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Sample records for internal mammary lymph

  1. Internal mammary lymph node management – further direction

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    Vrana D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available D Vrana,1,2 J Gatek3,4 1Department of Oncology, 2Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Surgery, Atlas Hospital, 4Faculty of Humanities, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic We read the article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?” by Qiu et al with high interest. This was an excellent paper regarding the contemporary management of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN in early-stage breast cancer1 and we would like to take this opportunity to comment on this paper.There are several unresolved questions regarding early-stage breast management including axillary staging, clear resection margin, or IMLN.2–4 We have been focusing on the issues of IMLN for almost a decade and just recently published our data regarding IMLN management. We absolutely agree that one has to carefully balance the benefit and potential risks of biopsy or radiotherapy of IMLN.  Authors' reply Peng-Fei Qiu, Yong-Sheng WangBreast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China  We appreciate the letter from Professors Vrana and Gatek regarding our article titled “Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?”.1 We have been following their publications regarding internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN management since the publication of their article titled “Prognostic influence of internal mammary node drainage in patients with early-stage breast cancer” in December 20162 and we share their interest on this topic.  View the original paper by Qiu and colleagues.

  2. Clinical Significance of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Biopsy during Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction: Review of 264 Cases.

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    Wright, Eric J; Momeni, Arash; Kraneburg, Ursula M; Otake, Leo R; Echo, Anthony; Lee, Tim; Buchanan, Edward P; Lee, Gordon K

    2016-06-01

    Despite the knowledge of alternate lymphatic draining patterns of the breast, routine evaluation of the internal mammary lymph node basin is still not considered standard of care. The advent of microsurgical breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels as recipients, however, has allowed sampling of internal mammary lymph nodes with technical ease, thus revisiting their role in breast cancer management. In the present study, the authors reviewed their experience with this practice. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent internal mammary lymph node biopsy at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels between 2004 and 2012 was performed. Parameters of interest included patient age, timing of reconstruction (immediate versus delayed), disease stage, and pathologic findings of internal mammary lymph nodes. A total of 264 autologous breast reconstructions using the internal mammary vessels were performed in 204 patients with a median age of 44.5 years. The majority of reconstructions were immediate [n = 211 (79.9 percent)]. Seventy-two percent of patients had either stage I [72 patients (35.3 percent)] or stage II disease [75 patients (36.8 percent)]. Six patients were found to have internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Stage migration and alteration in adjuvant therapy occurred in all patients. Internal mammary lymph node sampling at the time of autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary system should become routine practice, as the morbidity associated with internal mammary lymph node harvest is low and the impact in cases of nodal involvement is quite substantial. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. Can the sentinel lymph node technique affect decisions to offer internal mammary chain irradiation?

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    Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Payan, Raoul; Collomb, Delphine; Gallazzini-Crepin, Celine; Calizzano, Alex; Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Pasquier, Dominique; Bolla, Michel; Fagret, Daniel; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for small mammary tumours (cT1N0) sometimes leads to detection of internal mammary chain (IMC) drainage. This information is often ignored by physicians. The present study sought to determine the frequency with which an internal mammary SLN was identified by peritumoral injection of radioactive tracer, and then to determine the patients in whom identification of an internal mammary SLN could have an impact on the radiation treatment plan. Between March 2002 and March 2008, 622 SLN biopsies performed in a cohort of 608 patients were analysed. Technetium-labelled nanocolloids were administered via three peritumoral injections, completed by a deep prepectoral injection, with the entire procedure performed under echographic guidance. The SLN was identified in 607 of the 622 patients, including 174 (28.7%) in the IMC. A total of 161 successful internal mammary biopsies were performed. Of the 622 patients, 18 showed SLN involvement in the IMC. In 7 of these patients, only the internal mammary SLN was affected. Prophylactic irradiation of the IMC was indicated in 376 patients, but only in 18 (4.8%) of these patients was there effectively IMC involvement; internal mammary SLN biopsy failed in 7 patients (1.9%). SLN detection by peritumoral injection, combined with the systematic removal of the internal mammary SLN, enabled the involvement of this region to be found in a nonnegligible number of patients. Such information should make it possible to personalize treatment for patients with stage cT1 mammary cancer and thereby avoid needless internal mammary radiation therapy in a large number of patients (93.4% in our study). (orig.)

  4. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report

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    Sinisa Stojanoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  5. Hodgkin's disease: internal mammary lymph nodes relapse diagnosed by Gallium-67 scintigraphy

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    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Ampudia, J.; Castillo, F.J.; Romero, C.; Pallardo, Y.; Garcia Conde, J.; Ramos, D.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 62-year-old man with treated Hodgkin's disease who had internal mammary lymph nodes relapse after a complete initial response. These masses were gallium avid. These findings were explained by histologically documented Hodgkin's relapse, the first such case reported in that localization without chest wall involvement. The literature on mediastinal Hodgkin's disease and diagnostic procedures are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  6. [Incidental internal mammary lymph node biopsy in 113 cases of breast cancer undergoingfree abdominal flap breast reconstruction and its influencing factors].

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    Quan, C L; Huang, N S; Yang, B L; Wang, Y; Cao, A Y; Zhang, Y Y; Huang, X Y; Chen, J J; Shen, Z Z; Shao, Z M; Wu, J

    2016-10-23

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to determine the clinical value of incidental internal mammary lymph node biopsy in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction using internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels and to investigate the risk factors of internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis. Methods: The clinical data of all patients who underwent free abdominal flap breast reconstruction using internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels from November 2006 to December 2015 in the Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were reviewed in the study. The incidence of internal mammary lymph node biopsy and the rate of metastasis were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Results: A total of 113 patients met the inclusion criteria, 53 (46.9%) of whom had internal mammary lymph nodes harvested. Four of these were positive for metastatic disease, all in immediate breast reconstructions. The incidence of metastasis was 7.5% in patients who had successful internal mammary lymph node biopsies.The multi-variate Logistic regression analysis showed that invasive tumor size, tumor location and axillary lymph node metastasis were not risk factors for internal mammary lymph node metastasis ( P >0.05). Conclusions: Internal mammary lymph nodes found incidentally during recipient vessel exposure may provide important information about internal mammary lymph node metastasis in free flap breast reconstruction. This approach for internal mammary lymph node biopsy reveals an appreciable success rate and is convenient in clinical practice. The size of invasive tumor and the axillary lymph node metastasis are probably associated with internal mammary lymph node positivity.

  7. Hodgkin`s disease: internal mammary lymph nodes relapse diagnosed by Gallium-67 scintigraphy

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    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Ampudia, J.; Castillo, F.J.; Romero, C. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear; Pallardo, Y. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Garcia Conde, J. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Hematologia y Oncologia Medica; Ramos, D. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Valencia (Spain). Servicio de Anatomia Patologica

    1999-04-01

    This article presents the case of a 62-year-old man with treated Hodgkin`s disease who had internal mammary lymph nodes relapse after a complete initial response. These masses were gallium avid. These findings were explained by histologically documented Hodgkin`s relapse, the first such case reported in that localization without chest wall involvement. The literature on mediastinal Hodgkin`s disease and diagnostic procedures are reviewed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beschrieben wird der Fall eines 62jaehrigen Mannes, der nach initial erfolgreicher Therapie eines Morbus Hodgkin ein Lymphknotenrezidiv im Bereich der Brust aufweist. Die Lymphknoten reicherten Gallium an. Histologisch wurde das Hodgkinrezidiv gesichert. Es handelt sich um den ersten in diesem Bereich beschriebenen Fall ohne Infiltration der Brustwand. Die Literatur ueber mediastinalen Morbus Hodgkin und diagnostisches Vorgehen wurde ueberprueft. (orig.)

  8. Routine sampling of internal mammary lymph nodes during microsurgical breast reconstruction-Experience based on 524 microsurgical breast reconstructions.

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    Huang, Jung-Ju; Wu, Chih-Wei; Allen, Robert J; Shen, Shih-Che; Yu, Chi-Chang; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of the internal mammary vessels during microsurgical reconstruction presents an ideal opportunity for identifying and sampling the internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) basin. A retrospective review of patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels was conducted from March 2000 to December 2014. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, preoperative lymph node mapping, reconstructive timing, and outcomes were studied. A total of 524 microsurgical breast reconstructions in 516 patients were performed using the internal mammary vessels. IMLNs were sampled in 53 immediate and 42 delayed breast reconstructions. Eight (seven in the immediate and one in the delayed group) of the sampled nodes were positive for cancer metastasis, for an incidence of 8.4% in identified lymph nodes. All patients with metastatic IMLNs subsequently received local-regional radiation and chemotherapy. All patients were alive, and six were disease-free at the conclusion of the study period, which had an average follow up of 67.3 months. Incidentally encountered IMLNs during microsurgical breast reconstruction are frequently positive. With negligible downside and the possibility to provide additional information for treatment, the procedure should be encouraged. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:133-139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Should internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer be a target for the radiation oncologist?

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    Freedman, Gary M.; Fowble, Barbara L.; Nicolaou, Nicos; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Torosian, Michael H.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Hoffman, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The elective treatment of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in breast cancer is controversial. Previous randomized trials have not shown a benefit to the extended radical mastectomy or elective IMN irradiation overall, but a survival benefit has been suggested by some for subgroups of patients with medial tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes. The advent of effective systemic chemotherapy and potential for serious cardiac morbidity have also been factors leading to the decreased use of IMN irradiation during the past decade. The recent publishing of positive trials testing postmastectomy radiation that had included regional IMN irradiation has renewed interest in their elective treatment. The purpose of this study is to critically review historical and new data regarding IMNs in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The historical incidence of occult IMN positivity in operable breast cancer is reviewed, and the new information provided by sentinel lymph node studies also discussed. The results of published randomized prospective trials testing the value of elective IMN dissection and/or radiation are analyzed. The data regarding patterns of failure following elective IMN treatment is studied to determine its impact on local-regional control, distant metastases, and survival. A conclusion is drawn regarding the merits of elective IMN treatment based on this review of the literature. Results: Although controversial, the existing data from prospective, randomized trials of IMN treatment do not seem to support their elective dissection or irradiation. While it has not been shown to contribute to a survival benefit, the IMN irradiation increases the risk of cardiac toxicity that has effaced the value of radiation of the chest wall in reducing breast cancer deaths in previous randomized studies and meta-analyses. Sentinel lymph node mapping provides an opportunity to further evaluate the IMN chain in early stage breast cancer. Biopsy of 'hot' nodes may be

  10. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

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    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  11. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose

  12. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

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    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  13. Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation Contributes to Heart Dose in Breast Cancer

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    Chargari, Cyrus; Castadot, Pierre; MacDermed, Dhara; Vandekerkhove, Christophe; Bourgois, Nicolas; Van Houtte, Paul; Magne, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the impact of internal mammary chain radiotherapy (IMC RT) to the radiation dose received by the heart in terms of heart dose-volume histogram (DVH). Thirty-six consecutive breast cancer patients presenting with indications for IMC RT were enrolled in a prospective study. The IMC was treated by a standard conformal RT technique (50 Gy). For each patient, a cardiac DVH was generated by taking into account the sole contribution of IMC RT. Cardiac HDV were compared according to breast cancer laterality and the type of previous surgical procedure, simple mastectomy or breast conservative therapy (BCT). The contribution of IMC RT to the heart dose was significantly greater for patients with left-sided versus right-sided tumors (13.8% and 12.8% for left-sided tumors versus 3.9% and 4.2% for right-sided tumors in the BCT group and the mastectomy group, respectively; p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in IMC contribution depending on the initial surgical procedure. IMC RT contributes to cardiac dose for both left-sided and right-sided breast cancers, although the relative contribution is greater in patients with left-sided tumors.

  14. Significance of internal mammary lymph nodes in patients after mastectomy with tissue-expander reconstruction: a case-control study

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    Kaewlai, R.; Digumarthy, S.R.; Smith, B.L.; Corben, A.D.; Austen, W.G.; Shepard, J.-A.O.; Sharma, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To retrospectively assess the frequency of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in patients after mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction. Materials and methods: Statistical analysis was performed for all available data in patients with mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction from 2004-2007 (study group). The data were compared with that of a control population with mastectomy who did not have reconstruction (control group). Patients with recurrent breast cancers, previous breast reconstruction, surgeries performed at outside hospitals, no available pre- or postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, or inadequate imaging follow-up were excluded. Results: There were eight patients in the study group (median age 50.5 years, seven breast cancers), and eight patients in the control group (median age 52 years, seven breast cancers). No patients had IMNs on their preoperative imaging examinations. New IMNs were present in postoperative imaging in seven of eight patients (7/8, 87.5%) in the study group. All of them were stable or decreased in size on subsequent imaging examinations. None of the patients in the control group had IMNs (0/8). Conclusion: IMNs are common on imaging after mastectomy and tissue-expander placement. The IMNs decreased or remained stable on follow-up imaging and may represent reactive nodes.

  15. Internal Mammary Lymph Node Biopsy During Free-Flap Breast Reconstruction: Optimizing Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Through Comprehensive Staging.

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    Ochoa, Oscar; Azouz, Vitali; Santillan, Alfredo; Pisano, Steven; Chrysopoulo, Minas; Ledoux, Peter; Arishita, Gary; Ketchum, Norma; Michalek, Joel E; Nastala, Chet

    2018-05-01

    Accurate breast cancer staging is essential for optimal management of adjuvant therapies. While breast lymphatic drainage involves both axillary and internal mammary (IM) lymph node (LN) basins, IM LN sampling is not routinely advocated. The current study analyzes the incidence of IM LN metastases sampled during free flap breast reconstruction and subsequent changes in adjuvant treatment. A retrospective analysis of patients with positive IM LN biopsies during free flap breast reconstruction was performed. Pre-reconstruction surgical and adjuvant therapies as well as staging and prognostic data were recorded. Change in adjuvant therapies based solely on IM LN positivity was determined. IM LN metastases were found on 28 (1.3%) out of 2057 patients and comprised the study population. Mean age was 49 years with pre-reconstruction chemotherapy or radiation administered in 50 or 54% of cases, respectively. Five (18%) patients had previously undergone lumpectomy with axillary sampling. Mean tumor size was 3.1 cm with tumor location evenly distributed among all four quadrants. Ten (36%) patients had isolated IM LN metastases Patients with both axillary and IM disease had larger lesions, increased prevalence of pre-reconstruction chemotherapy and radiation. Based exclusively on positive IM LN disease, 17 (63%) patients had a change in adjuvant therapy. Despite the low incidence of IM LN metastases, IM LN biopsy during free flap breast reconstruction is recommended. In 36% of cases, nodal metastases were isolated to the IM nodes. Identification of IM metastases influenced adjuvant therapies in a majority of cases.

  16. Quality assurance of conventional non-CT-based internal mammary lymph node irradiation in a prospective Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group trial: the DBCG-IMN study.

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    Thorsen, Lise B J; Thomsen, Mette S; Overgaard, Marie; Overgaard, Jens; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2013-10-01

    In 2003, the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) initiated DBCG-IMN, a prospective study on the effect of adjuvant internal mammary lymph node radiotherapy (IMN-RT) in patients with early lymph node positive breast cancer (BC). In the study, standard DBCG IMN-RT was provided only to patients with right-sided BC. We provide estimates of doses to IMNs and organs at risk (OARs) in patients treated with the non-CT-based RT techniques used during the DBCG-IMN study. Five DBCG RT regimens were simulated on planning CT scans from 50 consecutively scanned BC patients, 10 in each group. Intended target volumes were chest wall or breast and regional lymph nodes ± IMNs. Field planning was conducted in the Eclipse(TM) RT treatment planning system. Subsequently, IMN clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs were delineated. Estimates on doses to the IMN-CTV and OARs were made. IMN dose coverage estimates were consistently higher in right-sided techniques where IMN treatment was intended (p < 0.0001). Estimated doses to cardiac structures were low regardless of whether IMNs were treated or not. Post-lumpectomy patients had the highest estimated lung doses. Overall, simulator-based treatment using the DBCG RT techniques resulted in satisfactory coverage of IMNs and acceptable levels of OAR irradiation.

  17. Use of 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging to determine internal mammary lymph node location for radiation therapy treatment planning in breast cancer patients.

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    Davidson, Tima; Ben-David, Merav; Galper, Shira; Haskin, Tess; Howes, Megan; Scaife, Roland; Kanana, Nayroz; Amit, Uri; Weizman, Noam; Chikman, Bar; Goshen, Elinor; Ben-Haim, Simona; Symon, Zvi; Goldstein, Jeffrey

    Adjuvant internal mammary lymph node (IMN) radiation is often delivered with 2-dimensional techniques that use anatomic landmarks and predetermined depths for field placement and dose specification. In contrast, 3-dimensional planning uses the internal mammary vessels (IMVs) to localize the IMNs for planning. Our purpose was to determine if localization of the involved IMN (i-IMN) by 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) offers opportunities to improve treatment. Breast cancer patients (n = 80) who had i-IMNs (n = 112) on PET-CT for initial staging (n = 40) or recurrence (n = 40) were studied. Size, intercostal space (IC), and distance from skin, sternum, and IMVs were recorded. Effects on 2- and 3-dimensional planning were evaluated. Most i-IMNs (94.6%) were in the first to third ICs. Few were in the fourth (4.5%) or fifth (0.9%) IC. Mean i-IMN depth was 3.4 cm (range, 1.1-7.3 cm). Prescriptive depths of 4, 5, and 6 cm would result in undertreatment of 25%, 10.7%, and 5.3% of IMNs, respectively. Most IMNs (86.6%) were lateral or adjacent to the sternal edge. Only 13.4% of IMNs were posterior to the sternum. Use of the ipsilateral or contralateral sternal edge for field placement increases the risk of geographic miss or excess normal tissue exposure. Most i-IMNs were adjacent to (83%) or ≤0.5 cm (14%) from the IMV edge. Three (3%) were >0.5 cm beyond the IMV edge. The clinical target volume (CTV) defined by the first to third ICs encompassed 78% of i-IMNs. IMN-CTV coverage of i-IMNs increased with inclusion of the fourth IC (82%), 0.5 cm medial and lateral margin expansion (93%), or both (96.5%). Two-dimensional treatment techniques risk geographic miss of IMNs and exposure of excess normal tissue to radiation. An IMN-CTV defined by the IMVs from the first to third ICs with 0.5-cm medial and lateral margin expansion encompasses almost all i-IMNs identified on PET-CT imaging. Inclusion of the fourth IC

  18. Incidental irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer: conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy versus conformal three-dimensional radiotherapy

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    Elton Trigo Teixeira Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate incidental irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs through opposed tangential fields with conventional two-dimensional (2D or three-dimensional (3D radiotherapy techniques and to compare the results between the two techniques. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 80 breast cancer patients in whom radiotherapy of the IMLNs was not indicated: 40 underwent 2D radiotherapy with computed tomography for dosimetric control, and 40 underwent 3D radiotherapy. The total prescribed dose was 50.0 Gy or 50.4 Gy (2.0 or 1.8 Gy/day, respectively. We reviewed all plans and defined the IMLNs following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations. For the IMLNs, we analyzed the proportion of the volume that received 45 Gy, the proportion of the volume that received 25 Gy, the dose to 95% of the volume, the dose to 50% of the volume, the mean dose, the minimum dose (Dmin, and the maximum dose (Dmax. Results: Left-sided treatments predominated in the 3D cohort. There were no differences between the 2D and 3D cohorts regarding tumor stage, type of surgery (mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery, or mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, or mean delineated IMLN volume (6.8 vs. 5.9 mL; p = 0.411. Except for the Dmin, all dosimetric parameters presented higher mean values in the 3D cohort (p < 0.05. The median Dmax in the 3D cohort was 50.34 Gy. However, the mean dose to the IMLNs was 7.93 Gy in the 2D cohort, compared with 20.64 Gy in the 3D cohort. Conclusion: Neither technique delivered enough doses to the IMLNs to achieve subclinical disease control. However, all of the dosimetric parameters were significantly higher for the 3D technique.

  19. The impact of active breathing control on internal mammary lymph node coverage and normal tissue exposure in breast cancer patients planned for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy.

