron; Seah, Lay-Leng; Strianese, Diego; Durairaj, Vikram D; Uddin, Jimmy; Devoto, Martin H; Harris, Matheson; Saunders, Justin; Osaki, Tammy H; Looi, Audrey; Teo, Livia; Davies, Brett W; Elefante, Andrea; Shen, Sunny; Realini, Tony; Fischer, William; Kazim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Identify a reproducible measure of axial globe position (AGP) for multicenter studies on patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). This is a prospective, international, multicenter, observational study in which 3 types of AGP evaluation were examined: radiologic, clinical, and photographic. In this study, CT was the modality to which all other methods were compared. CT AGP was measured from an orthogonal line between the anterior lateral orbital rims to the cornea. All CT measurements were made at a single institution by 3 individual clinicians. Clinical evaluation was performed with exophthalmometry. Three clinicians from each clinical site assessed AGP with 3 different exophthalmometers and horizontal palpebral width using a ruler. Each physician made 3 separate measurements with each type of exophthalmometer not in succession. All photographic measurements were made at a single institution. AGP was measured from lateral photographs in which a standard marker was placed at the anterior lateral orbital rim. Horizontal and vertical palpebral fissure were measured from frontal photographs. Three trained readers measured 3 separate times not in succession. Exophthalmometry and photography method validity was assessed by agreement with CT (mean differences calculation, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs], Bland-Altman figures). Correlation between palpebral fissure and CT AGP was assessed with Pearson correlation. Intraclinician and interclinician reliability was evaluated using ICCs. Sixty-eight patients from 7 centers participated. CT mean AGP was 21.37 mm (15.96-28.90 mm) right and 21.22 mm (15.87-28.70 mm) left (ICC 0.996 and 0.995). Exophthalmometry AGP fell between 18 mm and 25 mm. Intraclinician agreement across exophthalmometers was ideal (ICC 0.948-0.983). Agreement between clinicians was greater than 0.85 for all upright exophthalmometry measurements. Photographic mean AGP was 20.47 mm (10.92-30.88 mm) right and 20.30 mm (8.61-28.72

  12. Atom interferometric measurement of ``Big G'' on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Elizabeth; Kurkcuoglu, Doga Murat; Clark, Charles W.; Edwards, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recent measurements of Newton's universal gravitational constant (``Big G'') using atom interferometric methods have increased the uncertainty in the value of this important fundamental constant. We have developed tools for rapid simulation and evaluation of atom interferometer (AI) schemes that can be implemented in the Cold Atom Laboratory to be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. We have approximated the solution of the rotating-frame Gross-Pitaevskii equation in both one and three dimensions by using the Lagrangian Variational Method (LVM). The LVM trial wave function is a sum of Nc Gaussian clouds and we have derived equations of motion for the centers, widths, and phase parameters of these clouds. These equations of motion can be rapidly solved for many different AI designs enabling the estimation interferometer sensitivity and the effects of errors. We present two potential schemes as for measuring ``Big G'' on the ISS. These include a Mach-Zehnder-like scheme as well as a design similar to a Foucault Pendulum. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1413768.

  13. Comparisons between measurement and analysis of fluid motion in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witze, P.O. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The Engine Combustion Technology Project was created for the purpose of promoting the development of advanced piston engine concepts by the development of techniques to measure, analyze, and understand the combustion process. The technologies emphasized in the project include laser-based measurement techniques and large-scale computer simulations. Considerable progress has already been achieved by project participants in modeling engine air motion, fuel sprays, and engine combustion phenomena. This milestone report covers one part of that progress, summarizing the current capabilities of multi-dimensional computer codes being developed by the project to predict the behavior of turbulent air motion in an engine environment. Computed results are compared directly with experimental data in six different areas of importance to internal combustion engines: (1) Induction-generated ring-vortex structures; (2) Piston-induced vortex roll-up; (3) Behavior of turbulence during compression; (4) Decay of swirling flow during compression; (5) Decay of swirling flow in a constant volume engine simulator; (6) Exhaust-pipe flow. The computational procedures used include vortex dynamics, rapid distortion theory, and finite difference models employing two-equation and subgrid-scale turbulence models. Although the capability does not yet exist to predict the air motion in an engine from its geometric configuration alone, the results presented show that many flowfield sub-processes can be predicted given well-specified initial and boundary conditions.