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    Barry, Aisling; Rock, Kathy; Sole, Claudio; Rahman, Mohammad; Pintilie, Melania; Lee, Grace; Fyles, Anthony; Koch, C Anne

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the active breathing control (ABC) technique on IMN coverage and organs at risk in patients planned for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), with the inclusion of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs). The effect of body mass index (BMI) on recorded dosimetric parameters was examined in the same patient cohort. Fifty left-sided postmastectomy patients with breast cancer who underwent free-breathing (FB) and ABC-Elekta CT simulation scans were selected at random from an institutional breast cancer database between 2008 and 2014. The ABC plans were directly compared with FB plans from the same patient. The IMN planning target volume coverage met dosimetric criteria for coverage of receiving more than 90% of the prescribed dose (V90) >90%, although it decreased with ABC compared with FB (94.5% vs 98%, P < .001). Overall, ABC significantly reduced doses to all measured heart and left anterior descending coronary artery parameters, ipsilateral lung V20, and mean lung dose compared with FB (P < .001). There was no difference seen between the ABC and FB plans with respect to the dose to contralateral lung or contralateral breast. There was no correlation identified between BMI and any of the dosimetric parameters recorded from the ABC and FB plans. Our results suggest that ABC reduces IMN coverage in left-sided breast cancer patients planned for PMRT; however, dosimetric criteria for IMN coverage were still met, suggesting that this is not likely to be clinically significant. ABC led to significant sparing of organs at risk compared with FB conditions and was not affected by BMI. Collectively, the results support the use of ABC for breast cancer patients undergoing left-sided PMRT requiring regional nodal irradiation that includes the IMNs. Further prospective clinical studies are required to determine the impact of these results on late normal tissue effects. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. A glance on quality assurance in EORTC study 22922 evaluating techniques for internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain irradiation in breast cancer.

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    Lievens, Y; Poortmans, P; Van den Bogaert, W

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the irradiation techniques used for the irradiation of the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain (IM-MS) in the EORTC 22922 study, which evaluates its impact on survival in stage I-III breast cancer patients with axillary node invasion and/or central or medial location of the primary tumour. The analysis was performed based on the dummy run data of the Quality Assurance Programme of the study. A standard irradiation technique was proposed within the study protocol, and the use of other treatment set-up techniques was allowed. By March 2000, 39 centres from 12 different countries had participated in the study; 32 of these had already fulfilled the dummy run procedure. No centres had to be excluded from the study. Seventy-eight percent of the centres are using the standard irradiation technique, 64% of these with minor variations. Twenty-two percent of the centres developed an alternative irradiation technique. The remarks to the centres using the standard set-up were most often related to the junction problem and the possible under- or overdosage in the target volumes. The remarks to the centres with alternative techniques most often concerned the possible enhanced dose to the lungs and the heart. In a multi-centre trial an easy irradiation technique applicable in a large number of centres should be provided. A quality assurance programme allows early detection of possible problems with treatment planning and delivery. The analysis of the dummy run data showed that if the recommendations of the Quality Assurance Committee are applied, both standard and alternative IM-MS irradiation techniques produce acceptable dose distributions.

  1. Economic consequence of local control with radiotherapy: Cost analysis of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node radiotherapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, Yolande; Kesteloot, Katrien; Bogaert, Walter van den

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the financial implications of radiotherapy (RT) to the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain (IM-MS) in postoperative breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis were performed, using Markov models, comparing the early and delayed costs and effects of IM-MS during a 20-year time span from a societal viewpoint. The outcome estimates were based on Level I evidence from postoperative RT literature and the cost estimates on the standard practice of the Leuven University Hospitals, with the RT costs derived from an activity-based costing program developed in the department. Results: On the basis of the assumptions of the model and seen during a 20-year time span, primary treatment including IM-MS RT results in a cost savings (approximately EURO 10,000) compared with a strategy without RT. Because IM-MS RT also results in better clinical effectiveness and greater quality of life, the treatment with IM-MS dominates the approach without IM-MS. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results in all tested circumstances. Although threshold values were found for the cost of IM-MS, the cost at relapse, and the quality of life after treatment, these were substantially different from the baseline estimates, indicating that it is very unlikely that omitting IM-MS would become superior. Conclusion: This ex-ante cost evaluation of IM-MS RT showed that the upfront costs of locoregional RT are easily compensated for by avoiding the costs of treating locoregional and distant relapse at a later stage. The cost-sparing effect of RT should, however, be evaluated for a sufficiently long time span and is most specifically found in tumors with a rather slow natural history and a multitude of available systemic treatments at relapse, such as breast cancer

  2. Incidental irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer: conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy versus conformal three-dimensional radiotherapy

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    Leite, Elton Trigo Teixeira; Ugino, Rafael Tsuneki; Lopes, Mauricio Russo; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes; Silva, Joao Luis Fernandes da, E-mail: eltontt@gmail.com [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia; Santana, Marco Antonio; Ferreira, Denis Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate incidental irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) through opposed tangential fields with conventional two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy techniques and to compare the results between the two techniques. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 80 breast cancer patients in whom radiotherapy of the IMLNs was not indicated: 40 underwent 2D radiotherapy with computed tomography for dosimetric control, and 40 underwent 3D radiotherapy. The total prescribed dose was 50.0 Gy or 50.4 Gy (2.0 or 1.8 Gy/day, respectively). We reviewed all plans and defined the IMLNs following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations. For the IMLNs, we analyzed the proportion of the volume that received 45 Gy, the proportion of the volume that received 25 Gy, the dose to 95% of the volume, the dose to 50% of the volume, the mean dose, the minimum dose (Dmin), and the maximum dose (Dmax). Results: Left-sided treatments predominated in the 3D cohort. There were no differences between the 2D and 3D cohorts regarding tumor stage, type of surgery (mastectomy, breast-conserving surgery, or mastectomy with immediate reconstruction), or mean delineated IMLN volume (6.8 vs. 5.9 mL; p = 0.411). Except for the Dmin, all dosimetric parameters presented higher mean values in the 3D cohort (p < 0.05). The median Dmax in the 3D cohort was 50.34 Gy. However, the mean dose to the IMLNs was 7.93 Gy in the 2D cohort, compared with 20.64 Gy in the 3D cohort. Conclusion: Neither technique delivered enough doses to the IMLNs to achieve subclinical disease control. However, all of the dosimetric parameters were significantly higher for the 3D technique. (author)

  3. Quality assurance in the EORTC randomized trial 22922/10925 investigating the role of irradiation of the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortmans, Philip; Kouloulias, Vassilis; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Collette, Laurence; Struikmans, Henk; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; van den Bogaert, Walter; Davis, J. Bernard; Lambin, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program in conjunction with the EORTC trial investigating the role of adjuvant internal mammary and medial supraclavicular irradiation in stage I-III breast cancer is presented. The results of a dummy run procedure and of an individual case review are compared to each other.

  4. Comparisons of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Imaging for Detection of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients With Breast Cancer and Pathologic Correlation by Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yeong Yi; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won

    2015-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and ultrasound imaging (US) with pathologic results obtained by US-guided biopsy and to evaluate the role of US in detecting internal mammary lymph node (LN) metastases in patients with breast cancer. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 37 patients with breast cancer (median age, 51.4 years; range, 40-79 years) underwent US-guided biopsy for suspected internal mammary LN metastases. Medical records, radiologic images, and reports were reviewed and correlated with pathologic results. The positive internal mammary LN metastasis rate was 78.4%. All biopsies were performed safely without major complications. Only 8.1% of obtained samples were unsatisfactory. There were statistically significant differences in lesion size (P = .0002), standardized uptake value on PET/CT (P = .0015), biopsy methods (P = .002), and specimen adequacy (P = .007) between metastatic and benign groups. Of the clinical factorsreviewed, only concurrent distant metastasis was correlated with internal mammary LN metastasis (P< .0001). Sensitivities for detecting internal mammary LN metastases were 76.7%, 96.7%, and 92.9% for initial US examinations, initial US combined with second-look US for initially missed cases, and PET/CT, respectively (P= .017). In a subgroup analysis, the only significant difference found was in sensitivities between initial and combined US (P = .019). In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve for PET/CT using standardized uptake criteria (0.87) was higher than that for US using size criteria (0.83); however, this difference was not significant. Although PET/CT is the best noninvasive method for evaluating internal mammary LN metastases, US is also useful if internal mammary LN evaluation is routine during standard US surveillance of patients with breast cancer. Additionally, US-guided biopsies could be

  5. Internal mammary lymph nodes identification from isolated sternum of human cadaver Identificação de linfonodos da cadeia mamária interna em esternos isolados de cadáver humano

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    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the lymph nodes positioned along the internal mammary vessels in isolated sternum of human cadaver and to standardize the surgical approach to those nodes, in order to establish anatomical landmarks to be used with the current techniques of mammary gland sentinel lymph node detection. METHODS: Ten sternum plates removed from unclaimed cadavers were used in this study. Sternal plates were removed using bilateral incisions of the ribs at the midclavicular lines. The characterization of the internal mammary vessels and the anatomical integrity of the parietal pleura were indispensable requirements during the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 29 lymph nodes were removed from the 2nd (13 and the 3rd (16 intercostals spaces. Almost 50% of all nodes collected were located medially to the vessels. CONCLUSION: The approach used is a reliable surgical technique for removing lymph node from sternal plates. The model is therefore valuable for breast surgeons training in sentinel node biopsy, an important procedure for breast cancer patients.OBJETIVO: Identificar os linfonodos localizados ao longo dos vasos mamários internos em esternos isolados de cadáveres e padronizar a abordagem cirúrgica desses linfonodos, registrando os pontos de reparo a serem utilizados nas técnicas atuais de pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela da mama. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez esternos isolados de cadáveres humanos. Os esternos foram obtidos através de secção bilateral do gradil costal ao nível das linhas hemiclaviculares. A individualização e a integridade anatômica da pleura parietal e dos vasos mamários internos foram requisitos imprescindíveis durante a dessecação das peças. RESULTADOS: Um total de 29 linfonodos foram removidos do 2º e 3º espaços intercostais (13 e 16 linfonodos respectivamente. Quase 50% dos linfonodos removidos se situavam em posição medial aos vasos mamários. CONCLUSÃO: A abordagem cirúrgica usada neste estudo

  6. Quality assurance in the EORTC randomized trial 22922/10925 investigating the role of irradiation of the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortmans, Philip; Kouloulias, Vassilis; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Collette, Laurence; Struikmans, Henk; Venselaar, Jack L M; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Davis, J Bernard; Lambin, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program in conjunction with the EORTC trial investigating the role of adjuvant internal mammary and medial supraclavicular irradiation in stage I-III breast cancer is presented. The results of a dummy run procedure and of an individual case review are compared to each other. The effects of recommendations based on QA procedures on the protocol compliance are evaluated. Prior to protocol activation all participating institutes were asked to produce treatment plans according to the guidelines of the protocol based on manual outlines of an average patient. Thereafter, they were asked to provide data on each of their first six randomized patients. The dummy run provided a lot of information on specific treatment techniques. In the individual case review, additional patient- and tumor-related data were collected, showing the use of anatomic information for treatment planning. A comparison between both procedures revealed that the individual case reports concurred more accurately with protocol guidelines than the dummy run. It was observed that the number of systematic protocol deviations was substantially decreased in trial patients compared to the dummy run case. Therefore, it is concluded that this extensive QA program had a positive effect on the consistency of all institutes participating in the trial.

  7. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastasis with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with stage III breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Jung; Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Hye Ok; Chae, Sun-Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seol Hoon [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sei Hyun; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Gyung-Yub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The present study assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the detection of internal mammary node (IMN) metastasis in patients with clinical stage III breast cancer. Patients who were diagnosed with clinical stage III breast cancer and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were prospectively reviewed by two board-certified nuclear medicine physicians in a blinded manner. The intensities of IMNs were graded into four categories (no activity and lower, similar, and higher activities than that of the mediastinal blood pool). IMNs were measured from the combined CT (largest diameter of the short axis). Histologic data of the IMNs were obtained by ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. The PPV was calculated for pathologically confirmed IMNs. Visual grade, maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}), and sizes were analyzed according to the pathology results. There were 249 clinical stage III breast cancer patients (age 48.0 ± 10.1 years, range 26-79 years) who had undergone initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. Excluding 33 cases of stage IV breast cancer, 62 of 216 patients had visible IMNs on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and histologic confirmation was obtained in 31 patients. There were 27 metastatic and four nonmetastatic nodes (PPV 87.1 %). Metastatic nodes mostly presented with visual grade 3 (83.9 %), and SUV{sub max} and size were 3.5 ± 4.3 and 5.6 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has a high PPV for IMN metastasis in clinical stage III breast cancer, indicating the possibility of metastasis in IMNs with FDG uptake similar to/lower than that of the blood pool or small-sized nodes. (orig.)

  8. Radiation during deep inspiration allows loco-regional treatment of left breast and axillary-, supraclavicular- and internal mammary lymph nodes without compromising target coverage or dose restrictions to organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelstuen, Mari H B; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Vikström, Johan; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar

    2012-03-01

    Loco-regional radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer represents a treatment planning challenge when the internal mammary chain (IMC) lymph nodes are included in the target volume. This treatment planning study evaluates the reduction in cardiopulmonary doses when radiation is given during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). This was achieved without compromising dose coverage to the planning target volume (PTV). Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two computed tomography (CT)-scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio-visual guidance was used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed focusing on good coverage (V95% > 98%) of the PTV. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, lungs and contralateral breast were assessed. With equal PTV coverage, average mean heart dose was reduced from 6.2 Gy to 3.1 Gy in DIBH plans as compared to FB. Average volume receiving 25 Gy or more (V25Gy) was reduced from 6.7% to 1.2%, and the number of patients with V25Gy > 5% was reduced from 8 to 1 utilizing DIBH. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 25.0 Gy to 10.9 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy or more (V20Gy) was reduced from 44.5% to 32.7% with DIBH. In 11 of the DIBH plans V20Gy was lower than 35%, in accordance with national guidelines, while none of the FB plans fulfilled this recommendation. Respiratory gated radiotherapy during DIBH is a suitable technique for loco-regional breast irradiation even when IMC lymph nodes are included in the PTV. Cardiopulmonary doses are considerably decreased for all dose levels without compromising the dose coverage to PTV.

  9. Dummy run of quality assurance program in a phase 3 randomized trial investigating the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation in breast cancer patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoonsun; Kim, Jun Won; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Park, Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Kyu Chan; Suh, Hyun Suk; Kim, Jin Hee; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-02-01

    The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoonsun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su Ssan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung-Ja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dong-A University Hospital, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Chan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Hyun Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bundang CHA Hospital, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae, E-mail: ybkim3@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of Sentinel Lymph Nodes That Drain the Tumoral Mammary Glands in Female Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe Stan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mammary gland tumours occupy a significant place in the pathology of this species. Female dogs that are not spayed after their first heat cycle have a higher predisposition of developing mammary tumours. Most tumours metastasize at distance via the lymphatic system. In these conditions, the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands must be assessed prior to surgical treatment. Aims: Considering the insufficient usage of non-invasive investigative methods of the sentinel lymph nodes, the aim of this study is to describe the sonographic anatomy of the lymph nodes that drain the mammary gland tumours in female dog. Materials and Methods: Twelve dog females presenting tumours of the cranial and caudal abdominal mammary glands (A1 and A2, inguinal mammary gland (I and cranial thoracic mammary gland (T1 were examined (group I. In addition, a control group composed of eight dog females was used (group II. The axillary and superficial inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using an algorithm composed of gray-scale ultrasound, Doppler technique, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS and real time elastography. Surgical excision of the sentinel lymph nodes was performed and samples for histopathological examination were taken. Results: The following ultrasonographic findings revealed on gray-scale examination were suspected for the metastatic infiltration: hypoechoic pattern, round shape, hillus absence and heterogenicity. Doppler technique showed an aberrant and mixed vascularisation of the lymph nodes, while the CEUS revealed incomplete enhancement of lymph nodes parenchyma. On real time elastography, the presence of blue areas in more than 50% from the lymph nodes parenchyma led us to conclude that the lymph node stiffness was caused by metastatic infiltration. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the metastatic infiltration in 97% of the examined lymph nodes. Conclusion: The algorithm composed of gray-scale ultrasound

  12. Pleural radio guide exploration of the internal mammary chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, R. del; Clavijo, J.C.; Garello, N.C.; Pierotti, E.; Castillo, S. del

    2003-01-01

    Sentinel node technique permits to observe the compromise axillary and the internal mammary chain. The patients were marked with Technetium 99 peritumoral. The ganglion state of the mammary chain provides information of the estate of the breast cancer [es

  13. Internal mammary recipient site breast cancer recurrence following delayed microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Wang, Susan; Erel, Ertan; Malata, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    The internal mammary vessels are a popular recipient site for microsurgical anastomoses of free flap breast reconstructions. We, however, observed 3 patients undergoing internal mammary vessel delayed free flap breast reconstruction that subsequently developed tumor recurrence at this site. We reviewed their characteristics to determine whether there was a correlation between delayed microsurgical reconstruction and local recurrence. A retrospective review of a single surgeon's delayed free flap breast reconstructions using the internal mammary vessels was conducted over a 7-year period to identify the time intervals between mastectomy and delayed breast reconstruction and between delayed breast reconstruction and recurrence. Three patients developed local recurrence at the site of the microvascular anastomoses following delayed breast reconstruction. All patients had been disease-free following mastectomy. The median time interval between mastectomy and delayed breast reconstruction was 28 months (range = 20-120 months) while that between delayed breast reconstruction and local recurrence was 7 months (range = 4-10 months). Two patients died from metastatic disease, 36 and 72 months following their local recurrence. One patient remains alive 44 months after reconstruction. Local tumor recurrence at the internal mammary vessel dissection site following delayed breast reconstruction raises the question whether these 2 events may be related. Specifically, could internal mammary vessel dissection undertaken for delayed microsurgical reconstruction predispose to recurrence in the internal mammary lymph nodes? Further research is needed to ascertain whether delayed breast reconstruction increases the risk of local recurrence in this patient group.

  14. Atherosclerosis and the internal mammary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 14 (9.3%) of whom had coexisting peripheral vascular disease, underwent bilateral internal mammary arteriography to study the incidence and extent of atherosclerosis in these vessels. Significant atherosclerosis of the internal mammary arteries (IMAs) was present in three patients (2%), of whom one had coexisting peripheral vascular disease. Lesions in the IMAs were found either proximally, close to the origin or distally, around the terminal bifurcation. Six of the 14 patients with peripheral vascular disease (4% of total subjects) had significant atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries. Atherosclerotic involvement of the IMA is very unusual and rarely interferes with the use of these vessels for coronary bypass. More common, however, is atherosclerosis of the subclavian arteries, a contraindication for IMA grafting if the lesion is proximal to the IMA origin. (orig.)

  15. Postmastectomy internal mammary nodal irradiation: a long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleknavičius, Eduardas; Atkočius, Vydmantas; Kuzmickienė, Irena; Steponavičienė, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) have been recognized as a potential site of regional breast cancer spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of internal mammary node radiotherapy (RT) to on clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. This cohort study included 588 patients with breast cancers located in the central and medial quadrants. IMN RT was applied to 320 patients and 268 patients did not receive it IMN RT. Inside the IMN RT group, 165 patients received external beam IMN irradiation (IMN-EB). Mastectomy combined with using Californium-252 neutron source implantation was applied to 155 patients (IMN-BT). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the influence of IMN RT on clinical outcome. Age, tumor size, lymph nodal status, adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy were assessed. IMN-EB resulted in a significant improvement of distant metastasis-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival (P=0.033, P=0.037 and P=0.011, respectively). The IMN-EB radiotherapy has a significant impact on event-free survival (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.91; P=0.043) and breast cancer-specific survival (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 45-0.91; P=0.013) in patients with moderate-risk (stage T1-2N1). There was no association between IMN RT and clinical outcomes of patients with high-risk disease (stage T3-4N2-3) in any of the study end points. The effects of IMN-EB radiotherapy on event-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival were benefit for women with moderate-risk breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Raloxifene inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Lian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of raloxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model expressing cytoplasmic ERα. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with raloxifene at 0, 18 and 27 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps. Results In vitro study demonstrated that the ERα in BJMC3879luc2 cells was smaller (between 50 and 64 kDa than the normal-sized ERα (66 kDa and showed cytoplasmic localization. A statistically significant but weak estradiol response was observed in this cell line. When BJMC3879luc2 tumors were implanted into mice, the ERα mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in males. In vitro studies showed that raloxifene induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase and a decrease in the cell population in the S-phase. In animal experiments, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in the raloxifene-treated groups. The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased in the 27 mg/kg group. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in the raloxifene-treated groups, whereas the levels of DNA synthesis were significantly decreased in these groups. No differences in microvessel density in tumors were observed between the control and raloxifene-treated groups. The numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells were significantly reduced in mammary tumors in the raloxifene-treated groups. The levels of ERα mRNA in mammary tumors tended to be decreased in the raloxifene-treated groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the antimetastatic activity of raloxifene in mammary cancer expressing cytoplasmic ERα may be a crucial finding with clinical applications and that raloxifene may be useful as an adjuvant therapy and for the chemoprevention of breast cancer development.

  17. Lymphoscintigraphic visualization of internal mammary nodes with subtumoral injection of radiocolloid in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Kenzo; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Inaji, Hideo; Koyama, Hiroki; Kasugai, Tsutomu; Wada, Akira; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether subtumoral injection of radiocolloid is useful for lymphoscintigraphic visualization of the internal mammary node and in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy of the axilla in breast cancer patients. The presence of retromammary lymphatics connecting to the axillary and internal mammary basins has been demonstrated by early anatomic studies. Thus, it is hypothesized that some lymph, especially that from the parenchyma under the tumor, may drain into both the axillary and internal mammary basins. Patients (n = 196) with T1-2, N0 breast cancer underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with radiocolloid (technetium 99m tin colloid) injection into various sites of the breast, followed by SLN biopsy using the combined method with blue dye. Patients were divided into four groups: group A (n = 41), peritumoral injection of both radiocolloid and blue dye; group B (n = 70), periareolar radiocolloid and peritumoral blue dye; group C (n = 45), intradermal radiocolloid and periareolar blue dye; and group D (n = 40), subtumoral radiocolloid and intradermal blue dye. A retrospective analysis of 1,297 breast cancer patients who underwent extended radical mastectomy with internal mammary node dissection was also conducted to determine the relationship between vertical tumor location (superficial or deep) and frequency of axillary and internal mammary node metastases. One patient (2%) in group A, 3 (4%) in group B, 0 (0%) in group C, and 15 (38%) in group D exhibited hot spots in the internal mammary region on lymphoscintigraphy (P basin was significantly lower in group D than in the other groups. In contrast, the mismatch rate (some SLNs were identified by radiocolloid and other SLNs were identified by blue dye, but no SLN was identified by both in the same patient) was significantly higher in group D than in the other groups. In patients treated with extended radical mastectomy, positivity of axillary and internal mammary metastases was significantly higher in

  18. Internal mammary intercostal perforators instead of the true internal mammary vessels as the recipient vessels for breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmar, Keith E; Prucz, Roni B; Manahan, Michele A; Magarakis, Michael; Rad, Ariel N; Rosson, Gedge D

    2011-01-01

    Free tissue transfer has become a mainstay in breast reconstruction, with the internal mammary system frequently used as the recipient vessels. Sacrificing the internal mammary artery, however, eliminates the potential to use this vessel as a coronary artery bypass conduit in the future and potentially increases recipient-site morbidity. The authors' goal was to evaluate the learning curve and effectiveness of their use of the internal mammary intercostal perforators for microsurgical breast reconstruction. The authors reviewed one surgeon's consecutive series of 100 abdominal adipocutaneous perforator flap breast reconstructions (72 patients) from July of 2005 through January of 2007. The internal mammary perforators were used as recipient vessels in 23 flaps, the traditional internal mammary vessels were used in 66, and the thoracodorsal vessels were used in 11. To see if there was a learning curve, flaps were analyzed in five consecutive cohorts of 20. A learning curve was shown: internal mammary perforators were used in 5 percent of the first cohort and 45 percent of flaps in the final cohort. Flap survival was 99 percent; the one failure occurred in a traditional internal mammary flap reconstruction. Small palpable areas of fat necrosis were observed in one internal mammary perforator flap (4.3 percent) and in five traditional internal mammary or thoracodorsal flaps (6.5 percent). In all the authors' cohorts, internal mammary perforator vessels were used safely without increasing the incidence of flap failure or fat necrosis seen with the traditional approach. The learning curve for this technique resulted in increased use of these internal mammary perforators, indicating that operator experience is critical.

  19. Multivariate statistical analysis of Raman spectra to distinguish normal, tumor, lymph nodes and mastitis in mouse mammary tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Freeman, D. C.; Naik, V. M.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra ( > 680) of normal mammary gland, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph node tissues from mice injected with 4T1 tumor cells have been recorded using 785 nm excitation laser. The state of the tissues was confirmed by standard pathological tests. The multivariate statistical analysis methods (principle component analysis and discriminant functional analysis) have been used to categorize the Raman spectra. The statistical algorithms based on the Raman spectral peak heights, clearly separated tissues into six distinct classes, including mastitis, which is clearly separated from normal and tumor. This study suggests that the Raman spectroscopy can possibly perform a real-time analysis of the human mammary tissues for the detection of cancer.

  20. Evolution of insulin-like growth factor-1, prostaglandin E2, and mitogenic activity of bovine mammary primary lymph during the dry period and lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Block, E; Turner, J; Woodward, T; Couture, Y; Petitclerc, D

    1996-10-01

    Four pregnant cows near the end of lactation were fitted with a catheter in a lymph duct afferent to the supramammary lymph node. Cows were dried off 3 d after surgery, and samples of lymph were collected daily from the day of surgery until 4 d postpartum. Samples of blood and mammary secretions were taken before and after drying off and at parturition. Concentrations of most metabolites were lower in lymph than in serum. Concentrations of IGF-I and prostaglandin E2 were not affected at drying off but decreased and increased, respectively, at parturition. All IGF-binding proteins that were present in serum were also present in lymph fluid, but the binding activity was lower. Mitogenic activities of lymph samples taken at various physiological stages were determined on mammary epithelial (MAC-T) and fibroblast cell lines. Lymph was mitogenic, but mitogenic activity was not related to physiological stages. The correlation was high between mitogenic activity of lymph on MAC-T cells and the content of prostaglandin E2 in lymph. Supplementation of lymph with additional prostaglandin E2 increased mitogenic activity, and neutralization of lymph by antibodies reduced mitogenic activity. Basal medium conditioned by the epithelial cell line contained 100 to 250 pg/ml of immunoassayable prostaglandin E2.

  1. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Presenting as a Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Suzuki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a pathological entity arising in the salivary glands first described by Skalova et al. [Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34: 599–608]. Here, we report the first case of MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site together with a brief review of the literature. Case Report: We present a 74-year-old male with a painless lump in his left neck. Based on the fine-needle aspiration cytological findings, a possible malignant tumor was suspected. No evidence of a primary lesion was observed using imaging modalities including positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The patient underwent an ipsilateral modified radical neck dissection. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the neoplastic cells were positive for S100 protein and GATA3. A rearrangement of the ETV6 gene was noted during fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the final histopathological diagnosis was MASC. Conclusion: We encountered a MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site. No adjuvant therapy was administered, and no local recurrence or metastatic disease has been detected during a follow-up period of 9 months. This is the first case report of MASC presenting as a cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary site and suggests the new properties of MASC.

  2. Incidental Internal Mammary Nodes during Recipient Vessel Dissection in Breast Reconstruction: Are They Significant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Grant, MD, FRCSC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Internal mammary (IM lymph nodes may be exposed during recipient vessel preparation in free-flap breast reconstruction, and in rare cases, positivity of these nodes may affect treatment in patients with breast cancer. This systematic review examines the incidence and significance of IM nodes identified by plastic surgeons. Eligibility criteria included free-flap breast reconstruction with concurrent IM node biopsy. Data were analyzed for incidence of IM node biopsy and nodal positivity. Ten studies met inclusion criteria, with a total of 2055 patients and 717 nodes submitted to pathology. Incidence of IM positivity ranged approximately from 1% to 11%, for a calculated gross overall incidence of 2.9%. Of 59 patients with a positive IM node, 50 patients received additional adjuvant therapy, with insufficient data to determine the effect of treatment on survival.

  3. Internal mammary artery aneurysm in Marfan syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common, A.A.; Pressacco, J.; Wilson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Marfan syndrome has a pleomorphic phenotype. Those affected have abnormalities in the eyes and in the nervous, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Among these abnormalities are many reported aneurysms, involving the ascending, descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, the sinus of Valsalva, and the internal carotid artery. We report a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome and no other known predisposition to such an aneurysm. No other case of LIMA aneurysm in Marfan syndrome has, to our knowledge, been reported. (author)

  4. Internal mammary artery aneurysm in Marfan syndrome: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, A.A.; Pressacco, J.; Wilson, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Mecial Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    Marfan syndrome has a pleomorphic phenotype. Those affected have abnormalities in the eyes and in the nervous, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Among these abnormalities are many reported aneurysms, involving the ascending, descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, the sinus of Valsalva, and the internal carotid artery. We report a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome and no other known predisposition to such an aneurysm. No other case of LIMA aneurysm in Marfan syndrome has, to our knowledge, been reported. (author)

  5. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hunt, Katie N. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Lindsay C.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.

  6. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Hunt, Katie N; Brown, Lindsay C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Boughey, Judy C; Mutter, Robert W

    2017-03-15

    The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Clinical Anatomic Study of Internal Mammary Perforators as Recipient Vessels for Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, In-Soo; You, Jae-Pil; Rhee, Sung-Mi; Son, Gil-Su; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Park, Seung-Ha; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background Partially resecting ribs of the recipient site to facilitate easy anastomosis of the internal mammary vessels to free flaps during breast reconstruction can cause chest wall pain or deformities. To avoid this, the intercostal perforating branches of the internal mammary vessels can be used for anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels based on clinical intraoperative findings and to determine their rel...

  8. Molecular portrait-based correlation between primary canine mammary tumor and its lymph node metastasis: possible prognostic-predictive models and/or stronghold for specific treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beha Germana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the molecular phenotype of the primary mammary tumor and its related lymph node metastasis in the dog to develop prognostic-predictive models and targeted therapeutic options. Results Twenty mammary tumor samples and their lymph node metastases were selected and stained by immunohistochemistry with anti-estrogen receptor (ER, -progesterone receptor (PR, -human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erbB-2, -cytokeratin 5/6 (CK 5/6, -cytokeratin 14 (CK14, -cytokeratin 19 (CK 19 and -protein 63 (p63 antibodies. Four phenotypes (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB2 overexpressing and basal-like were diagnosed in primary tumors and five (luminal A, luminal B, c-erbB-2 overexpressing, basal-like and normal-like in the lymph node metastases. Phenotypic concordance was found in 13 of the 20 cases (65%, and seven cases (35% showed discordance with different lymph node phenotypic profile from the primary tumor. Conclusions The phenotype of the primary tumor assumes a predictive-therapeutic role only in concordant cases, meaning that both the primary tumor and its lymph node metastasis should be evaluated at the same time. A treatment plan based only on the primary tumor phenotype could lead to therapeutic failures if the phenotype of the lymph node metastasis differs from that of the primary tumor.

  9. Internal mammarial lymphoscintigraphy with SPECT after ultrasound-guided injection of 99mTc-dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, M.; Ercan, M.T.; Bekdik, C.F.; Alanyali, H.; Akhan, O.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-two women with stage II or III breast cancer were evaluated by SPECT to determine the number, size, three-dimensional localization and depth from skin surface of the internal mammary lymph nodes for accurate radiotherapy portal planning. The results were also compared with those of planar imaging (PI). Two-step injections of 99m Tc-dextran were made under ultrasound guidance into the anterior sheath of the M. rectus abdominis first at the ablation side. 1.5 h thereafter an anterior planar view was obtained to evaluate cross drainage (13.6% was observed). Then, the second injection was done at the opposite side in the same manner. Planar and tomographic images were obtained 1.5 h after the second injection. Similar values were obtained for the depth from skin surface, distance from the midline and diameter of the lymph nodes with both PI and SPECT. The total number of nodes in 22 patients detected by SPECT was higher (138) than that from PI (129), the difference being statistically significant (0.005 > p > 0.0005). (orig.) [de

  10. A Novel Technique of Preserving Internal Mammary Artery Perforators in Nipple Sparing Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Swistel, Alexander; Small, Kevin; Dent, Briar; Cohen, Oriana; Devgan, Lara; Talmor, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Summary: As nipple-sparing mastectomy with implant-based reconstruction has increased, attention must be paid to the viability of the nipple-areolar complex. This article describes the use of preoperative Doppler ultrasound to identify the internal mammary artery perforators. Preserving the internal mammary artery improves vascular supply to the nipple-areolar complex.

  11. A Novel Technique of Preserving Internal Mammary Artery Perforators in Nipple Sparing Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swistel, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: As nipple-sparing mastectomy with implant-based reconstruction has increased, attention must be paid to the viability of the nipple-areolar complex. This article describes the use of preoperative Doppler ultrasound to identify the internal mammary artery perforators. Preserving the internal mammary artery improves vascular supply to the nipple-areolar complex.

  12. Quality assurance of EORTC trial 22922/10925 investigating the role of internal mammary--medial supraclavicular irradiation in stage I-III breast cancer: the individual case review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortmans, P.; Kouloulias, V. E.; Venselaar, J. L.; Struikmans, H.; Davis, J. B.; Huyskens, D.; van Tienhoven, G.; Hurkmans, C.; Mijnheer, B.; van den Bogaert, W.

    2003-01-01

    To assess consistency among participants in an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase III trial randomising between irradiation and no irradiation of the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular (IM-MS) lymph nodes, all participating institutes were invited to

  13. Staged Management of a Ruptured Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Young Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of an internal mammary artery (IMA aneurysm in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1 is a rare but life-threatening complication requiring emergency management. A 50-year-old man with NF-1 was transferred to the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital, where an IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were diagnosed and drained. The IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were successfully repaired by staged management combining endovascular treatment and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. The patient required cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, the staged management of coil embolization, and a subsequent VATS procedure. This staged approach may be an effective therapeutic strategy in cases of IMA aneurysmal rupture.

  14. 78. Coronary bypass using bilateral internal mammary arteries in an achondroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdulwahab Alassal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary bypass grafting for ischemic heart disease in achondroplastic dwarfs is very rare. Shortage of veins and sometimes, inadequate vein quality can cause difficulties during surgery. Only two achondroplastic cases were reported in literature that underwent coronary bypass surgery, in which the left internal mammary artery and vein grafts were used. To the best of our knowledge using bilateral internal mammary arteries in such patients was not reported. We report here a 55 years old male achondroplastic dwarf who had triple vessels coronary disease that underwent successful coronary bypass surgery using bilateral mammary arteries. Anatomic and surgical challenges in achondroplasia are highlighted

  15. Salvage of a TRAM breast reconstruction flap using the retrograde internal mammary artery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameena Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free tissue transfer provides an optimal means for breast reconstruction in creating an aesthetically natural appearance that is durable over time. The choice of donor vessels vary from surgeon to surgeon, but the internal mammary axis is one of the most popular choices together with the thoracodorsal vessels. Aims and Results: We present the case of a salvaged free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous breast reconstruction in which end-to-end antegrade anastomosis to the internal mammary artery (IMA was not possible due to frail vessel walls, but retrograde anastomosis to the IMA and antegrade anastomosis of internal mammary vessel resulted in a perfused and viable flap. Conclusion: We suggest the use of the retrograde internal mammary arterial system for microsurgical anastomosis when the anterograde flow is not adequate, the vessel wall is friable, and when other more common options are not available.

  16. Demystifying the use of internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels in free flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eric I; Chang, Edward I; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Nosrati, Naveed; Robb, Geoffrey L; Chang, David W

    2013-10-01

    The internal mammary vessels are commonly used as primary recipient vessels for free flap breast reconstruction. However, there is debate about the reliability of the left internal mammary vein. The authors explored the anatomy of the internal mammary vessels as revealed during free flap breast reconstruction to determine whether microvascular complications differed between the left and right sides. All free flap breast reconstructions performed using internal mammary recipient vessels at the authors' institution between January of 2000 and December of 2010 were reviewed. The authors compared left and right breast reconstructions for internal mammary vessel diameters and microvascular complications, pedicle thrombosis, and total flap losses. Overall, 1773 free flap breast reconstructions were performed in 1336 patients using the internal mammary vessels: 899 unilateral and 437 bilateral. The left side was used in 904 cases and the right side in 869 cases. Although the mean sizes of the left and right internal mammary arteries (2.44 and 2.47 mm, respectively) did not differ significantly, the left vein was significantly smaller than the right vein (2.47 mm versus 2.93 mm; p = 0.038). The overall rate of venous thrombosis was significantly higher on the left than on the right (3.0 percent versus 2.3 percent; p = 0.028). The rates of flap loss in left and right breast reconstructions did not differ significantly (1.9 percent versus 2.2 percent). Although the left internal mammary vein is smaller than the right and is at higher risk for venous complications, it remains an acceptable recipient vessel for free flap breast reconstruction. Therapeutic, III.

  17. Short-Term Effects of Radiotherapy Postquadrantectomy on Internal Mammary Artery and Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubino, Mario; Scamoni, Stefano; Taibi, Dominic; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Izzo, Matteo; Valdatta, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    When a tumor local recurrence occurs a possible approach can be a mastectomy with simultaneous breast reconstruction with autologous tissue. The area involved by tangential radiation portals includes also the internal mammary artery and veins, considered by the most part of plastic surgeons to be the best recipient vessels for a free flap in breast reconstruction. Internal mammary vessels receives low but not necessary insignificant doses during whole breast irradiation; arteries and veins ar...

  18. Internal Mammary Recipient Site Breast Cancer Recurrence Following Delayed Microvascular Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Wang, Susan; Erel, Ertan; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The internal mammary vessels are a popular recipient site for microsurgical anastomoses of free flap breast reconstructions. We, however, observed 3 patients undergoing internal mammary vessel delayed free flap breast reconstruction that subsequently developed tumor recurrence at this site. We reviewed their characteristics to determine whether there was a correlation between delayed microsurgical reconstruction and local recurrence. Methods: A retrospective review of a single surg...

  19. A Clinical Anatomic Study of Internal Mammary Perforators as Recipient Vessels for Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Soo Baek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPartially resecting ribs of the recipient site to facilitate easy anastomosis of the internal mammary vessels to free flaps during breast reconstruction can cause chest wall pain or deformities. To avoid this, the intercostal perforating branches of the internal mammary vessels can be used for anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels based on clinical intraoperative findings and to determine their reliability as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction with microsurgical free tissue transfer.MethodsTwelve patients were preoperatively screened for the presence of internal mammary perforators using Doppler tracing. After modified radical mastectomy was performed by a general surgeon, the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels were microscopically investigated. The external diameter was examined using a vessel-measuring gauge from a mechanical coupling device, and the distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was also measured.ResultsThe largest arterial perforator averaged 1.5 mm, and the largest venous perforator averaged 2.2 mm. Perforators emerging from the second intercostal space had the largest average external diameter; the second intercostal space also had the largest number of perforators arising from it. The average distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was 20.2 mm.ConclusionsInternal mammary perforators presented consistent and reliable anatomy in this study. Based on these results, the internal mammary perforators appear to have a suitable diameter for microvascular anastomosis and should be considered as an alternative recipient vessel to the internal mammary vessel.

  20. Bilateral internal mammary artery grafting: rationale and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davierwala, Piroze M; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2015-04-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains the preferred mode of revascularization in patients with complex multi-vessel coronary artery disease. The left internal mammary artery (IMA) and saphenous vein are the most commonly utilized conduits in CABG surgery and are still considered to be the gold standard by most surgeons. However, there is emerging evidence that use of bilateral IMAs is associated with significantly better long-term outcomes and the benefit increases with time from surgery. In spite of this incremental beneficiary effect, most surgeons are reluctant to use both IMAs, because it is technically more demanding, time-consuming and is associated with marginally higher sternal wound infection rates. This review highlights the histological features, physiological characteristics and genomics of IMAs that provide the basis for the use of these vessels during CABG surgery. Additionally, the superiority of the bilateral IMAs with regard to patency and long-term outcomes is also discussed in detail. Furthermore, the safety of using bilateral IMAs with regard to early postoperative outcomes with special reference to deep sternal wound infections has been addressed. The present review provides enough evidence to convince more surgeons about the advantages of bilateral IMA grafting. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of mammary lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative radioguided gamma probe in sentinel lymph node biopsy of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Yu Sa [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node is defined as the first draining node from a primary tumor and reflects the histologic feature of the remainder of the lymphatic basin status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative radioguided gamma probe for identification and removal of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed preoperatively in 15 patients with biopsy proven primary breast cancer. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid was injected intradermally at four points around the tumor. Imaging acquisition included dynamic imaging, followed by early and late static images at 2 hours. The sentinel lymph node criteria on lymphoscintigraphy is the first node of the highest uptake in early and late static images. We tagged the node emitting the highest activity both n vivo an ex vivo. Histologic study for sentinel and axillary lymph node investigation was done by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. On lymphoscintigraphy, three of 15 patients had clear lymphatic vessels in dynamic images, and 11 of 15 patients showed sentinel lymph node in early static image and three in late static 2 hours image. Mean detection time of sentinel lymph node on lynphoscintigraphy was 33.5{+-}48.4 minutes. The sentinel lymph node localization and removal by lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe were successful in 14 of 15 patients (detection rate: 93.3%). On lymphoscintigraphy, 14 of 15 patients showed 2.47{+-}2.00 sentinel lymph nodes. On intraoperative gamma probe, 2.36{+-}1.96 sentinel lymph nodes were detected. In 7 patients with positive results of sentinel lymph node metastasis, 5 patients showed positive results of axillary lymph node (sensitivity: 72%) but two did not . In 7 patients with negative results of sentinel lymph node metastasis, all axillary nodes were free of disease (specificity: 100%). Sentinel lymph node biopsy with lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe is a reliable method to predict

  2. Clinical application of the internal mammary artery perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Benny T; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Feng, Guan-Ming; Jeng, Seng-Feng

    2013-04-01

    The skin texture of the internal mammary artery perforator flap closely resembles that in the face and neck, making it the perfect source of tissue for head and neck reconstruction. In this article, the authors describe their experience in recent application of this flap in head and neck reconstruction and evaluate its pros and cons. A total of 15 patients (three women and 12 men) with a mean age of 58.6 years received an internal mammary artery perforator flap for head and neck defect repair from April of 2007 to August of 2011. There were 11 internal mammary artery perforator pedicle flaps and four internal mammary artery perforator free flaps. Flap size ranged from 5 × 3 cm to 15 × 8 cm, pedicle length ranged from 3 to 6 cm, and 14 of 15 flaps (93.3 percent) had a sizable perforator identified during dissection. In the female patient who had no sizable perforator, the originally intended free flap was transformed to a platysma myocutaneous flap, which served as a backup procedure, extending from the same surgical incision. All of the transfers were successful. The donor sites were closed primarily in all patients except one, who received a split-thickness skin graft for a 15 × 8-cm donor defect. With excellent skin color and tissue texture matching and minimal donor-site morbidity, the internal mammary artery perforator flap is emerging as a potential alternative reconstructive tool for the head and neck region.