  14. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  15. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  16. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity.

  17. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  18. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  19. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  20. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  1. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James

    2017-03-07

    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  2. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  3. Membrane order parameters for interdigitated lipid bilayers measured via polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, An T; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Lu, Zhengfang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Johnston, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    Incorporating ethanol in lipid membranes leads to changes in bilayer structure, including the formation of an interdigitated phase. We have used polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy (pTIRFM) to measure the order parameter for Texas Red DHPE incorporated in the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase (LβI) formed from ternary lipid mixtures comprising dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and egg sphingomyelin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These lipid mixtures have 3 co-existing phases in the presence of ethanol: liquid-ordered, liquid-disordered and LβI. pTIRFM using Texas Red DHPE shows a reversal in fluorescence contrast between the LβI phase and the surrounding disordered phase with changes in the polarization angle. The contrast reversal is due to changes in the orientation of the dye, and provides a rapid method to identify the LβI phase. The measured order parameters for the LβI phase are consistent with a highly ordered membrane environment, similar to a gel phase. An acyl-chain labeled BODIPY-FL-PC was also tested for pTIRFM studies of ethanol-treated bilayers; however, this probe is less useful since the order parameters of the interdigitated phase are consistent with orientations that are close to random, either due to local membrane disorder or to a mixture of extended and looping conformations in which the fluorophore is localized in the polar headgroup region of the bilayer. In summary, we demonstrate that order parameter measurements via pTIRFM using Texas Red-DHPE can rapidly identify the interdigitated phase in supported bilayers. We anticipate that this technique will aid further research in the effects of alcohols and other additives on membranes.

  4. The sampling apparatus of volatile organic compounds for wood composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJun; ZHAOLin-bo; LIUYu

    2005-01-01

    Terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, benzene, and toluene are the important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood composites. A sampling apparatus of VOCs for wood composites was designed and manufactured by Northeast Forestry University in China.The concentration of VOCs derived from wood based materials, such as flooring, panel wall, finishing, and furniture can be sampled in a small stainless steel chambers. A protocol is also developed in this study to sample and measure the new and representative specimens. Preliminary research showed that the properties of the equipment have good stability. The sort and the amount of different components can be detected from it. The apparatus is practicable.

  5. Exploration of Salt Wedge Dynamics in the Columbia River Estuary Using Optical Measurements of Internal Ship Wakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. A.; Greydanus, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    In May of 2013 and beyond, Argus optical measurements of the mouth of the Columbia River estuary and plume were collected as part of the RIVET II multi-investigator field experiment. One surprise was the strength of eddy and internal wave signatures observed in movies computed from one-minute averages of high-frequency snapshots (such that gravity waves were averaged out but slicks and variable surface roughness remained). In particular, passing ships left wakes that propagated away at speeds on the order of 0.5 m/s, much slower than gravity waves and presumably surface manifestations of internal waves associated with the time-varying salt-wedge. Thus, these internal ship wakes appear to act as probes of internal stratification dynamics. This paper will explore the time variations of these internal wakes and relate them to corresponding variations in the estuary salt wedge.

  6. THE CALIBRATION OF ULTRALOW PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT APPARATUS AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS%超低渗透率测量仪的测试标定及初步测量结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曼; 杨晓松; 陈建业