  3. Usability of the internal mammary recipient vessels in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Anne C; Hayward, Victoria; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2016-07-01

    Although the internal mammary vessels are, for many surgeons, the recipient vessels of choice in microvascular breast reconstruction, there continues to be some debate regarding their use. The reliability of these vessels, particularly the vein, has been called into question, with high rates of conversion to alternative vessels being reported. This study investigates the true usability rate of the internal mammary vessels in a large series of consecutive patients without preselection. A review of all patients who underwent microvascular breast reconstruction at the University Health Network between September 2007 and December 2013 was conducted, and the conversion rate to alternative vessels was determined. A total of 759 microvascular breast reconstructions were performed in 515 patients. The internal mammary vessels were explored in all cases and found to be suitable for anastomosis in 756 of 759 reconstructions. Conversion to the thoracodorsal vessels was required in three reconstructions (0.4%) due to unusable internal mammary arteries. There was no significant increase in unusable vessels with timing or laterality of reconstruction or other factors such as smoking, vascular co-morbidities and adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Total flap failure occurred in four reconstructions (0.5%), whereas partial flap loss occurred in five (0.6%). The internal mammary vessels can be safely and reliably used in almost all patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction with low rates of microvascular complications. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DIFFERENCES IN VASOMOTOR CONTROL BETWEEN HUMAN GASTROEPIPLOIC AND LEFT INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUIKEMA, H; GRANDJEAN, JG; VANDENBROEK, S; VANGILST, WH; LIE, KI; WESSELING, H

    1992-01-01

    Background. Internal mammary artery grafts have a greater long-term patency rate than do saphenous vein grafts. This has in part been attributed to the difference in endothelial function of arterial and venous vessels. The use of the gastroepiploic artery in coronary artery bypass grafting has

  5. Congenital arteriovenous fistula between the internal mammary artery and the pulmonary artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. van Meurs-van Woezik

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThis is the fourth reported case of congenital arteriovenous fistula between the internal mammary artery and pulmonary artery. Precise and complete diagnostic evaluation is required to localize, delineate and appreciate the haemodynamic significance of this type of arteriovenous shunt. A

  6. Feasibility of internal mammary vessel use in breast reconstruction versus coronary artery bypass surgery: an anatomic, cadaveric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer-Bayramoglu, Rebecca J; Chu, Michael W A; Fortin, Amanda J

    2011-05-01

    Autologous free flap breast reconstruction using the internal mammary artery is common; however, its use may compromise treatment of occult coronary artery disease. The authors investigated whether internal mammary artery harvest for breast reconstruction is compatible with future use for coronary bypass. An anatomic analysis of 10 preserved female cadavers was performed. Internal mammary artery measurements, including the length from its origin to the third, fourth, and fifth intercostal spaces, were taken, and the minimum length required to reach the left anterior descending coronary artery was determined. The left internal mammary artery reached the left anterior descending target at a mean length of 10.0 cm. The mean lengths to the left third, fourth, and fifth intercostal spaces were 8.2 cm, 11.3 cm, and 13.7 cm, respectively, on the left, and 7.6 cm, 10.7 cm, and 13.2 cm, respectively, on the right. The right internal mammary artery reached the left anterior descending target at a mean of 12.0 cm. The left internal mammary artery was found to reach the estimated coronary target by the level of the fourth intercostal space consistently, while the right was more variable and required a greater length. If the fourth intercostal space was used to harvest the internal mammary artery, the length necessary for in situ coronary bypass surgery is preserved on the left, and may still be used as a free graft on the right.

  7. Urachal Carcinoma with Choroidal, Lung, Lymph Node, Adrenal, Mammary, and Bone Metastases and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Showing Partial Response after Chemotherapy Treatment with a Modified Docetaxel, Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Dekeister

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma (UC is a rare tumor mainly affecting middle-aged males. Metastases occur most frequently in lymph nodes and the lungs. There are no standard adjuvant and metastatic treatments. We report the case of a 36-year-old female with UC treated with partial cystectomy who relapsed 3 years after surgery with left choroidal, lung, mediastinal lymph node, right adrenal, mammary, and bone metastases as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. She obtained a partial response after 10 cycles of chemotherapy with a modified docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (mTPF regimen. This is the first report on the use of the mTPF regimen in UC and on the existence of choroidal, adrenal, and mammary metastases.

  8. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Dae Wook; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Lee, Tae Hong; Moon, Tae Yong; Chung, Sung Woon

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of an acute hemothorax caused by a rupture of a left internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm in a 45-year-old woman with a type I neurofibromatosis, which was successfully treated using endovascular coil embolization

  9. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax in a patient with type I neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Dae Wook; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Lee, Tae Hong; Moon, Tae Yong; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We report a case of an acute hemothorax caused by a rupture of a left internal mammary artery pseudoaneurysm in a 45-year-old woman with a type I neurofibromatosis, which was successfully treated using endovascular coil embolization.

  10. An Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Internal Mammary Artery and the Pulmonary Vein Following Blunt Chest Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Norio, Hirofumi; Kaji, Tatsumi; Okada, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    A 67-year-old man suffered a traffic accident and was transferred to an emergency hospital close to the scene. He was diagnosed to have bilateral pneumohemothorax with a lung contusion, an anterior fracture dislocation of the C6-vertebra and a cervical cord injury at the level of C7. On the 48th day, massive hemoptysis was suddenly recognized. He was transferred in a state of shock to our hospital to undergo hemostasis for the bleeding. On the day of admission, a selective arteriogram showed extravasation from the left bronchial artery, for which embolization was carried out using Gelfoam. In spite of this treatment, his hemoptysis continued. On the next day, a selective left internal mammary arteriogram showed an arteriovenous fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the left pulmonary vein without any apparent extravasation. The arteriovenous fistula was successfully embolized using platinum fiber coils. The patient no longer demonstrated any hemoptysis after embolization

  11. Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Flap for Immediate Volume Replacement Following Wide Local Excision of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine A. van Huizum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving therapy is defined as a breast-conserving wide local excision (WLE of a mammary tumour combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Immediate restoration of the mammary shape by use of breast reduction techniques (volume displacement or tissue replacement techniques (volume replacement is gaining popularity to prevent breast malformation. Methods To date, using the internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP flap has been suggested for immediate volume replacement after WLE, but has never been evaluated in a published study. Results We applied this flap in 12 women (mean age, 56.1 years after WLE (mean specimen weight, 46.5 g of the medial aspect of the breast. Over a median follow-up of 35.3 months (standard deviation, 1.2 months, 4 women needed repeated surgery for dog-ear correction of the donor site. Conclusions In our experience, the use of an IMAP flap was a reliable technique with good cosmetic outcomes after oncoplastic reconstruction. In this series, donor site revision often proved necessary initially, but we showed that this may easily be prevented.

  12. Internal mammary lymph node recurrence: rare but characteristic metastasis site in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Gu, Yajia; Leaw, Shiangjiin; Wang, Zhonghua; Wang, Peihua; Hu, Xichun; Chen, Jiayi; Lu, Jingsong; Shao, Zhimin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of IMLN recurrence, its associated risk factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and its predicting factors on overall survival time. 133 cases of breast cancer IMLN recurrence were identified via the computerized CT reporting system between February 2003 and June 2008, during which chest CT for patients with breast cancer (n = 8867) were performed consecutively at Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Patients' charts were retrieved and patients' characteristics, disease characteristics, and treatments after recurrence were collected for analysis. The frequency was 1.5% (133/8867). IMLN recurrence was presented as the first metastatic site in 121 (91%) patients while 88 (66.2%) had other concurrent metastases. Typical chest CT images included swelling of the IMLN at the ipsilateral side with local lump and sternal erosion located mostly between the second and third intercostal space. The median disease-free interval (DFI) of IMLN recurrence was 38 months. The independent factors that could delay the IMLN recurrence were small tumor size (HR 0.5 95%CI: 0.4 - 0.8; p = 0.002), and positive ER/PR disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.006). The median survival time after IMLN recurrence was 42 months, with a 5-year survival rate of 30%. Univariate analysis showed four variables significantly influenced the survival time: DFI of IMLN recurrence (p = 0.001), no concurrent distant metastasis (p = 0.024), endocrine therapy for patients with positive ER/PR (p = 0.000), radiotherapy (p = 0.040). The independent factors that reduced the death risk were no concurrent distant metastases (HR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.031), endocrine therapy for patients with positive ER/PR status (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.5; p = 0.001) and palliative radiotherapy (HR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1- 0.9; p = 0.026). The risk of IMLN recurrence is low and there are certain characteristics features on CT images. ER/PR status is both a risk factor for DFI of IMLN recurrence and a prognostic factor for overall survival after IMLN recurrence. Patients with only IMLN recurrence and/or local lesion have a good prognosis

  13. Tertiary breast reconstruction using a free contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and contralateral internal mammary recipient vessel anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Satake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary breast reconstruction after a failed autologous procedure is often performed under various restrictions, posing considerable problems not only in the choice of alternative free flap but also in that of recipient vessels. This is a case report of a free contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with a silicone gel implant, with flap pedicle anastomosis to the contralateral internal mammary recipient vessels in a 46-year-old woman with right breast deformity. She underwent a right modified radical mastectomy and failed attempts of reconstruction at another hospital. The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap had already been harvested for the failed reconstruction and high-level interruptions of the internal mammary, thoracodorsal, and thoracoacromial vessels were revealed on preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography angiography; therefore, we selected a contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap to supply the lower pole skin along with a silicone gel implant for volume in this tertiary breast reconstruction. However, weak blood flow in the ipsilateral internal mammary artery and exhaustion of all recipient ipsilateral vessels in previous attempts to salvage the failing deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap necessitated the use of the contralateral internal mammary recipient vessels. A contralateral latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with contralateral internal mammary recipient vessel anastomosis appears to be a viable option in complicated cases with unavailable deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap or ipsilateral recipient vessels.

  14. Concomitant aortic valve and internal mammary artery injuries in blunt chest trauma: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Chun; Chung, Ping-Kuei; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of concomitant injury to the aortic valve and internal mammary artery (IMA) from nonpenetrating chest trauma. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) following diagnostic angiography offers an effective and minimally invasive treatment for traumatic IMA injuries. Because there might be an asymptomatic interval after traumatic aortic valve injuries, serial physical examinations and repeated echocardiography should be mandatory for patients with de novo heart failure after blunt chest trauma. Transesophageal echocardiography can provide a clearer image of cardiac injuries than transthoracic echocardiography, particularly if there is extensive anterior mediastinal hematoma resulting from IMA trauma.

  15. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  16. Role of Internal Mammary Node Radiation as a Part of Modern Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vivek; Vicini, Frank; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Khan, Atif J.; Wobb, Jessica; Edwards-Bennett, Sophia; Desai, Anand; Shah, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite data from multiple randomized trials, the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation as a part of regional nodal irradiation (IMLN RT–RNI) remains unanswered. Recent noteworthy data and modern RT techniques might identify a subset of patients who will benefit from IMLN RT–RNI, lending insight into the balance between improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity. We evaluated the current role of IMLN RT–RNI by analyzing randomized, prospective, and retrospective data. Methods and Materials: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a review of the published data was performed using PubMed to evaluate published studies from 1994 to 2015. The information evaluated included the number of patients, follow-up period, technical aspects of RT, and outcomes (clinical outcomes, complications/toxicity). Results: We included 16 studies (4 randomized, 4 nonrandomized, 7 retrospective, and 1 meta-analysis). Although older randomized trials failed to show differences in clinical outcomes or toxicity with IMLN RT–RNI, recent randomized data suggest the potential for improved outcomes, including overall survival, with IMLN RT–RNI. Furthermore, nonrandomized data have suggested a potential benefit for central tumors with IMLN RT–RNI. Although recent data have suggested a potential increase in pulmonary complications with IMLN RT–RNI with the use of advanced radiation techniques, toxicity rates remain low with limited cardiac toxicity data available. Conclusions: Increasing data from recent randomized trials support the use of IMLN RT–RNI. IMLN RT can be considered based on the inclusion of IMLN RT as a part of RNI in recent trials and the inclusion criteria from IMLN RT–RNI trials and for patients with central or medial tumors and axillary disease.

  17. Role of Internal Mammary Node Radiation as a Part of Modern Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Vicini, Frank; Tendulkar, Rahul D; Khan, Atif J; Wobb, Jessica; Edwards-Bennett, Sophia; Desai, Anand; Shah, Chirag

    2016-06-01

    Despite data from multiple randomized trials, the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation as a part of regional nodal irradiation (IMLN RT-RNI) remains unanswered. Recent noteworthy data and modern RT techniques might identify a subset of patients who will benefit from IMLN RT-RNI, lending insight into the balance between improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity. We evaluated the current role of IMLN RT-RNI by analyzing randomized, prospective, and retrospective data. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a review of the published data was performed using PubMed to evaluate published studies from 1994 to 2015. The information evaluated included the number of patients, follow-up period, technical aspects of RT, and outcomes (clinical outcomes, complications/toxicity). We included 16 studies (4 randomized, 4 nonrandomized, 7 retrospective, and 1 meta-analysis). Although older randomized trials failed to show differences in clinical outcomes or toxicity with IMLN RT-RNI, recent randomized data suggest the potential for improved outcomes, including overall survival, with IMLN RT-RNI. Furthermore, nonrandomized data have suggested a potential benefit for central tumors with IMLN RT-RNI. Although recent data have suggested a potential increase in pulmonary complications with IMLN RT-RNI with the use of advanced radiation techniques, toxicity rates remain low with limited cardiac toxicity data available. Increasing data from recent randomized trials support the use of IMLN RT-RNI. IMLN RT can be considered based on the inclusion of IMLN RT as a part of RNI in recent trials and the inclusion criteria from IMLN RT-RNI trials and for patients with central or medial tumors and axillary disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Internal Mammary Node Radiation as a Part of Modern Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Khan, Atif J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Wobb, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Edwards-Bennett, Sophia [21st Century Oncology, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (United States); Desai, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, Summa Health System, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shah, Chirag, E-mail: csshah27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Despite data from multiple randomized trials, the role of internal mammary lymph node irradiation as a part of regional nodal irradiation (IMLN RT–RNI) remains unanswered. Recent noteworthy data and modern RT techniques might identify a subset of patients who will benefit from IMLN RT–RNI, lending insight into the balance between improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity. We evaluated the current role of IMLN RT–RNI by analyzing randomized, prospective, and retrospective data. Methods and Materials: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a review of the published data was performed using PubMed to evaluate published studies from 1994 to 2015. The information evaluated included the number of patients, follow-up period, technical aspects of RT, and outcomes (clinical outcomes, complications/toxicity). Results: We included 16 studies (4 randomized, 4 nonrandomized, 7 retrospective, and 1 meta-analysis). Although older randomized trials failed to show differences in clinical outcomes or toxicity with IMLN RT–RNI, recent randomized data suggest the potential for improved outcomes, including overall survival, with IMLN RT–RNI. Furthermore, nonrandomized data have suggested a potential benefit for central tumors with IMLN RT–RNI. Although recent data have suggested a potential increase in pulmonary complications with IMLN RT–RNI with the use of advanced radiation techniques, toxicity rates remain low with limited cardiac toxicity data available. Conclusions: Increasing data from recent randomized trials support the use of IMLN RT–RNI. IMLN RT can be considered based on the inclusion of IMLN RT as a part of RNI in recent trials and the inclusion criteria from IMLN RT–RNI trials and for patients with central or medial tumors and axillary disease.

  19. [Rib-sparing technique for internal mammary vessels exposure and anastomosis in breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric perforator flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ang; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Zhifei; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hailin; Bai, Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    To explore the feasibility and reliability of rib-sparing technique for internal mammary vessels exposure and anastomosis in breast reconstruction and thoracic wall repair with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. Between November 2009 and September 2011, 11 female patients with post-mastectomy deformities were treated. The mean age was 42 years (range, 33-65 years). Of them, 10 patients underwent breast reconstruction with the DIEP flaps, and 1 patient received defect repair for chronic thoracic wall irradiated ulcer with the DIEP flap. The size of the flap ranged from 18 cm x 9 cm to 28 cm x 12 cm. Rib-sparing technique was applied in all these cases. The internal mammary vessels were exposed by dissection intercostal space and anastomosed with the deep inferior epigastric vessels. The donor sites were closed directly in all cases. In all cases, the rib-sparing technique for internal mammary vessels exposure and anastomosis was successfully performed. The mean time for internal mammary vessels exposure was 52 minutes (range, 38-65 minutes). The mean exposure length of the internal mammary vessels was 1.7 cm (range, 1.3-2.2 cm). All flaps survived completely postoperatively, and wounds and incisions at donor sites healed primarily. All patients were followed up 8-26 months (mean, 12 months). All patients were satisfied with the reconstructive outcomes. No collapse deformity or discomfort of the thoracic wall occurred. The rib-sparing technique for internal mammary vessels exposure and anastomosis is a reliable and reproducible approach to reconstruct the breast and repair the thoracic wall with DIEP flap, and it can reduce collapse deformity of the thoracic wall.

  20. Barriers to the universal adoption of bilateral internal mammary artery grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Jeremiah; Jeyakumar, Panch; Umakanthan, Branavan; Jeyakumar, Nikeshan; Senthilkumar, Nadarajah; Saraswathy, Mathioli R; Umakanthan, Padminidevi; Umakanthan, Janani; Sial, Tamoor; Abrina, Sofia; Buendia, Frances M; Pan, Irene; Kamath, Ramadas K; Pathmarajah, Canagaratnam; Sivalingam, Kanagaratnam; Nathan, Shan A; Sunder, Shun K; Mahendra, Tom; Umakanthan, Ramanan

    2015-04-01

    The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft is considered the "gold standard" of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This conduit provides increased survival, symptomatic relief, increased freedom from myocardial infarction, and increased freedom from re-intervention when compared to saphenous venous grafting. It has a remarkable long term patency rate with clinical and angiographic outcomes that are unmatched by other conduits. Given the fact that patients often require more than one graft during a coronary revascularization procedure, the prospect of bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafting has been very appealing to some surgeons. BIMA grafting has been extensively studied via multiple retrospective and prospective cohort studies and findings have indicated that BIMA grafting can have an increased survival benefit when compared to LIMA grafting alone. As a result, this technique has accrued increasing popularity over the course of the last decade. Yet, questions still remain on whether BIMA grafting is the optimal treatment modality for patients in terms of long-term prognosis. There is limited data at the present time from randomized controlled trials and only 4-12% of CABGs performed today utilize BIMA grafting. Concerns regarding perioperative complications, which patient subsets are at higher risks for complications from the technique, and the technical challenges involved in utilizing and teaching the technique have limited its widespread use. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Internal mammary artery and vein as recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Adam S; Smith, Mark; Urken, Mark L

    2013-06-01

    Free-tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction has evolved since the mid-1950s. A variety of different recipient arteries and veins have been described for use in head and neck reconstruction. In our experience, the internal mammary artery (IMA) and internal mammary vein (IMV) have become increasingly important for achieving successful microvascular reconstruction. To illustrate the efficacy of the IMA and IMV recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction, highlighting the different techniques used to harvest these vessels and outline decision making when approaching a neck where commonly used vessels are unavailable. Retrospective medical record review. Outpatient clinic setting. All free-tissue transfers performed between 2005 and 2011. All patients in whom the IMA or IMV recipient vessels were used were included. Twelve cases were performed with IMA and IMV harvest. Donor site, flap used, recipient artery and vein, success of transfer, flap survival, and presence of donor site complications. The IMA and IMV were harvested in 12 patients, with 11 successful free-tissue transfers. In 1 patient, the vessels were unusable, and a regional tissue transfer was performed. The IMA and IMV are excellent recipient vessels for use in head and neck reconstruction and should be considered for use in challenging reconstructive cases.