    2011-01-01

    低渗-超低渗透率测量是流体渗流力学和岩石物理学研究领域的热点问题.断层带流体输运的定量化研究对于了解断层的力学性质和预测地下流体的流动具有重要意义.文中介绍了新研制的超低渗透率测量系统和工作原理.这套设备使用稳态法和目前逐渐流行的孔隙压力振荡法进行测量,其孔隙流体为蒸馏水和氮气,最高围压可达200M Pa,孔隙压上限为40MPa.对该测量系统进行了参数标定,并给出了循环加载条件下典型砂岩的渗透率测量结果.对比了2种测量方法得到的结果,分析了产生差异的原因,比较了2种方法的特点和适用条件.探讨了孔隙压力变化对实验结果的影响,按照加载间隔计算了有效压力系数.结果发现有效压力系数依赖于加载路径.使用最小二乘法对所有数据进行拟合,求出了最优有效压力系数并获得渗透率和有效压力函数关系,为分析围压和孔隙压对渗透率的影响提供了依据.%The low-ultralow permeability measurement is one of the most important research topics in fluid mechanics and rock physics. Quantification of fluid transport through fault zones is critical for the understanding of fault mechanics and prediction of subsurface fluid flow. In order to obtain the information about the fluid-flow processes in seismogenic regions,we have designed and constructed a distilled water/gas-medium permeability measurement apparatus capable of achieving ultralow permeability. The new measurement apparatus has used steady-state method and pore pressure oscillation method, which has become very popular recently because of its continuous measurement during processes that might alter the pore space of rocks and can measure samples with different permeability magnitude fast and precisely, thus producing a basic environment in which the confining pressure reaches 200MPa by water, pore pressure reaches 40MPa either by water or gas at room

  7. Towards a measurement of internalization of collaboration scripts in the medical context – results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiesewetter, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaboration as a key qualification in medical education and everyday routine in clinical care can substantially contribute to improving patient safety. Internal collaboration scripts are conceptualized as organized - yet adaptive – knowledge that can be used in specific situations in professional everyday life. This study examines the level of internalization of collaboration scripts in medicine. Internalization is understood as fast retrieval of script information.Goal: The goals of the current study were the assessment of collaborative information, which is part of collaboration scripts, and the development of a methodology for measuring the level of internalization of collaboration scripts in medicine. Method: For the contrastive comparison of internal collaboration scripts, 20 collaborative novices (medical students in their final year and 20 collaborative experts (physicians with specialist degrees in internal medicine or anesthesiology were included in the study. Eight typical medical collaborative situations as shown on a photo or video were presented to the participants for five seconds each. Afterwards, the participants were asked to describe what they saw on the photo or video. Based on the answers, the amount of information belonging to a collaboration script (script-information was determined and the time each participant needed for answering was measured. In order to measure the level of internalization, script-information per recall time was calculated.Results: As expected, collaborative experts stated significantly more script-information than collaborative novices. As well, collaborative experts showed a significantly higher level of internalization.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this research, we conclude that our instrument can discriminate between collaboration novices and experts. It therefore can be used to analyze measures to foster subject-specific competency in medical education.

  8. Towards a measurement of internalization of collaboration scripts in the medical context - results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Gluza, Martin; Holzer, Matthias; Saravo, Barbara; Hammitzsch, Laura; Fischer, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration as a key qualification in medical education and everyday routine in clinical care can substantially contribute to improving patient safety. Internal collaboration scripts are conceptualized as organized - yet adaptive - knowledge that can be used in specific situations in professional everyday life. This study examines the level of internalization of collaboration scripts in medicine. Internalization is understood as fast retrieval of script information. The goals of the current study were the assessment of collaborative information, which is part of collaboration scripts, and the development of a methodology for measuring the level of internalization of collaboration scripts in medicine. For the contrastive comparison of internal collaboration scripts, 20 collaborative novices (medical students in their final year) and 20 collaborative experts (physicians with specialist degrees in internal medicine or anesthesiology) were included in the study. Eight typical medical collaborative situations as shown on a photo or video were presented to the participants for five seconds each. Afterwards, the participants were asked to describe what they saw on the photo or video. Based on the answers, the amount of information belonging to a collaboration script (script-information) was determined and the time each participant needed for answering was measured. In order to measure the level of internalization, script-information per recall time was calculated. As expected, collaborative experts stated significantly more script-information than collaborative novices. As well, collaborative experts showed a significantly higher level of internalization. Based on the findings of this research, we conclude that our instrument can discriminate between collaboration novices and experts. It therefore can be used to analyze measures to foster subject-specific competency in medical education.