  2. Administration of probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy and lactation changes mouse mesenteric lymph nodes and mammary gland microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I

    2015-04-01

    The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1 × 10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that

  3. Multi-slice spiral CT of aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses: Assessment of bypasses and their anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, S.; Wagner, M.; Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Coblenz, G.; Brunn, J.; Mueller, M.; Kerber, S.; Urbanski, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses by means of EKG-triggered contrast-enhanced multi-slice spiral CT, and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this new imaging modality. Material and methods: 59 patients with up to 5 aortocoronary grafts and/or internal mammary artery bypasses per patient were examined with regard to bypass morphology, the free passage, and the proximal as well as the distal anastomoses using multi-slice computed tomography. Axial source images were calculated by means of retrospective triggering at different diastolic delay times, and were postprocessed in several planes with the multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR) software. Results: On the pre-condition that data sets were acquired at sinus rhythm and at a heart rate lower than 65/min, aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses could be depicted in adequate diagnostic quality in about 80% of all cases with contrast-enhanced multi-slice spiral CT. Both, the free passage of the bypasses as well as the morphology of the proximal anastomoses were sufficiently assessed with multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR), whereas the distal anastomoses couldn't be depicted sufficiently in 20% of all cases. Conclusion: As a non-invasive method, contrast-enhanced and ECG-triggered multi-slice spiral computed tomography has gained diagnostic potential for the accurate visualization of aortocoronary grafts and the internal mammary artery bypasses. (orig.) [de

  4. Thrombosis of the internal mammary artery during delayed autologous breast reconstruction: A manifestation of occult residual cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bucknor; Mobinulla Syed; Gerald Gui; Stuart James

    2016-01-01

    A prothombotic state may be a manifestation of malignancy, either primary or recurrent. In this report we present a case of thrombosis of the internal mammary artery during delayed autologous breast reconstruction occurring in association with, and as a possible manifestation of, occult recurrent breast cancer. We discuss salvage of the microsurgical anastomosis using a vein graft and microvascular anastomotic coupler device.

  5. Comparison of normal tissue dose with three-dimensional conformal techniques for breast cancer irradiation including the internal mammary nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Dolsma, Willemtje; van t Veld, Aart; Bijl, HP; Langendijk, JA

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the Para Mixed technique for irradiation of the internal mammary nodes (IMN) with three commonly used strategies, by analyzing the dose to the heart and other organs at risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four different three-dimensional conformal dose plans were created for 30 breast

  6. Using the Retrograde Internal Mammary System for Stacked Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction: 71 Breast Reconstructions in 53 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W; Lam, Jonathan; Allen, Robert J; Sadeghi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal tissue is the preferred donor source for autologous breast reconstruction, but in select patients with inadequate tissue, additional volume must be recruited to achieve optimal outcomes. Stacked flaps are an effective approach in these cases, but can be limited by the need for adequate recipient vessels. This article reports outcomes for the use of the retrograde internal mammary system for stacked flap breast reconstruction in a large number of consecutive patients. Fifty-three patients underwent stacked autologous tissue breast reconstruction with a total of 142 free flaps. Thirty patients underwent unilateral stacked deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap reconstruction, five had unilateral stacked profunda artery perforator flap reconstruction, one had bilateral stacked DIEP/superior gluteal artery perforator flap reconstruction, and 17 underwent bilateral stacked DIEP/profunda artery perforator flap reconstruction. In all cases, the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels were used for anastomoses. In situ manometry studies were also conducted comparing the retrograde internal mammary arteries in 10 patients to the corresponding systemic pressures. There were three total flap losses (97.9 percent flap survival rate), two partial flap losses, four reexplorations for venous congestion, and three patients with operable fat necrosis. The mean weight of the stacked flaps for each reconstructed breast was 622.8 g. The retrograde internal mammary mean arterial pressures were on average 76.6 percent of the systemic mean arterial pressures. The results demonstrate that the retrograde internal mammary system is capable of independently supporting free tissue transfer. These vessels provide for convenient dissection and improved efficiency of these cases, with successful postsurgical outcomes. Therapeutic, IV.

  7. Left Internal Mammary Artery Injury Requiring Resuscitative Thoracotomy: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Al Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Penetrating injuries to the chest and in particular to the heart that results in pericardial tamponade and cardiac arrest requires immediate resuscitative thoracotomy as the only lifesaving technique and should be performed without delay. Objective. To describe an external cardiac tamponade caused by massive tension hemothorax from penetrating injury of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA. Method. A case presentation treated at the Level I trauma center at Hamad General Hospital, in Doha, Qatar and review of the literature on LIMA injuries reported cases. Results. LIMA injury as a cause of hemothorax is not uncommon, but to our knowledge our case is the first massive tension hemothorax with witnessed cardiac arrest reported in the literature requiring emergency thoracotomy, performed in trauma room, with full recovery. Conclusion. Injury to the LIMA with massive tension hemothorax requires immediate resuscitative thoracotomy.

  8. An improved technique for breast cancer irradiation including the locoregional lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, C. W.; Saarnak, A. E.; Pieters, B. R.; Borger, J. H.; Bruinvis, I. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To find an irradiation technique for locoregional irradiation of breast cancer patients which, compared with a standard technique, improves the dose distribution to the internal mammary-medial supraclavicular (IM-MS) lymph nodes. The improved technique is intended to minimize the lung dose

  9. The internal mammary artery perforator flap and its subtypes in the reconstruction of median sternotomy wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ruben Y

    2016-07-01

    To determine the feasibility of using the internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) flap for superficial and deep sternal wound breakdowns. This was a retrospective case review of 9 patients with sternal wound dehiscence over an 18-month period between 2013 and 2015. Seven of the 9 patients received a single IMAP flap to cover full-length sternal wounds, including 4 with a fasciocutaneous flap and 3 with a musculocutaneous flap. All of the patients were male, with a mean age of 68 years. The mean number of perforators was 1.3, with a mean perforator diameter of 1.5 mm. In all cases, the torsion angle was 80 degrees, with a translational pedicle movement of 1 to 2 cm. There were no instances of total flap failure and only 2 cases of partial flap necrosis, which were managed conservatively. One flap, performed when both internal mammary arteries had been harvested previously, showed complete survival. The IMAP flap has an advantage in its the ability to reconstruct the entire length of a sternotomy wound from the suprasternal notch to the xiphisternum with relatively minimal dissection and morbidity compared with more conventional flaps such as pectoralis major, rectus, and omental flaps. Nevertheless, caveats for its use remain, such as in patients with vasopressor therapy and the resulting subclavicular scar, which is unaesthetic in women. Overall, the IMAP flap is an attractive reconstructive tool specifically in stable male patients with noninfected sternotomy wound dehiscence with a defect width of up to 7 cm. In this patient subset, it is the ideal first-line reconstructive tool. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. National Trends and Geographic Variation in Bilateral Internal Mammary Artery Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarne, Alexander; Goodney, Philip P; Flores, Alyssa M; DeSimone, Joseph; DiScipio, Anthony W; Austin, Andrea; McCullough, Jock N

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the adoption rate and regional variation in bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) use during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the United States. Observational study of 100% sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older, continuously enrolled in Parts A and B from 2009 to 2014 (n = 162,860,439). Rates of beneficiaries receiving a BIMA versus single internal mammary artery (SIMA) during CABG are expressed per 1,000 beneficiaries and aggregated by Hospital Referral Region (HRR). An HRR is a validated unit for quantifying regional variation in health care. The absolute national rate of BIMA use declined during the study period from 0.21 claims per 1,000 beneficiaries in 2009 to 0.13 in 2014 (p < 0.001). When indexed to overall CABG volume, no change was seen in the frequency of BIMA use over time (p = 0.883). SIMA use ranged from 1.3 to 8.5 claims per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries, whereas BIMA use ranged from 0 to 1.5 (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between regional volume of SIMA use and likelihood of BIMA use (correlation coefficient 0.673, p < 0.001). Although both SIMA and BIMA use correlated with regional volume of diagnostic cardiac catheterization, the correlation was stronger for SIMA use (correlation coefficient 0.962 versus 0.682, p < 0.001). Over the past 5 years, no growth was seen in BIMA use among Medicare beneficiaries, and the frequency of BIMA use during CABG remained low. There was significant regional variation in BIMA use, however, which demonstrates opportunity for continued growth of BIMA grafting. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thrombosis of the internal mammary artery during delayed autologous breast reconstruction: A manifestation of occult residual cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bucknor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A prothombotic state may be a manifestation of malignancy, either primary or recurrent. In this report we present a case of thrombosis of the internal mammary artery during delayed autologous breast reconstruction occurring in association with, and as a possible manifestation of, occult recurrent breast cancer. We discuss salvage of the microsurgical anastomosis using a vein graft and microvascular anastomotic coupler device.

  12. Internal Mammary Vessels: Alternate Recipient Vessels in Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Paul M; Wax, Mark K; Petrisor, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    The application of microvascular free tissue transfer for reconstruction of the head and neck is well established. Improved outcomes, as well as surgical and technologic advances, have broadened the applications of microvascular free flaps in these defects. Postoperative complications such as pharyngocutaneous fistulas, tracheal or esophageal stenoses, or recurrent pathology may occasionally require secondary or even tertiary reconstruction with free tissue transfers. The disrupted anatomy and fibrotic changes resulting from primary reconstruction, neck dissection, and irradiation present the surgeon with a high risk of provoking vascular or nervous injury when dissecting in previously operated or irradiated sites. This prompts a search for alternative recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis. The transverse cervical, inferior thyroid, and thyrocervical trunk arteries have all been proposed as alternative recipient vessels. The internal mammary vessels (IMVs) have a proven record in breast reconstruction, but recently have been found to have an application in special circumstances in head and neck reconstruction. This investigation describes the advantages of the IMVs as suitable recipient vessels for head and neck reconstruction when access to traditional vasculature is unavailable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can previous diagnostic examinations prevent preoperative angiographic assessment of the internal mammary perforators for (micro)surgical use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Pascal P A; Aukema, Tjeerd S; Hage, J Joris; Prevoo, Warner; Kon, Moshe

    2014-05-01

    Preoperative assessment of the internal mammary artery perforating (IMAP) branches enhances IMAP-based reconstructive procedures. Conventionally, color-flow Doppler, selective catheter arteriography, or CT angiography is used for such assessment. We studied how often these examinations may be rendered superfluous by assessment of previously performed diagnostic examinations. A radiologist and a plastic surgeon jointly assessed whether information on the dominant IMAP could sufficiently be obtained from the thoracic CT scans of 12 head and neck cancer patients and 12 breast cancer patients, and from the mammary MRI of 12 breast cancer patients. Secondly, we retrospectively assessed in how many of the 10 patients who underwent an IMAP-flap head and neck reconstruction, and in how many of the 10 women who consecutively underwent a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap mammary reconstruction such previous diagnostic examinations were available and informative regarding the level of the dominant perforator. All 24 CT scans and 11 of the 12 MRI scans sufficiently allowed assessment of the level of the dominant IMAP. Previous information had already been available in all 10 DIEP flap patients and 6 of the 10 IMAP-flap patients. The distribution of IMAP dominance over the intercostal levels on the scans differed from that found by cadaveric or intraoperative assessment. Previously performed diagnostic CT scans and MRI scans that included the parasternal region usually allow sufficient preoperative assessment of the internal mammary perforators for reconstructive procedures. We advocate re-assessment of such previous examinations before ordering additional angiography. Additionally, we suggest to include the parasternal region in diagnostic scans.

  14. Defining the learning curve for robotic-assisted endoscopic harvesting of the left internal mammary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemli, Jonathan M; Henn, Lucas W; Panetta, Christopher R; Suh, Jenny S; Shukri, Scott R; Jennings, Joan M; Fontana, Gregory P; Patel, Nirav C

    2013-01-01

    Robotic-assisted techniques are continuing to cement their role in coronary surgery, particularly in facilitating the endoscopic harvesting of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA), regardless of how the subsequent bypass grafting is performed. As more surgeons attempt to become trained in robotic-assisted procedures, we sought to better define the learning curve associated with robotic-assisted endoscopic LIMA harvest. Between January 2011 and July 2012, a total of 77 patients underwent robotic-assisted minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery at our institution. The LIMA was harvested endoscopically in all patients, using standard robotic instruments, followed by direct grafting to anterior wall myocardial vessels via a small thoracotomy. Intraoperative times for various components of the procedure were collated and analyzed. The mean ± SD time taken to insert and position the ports for the robotic instruments was 3.9 ± 1.4 minutes. The mean ± SD LIMA harvest time was 31.8 ± 10.1 minutes, and the mean ± SD total robotic time was 44.2 ± 12.9 minutes. All time variables consistently continued to decrease as the experience of the operating surgeon increased, with the greatest magnitude of improvement being evident within the first 20 cases. The logarithmic learning curves for LIMA harvest time and total robot time during our entire experience were both calculated as 90%, correlating to an expected 10% improvement in performance for each doubling of cases completed. Coronary surgeons can rapidly become proficient in robotic-assisted endoscopic LIMA harvest, with significant improvement in operative times evident within the first 20 cases completed. These data may be useful in designing appropriate training programs for newer surgeons seeking to gain experience in robotic-assisted coronary surgery.

  15. Color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of internal mammary artery application in adolescent female patients with right-convex thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Iliopoulos, Panagiotis; Misiris, Alexandros; Koureas, Georgios

    2003-08-01

    Prospective comparative study. To establish the use of Color Doppler Ultrasonography to investigate internal mammary artery. Breast asymmetry in female adolescents with right convex idiopathic scoliosis was supposed to be linked with anatomic and functional asymmetry of the internal mammary artery that is the main supplier to the mammary gland. However, no measurements of anatomic and hemodynamic parameters of internal mammary artery have been made to justify or to reject the hypothesis of asymmetric blood flow volume to the breasts and costosternal junction in female adolescent scoliotics. Color Doppler Ultrasonography is a well established noninvasive method to assess vessel anatomy and hemodynamics. Twenty female adolescents with right thoracic scoliosis and 16 comparable female individuals without spine deformity were examined with Color Doppler Ultrasonography to measure at the origin of internal mammary artery lumen diameter, cross sectional area, time average mean flow and flow volume per minute and were compared each other. The reliability of Color Doppler Ultrasonography was high and the intraobserver variability low (ANOVA, P = 0.92-0.94). There was no statistically significant difference in the ultrasonographic parameters of the internal mammary artery between right and left side in each individual as well as between scoliotics and controls. Color Doppler Ultrasonography applied to assess anatomic or hemodynamic blood flow parameters at the origin of internal mammary artery was proven a highly reliable method. Color Doppler Ultrasonography disclosed no side-differences, while there were no differences between scoliotics and controls. Thus, it seems that this study cannot justify previous theories for development of right thoracic scoliosis in female adolescents.

  16. Endothelial function and gene expression in perivascular adipose tissue from internal mammary arteries of obese patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybularz, Maria; Langbein, Heike; Zatschler, Birgit; Brunssen, Coy; Deussen, Andreas; Matschke, Klaus; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can release adipokines and other unknown adipose-derived relaxing factors. Therefore, we investigated the impact of obesity on vascular function and expression of genes in perivascular adipose tissue from internal mammary arteries of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The vessel function was compared between groups of patients with a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 kg/m 2 . The groups did not differ in age, gender (males), and ejection fraction. Vascular segments of internal mammary arteries were examined in a Mulvany myograph. Following preconstriction with noradrenaline, dose-response curves were assessed for relaxation with acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Maximum contraction in response to potassium and noradrenaline was increased in obese patients with a BMI >30 kg/m 2 . EC50 of endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired in patients with a BMI above 25, but below 30 kg/m 2 . Sodium nitroprusside-mediated maximal relaxation was not different between study groups. Integrin alpha X chain (ITGAX/CD11c) and macrophage mannose receptor (MRC1/CD206) expression was reduced in perivascular adipose tissue of patients with a BMI above 30 kg/m 2 , while adiponectin (ADPQ) expression was increased in the same tissue. Our data suggest a partially reduced endothelial function in internal mammary arteries of adipose patients with a BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m 2 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Increased adiponectin expression in perivascular tissue might contribute to maintenance of endothelial function in obese patients with a BMI above 30 kg/m 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of internal mammary artery harvesting with and without pleurotomy on respiratory complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Khan, F.; Abid, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory problems are one of the major issues faced by cardiovascular surgeons, which increase morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It is possible to harvest the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) without opening the left pleura; however this cannot be reliably achieved in all cases due to intimate anatomical relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of internal mammary artery harvesting with and without pleurotomy on respiratory complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: In this observational study 90 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were included by review of records. Patients were stratified into two groups according to surgical procedures, i.e., Internal Mammary artery harvesting with pleurotomy; (WP Group) (n=45) and with extra pleural harvesting technique; (EP Group) (n=45). Inclusion criteria were elective coronary artery bypass grafting, age over 18 years, willingness to be randomly assigned, provision of informed consent. Exclusion criteria were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or skeletal abnormalities that caused pulmonary restriction. Only the first 30 days postoperative outcome was studied. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21. Results: The demographic characteristics in terms of age and gender were comparable in study groups. The preoperative clinical presentation and medical history were also found similar. The hospital stay was significantly longer in WP Group than EP Group patients (7.2 vs 6.1 days, p<0.005). Moreover, post-operative morbidity was more prevalent in WP group 10 (22.2%) than EP Group 3 (66%) (p<0.03). In WP Group more respiratory complications were observed; 2 (4.4%) patients had dry cough and atelectasis, 1 (2.2%) patient experienced pleural effusion, 3 (6.6%) had bronchospasm while 1 (2.2%) patient each had sternal dehiscence and bleeding, however, these did not differ significantly

  18. Ischemic Cardiac Events Following Treatment of the Internal Mammary Nodal Region Using Contemporary Radiation Planning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Robert T; Liss, Adam L; Griffith, Kent A; Marsh, Robin B; Moran, Jean M; Mayo, Charles; Koelling, Todd M; Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A; Pierce, Lori J

    2017-12-01

    Regional nodal irradiation, including radiation therapy (RT) to the internal mammary node (IMN) region, improves oncologic outcomes in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Concern remains, however, given the proximity of the IMNs to the heart and the association between cardiac RT exposure and toxicity. The objective of the study was to evaluate rates of ischemic cardiac events (ICEs) and associated risk with treatment of the IMN region. The cardiac outcomes of 2126 patients treated with adjuvant breast RT or breast and nodal RT from 1984 to 2007 at a single institution were reviewed. The primary endpoint was an ICE following RT initiation. The association between IMN RT and ICEs was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Treatment with both IMN RT and 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy (CRT) began in 1997; therefore, subset analyses of patients with only 3D CRT were performed to minimize bias associated with improved treatment technique. The median follow-up period was 9.3 years. An ICE occurred in 87 patients (4.1%). No increased 10-year rate of ICEs was observed with IMN RT compared with no IMN RT in the total cohort (3.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4%-4.3%] vs 3.4% [95% CI, 1.5%-7.5%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; P=.73). Similarly, no statistically significant difference was noted in the 3D CRT-planned, left-sided disease subset (5.1% [95% CI, 1.8%-14.1%] vs 4.0% [95% CI, 2.0%-8.0%]; HR, 1.18, P=.76). On multivariate analysis, adjusting for cardiac risk factor imbalances, no significantly increased hazard was noted with IMN RT (HR, 1.84; P=.28) in the 3D CRT-planned, left-sided disease subset. No statistically significant association between IMN RT and ICEs was demonstrated in a review of patients treated at a single institution from 1984 to 2007. Given the long natural history and low overall rate of ICEs, continued follow-up of this study, as well as additional studies in the 3D CRT era, is warranted to confirm these results

  19. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with right internal mammary artery graft originating from arteria lusoria dextra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrić, Srdjan; Stojković, Siniša; Tomašević, Miloje; Kostić, Jelena; Banović, Marko; Menković, Nemanja; Ostojić, Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Congenital aomalies of the aortic arch, although numerous and heterogeneous, occur in less than 1% of individuals at autopsies. Left aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery, also called arteria lusoria dextra, is the most common anomaly of the aortic arch, occurring in 0.5-2.5% of individuals. We report the case of a 48-year-old man suffering from acute inferoposterior-wall ST elevation myocardial infarction successfully treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.Ten years ago, the patient had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery with the implantation of two arterial grafts- left and right internal mammary arteries on both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. After several attempts to canulate truncus brachiocephalicus, angiogram revealed the left aortic arch with the aberrant right subclavian artery. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of primary percutaneous coronary intervention via the aberrant right subclavian artery and right internal mammary artery graft with stent implantation in the infarct related lesion of the distal segment of right coronary artery. Subsequent 64-multidetector computed tomography confirmed the angiographic findings. Early recognition of congenital anomalies of the aortic arch and its great vessels, even before coronary artery bypass graft surgery, could be crucial for the urgent and successful treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions, such as ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  20. The clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN) biopsy during autologous reconstruction in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Nayak, Anupma

    2015-10-01

    The clinical significance of IMLN metastases in breast cancer is controversial. Although IMLN status is an integral part of current AJCC staging of breast cancer, the elective sampling of IMLN is not part of routine surgery for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of IMLN metastases, associated risk factors if any, and its impact on further management and outcome. We retrospectively studied 470 cases that underwent autologous reconstruction surgery between 2002 and 2014. Of 470 cases, 157 breast cancer cases had histology-confirmed IMLN removal during the reconstruction. Only 9 patients (6 %) showed IMLN metastases as compared to 45 (34 %) that showed axillary nodal metastases (p reconstruction had loco-regional recurrence/metastasis as compared to 20 of 293 (7 %) patients without IMLN removal (p > 0.05) (follow-up, 1-134 months). The overall rate of IMLN metastases (6 %) is much lower than the rate of axillary node metastases. Selective biopsy of IMLNs in patients with breast cancer, especially if younger than 40 years, and with lymphovascular invasion and negative PR status, may guide adjuvant treatment.

  1. Mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported

  2. Dynamic blood flow to the retrograde limb of the internal mammary vein in breast reconstruction with free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Jun; Satake, Toshihiko; Muto, Mayu; Kou, Seiko; Yasumura, Kazunori; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-11-01

    In free flap breast reconstruction, the retrograde limb of the internal mammary vein (IMV) is occasionally used as a second recipient vein. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic blood flow to the retrograde limb of the IMV (retrograde IMV) at the anastomosed site via indocyanine green (ICG) angiography In 40 patients undergoing free flap breast reconstruction, we evaluated the dynamic blood flow as "stain(+)" if a stain by ICG was observed and, "flow(+)" if a smooth blood flow was recognized. Based on the ICG angiography, "stain(+)" was observed in all cases, but "flow(+)" was detected in only 72.5% of the cases. There was no severe complication. This study shows that thrombosis is prone to occur in the second recipient vein in the 27.5% of the cases with no smooth flow, and therefore, the retrograde IMV may not function as a back-up in these cases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. To Resect or Not to Resect: The Effects of Rib-Sparing Harvest of the Internal Mammary Vessels in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stelios; Weichman, Katie; Broer, P Niclas; Ahn, Christina Y; Allen, Robert J; Saadeh, Pierre B; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye; Levine, Jamie P; Thanik, Vishal D

    2016-02-01

    The internal mammary vessels are the most commonly used recipients for microsurgical breast reconstructions. Often, the costal cartilage is sacrificed to obtain improved vessel exposure. In an effort to reduce adverse effects associated with traditional rib sacrifice, recent studies have described less-invasive, rib-sparing strategies. After obtaining institutional review board's approval, a retrospective review of all patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction at a single institution between November 2007 and December 2013 was conducted. Patients were divided into two cohorts for comparison: rib-sacrificing and rib-sparing internal mammary vessel harvests. A total of 547 reconstructions (344 patients) met inclusion criteria for this study. A total of 64.9% (n = 355) underwent rib-sacrificing internal mammary vessel harvest. Cohorts were similar in baseline patient characteristics, indications for surgery, and cancer therapies. However, patients undergoing rib-sparing reconstructions had significantly shorter operative times (440 vs. 476 minutes; p mammary vessels is a feasible technique in microsurgical breast reconstruction. However, given the significant increase in fat necrosis requiring surgical excision, the trend toward increased postoperative complications, and no significant difference in postoperative revision rates, the purported benefits of this technique may fail to outweigh the possible risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  5. Identification of internal control genes in milk-derived mammary epithelial cells during lactation cycle of Indian zebu cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Pradeep; Sodhi, Monika; Sharma, Ankita; Mann, Sandeep; Kishore, Amit; Shandilya, Umesh K; Mohanty, Ashok K; Kataria, Ranjit S; Yadav, Poonam; Verma, Preeti; Kumar, Surinder; Malakar, Dhruba; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the suitability of 10 candidate genes, namely GAPDH, ACTB, RPS15A, RPL4, RPS9, RPS23, HMBS, HPRT1, EEF1A1 and UBI as internal control genes (ICG) to normalize the transcriptional data of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) in Indian cows. A total of 52 MEC samples were isolated from milk of Sahiwal cows (major indigenous dairy breed of India) across different stages of lactation: Early (5-15 days), Peak (30-60 days), Mid (100-140 days) and Late (> 240 days). Three different statistical algorithms: geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper were used to assess the suitability of these genes. In geNorm analysis, all the genes exhibited expression stability (M) values below 0.5 with EEF1A1 and RPL4 showing the maximum expression stability. Similar to geNorm, Normfinder also identified EEF1A1 and RPL4 as two of the most stable genes. In Bestkeeper algorithm as well, all the 10 genes showed consistent expression levels. The analysis showed that four genes, that is, EEF1A1, RPL4, GAPDH and ACTB exhibited higher coefficient of correlation to the Bestkeeper index, lower coefficient of variance and standard deviation, indicating their superiority to be used as ICG. The present analysis has provided evidence that RPL4, EEF1A1, GAPDH and ACTB could probably act as most suitable genes for normalizing the transcriptional data of milk-derived mammary epithelial cells of Indian cows. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. The use of a pectoralis major flap to improve internal mammary vessels exposure and reduce contour deformity in microvascular free flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosahebi, Afshin; Da Lio, Andrew; Mehrara, Babak J

    2008-07-01

    Internal mammary vessels are commonly used in microvascular breast reconstruction. Most surgeons resect a portion of the rib to expose these vessels. This resection can lead to contour abnormalities in the chest wall that are difficult to correct. In addition, exposure of these vessels deep in the wound can be problematic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with a pectoralis major flap designed to improve exposure and fill in the defect created by rib resection. All consecutive patients who underwent autologous breast reconstruction using the internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels between 2000 and 2005 were identified. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon. In each case, a superiorly based flap within the pectoralis major muscle spanning the bottom of the second rib to the top of the fourth costal cartilage was raised. This "L"-shaped flap was reflected and a portion of the third rib cartilage was excised. At the conclusion of the microsurgical anastomosis the pectoralis major flap was repaired and used to cover the defect created by rib resection. Patient demographic, operative details, and postoperative complications were obtained from a prospectively maintained clinical database. Deformity around sternal border was evaluated from the patients' photographs. There were 99 autologous reconstructions in 90 patients. In 71 cases the internal mammary artery/vein were used as recipient vessels. There were no cases of microvascular thrombosis or flap loss. A portion of the third rib was excised in all patients who underwent microsurgical anastomoses to the internal mammary vessels. In 3 patients a portion of both the second and third ribs was removed because of branching of the internal mammary vein proximal to the level of the third rib. A contour deformity was noted in 4 patients (4.4%) after a mean follow-up of 27 months. Of the 4 patients with contour deformity, 2 had a portion of both the third and second costal cartilage

  7. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit

  8. Computed tomography angiographic study of internal mammary perforators and their use as recipient vessels for free tissue transfer in breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoi, Aditya V; Panchal, Karnav B; Sen, Saugata; Biswas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    The internal mammary artery perforator vessels (IMPV) as a recipient in free flap breast reconstruction offer advantages over the more commonly used thoracodorsal vessels and the internal mammary vessels (IMV). This study was designed to assess the anatomical consistency of the IMPV and the suitability of these vessels for use as recipients in free flap breast reconstruction. Data from ten randomly selected female patients who did not have any chest wall or breast pathology but had undergone a computed tomography angiography (CTA) for unrelated diagnostic reasons from April 2013 to October 2013 were analysed. Retrospective data of seven patients who had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer and had been primarily reconstructed with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap transfer using the IMPV as recipient vessels were studied. The CTA findings showed that the internal mammary perforator was consistently present in all cases bilaterally. In all cases, the dominant perforator arose from the upper four intercostal spaces (ICS) with the majority (55%) arising from the 2 nd ICS. The mean distance of the perforators from the sternal border at the level of pectoralis muscle surface on the right side was 1.86 cm (range: 0.9-2.5 cm) with a mode value of 1.9 cm. On the left side, a mean of 1.77 cm (range: 1.5-2.1 cm) and a mode value of 1.7 cm were observed. Mean perforator artery diameters on the right and left sides were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Though the internal mammary perforators are anatomically consistent, their use as recipients in free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction eventually rests on multiple variables.

  9. Computed tomography angiographic study of internal mammary perforators and their use as recipient vessels for free tissue transfer in breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya V Kanoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The internal mammary artery perforator vessels (IMPV as a recipient in free flap breast reconstruction offer advantages over the more commonly used thoracodorsal vessels and the internal mammary vessels (IMV. Aims: This study was designed to assess the anatomical consistency of the IMPV and the suitability of these vessels for use as recipients in free flap breast reconstruction. Patients and Methods: Data from ten randomly selected female patients who did not have any chest wall or breast pathology but had undergone a computed tomography angiography (CTA for unrelated diagnostic reasons from April 2013 to October 2013 were analysed. Retrospective data of seven patients who had undergone mastectomy for breast cancer and had been primarily reconstructed with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap transfer using the IMPV as recipient vessels were studied. Results: The CTA findings showed that the internal mammary perforator was consistently present in all cases bilaterally. In all cases, the dominant perforator arose from the upper four intercostal spaces (ICS with the majority (55% arising from the 2nd ICS. The mean distance of the perforators from the sternal border at the level of pectoralis muscle surface on the right side was 1.86 cm (range: 0.9–2.5 cm with a mode value of 1.9 cm. On the left side, a mean of 1.77 cm (range: 1.5–2.1 cm and a mode value of 1.7 cm were observed. Mean perforator artery diameters on the right and left sides were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Though the internal mammary perforators are anatomically consistent, their use as recipients in free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction eventually rests on multiple variables.

  10. Morphology and patency of Gore-Tex wrapped internal mammary artery bypass-evaluation with helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A. E-mail: w.wohlgemuth@online.de; Vicol, Calin; Schulte-Altedorneburg, Gernot; El-Achkar, Habib; Bohndorf, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the patency of coronary internal mammary artery bypass (IMAB) with CT-angiography (CTA) and to evaluate the morphology of a covering Gore-tex IMAB-sleeve (PIMAS) used to protect the bypass at possible reoperation. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five patients with IMAB wrapped with PIMAS (67 grafts) were prospectively investigated by CTA for bypass patency and sleeve morphology 6 months postoperatively with a standardised radiological and clinical protocol. Results: All patent bypass arteries (62/62) were identified by CTA as open. In the remaining five cases, CTA revealed a bypass occlusion, which could be proven by coronary angiography in two cases (two patients refused angiography, one bypass was open angiographically). Morphology of the PIMAS could be imaged exactly in all cases. Sleeve implantation did not lead to adverse effects in terms of bypass occlusion or compression. In four patients, additional clinically relevant information were achieved. Conclusion: PIMAS implantation proved to be a safe procedure with good short-term results. CTA is a valuable method to exclude occlusion of sleeved IMA bypasses. Depiction of the wrapped IMAB by CTA supplies important information for preparing strategy in case of reoperation.

  11. Is there a need for preoperative imaging of the internal mammary recipient site for autologous breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Murray, Alice C A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative imaging of recipient-site vasculatur in autologous breast reconstruction may potentiate improved outcomes through the identification of individual variations in vascular architecture. There are a range of both normal and pathologic states which can substantially affect the internal mammary vessels in particular, and the identification of these preoperatively may significantly affect operative approach. There are a range of imaging modalities available, with ultrasound particularly useful, and computed tomography angiography (CTA) evolving as a useful option, albeit with radiation exposure. The benefits of CTA must be balanced against its risks, which include contrast nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions, and radiation exposure. The radiation risk with thoracic imaging is substantially higher than that for donor sites, such as the abdominal wall, with reasons including exposure of the contralateral breast to radiation (with a risk of contralateral breast cancer in this population 2 to 6 times higher than that of primary breast cancer, reaching a 20-year incidence of 15%), as well as proximity to the thyroid gland. Current evidence suggests that although many cases may not warrant such imaging because of risk, the benefits of preoperative CTA in selected patients may outweigh the risks of exposure, prompting an individualized approach.

  12. Quality assurance in breast cancer: EORTC experiences in the phase III trial on irradiation of the internal mammary nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Elena; Poortmans, Philip; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Struikmans, Henk; Fourquet, Alain; Bartelink, Harry; Kirkove, Carine; Budach, Volker; Pierart, Marianne; Collette, Laurence

    2007-03-01

    The EORTC 22922/10925 trial randomly compares irradiation or no irradiation of the internal mammary and medio supraclavicular (IM-MS) nodes for stage I-III breast cancer. We report on the characteristics of 4004 participating patients, aspects of quality assurance and compliance to protocol treatment. The actual population has intermediate-risk disease: 51.8% stage II, 56% positive axillary nodes. The allocated treatment was not followed in 3.2% in the IM-MS irradiation arm versus 2% in the no IM-MS irradiation arm. In the IM-MS arm, there were major deviations for dose in 0.8%, surgery-to-radiotherapy time interval in 3.9% and in overall treatment time in 0.9% cases. Major deviations were found in 7.9% patients in the IM-MS group and in 2% patients in the no IM-MS group. In the final trial analysis, a sensitivity analysis should evaluate the subgroup of patients receiving an optimal treatment to verify the robustness of the results and the true impact of IM-MS irradiation.

  13. Histologic comparison between the internal mammary artery and the deep inferior epigastric artery and clinical implications for microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Shik; Yun, Jiyoung; Lee, Taik Jong; Eom, Jin Sup; Kim, Eun Key

    2015-01-01

    The internal mammary artery (IMA) is one of the most popular recipients for microsurgical breast reconstruction. However, it is often separated into sleeve-like layers when it is handled. This study tried to explain this unique behaviour of the IMA through histologic observation. Nine pairs of IMAs and DIEAs were harvested and subject for haematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff's elastic staining. Thickness of the tunica media and the number of elastic lamellae were compared. Samples of the IMA, the DIEA, and the thoracodorsal artery from another patient were observed through the transmission electron microscope to further show the structural differences. The most notable difference was presence of multiple elastic lamellae in tunica media in the IMAs, which was barely present in the DIEAs. The mean number of elastic lamellae was 9.2 in the IMA group and 1.0 in the DIEA group (p DIEA and the TDA was densely packed with smooth muscle cells, while the muscle cells distributed sparsely in the IMA. The IMA is an elastic artery which is characterised by multiple layers of elastic lamellae while relatively lacking in smooth muscle cells. The wall of the IMA is easily dissected between the tunica media and the adventitia, or at the outer 1/3 of the tunica media. The inner structure is easily torn if microsutures do not engage the tunica adventitia.

  14. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  15. The use of retrograde limb of internal mammary vein in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEAP flap: anatomical and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamin, Ammar; Bissell, Mary Beth; Prasad, Vani; Morris, Steven F

    2014-03-01

    It has been postulated that the abdominal skin may have either predominantly deep or superficial venous drainage. This may account for complications arising from autologous breast reconstruction using the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap. In this study, we evaluate the use of the retrograde limb of the internal mammary vein (IMV) as a second recipient vein in reconstructions with the DIEAP flap. In Part A, 10 IMVs were harvested from 5 fresh cadavers and the flow of methylene blue through the retrograde limb and the presence of valves were evaluated under a stereoscopic microscope.In Part B, the clinical outcomes of 38 patients who underwent single or bilateral autologous breast reconstruction using the DIEAP flap technique between January 2007 and March 2011 were reviewed. A total of 48 flaps were evaluated: 31 with single vein anastomosis and 17 with 2-vein anastomosis. In Part A, no valves were identified in the IMVs. In all 10 cadaver IMVs, there was free flow of methylene blue in both antegrade (superior) and retrograde (inferior) directions.In Part B, a retrospective analysis of the 2 patient outcomes was performed. Outcomes assessed included total flap loss, partial flap necrosis, fat necrosis, wound infection, wound dehiscence, and hematoma. Results were compared using a 2-tailed Fisher exact test with a critical P value of 0.05. No statistically significant differences between groups were identified. The retrograde limb of the IMV seems to be a safe alternate recipient vein in DIEAP and muscle sparing free TRAM autologous breast reconstruction. This study does not identify a significant reduction in overall fat necrosis or overall complications when using the 2 venous repair techniques versus the simple venous repair technique.

  16. Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Li-Zhi [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices

  17. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    marked on the skin with indelible ink and a permanent point tattoo of carbon black ink. The depth of the sentinel node from the skin mark is measured in an orthogonal view with a radioactive marker placed on the skin mark. At surgery blue dye is used as a mapping technique and the sentinel nodes are also checked by using a gamma probe to confirm the true sentinel nodes and that the sentinel nodes have been removed. Several lymphoscintigraphic techniques have been described where the tracer is injected peritumorally, intratumorally or intradermally. We favour the peritumour injection technique under ultrasound control. The lymphatic drainage in breast carcinoma is predominantly to axillary lymph nodes but also to internal mammary lymph nodes (IM) and occasionally to intramammary, infraclavicular and supraclavicular node fields. To most accurately define the lymph drainage all sentinel nodes should be found. In our experience the axillary sentinel nodes were accurately staged in 96% of patients. The sentinel nodes are removed at surgery and sent for pathology. As there are a limited number usually 1-3 sentinel nodes this allows for more specific histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Focused histopathology allows more specific and accurate detection of micrometastases. SLNB has also been used in vulval, penile, head and neck, thyroid, oropharyngeal cancers and also intraoperatively in colon cancer. The techniques require a sophisticated integration of a multidisciplinary team with significant learning curves for the surgeons, nuclear medicine physicians, technologists and pathologists. There has to be good communication between all groups with precise imaging and surgical techniques. With lymphoscintigraphy there are many techniques described and the literature reports excellent results in major centres. With lymphoscintigraphy in Australia we use small particle colloids (Tc99m antimony sulphide colloid) which allows excellent definition of lymph channels and more

  19. Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi J. Sawaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated.

  20. Differentiation between sarcoidosis and Hodgkin’s lymphoma based on mediastinal lymph node involvement pattern: Evaluation using spiral CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrian, Payam; Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Amir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the specific and detailed anatomic sites and morphologic characteristics of mediastinal lymph nodes on spiral computed tomography for the purpose of differentiation between sarcoidosis and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Anatomical distribution of mediastinal lymph nodes on spiral CT was reviewed in 39 patients with sarcoidosis and 37 patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma using the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. Other morphologic features such as lymph node calcification or coalescence of adjacent lymph nodes were also compared. Zone 10 was involved more often in sarcoidosis than in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. On the other hand, there was a higher tendency for presence of zone 1 and 3 as well as retrocrural and internal mammary lymphadenopathy in Hodgkin’s lymphoma than in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis presented with intranodal calcifications more often than Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Coalescence, pressure effect on adjacent structures and central cavitations were significantly more common in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Findings of the present study indicate that specific anatomical distribution and morphological patterns of mediastinal lymph nodes, as demonstrated on spiral CT, can be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. "Mini-Flow-Through" Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap for Breast Reconstruction with Preservation of Both Internal Mammary and Deep Inferior Epigastric Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Satake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This procedure was developed for preservation of the rectus muscle components and deep inferior epigastric vessel after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap harvesting. A 53-year-old woman with granuloma caused by silicone injection underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies and immediate reconstruction with "mini-flow-through" DIEP flaps. The flaps were dissected based on the single largest perforator with a short segment of the lateral branch of the deep inferior epigastric vessel that was transected as a free flap for breast reconstruction. The short segments of the donor deep inferior epigastric vessel branch are primarily end-to-end anastomosed to each other. A short T-shaped pedicle mini-flow-through DIEP flap is interposed in the incised recipient's internal mammary vessels with two arterial and four concomitant venous anastomoses. Although it requires multiple vascular anastomoses and a short pedicle for the flap setting, the mini-flow-through DIEP flap provides a large pedicle caliber, enabling safer microsurgical anastomosis and well-vascularized tissue for creating a natural breast without consuming time or compromising the rectus muscle components and vascular flow of both the deep inferior epigastric and internal mammary vessels.

  2. Effects of low-dose aspirin (50-mg/day), low-dose aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents after internal mammary artery bypass-grafting : Patency and clinical outcome at 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J; de la Rivière, Aart Brutel; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Hillege, Hans L.; Pfisterer, M; Kootstra, G. J.; Dunselmann, P. H. J. M.; MULDER, BJM; Lie, Kong I.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives. This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anti coagulant agents in the prevention of internal mammary artery graft occlusion. Background. Antithrombotic drugs increase vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass

  3. Avulsion of the left internal mammary artery graft after minimally invasive coronary surgery: fatal complication or medical error? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Guido; Balmaceda, Ute; Sperhake, Jan P

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) is performed through a left anterior mini-thoracotomy without the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass and offers greater potential for more rapid recovery, reduced pain and a decreased need for blood transfusion than conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. Few major complications of the MIDCAB procedure have been reported in the literature since the first intervention was performed in 1995, but the most serious one is avulsion of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft near the site of anastomosis with the left anterior descending coronary artery. Forensic issues regarding the role of the surgeon in causing this life-threatening emergency condition have not been discussed. We report here the case of a 48-year-old man who died 18 days after a MIDCAB of massive thoracic bleeding due to the avulsion of the LIMA graft. We discuss the probable etiopathogenesis of this fatal complication from a forensic point of view.