  9. Measurement of Blood Flow in an Intracranial Artery Bypass From the Internal Maxillary Artery by Intraoperative Duplex Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zaitao; Shi, Xiang'en; Brohi, Shams Raza; Qian, Hai; Liu, Fangjun; Yang, Yang

    2017-02-01

    This study explored the hemodynamic characteristics of a subcranial-intracranial bypass from the internal maxillary artery by measuring blood flow on intraoperative duplex sonography. The hemodynamic parameters of the internal maxillary artery (n = 20), radial artery (n = 20), internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypass (n = 42), and internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass (n = 9) were measured by intraoperative duplex sonography. There was no significant difference in the internal diameters of the internal maxillary and radial arteries (mean ± SD, 2.51 ± 0.34 versus 2.56 ± 0.22 mm; P = .648). The mean radial artery graft length for subcranial-intracranial bypasses was 88.5 ± 12.78 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.8-90.2 mm). Internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses required a shorter radial artery graft than internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses (77.8 ± 2.47 versus 104.8 ± 4.77 mm; P = .001). The mean flow volumes were 85.3 ± 18.5 mL/min (95% CI, 76.6-93.9 mL/min) for the internal maxillary artery, 72.6 ± 26.4 mL/min (95% CI, 64.3-80.9 mL/min) for internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses, and 45.4 ± 6.7 mL/min (95% CI, 40.7-50.0 mL/min) for internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses. All grafts were opened after the success of the salvage procedures had been established, and the early patency rates (1 month after the operation) were 95% for internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses and 100% the internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses. Measurement of blood flow by intraoperative sonography can be helpful in decision making and predicting graft patency and success after neurosurgical bypass procedures.

  10. Method and apparatus for atomic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Dilano K.; de Andres Rodriquez, Pedro L.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for three dimensional imaging of the atomic environment of disordered adsorbate atoms are disclosed. The method includes detecting and measuring the intensity of a diffuse low energy electron diffraction pattern formed by directing a beam of low energy electrons against the surface of a crystal. Data corresponding to reconstructed amplitudes of a wave form is generated by operating on the intensity data. The data corresponding to the reconstructed amplitudes is capable of being displayed as a three dimensional image of an adsorbate atom. The apparatus includes a source of a beam of low energy electrons and a detector for detecting the intensity distribution of a DLEED pattern formed at the detector when the beam of low energy electrons is directed onto the surface of a crystal. A device responsive to the intensity distribution generates a signal corresponding to the distribution which represents a reconstructed amplitude of a wave form and is capable of being converted into a three dimensional image of the atomic environment of an adsorbate atom on the crystal surface.

  11. Comparison of internal anterior chamber diameter measured with ultrabiomicroscopy with white-to-white distance measured using digital photography in aphakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Michal; Bartela, Joanna; Synder, Aleksandra; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the anterior chamber diameter (AC) is important both for diagnostics and before ocular surgery. In clinical practice, horizontal AC diameter is usually estimated on the basis of measurements of corneal diameter (so-called white-to-white [WTW] distance). The usual method for selecting an appropriate size for an AC lens is to add 1 mm to WTW measurement. The purpose of this study was to compare AC diameter measured using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with WTW distance measured using digital photography in aphakic eyes. The data were gathered prospectively from a nonrandomized consecutive series of aphakic patients. The examined group consisted of 23 eyes of 23 adult patients, mean age 71.17 years. WTW diameter was measured in the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock meridian on a digital photograph. Internal horizontal AC diameter measurements were performed in the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock meridian with the Sonomed Ultrabiomicroscopy device with a 50-MHz probe. Mean horizontal WTW diameter measured using digital photographs was 11.65+/-0.38 mm and mean horizontal internal AC diameter measured using UBM was 13.53+/-0.83 mm. A significant difference in mean WTW diameter measured using digital photography and UBM was found (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between these values (Spearman=0.70, p<0.001). In order to obtain good and precise measurements of internal AC diameter, a method of direct visualization of the intraocular structures should be used. Despite the limits of a small case series, our results support the use of UBM technique for preoperative evaluation of the internal AC diameter and AC intraocular lens sizing in aphakic eyes.