  4. Use of both antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels in the bipedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for unilateral breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Rosa, Jonatan; Sherif, Rami D; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    Autologous abdominal tissue transfer is a well-established method of breast reconstruction. The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap has the additional benefit of minimal donor site morbidity as it spares the muscle and fascia. Conventional DIEP flaps may not provide adequate volume in cases where the patient is thin, has midline abdominal scars, and/or has a large volume of tissue to replace. One solution is to use a bipedicled DIEP flap, incorporating all the available abdominal tissue. Bipedicled DIEP flaps have been described in a number of different configurations. The literature appears to favor intra-flap anastomosis, with a minimal exposition of two recipient vessels. It has been demonstrated that both the antegrade internal mammary artery (aIMA) and retrograde internal mammary artery (rIMA) are adequate recipient vessels. Here, the authors present a single-center experience with bipedicled DIEP flaps to both the aIMA and rIMA, showing their feasibility and safety. A retrospective review of patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bipedicled DIEP flaps was performed to assess outcomes. A total of 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using a bipedicled DIEP flap were selected for this study. All of them were previously diagnosed with cancer. There were zero flap failure and zero instance of abdominal hernia or issue with abdominal wall functionality following the surgeries. The series of surgeries described in this study resulted in successful breast reconstruction in 20 women using a bipedicled DIEP flap. The results show that this approach allows for reconstruction in places where a conventional DIEP does not provide adequate volume, achieved safely, and does not increase morbidity. The bipedicled DIEP flap is a viable option for large-volume autologous breast reconstruction, providing ample tissue for successful reconstruction while also allowing for shorter recovery and limited donor site morbidity

  5. Hemosiderin: a new marker for sentinel lymph node identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Filgueira, Pedro Henrique de Oliveira; Aragão, Douglas Henning Pinheiro; Barbosa, Pedro Macedo Esmeraldo; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and present our initial results of a new marker (hemosiderin) for mammary sentinel lymph node identification in an experimental model. Skins mapped like a lymphatic duct draining to the axilla in patients submitted to breast biopsy, in our mastology service, stimulated us to try it in an animal model (female dogs). Our theory was that some blood derivate (hemosiderin) was captured by macrophages and accessed the lymphatic ducts in direction to the axilla. Six female dogs of no defined race were studied. We injected 0,2 ml of technetium on both superior mammary glands. After ten minutes, a 2,5 ml solution of hemolized blood (hemosiderin) from the own animal was injected in the subareolar lymphatic plexus on the left superior mammary gland and 2,5 ml of patent blue concomitantly and equally on the contralateral gland. Ten minutes after, incisions on both axillae were made to search, through the lymphatic mapping and a gamma probe, the sentinel lymph nodes. Seven brown sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the left axilla. Six blue sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the right axilla. Preliminary studies of a potential new dye for sentinel lymph node identification are presented. It may be the change of the current use of the blue dyes and their severe side-effects on patients submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsies.

  6. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  7. Mammary gland stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers.

  8. Tuberculosis and metastatic carcinoma coexistence in axillary lymph node: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandramohan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coexistence of cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is rare. Only seven cases have been reported in the literature. Case Report We report here a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast metastasizing to the axillary lymph node along with tubercular granuloma in the same lymph node without primary mammary or pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion Primary tuberculosis coexisting with carcinoma is of rare occurrence. A possibility should always be borne in mind especially in patients from endemic areas.

  9. Clinical application of a OneDose(TM) MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Pramod K; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Mahantshetty, Umesh M; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K

    2006-01-01

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose(TM) in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs. (note)

  10. Establishing Criteria for Bilateral Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in the Management of Penile Cancer: Lessons Learned from an International Multicenter Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Djajadiningrat, Rosa; Sharma, Pranav; Catanzaro, Mario; Zhu, Yao; Nicolai, Nicola; Horenblas, Simon; Spiess, Philippe E

    2015-09-01

    Penile carcinoma with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis is a relatively rare condition with poor outcomes. There are little data available on optimal strategies for staging and treating this group of patients. We assessed factors predicting bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with penile cancer and confirmed inguinal lymph node metastasis. Multi-institutional data from a total of 4 centers in Europe, the People's Republic of China and the United States were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with penile carcinoma and inguinal lymph node metastasis who underwent bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in analysis. The Kaplan-Meier and log rank tests were used to express overall survival. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis of factors predicting bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. Cox regression was done in the multivariable analysis of overall survival. We identified 140 patients with penile carcinoma who had confirmed pelvic lymph node metastasis. Of the patients 83 had bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis and 64 underwent bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis was observed in 16 patients (25%). The ROC of the total number of inguinal lymph node metastases and the detection of bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis had an AUC of 0.76 (p = 0.002) with 95% sensitivity for the cutoff point of 4 inguinal nodes. On logistic regression analysis the detection of 4 or more positive inguinal nodes was the only independent predictor of bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis (OR 14.0, CI 1.71-115). On Cox regression analysis 4 or more inguinal lymph node metastases, adjuvant chemotherapy, inguinal extraprostatic extension and bilateral procedures were associated with overall survival. Patients with bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis who are treated with unilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy should be considered for bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the presence of 4 or more metastatic

  11. Mammary Duct Ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may worry that it's a sign of breast cancer, especially if you develop a hard lump around a milk duct affected by mammary duct ectasia. While it's important to get signs and symptoms checked out promptly, remember that mammary duct ectasia does not increase your risk of breast cancer. By Mayo ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  12. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through...... the immunoglobulins found in mammary secretions in the context of their diversity of structure, origin, mechanisms of transfer, and function....

  13. Comparative gene expression analysis between coronary arteries and internal mammary arteries identifies a role for the TES gene in endothelial cell functions relevant to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archacki, Stephen R; Angheloiu, George; Moravec, Christine S; Liu, Hui; Topol, Eric J; Wang, Qing Kenneth

    2012-03-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. It has been established that internal mammary arteries (IMA) are resistant to the development of atherosclerosis, whereas left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries are athero-prone. The contrasting properties of these two arteries provide an innovative strategy to identify the genes that play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis. We carried out microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed between IMA and LAD. Twenty-nine genes showed significant differences in their expression levels between IMA and LAD, which included the TES gene encoding Testin. The role of TES in the cardiovascular system is unknown. Here we show that TES is involved in endothelial cell (EC) functions relevant to atherosclerosis. Western blot analysis showed higher TES expression in IMA than in LAD. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that TES was consistently and markedly down-regulated by more than 6-fold at both mRNA and protein levels in patients with CAD compared with controls without CAD (P= 0.000049). The data suggest that reduced TES expression is associated with the development of CAD. Knockdown of TES expression by small-interfering RNA promoted oxidized-LDL-mediated monocyte adhesion to ECs, EC migration and the transendothelial migration of monocytes, while the over-expression of TES in ECs blunted these processes. These results demonstrate association between reduced TES expression and CAD, establish a novel role for TES in EC functions and raise the possibility that reduced TES expression increases susceptibility to the development of CAD.

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph node is positive for cancer has a therapeutic benefit for melanoma patients in terms of disease- ... being randomly assigned to immediate CLND or regular ultrasound examination of the remaining regional lymph nodes and ...

  15. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years of infection of the lymph vessels with parasites. Lymph fluid accumulates causing massive swelling of the legs. Scientists once thought that all blood was the same, leading to deadly blood transfusion ...

  16. Contribution of sortase SrtA2 to Lactobacillus casei BL23 inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata F S Souza

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been considered as a promising strategy to prevent various diseases in both humans and animals. This approach has gained interest in recent years as a potential means to control bovine mastitis. In a previous study, we found that several L. casei strains, including BL23, were able to inhibit the internalization of S. aureus, a major etiologic agent of mastitis, into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC. This antagonism required a direct contact between L. casei and bMEC or S. aureus, suggesting the inhibition relied on interactions between L. casei cell surface components and bMEC. In this study, we have investigated the impact of some candidates which likely influence bacteria host cell interactions. We have shown that L. casei BL23 fbpA retained its inhibitory potential, indicating that L. casei BL23 antagonism did not rely (solely on competition between S. aureus and L. casei fibronectin-binding proteins for adhesion to bMEC. We have then investigated the impact of four sortase mutants, srtA1, srtA2, srtC1 and srtC2, and a double mutant (srtA1-srtA2 on L. casei BL23 inhibitory potential. Sortases are responsible for the anchoring on the bacterial cell wall of LPXTG-proteins, which reportedly play an important role in bacteria-host cell interaction. All the srt mutants tested presented a reduced inhibition capacity, the most pronounced effect being observed with the srtA2 mutant. A lower internalization capacity of L. casei srtA2 into bMEC was also observed. This was associated with several changes at the surface of L. casei BL23 srtA2 compared to the wild type (wt strain, including altered abundance of some LPXTG- and moonlighting proteins, and modifications of cell wall structure. These results strongly support the role of sortase A2 in L. casei BL23 inhibition against S. aureus internalization. Deciphering the contribution of the cell surface components altered in srtA2 strain in the inhibition will require further

  17. Computational dosimetry and risk assessment of radioinduced cancer: studies in mammary glands radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno Melo

    2017-01-01

    The use of Ionizing radiation (IR) in medicine has increased considerably. The benefits generated by diagnostic and therapy techniques with IR are proven. Nevertheless, the risks arising from these uses should not be underestimated. Justification, a basic radiation protection, states that the benefits from exposures must outweigh detriment. The cancer induction is one of the detriment components. Thus, the study of the benefit/detriment ratio should take into account cancer incidence and mortality estimations resulting from a given diagnosis or therapy radiological technique. The risk of cancer induction depends on the absorbed doses in the irradiated organs and tissues. Thus, IR dosimetry is essential to evaluate the benefit/detriment ratio. The present work aims to perform computational dosimetric evaluations and estimations of cancer induction risk after ionizing radiation exposure. The investigated situations cover nuclear medicine, radiological contamination and radiotherapy fields. Computational dosimetry, with MCNPx Monte Carlo Code, was used as a tool to calculate the absorbed dose in the interest organs of the voxelized human models. The simulations were also used to obtain calibration factors and optimization of in vivo monitoring systems for internal contamination dosimetry. A breast radiotherapy (RT) standard protocol was simulated using the MCNPx code. The calculation of the radiation-induced cancer risk was adapted from the BEIR VII methodology for the Brazilian population. The absorbed doses used in the risk calculations were obtained through computational simulations of different exposure scenarios. During this work, two new computational phantoms, DM B RA and VW, were generated from tomographic images. Additional twelve voxelized phantoms, including the reference phantoms, RCP A M and RCP A F, and the child, baby, and fetus models were adapted to run on MCNP. Internal Dosimetry Protocols (IDP) for radiopharmaceuticals and for internal contamination

  18. Infrared Thermography in Dogs with Mammary Tumors and Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelski, M; Silva, D M; Leite, N C; Junior, D A; de Sousa, R S; Guérios, S D; Dornbusch, P T

    2015-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a painless, noninvasive, nonionizing diagnostic imaging exam used in human medicine as an auxiliary tool for breast cancer diagnosis in women. Define thermographic mean temperatures of healthy mammary glands and compare these temperatures with those of mammary glands with tumors in dogs. Fifty client-owned female dogs were evaluated, including 20 with histopathologically confirmed mammary tumor and 30 clinically healthy (control). A randomized study using infrared thermography analyzed each mammary gland of the animals from the control group and mammary glands with tumors from the tumor group, then the thermographic temperatures obtained were compared. Thermographic exam was performed in a temperature-controlled room with a cooled thermographic camera-Flir E-40 (Flir Systems(®) ) There was significantly a higher temperature in the caudal abdominal and inguinal mammary glands than the other glands in the healthy group (P < .05). Dogs with mammary tumors had significantly higher thermographic temperature compared with unaffected glands regardless of the tumor size and the location (P < .05). The technique seems to be able to assess for the presence of neoplasia within the mammary tissue in bitches. Further investigation is necessary to determine the impact of this technique when adopted clinically. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Mammary Tumor Reconstruction in a Domestic Short Haired Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shafiuzama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 9 years old female cat was presented with the history of large tumor mass in the caudal abdominal, inguinal mammary gland region which was irregular, measuring 4 cm × 4 cm, non-ulcerated, freely movable and firm in consistency. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of the tumor mass and inguinal lymph node revealed mammary adenocarcinoma. Bilateral caudal radical mastectomy was done to excise the tumor mass along with inguinal lymph nodes with wide margins. As there was metastatic spread of tumor mass to the rectus fascia and muscle, partial ventral abdominal wall was resected and reconstructed with polypropylene mesh. A bilateral flank fold flap was elevated, mobilised and transposed to close the ventral skin deficit. The cat recovered uneventfully without much complications.

  20. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Secchin Canale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system.

  1. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system. PMID:24896171

  2. Mammary Duct Ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lumps Mammary duct ectasia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. The Comparison Between Two Surgical Methods for Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA) Anastomosis on Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Artery in Patients with Severe Diffuse Lesions: Short to Mid-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Khalil; Dehghani, Pooyan; Abdi Ardekani, Alireza; Zarrabi, Mohammad Amin; Zolghadrasli, Abdoali

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In this study, we compared two surgical methods of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) anastomosis on left anterior descending (LAD) artery in patients with severe diffuse lesions. A total of 40 patients were included in our study and randomly assigned into two groups. In group A, after a long arteriotomy on LAD, the posterior surface of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) was opened by the same length and was anastomosed along the LAD course through normal and diseased parts. In group B instead of complete opening of LAD, a small arteriotomy was done only in areas where the wall of the vessel was nearly normal (especially the anterolateral wall), and LIMA was anastomosed to these areas in a sequential (Jump) method. The patients were then followed for post-operation results. The two groups showed equal results regarding early mortality, post-operation bleeding, and infection, pleural and pericardial effusion. There were two cases of myocardial infarction (MI) in group A with one mortality after 18 months, while no MI was reported in group B. Group B demonstrated significantly superior results regarding the rise in ejection fraction and the improvement in functional class. In this study it was demonstrated that diffuse coronary artery lesions of LAD should be preferably operated using LIMA with the sequential-jump anastomoses method and the surgeon should avoid long arteriotomy with single long anastomosis because of lower chance of long-term patency.

  4. The Comparison Between Two Surgical Methods for Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA Anastomosis on Left Anterior Descending (LAD Artery in Patients with Severe Diffuse Lesions: Short to Mid-Term Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Zarrabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In this study, we compared two surgical methods of left internal mammary artery (LIMA anastomosis on left anterior descending (LAD artery in patients with severe diffuse lesions. A total of 40 patients were included in our study and randomly assigned into two groups. In group A, after a long arteriotomy on LAD, the posterior surface of left internal mammary artery (LIMA was opened by the same length and was anastomosed along the LAD course through normal and diseased parts. In group B instead of complete opening of LAD, a small arteriotomy was done only in areas where the wall of the vessel was nearly normal (especially the anterolateral wall, and LIMA was anastomosed to these areas in a sequential (Jump method. The patients were then followed for post-operation results. The two groups showed equal results regarding early mortality, post-operation bleeding, and infection, pleural and pericardial effusion. There were two cases of myocardial infarction (MI in group A with one mortality after 18 months, while no MI was reported in group B. Group B demonstrated significantly superior results regarding the rise in ejection fraction and the improvement in functional class. In this study it was demonstrated that diffuse coronary artery lesions of LAD should be preferably operated using LIMA with the sequential-jump anastomoses method and the surgeon should avoid long arteriotomy with single long anastomosis because of lower chance of long-term patency.

  5. Exploration of inner mammary chains by isotopic lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, D.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Blanquet, P.; Dilhuydy, J.M.; Ducassou, D.

    1978-01-01

    The indirect isotopic lymphography of the internal mammary lymph nodes, is an interesting method of investigations as it is the only one which allows the visualization of these nodes, quite difficult to explore. The radioactive molecule used for this study is an antimony sulfocolloid labelled by technetium-99m. This material seems to be the most suitable more for its physical than physiological properties; it is injected into the posterium wall of the rectus muscle on both sides of the medium line. The main parameters obtained from this study on 30 normal and 20 pathological patients give morphological data: number of nodes, their position within intercostal spaces, the width of both chains, their aspect, the presence of subclavicular nodes, or the intercatenar spontaneous passage. On the other hand, the semeiologic data are much more difficult to individualize because of the very great variability of those nodes. Some special shapes give us no doubt as to the spreading of the nodes; but most of the time, just a modification of the scintigram aspect at the time assures us of the extension of neoplasm. This method, almost non invasive for the patient, and for which no local reaction of intolerance has been found, allows the radiotherapist to define its scope of irradiation on each patient, instead of referring himself to literature data, which are only average values [fr

  6. A Metastatic Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland in a Female Cat: Clinicopathological, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin GAL

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-rich invasive human breast cancer is a rare enigmatic entity among special types of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Our paper reports a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in a female cat with the gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical description of the tumor. A 13-year-old intact adult female, mixed-breed cat was presented by the owner to the Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A complete necropsy examination was performed in our laboratory. The tissue samples were collected and processed by paraffin technique for further histological, histochemical, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical examination. During the necropsy examination, a subcutaneous mass was discovered on the chest. Several variably sized, well-demarcated neoplasms were noted in the right axillary lymph node, right thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. Histologically, the cells frequently formed tubuloacinar structures. The morphology of the described tumor showed features of a poorly differentiated mammary carcinoma. Numerous tumoral cells were large and polygonal, with abundant cytoplasm that showed foam-like cytoplasm. The tumoral cells contained either multiple small or large and solitary vacuoles that pushed the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of the neoplastic cells were positive for Oil-Red-O and negatively with Periodic Acid–Schiff. As for immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry, nonvacuolated and vacuolated neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma. This is the second reliable record of a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in female cat and the first one with internal metastases.

  7. Internal Mammary Artery Perforator flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, P.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery evolved as a result of the enormous numbers of World War I and II victims, long before profound knowledge of the vascularity of flaps was present. Sophisticated imaging techniques have given us at present a thorough understanding of the vascularity of tissues so that randomly

  8. Mammary Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  9. Cancer and lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or concerns about swollen lymph nodes or your cancer treatment. Alternative Names Lymph gland References Camp MS, Smith BL. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:592- ...

  10. Effects of low dose aspirin (50 mg/day), low dose aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents after internal mammary artery bypass grafting: patency and clinical outcome at 1 year. CABADAS Research Group of the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of The Netherlands. Prevention of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Occlusion by Aspirin, Dipyridamole and Acenocoumarol/Phenprocoumon Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.; Brutel de la Rivière, A.; van Gilst, W. H.; Hillege, H. L.; Pfisterer, M.; Kootstra, G. J.; Dunselman, P. H.; Mulder, B. J.; Lie, K. I.