  12. Summary of 2006 to 2010 FPMU Measurements of International Space Station Frame Potential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Chandler, Michael O.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Craven, Paul D.; Schneider, Todd A.; Parker, Linda N.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Koontz, Steve L.; Alred, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Electric potential variations on the International Space Station (ISS) structure in low Earth orbit are dominated by contributions from interactions of the United States (US) 160 volt solar arrays with the relatively high density, low temperature plasma environment and inductive potentials generated by motion of the large vehicle across the Earth?s magnetic field. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite comprising two Langmuir probes, a plasma impedance probe, and a floating potential probe was deployed in August 2006 for use in characterizing variations in ISS potential, the state of the ionosphere along the ISS orbit and its effect on ISS charging, evaluating effects of payloads and visiting vehicles, and for supporting ISS plasma hazard assessments. This presentation summarizes observations of ISS frame potential variations obtained from the FPMU from deployment in 2006 through the current time. We first describe ISS potential variations due to current collection by solar arrays in the day time sector of the orbit including eclipse exit and entry charging events, potential variations due to plasma environment variations in the equatorial anomaly, and visiting vehicles docked to the ISS structure. Next, we discuss potential variations due to inductive electric fields generated by motion of the vehicle across the geomagnetic field and the effects of external electric fields in the ionosphere. Examples of night time potential variations at high latitudes and their possible relationship to auroral charging are described and, finally, we demonstrate effects on the ISS potential due to European Space Agency and US plasma contactor devices.

  13. Proceedings of the international workshop on measurement and computation of turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, R.S. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the proceedings of the International Workshop on Measurement and Computation of Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames, held in Naples, Italy on July 26--27, 1996. Contents include materials that were distributed to participants at the beginning of the workshop, as well as a Summary of Workshop Accomplishments that was generated at the close to this Naples meeting. The Naples workshop involved sixty-one people from eleven countries. The primary objectives were: (1) to select a set of well-documented and relatively simple flames that would be appropriate for collaborative comparisons of model predictions; and (2) to specify common submodels to be used in these predictions, such that models for the coupling of turbulence and chemistry might be isolated and better understood. Studies involve hydrogen and natural gas fuels. These proceedings are also published on the Web and those interested in the ongoing process of data selection and model comparison should consult the workshop page for the most recent and complete information on these collaborative research efforts. The URL is: http://www/ca.sandia/gov/tdf/Workshop.html.

  14. Internal magnetic field measurements by laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Li, W. M.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, S. B.; Lan, T.; Wang, S. X.; Hanada, K.; Wei, X. C.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-channel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for fully diagnosing the internal magnetic field in the EAST tokamak. Double-pass, horizontal, radially-viewing chords access the plasma via an equatorial port. The laser source consists of three CW formic acid (HCOOH) FIR lasers at nominal wavelength 432.5 μm which are optically pumped by independent infrared CO2 lasers. Output power is more than 30 mW of per cavity. Novel molybdenum retro-reflectors, can with withstand baking temperature up to 350°C and discharge duration more than 1000 s, are mounted in the inside wall for the double-pass optical arrangement. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth, which provide real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output for plasma control, have been developed for the POINT system. Reliability of both polarimetric and interferometric measurement are obtained in 22 s long pulse H mode discharge and 8 s NBI H mode discharge, indicating the POINT system works for any heating scheme on EAST so far. The electron line-integrated density resolution of POINT is less than 1 × 1016 m-2 (implemented in the plasma control system in the future.

  15. Simultaneous high-speed internal and external flow measurements for a high-pressure diesel nozzle

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Méès, Loïc; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Michard, Marc; Maligne, David

    2016-01-01

    We present an extensive experimental study focused on understanding the impact of cavitation in a high-pressure diesel nozzle on the macroscopic properties of fuel spray. Several high-speed videos of the liquid flow through a transparent, asymmetric cylindrical nozzle with a single orifice (phi = 0.35 mm) are recorded along with the videos of the resulting spray in the near-nozzle region, issued with an injection pressure of 300 bar at a frame-rate of 75 kHz. The high-repetition images of the internal flow are then used to estimate the onset of cavitation inside the transparent nozzle and the probability of development of cavitation in different regions of the nozzle with an average estimate of the amount of cavitation with time. On the other hand, recorded spray images are used to study spray penetration, cone-angles and velocity from the start of fuel injection. A novel approach is proposed for the measurement of perturbations that occur in form of big liquid structures along the spray boundary.

  16. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  17. Metal-organic semiconductor interfacial barrier height determination from internal photoemission signal in spectral response measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and convenient evaluation methods of the interfacial barrier ϕb for charge carriers in metal semiconductor (MS) junctions are important for designing and building better opto-electronic devices. This becomes more critical for organic semiconductor devices where a plethora of molecules are in use and standardised models applicable to myriads of material combinations for the different devices may have limited applicability. In this paper, internal photoemission (IPE) from spectral response (SR) in the ultra-violet to near infra-red range of different MS junctions of metal-organic semiconductor-metal (MSM) test structures is used to determine more realistic MS ϕb values. The representative organic semiconductor considered is [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and the metals considered are Al and Au. The IPE signals in the SR measurement of the MSM device are identified and separated before it is analysed to estimate ϕb for the MS junction. The analysis of IPE signals under different bias conditions allows the evaluation of ϕb for both the front and back junctions, as well as for symmetric MSM devices.

  18. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  19. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O' Doherty, M.J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, P. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury Hospital, East Kent Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Gadd, R.; Mountford, P.J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Directorate of Medical Physics and Clinical Technology, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospital, Department of Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the internal dose received by family members from ingestion of radioactive contamination after outpatient therapy. Advice was given to minimise transfer of radioiodine. Home visits were made approximately 2, 7 and 21 days after treatment to measure radioactivity in the thyroids of family members. A decay correction was applied to radioactivity detected assuming ingestion had occurred at the earlier contact time, either the day of treatment or the previous home visit. An effective half-life of 6 or 7 days was used depending on age. Thyroid activity was summed if activity was found at more than one visit in excess of the amount attributable to radioactive decay. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP72. Fifty-three adults and 92 children, median age 12 (range 4-17) years participated. Median administered activity was 576 (range 329-690) MBq {sup 131}I. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 5.4 kBq in the adults with activity detected in 17. Maximum adult ED was 0.4 mSv. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 11.8 kBq in the children with activity detected in 26. The two highest values of 5.0 and 11.8 kBq occurred in children aged 5 and 14 years from different families. Eighty-five children had no activity or <1 kBq detected. ED was <0.2 mSv in 86 out of 92 children (93%). Previous published data showed 93% of children received an ED {<=}0.8 mSv from external irradiation. With advice, families of outpatients receiving radioiodine should be able to comply with statutory dose limits and constraints. (orig.)

  20. Public Internal Performance Contracting - Managing and financing energy-efficiency measures in public administrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrek, Wolfgang; Thomas, Stefan [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Attali, Sophie [International Consulting on Energy, L' Ile Saint-Denis (France); Benke, Georg [The Austrian Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Borg, Nils [Borg, Co AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Figorski, Arkadiusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Labanca, Nicola; Pindar, Andrew [Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Ochoa, Amalia [ICLEI Europe, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Public Internal Performance Contracting (PICO) is a type of in-house 'third-party' financing or energy performance contracting scheme. In theory, once triggered, PICO provides a 'perpetual motion' finance mechanism for public authorities by which energy efficiency savings fund new investments in an upward virtuous cycle. One unit of the public authority, e.g. the technical department, delivers the financial and technical energy efficiency service to another unit of the same public administration. Remuneration takes place through cross payments between these units, according savings made in energy costs. The initial investments require 'seed funds' to kick start the process, after which the cross payments provide sufficient means to fund further measures. How can the PICO mechanism be initiated in times of tight public budgets? What difficulties are faced during the implementation process and how can these be overcome? What kind of energy-efficiency measures is PICO best suited to? And what role can national and European policy play to facilitate implementation? These are the key questions that the EU-funded PICOLight project aimed to tackle. This was done through testing and disseminating the PICO schemes, first used in Germany, in six European countries, developing these further and making the necessary adaptations. PICO schemes were piloted in seven public administrations with the technical focus on energy-efficient lighting retrofits. The experiences gathered in these pilot projects should help to introduce PICO schemes on a larger scale in public administrations in Europe. The paper presents the preliminary results from these pilot projects.

  1. How European unification has shaped the debate on measuring international financial integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieterse-Bloem (Mary); S.C.W. Eijffinger (Sylvester)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse a chronicle of economic theory on international financial integration post-WWII to the present date. Our focus is on theories that have somehow quantify the state and speed of international financial integration. We are able to contrast and compare three distinct

  2. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  3. Textbook Citations as a Measure of Journal Influence on International Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2006-01-01

    Previously published rankings of journals in relation to international business research are based on a survey method or a journal-based citation method wherein functional discipline journals are excluded from consideration. The narrow focus of these studies has generated criticism for perpetuating an international business silo perspective. In…

  4. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  5. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  6. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  7. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  8. Measuring organisational readiness for patient engagement (MORE): an international online Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostendorp, Linda J M; Durand, Marie-Anne; Lloyd, Amy; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-02-14

    Widespread implementation of patient engagement by organisations and clinical teams is not a reality yet. The aim of this study is to develop a measure of organisational readiness for patient engagement designed to monitor and facilitate a healthcare organisation's willingness and ability to effectively implement patient engagement in healthcare. The development of the MORE (Measuring Organisational Readiness for patient Engagement) scale was guided by Weiner's theory of organisational readiness for change. Weiner postulates that an organisation's readiness is determined by both the willingness and ability to implement the change (i.e. in this context: patient engagement). A first version of the scale was developed based on a literature search and evaluation of pre-existing tools. We invited multi-disciplinary stakeholders to participate in a two-round online Delphi survey. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each proposed item, and to comment on the proposed domains and items. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and were asked to re-rate the importance of the revised, new and unchanged items, and to provide comments. The first version of the scale contained 51 items divided into three domains: (1) Respondents' characteristics; (2) the organisation's willingness to implement patient engagement; and (3) the organisation's ability to implement patient engagement. 131 respondents from 16 countries (health care managers, policy makers, clinicians, patients and patient representatives, researchers, and other stakeholders) completed the first survey, and 72 of them also completed the second survey. During the Delphi process, 34 items were reworded, 8 new items were added, 5 items were removed, and 18 were combined. The scale's instructions were revised. The final version of MORE totalled 38 items; 5 on stakeholders, 13 on an organisation's willingness to implement, and 20 on an organisation's ability to implement patient

  9. Measuring diversity in medical reports based on categorized attributes and international classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přečková Petra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Narrative medical reports do not use standardized terminology and often bring insufficient information for statistical processing and medical decision making. Objectives of the paper are to propose a method for measuring diversity in medical reports written in any language, to compare diversities in narrative and structured medical reports and to map attributes and terms to selected classification systems. Methods A new method based on a general concept of f-diversity is proposed for measuring diversity of medical reports in any language. The method is based on categorized attributes recorded in narrative or structured medical reports and on international classification systems. Values of categories are expressed by terms. Using SNOMED CT and ICD 10 we are mapping attributes and terms to predefined codes. We use f-diversities of Gini-Simpson and Number of Categories types to compare diversities of narrative and structured medical reports. The comparison is based on attributes selected from the Minimal Data Model for Cardiology (MDMC. Results We compared diversities of 110 Czech narrative medical reports and 1119 Czech structured medical reports. Selected categorized attributes of MDMC had mostly different numbers of categories and used different terms in narrative and structured reports. We found more than 60% of MDMC attributes in SNOMED CT. We showed that attributes in narrative medical reports had greater diversity than the same attributes in structured medical reports. Further, we replaced each value of category (term used for attributes in narrative medical reports by the closest term and the category used in MDMC for structured medical reports. We found that relative Gini-Simpson diversities in structured medical reports were significantly smaller than those in narrative medical reports except the "Allergy" attribute. Conclusions Terminology in narrative medical reports is not standardized. Therefore it is nearly

  10. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  11. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G

    2014-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  12. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    improved apparatus, the bonding tip and the components that hold the substrate and the microchip are more rigid and precise than in the prior apparatus, so as to ensure less deviation from parallelarity of the bonding-tip and substrate surfaces, thereby ensuring more nearly uniform distribution of bonding force over the area of the microchip. The bonding force is now applied through, and measured by, a load cell that makes it possible to exert finer control over the force. The force can be set at any value between 0 and the weight of 800 g in increments of 0.2 g.

  13. Use of internal references for assessing CT density measurements of the pelvis as replacement for use of an external phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Slouwerhof, Inge; Dalen, Jorn A. van [Isala Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [Isala Hospital, Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mueller, Dirk [Philips Healthcare systems, Hamburg (Germany); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare Benelux, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of an internal reference standard for fat- and muscle as a replacement for an external reference standard with a phantom. By using a phantomless internal reference standard, Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of various tissues can potentially be assessed in patients with a CT scan of the pelvis without an added phantom at time of CT acquisition. This paves the way for development of a tool for quantification of the change in tissue density in one patient over time and between patients. This could make every CT scan made without contrast available for research purposes. Fifty patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip replacements, scanned together with a calibration reference phantom used in bone mineral density measurements, were included in this study. On computed tomography scans of the pelvis without the use of intravenous iodine contrast, reference values for fat and muscle were measured in the phantom as well as within the patient's body. The conformity between the references was examined with the intra-class correlation coefficient. The mean HU (± SD) of reference values for fat for the internal- and phantom references were -91.5 (±7.0) and -90.9 (±7.8), respectively. For muscle, the mean HU (± SD) for the internal- and phantom references were 59.2 (±6.2) and 60.0 (±7.2), respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for fat and muscle were 0.90 and 0.84 respectively and show excellent agreement between the phantom and internal references. Internal references can be used with similar accuracy as references from an external phantom. There is no need to use an external phantom to asses CT density measurements of body tissue. (orig.)

  14. Results from an International Measurement Round Robin of III-V Triple Junction Solar Cells under Air Mass Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Chris; Goodbody, Chris; Baur, Carsten; Sharps, Paul; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Yoo, Henry; Sahlstrom, Ted; Walters, Robert; Lorentzen, Justin; Nocerino, John; Khan, Osman; Cravens, Robert; Valles, Juan; Toporow, Chantal; Gomez, Trinidad,; Bazan, Loreto Pazos; Bailey, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international measurement round robin of monolithic, triple-junction, GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells. Eight laboratories representing national labs, solar cell vendors and space solar cell consumers, measured cells using in-house reference cells and compared those results to measurements made where each lab used the same set of reference cells. The results show that most of the discrepancy between laboratories is likely due to the quality of the standard cells rather than the measurement system or solar simulator used.

  15. Confidence building measures as soft power? : a contribution to the study of international cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jacob Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is“CBMs and international cooperation within cybersecurity”. The central research question it examines is: How can the use of CBMs in diplomacy enhance international cooperation within cybersecurity? In order to investigate this issue, I decided to conduct a number of in-depth interviews with experts within this field; these two groups of experts primarily consist of diplomats and researchers. Myfindings can be divided in two parts; the first concerns consequences ...

  16. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  17. Balanced Scorecard Goal Four: Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving" Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    efficiency and improve internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves...Army Medical Department to implement a Balanced Scorecard , the Great Plains was faced with establishing measurable standards and goals to track its

  18. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 3 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loss must reflect the net present value of cash flows as of the default date using a discount rate...-Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches C Appendix C to Part 3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF... Appendix C to Part 3—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Banks: Internal-Ratings-Based and Advanced...

  20. Measurements of internal stresses in bond coating using high energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, K; Akiniwa, Y; Nishio, K; Kawamura, M; Okado, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) techniques enable high temperature combustion of turbines made of Ni-base alloy. TBC is made of zirconia top coating on NiCoCrAlY bond coating. The internal stresses in the bond coating play essential role in the delamination or fracture of TBC in service. With the X-rays from laboratory equipments, it is impossible to measure nondestructively the internal stress in the bond coating under the top coating. synchrotron radiations with a high energy and high brightness have a large penetration depth as compared with laboratory X-rays. Using the high energy X-rays from the synchrotron radiation, it is possible to measure the internal stress in the bond coating through the top coating. In this study, the furnace, which can heat a specimen to 1473 K, was developed for the stress measurement of the thermal barrier coatings. The internal stresses in the bond coating were measured at the room temperature, 773 K, 1073 K and 1373 K by using the 311 diffraction from Ni sub 3 Al with about 73...