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anticoagulant agents in the prevention of internal mammary artery graft occlusion. Antithrombotic drugs increase vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery. Their benefit after

  11. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  12. Complete arterial revascularization using bilateral internal mammary artery in T-graft technique for multivessel coronary artery disease in on- or off-pump approach: does gender lose its historical impact on clinical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieß, Friedrich-Christian; Behrendt, Christian-Alexander; Amin, Wagma; Heller, Stefan; Hansen, Lorenz; Winkel, Stephan; Stripling, Jan; Rieß, Henrik Christian

    2017-11-01

    Higher rates of mortality and morbidity have been reported in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) compared with men. Different revascularization techniques (on-pump and off-pump) might influence this outcome. We retrospectively analysed 3445 consecutively recruited patients (all comers) undergoing complete arterial CABG (CACABG) at a single centre between January 2000 and December 2012. CACABG was performed in all patients using bilateral skeletonized internal mammary artery in T-graft technique, either on-pump (n = 2216) or off-pump (n = 1229). Early results (30-day) and long-term follow-up data were analysed with respect to gender-specific outcome. Women were older than men in both groups (P pump: P pump: P = 0.02) compared with women. Men displayed a higher extent of coronary artery disease (P pump CABG. No gender differences were observed for late survival (P = 0.74 vs P = 0.52) in on-pump and off-pump procedures, respectively. Late follow-up revealed a higher rate of FitzGibbon A graft patency in men undergoing the on-pump approach (P = 0.006). CACABG using bilateral internal mammary artery in T-graft technique showed excellent early and long-term results. No significant gender-specific differences were observed in both groups undergoing CACABG with respect to 30 days mortality and morbidity as well as late survival. However, late follow-up revealed a higher graft patency in men undergoing the on-pump approach, compared to women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimización en el uso del colgajo de segunda perforante intercostal de la arteria mamaria interna Optimizing the use of the second intercostal perforator flap of the internal mammary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sicilia Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El colgajo en isla basado en perforantes de la arteria mamaria interna (colgajo IMAP se emplea de manera reciente como técnica reconstructiva en cabeza y cuello. El objetivo de esta revisión es corroborar las posibilidades del arco de rotación de dicho colgajo cuando se realiza una amplia disección de su pedículo vascular. Presentamos 4 pacientes de edades comprendidas entre 46 y 75 años, todos ellos varones, con defectos faríngeos parciales, en los que empleamos un colgajo pediculado basado en la segunda perforante de la arteria mamaria interna para reconstrucción del defecto faríngeo. El tamaño medio del defecto a cubrir fue de 3,2 cm (desviación estándar +/- 1,5 cm en sentido horizontal y 4,5 cm (desviación estándar +/- 2,2 cm en sentido vertical. En todos los casos se disecó un colgajo en isla con un tamaño medio de 6 X 8 cm. La longitud media del pedículo fue de 5,5 cm (desviación estándar +/- 1,51 cm. En todos los casos fue posible sellar el defecto faríngeo sin necesidad de resecar costilla o de incorporar parte de la arteria mamaria interna correspondiente. El colgajo IMAP es un colgajo rápido de realizar que permite la reconstrucción de defectos faríngeos parciales de la región anterior del cuello y hasta la base de la lengua sin necesidad de resección costal o incorporación parcial de los vasos mamarios.The island flap based on perforators of the internal mammary artery (IMAP flap is recently used in reconstruction of head and neck defects. The aim of this review is to verify the possibilities of the arc of rotation of the flap when it's necessary to carry out an extensive dissection of the vascular pedicle. We present reconstruction of partial pharyngeal defects in 4 patients, aged between 46 and 75 years and all men, using a pedicle flap based on the second perforator of the internal mammary artery. The average size of the defect was 3.2 cm (SD +/- 1.5 cm horizontally and 4.5 cm (SD +/- 2.2 cm vertically. In

  14. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahira, R; Michishita, M; Yoshimura, H; Hatakeyama, H; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female border collie was presented with a mass (2 cm diameter) in the fifth mammary gland. The mass was located in the subcutis and the cut surface was grey-white in colour. Microscopically, the mass was composed of tumour cells arranged in nests of various sizes separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumour cells had small, round hypochromatic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Metastases were observed in the inguinal lymph node. Immunohistochemically, most tumour cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 20, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and oestrogen receptor-β, but not low molecular weight CK (CAM5.2), p63 and insulin. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells contained a large number of electron-dense granules corresponding to neuroendocrine granules. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland in a mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Honda, Y; Sako, T; Okamoto, M; Tsunoda, N; Tagami, M; Taniyama, H

    2003-01-01

    A 21-year-old thoroughbred mare had a 35 x 14 x 10 cm mass involving the mammary gland. Metastases were found in the kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscles, and regional lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination of the tumor revealed a ductal solid carcinoma with extensive intraductal and intralobular involvement and focal infiltration of the adjacent stroma. The intralobular neoplasms were divided into irregularly shaped islands and sheets of polygonal and spindle-shaped epithelial cells by thick or thin fibrous connective tissue bundles. The neoplastic cells had a small or moderate amount of cytoplasm that stained faintly with eosin and round or oval hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for Lu-5, weakly positive for AE1/AE3, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and negative for cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 14, alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and S100. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland with multiple metastases.

  16. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Center Utrecht and Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  17. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  18. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  19. Mammary lymphatic scintiscans by intratumoral injection in the assessment of breast cancer. 105 examinations in 100 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelle, P.; Comet, M.; Bodin, J.P.; Dupre, A; Carpentier, E.; Bolla, M.; Swiercz, P.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and five scintiscans of the mammary lymphatic system were performed in 100 patients with breast cancer by intratumoral injection of 99m Tc-labelled colloidal rhenium. The progression of the radioactive colloidal agent was followed on a series of films taken 1, 2 and 4 hours after the injection, and the images obtained were compared with post-operative findings of lymph node involvement. Patients with more than 3 carcinomatous lymph nodes had less than 2 foci of activity, while those with less than 3 carcinomatous lymph nodes had more than 2 foci of activity, owing to more rapid progression of the compound. The difference was highly significant (p [fr

  20. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  1. Ki-67 and PCNA Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors and Adjacent Nonneoplastic Mammary Glands: Prognostic Impact by a Multivariate Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M I; Pires, I; Prada, J; Lobo, L; Queiroga, F L

    2016-11-01

    The assessment of tumor proliferation has been considered a determining prognostic factor in canine mammary tumors (CMTs). However, no studies have assessed the prognostic importance of proliferation in adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands. We included 64 CMTs (21 benign and 43 malignant) and studied the proliferation index (PI) of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) together with several clinicopathological characteristics. A positive and statistically significant correlation between the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands was observed in benign and malignant tumors. Tumor size, skin ulceration, histological type, mitotic index, nuclear grade, differentiation grade, histological grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, Ki-67, and PCNA expression in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands were statistically associated with overall survival by univariate analysis in malignant cases (n = 43). Histological grade of malignancy and high intratumoral PCNA retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent predictors of overall survival. Interestingly, the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA of adjacent nontumoral mammary glands were associated with clinicopathological features of tumor aggressiveness and shorter overall survival, demonstrating the need to better explore this adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J.; Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F.

    2000-01-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  3. Mammary tuberculosis: percutaneous treatment of a mammary tuberculous abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, C.; Carreira, C.; Cereceda, C.; Pinto, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain); Lopez, R.; Bolanos, F. [Servicio de Cirugia, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    It is currently very rare to find mammary involvement in cases of tuberculosis, in either primary or secondary form. Diagnosis is classically clinical and microbiological, and the basic techniques used in imaging diagnosis are mammography and ultrasound. Computed tomography may define the involvement of the thoracic wall in those cases which present as mammary masses adhering to deep levels, and is also able to evaluate accompanying pulmonary disease, if it is present. Traditionally, treatment has consisted of quadrantectomy and specific antibiotic therapy. We present a case of tuberculous mammary abscess secondary to pulmonary disease, which was treated by percutaneous drainage controlled by CT and specific antibiotic therapy. We revise the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of mammary tuberculosis. (orig.)

  4. Role of axillary lymph node ultra-sound and large core biopsy in the preoperative assessment of patients selected for sentinel node biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Jacopo; Boeri, Cecilia; Vanzi, Ermanno; Nori Bufalini, Filippo; Masi, Andrea; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Londero, Viviana; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Distante, Vito; Simoncini, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    important sonographic alteration was the gradual reduction in hilar echogenicity (seen in 100% metastatic nodes); conversely, hilar denting of irregularities, as well as dimensional criteria, proved to be poorly specific. Conclusions: The sonographic assessment of axillary and internal mammary chain nodes, possibly in addition to core biopsy, improve the preoperative evaluation of breast cancer patients scheduled for conservative surgery of the breast (quadrantectomy) and the axilla (sentinel node biopsy). US findings suspicious for metastatic involvement of axillary lymph nodes should be considered as an exclusion criterion for sentinel node biopsy. A more widespread use of axillary node biopsy and an accurate sonographic evaluation of the excised lymph node increase the specificity of the procedure, allowing a better correlation between sonographic findings and definitive histology [it

  5. Cloning of Mammary Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    of-function of genes in the mammary gland , in particular, tumor-susceptibility genes in multiparous and aging mouse models for human breast cancer ...Ip, M. M. and Ash, B. B. Methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer . Chapter 26, 307-316. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers...all ages in both lines showed moderate to intense lacZ Unlike the MMTV-Cre line D, floxed alleles that pass staining of the submandibular gland (Figure

  6. Transcriptome analysis of embryonic mammary cells reveals insights into mammary lineage establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansbury, Olivia; Mackay, Alan; Kogata, Naoko; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Kendrick, Howard; Davidson, Kathryn; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Smalley, Matthew J; Zvelebil, Marketa; Howard, Beatrice A

    2011-08-11

    The mammary primordium forms during embryogenesis as a result of inductive interactions between its constitutive tissues, the mesenchyme and epithelium, and represents the earliest evidence of commitment to the mammary lineage. Previous studies of embryonic mouse mammary epithelium indicated that, by mid-gestation, these cells are determined to a mammary cell fate and that a stem cell population has been delimited. Mammary mesenchyme can induce mammary development from simple epithelium even across species and classes, and can partially restore features of differentiated tissue to mouse mammary tumours in co-culture experiments. Despite these exciting properties, the molecular identity of embryonic mammary cells remains to be fully characterised. Here, we define the transcriptome of the mammary primordium and the two distinct cellular compartments that comprise it, the mammary primordial bud epithelium and mammary mesenchyme. Pathway and network analysis was performed and comparisons of embryonic mammary gene expression profiles to those of both postnatal mouse and human mammary epithelial cell sub-populations and stroma were made. Several of the genes we have detected in our embryonic mammary cell signatures were previously shown to regulate mammary cell fate and development, but we also identified a large number of novel candidates. Additionally, we determined genes that were expressed by both embryonic and postnatal mammary cells, which represent candidate regulators of mammary cell fate, differentiation and progenitor cell function that could signal from mammary lineage inception during embryogenesis through postnatal development. Comparison of embryonic mammary cell signatures with those of human breast cells identified potential regulators of mammary progenitor cell functions conserved across species. These results provide new insights into genetic regulatory mechanisms of mammary development, particularly identification of novel potential regulators of

  7. International multicenter tool to predict the risk of four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel node macrometastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, Tuomo J; Audisio, R A; Heikkilä, P S

    2013-01-01

    centers were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. A multivariate predictive model was created and validated internally by 367 additional patients and then externally by 760 additional patients from eight different centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Prevalence of four or more tumor...

  8. Ischemia induced by coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch: a role for embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nuno; da Silva Castro, Alexandra; Pereira, Adriana; Silva, João Carlos; Almeida, Pedro Bernardo; Andrade, Aurora; Maciel, Maria Júlia; Pinto, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Non-occlusion of the internal mammary artery side branches may cause ischemia due to flow diversion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent angina after undergoing myocardial revascularization with a left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending bypass. He presented with impaired anterior wall myocardial perfusion in the setting of a patent left internal mammary artery side branch. Effective percutaneous treatment was carried out through coil embolization, with improved flow and clinical symptoms, confirmed through ischemia testing. Coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch is a controversial phenomenon and this type of intervention should be considered only in carefully selected patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal position of lymph nodes in a freemartin sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar PA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela M Gonella-Diaza, Luz Zoraya Duarte, Sergio Dominguez, Pedro A SalazarClínica de Grandes Animales, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Santander, ColombiaAbstract: In this freemartin case report the authors present the clinical and morphological findings of a freemartin ewe with an abnormal position of two lymph nodes. Freemartins, infertile females from mixed-sex twin pregnancies, are chimeras, having two cell populations: one of their own (XX DNA and one from their male twin (XY DNA. Freemartins can have varying degrees of phenotypic masculinization, including, in some cases, having active male gonads and exhibiting male behaviors such as heat detection and aggressiveness. During the clinical examination of the freemartin ewe, a morphological abnormality of the vulva, the presence of scrotal sacs, and a lack of mammary tissue development were noted. On inspection of the vaginal channel, an extremely enlarged clitoris, resembling a penis, was found. The clinical evidence suggested freemartinism. After the karyotyping diagnosis confirmation, a necropsy was performed and samples were taken for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were two structures found in the scrotal sacs; however, these were found to be lymph nodes, not testicles, and this was confirmed by CD3 lymph protein coloration. On histological study, the phallic structure showed corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea. The testicles were found retained inside the abdominal cavity, with the presence of atrophic seminiferous tubules. Although the position of the testicles in freemartins has been reported as highly variable, this is the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, that a case has been reported where lymph nodes have been found inside the scrotal sacs. It is possible that these were the inguinal lymph nodes, trapped inside the scrotum during fetal growth and development.Keywords: freemartinism

  10. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  11. Role of Prolactin in Promotion of Immune Cell Migration into the Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Riva; Walker, Ameae M

    2017-03-01

    Immune cells in the mammary gland play a number of important roles, including protection against infection during lactation and, after passing into milk, modulation of offspring immunity. However, little is known about the mechanism of recruitment of immune cells to the lactating gland in the absence of infection. Given the importance of prolactin to other aspects of lactation, we hypothesized it would also play a role in immune cell recruitment. Prolactin treatment of adult female mice for a period equivalent to pregnancy and the first week of lactation increased immune cell flux through the mammary gland, as reflected in the number of immune cells in mammary gland-draining, but not other lymph nodes. Conditioned medium from luminal mammary epithelial HC11 cell cultures was chemo-attractive to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells, B cells, macrophages, monocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Prolactin did not act as a direct chemo-attractant, but through effects on luminal mammary epithelial cells, increased the chemo-attractant properties of conditioned medium. Macrophages and neutrophils constitute the largest proportion of cells in milk from healthy glands. Depletion of CCL2 and CXCL1 from conditioned medium reduced chemo-attraction of monocytes and neutrophils, and prolactin increased expression of these two chemokines in mammary epithelial cells. We conclude that prolactin is an important player in the recruitment of immune cells to the mammary gland both through its activities to increase epithelial cell number as well as production of chemo-attractants on a per cell basis.

  12. Anastomose mamária interna-artéria pulmonar para o tratamento paliativo das cardiopatias congênitas cianóticas Internal mammary-pulmonary artery anastomosis for cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João J Carneiro

    1990-08-01

    pulmonary arteries. All of them have advantages and disadvantages, and the results will depend on the age and weight of the patients and the complexity of their heart disease. The present study reports seven internal mammary-pulmonary anastomosis, made through right (2 or left (5 thoracotomies, in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries, from 2 to 63 months of age (m = 18,4 and mean weight of 7.9 kg. There were two deaths (1st and 2nd days, due to thrombosis of the internal mammary, where it was clamped. Two patients went to total correction (1 month and 3 years later. In the first case, the shunt was made due to the general conditions of the child, despite the good size of the pulmonary arteries. In the second case (a 15 months old boy, in whom a classical Blalock-Taussig shunt was made and thrombosed in the 3rd month of life was possible to follow the progressive enlargement of the pulmonary arteries. In both the shunts were well functioning and the total correction was successful. Three patients are waiting for their best time for final procedures. Despite the small number and the short period of observations, the authors do believe that the internal mammary-pulmonary artery anastomisis is palliative option for these patients. The best results are obtained among the eldest children that are not in an emergency situation and not involving small pulmonary arteries.

  13. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  14. Mammary mechanisms for lactoferrin: interactions with IGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumrucker C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammary secretions but synthesized by many tissues. Bovine mammary tissue secretes microg/ml mass of Lf in milk, but during involution and prepartum periods, 20-80 mg per ml concentrations may be observed. While a number of functions have been ascribed to lactoterrin, only the antimicrobial and lymphocyte interactions have compelling experimental evidence of support. We report a new finding that lactoferrin binds to insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and not to other mammary secreted IGFBPs (IGFBP-2, -4. and -5. Furthermore, bovine Lf(bLf is found associated with membranes of mammary cells. We demonstrate that bovine Lf competes with IGF for binding to IGFBP-3 with ED50 competition of 3 microg per ml and displacement of 1 mg per ml to monomeric bLf. The tetrameric form that is favored by high concentrations of Lf and calcium, does not appear to bind IGFBP-3. Both IGFBP-3 and Lf have nuclear localization sequences that are reported to he key components of nuclear localization of proteins. We demonstrate that extracellular IGFBP-3 binds to membrane Lf and that Lf is the key to the entry of IGFBP-3 to mammary cellular nucleus. Additionally, we have shown that the internalization of Lf requires the presence of retinoids that also induces both IGFBP-3 and Lf synthesis in primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize a new role for Lf in the regulation and integration into the IGF System.

  15. Axillary lymph nodes siliconoma in a woman with intracapsular implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachkov, I.; Cvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Siliconoma, or silicone granuloma is the migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes, muscle and other non- ruptured or intact silicone implant. The latter is a relatively rare finding, and usually occurs in patients with extracapsular rupture of silicone prosthesis and has a typical ultrasound image. We present a case of a young woman with bilateral silicone prostheses placed 5 years ago, where in the right axilla are enlarged, structurally altered lymph nodes in the clinical and ultrasonography studies. Subsequent magnetic resonance examination shows intracapsular rupture ipsilateral silicone prosthesis and migration of silicon particles in the axillary lymph nodes. What you will learn: In this case we present twenty-three year old woman who reported pain and ‘swelling’ in the right axilla. The patient is with bilateral silicone prosthesis, she is not febrile and not reported other illness. After physical examination enlarged and tender lymph nodes in the right axilla was found. Several structurally altered and enlarged lymph nodes were visualized by ultrasound. These lymph nodes are hypoechogenic with obliterated fatty hilus. Due to the suspicion of silicone ‘extravasation’ in axillary lymph nodes, a magnetic resonance study of both mammary glands was performed. The images show intracapsular rupture of the right prosthesis without reliable data on silicone gel outside the fibrous capsule. Discussion: Siliconoma is a complication after plastic surgery of the breast and can affect both the axillary lymph nodes, and other lymphatic chains and also muscle and lung. Most frequently it occurs at damage of the extracapsular silicone prostheses. More rarely siliconoma occurs in siliconoma intracapsular damage, as in the presented case or in a silicone gel microbleed. Conclusion: The presence of siliconoma in axillary lymph nodes is relatively rare complication in plastic surgery of the breast. Methods of imaging diagnostic

  16. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of Recurrence and Outcome According to Breast Cancer Subtypes in Lymph Node–Negative Disease: Results From International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; Sun, Zhuoxin; Viale, Giuseppe; Price, Karen N.; Crivellari, Diana; Snyder, Raymond D.; Gelber, Richard D.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Cardoso, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate the pattern of recurrence and outcome of node-negative breast cancer (BC) according to major subtypes. Patients and Methods In all, 1,951 patients with node-negative, early-stage BC randomly assigned in International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX with centrally reviewed pathology data were included. BC subtypes were defined as triple negative (TN; n = 310), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (n = 369), and hormone receptor positive with high (luminal B–like [LB-like]; n = 763) or low (luminal A–like [LA-like]; n = 509) proliferative activity by Ki-67 labeling index. BC-free interval (BCFI) events were invasive BC recurrence in local, contralateral breast, nodal, bone, or visceral sites. Time to first site–specific recurrence was evaluated by using cumulative incidence and competing risks regression analysis. Results Median follow-up was 12.5 years. The 10-year BCFI was higher for patients with LA-like (86%) BC compared with LB-like (76%), HER2 (73%), and TN (71%; P < .001) BC. TN and HER2 cohorts had higher hazard of BCFI event in the first 4 years after diagnosis (pre-trastuzumab). LB-like cohorts had a continuously higher hazard of BCFI event over time compared with LA-like cohorts. Ten-year overall survival was higher for LA-like (89%) compared with LB-like (83%), HER2 (77%), and TN (75%; P < .001) BC. LB-like subtypes had higher rates of bone as first recurrence site than other subtypes (P = .005). Visceral recurrence as first site was lower for the LA-like subgroup, with similar incidence among the other subgroups when treated with chemotherapy (P = .003). Conclusion BC subtypes have different distant recurrence patterns over time. Defining different patterns of BC recurrence can improve BC care through surveillance guidelines and can guide the design of clinical studies. PMID:23897954

  18. Assessment the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph nodes lymphoscintigraphy using Technetium-99m phytate in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eftekhari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Technetium-99m phytate (99mTc-ph is a readily available radiopharmaceutical and has been suggested as a suitable agent for sentinel lymph node (SLN detection. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and false-negative rate of radionuclide SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph were investigated. "nMethods: Forty three women (mean age 52.3 years, range 31-74 years, who all had been diagnosed with breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients had no palpable axillary lymph nodes and had not undergone exploratory tumor resection or any drug treatment, previously. 99mTc-ph was injected peri-tumorally at four sites. Following SLN scintigraphic imaging, the patients were operated. Intraoperatively SLN were detected by a scintillation probe and a blue dye technique. Modified radical mastectomies with radical axillary dissection were performed with excision of the lymph nodes, to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN technique. "nResults: Intraoperative scinti-mapping identified SLN in 40 of the 43 patients (detection rate: 93%. Scintigraphically, none of the patients had internal mammary drainage or contralateral axillary involvement. The blue dye detection rate in 23 patients under study was 87% and all lymph nodes detected by the blue dye technique were also detected as "hot" spots in the lymphoscintigraphy. Using pathology as the gold standard, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of scintigraphic lymphatic mapping in detection of SLN by 99mTc-ph were 90% and 90.9%, respectively. The same values for blue dye lymphatic mapping were 84.6% and 77.7%, respectively. "nConclusion: 99mTc-ph used for SLN mapping is readily available, has low cost and gives better results than the blue dye technique. Long-term follow-up is required to assess accurately the incidence of failure in patients with negative SLN and the overall diagnostic accuracy and efficacy of the SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph as the radioactive tracer.

  19. Raman spectra of normal and cancerous mouse mammary gland tissue using near infrared excitation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaman; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Dai, H.; Shukla, N.; Weber, R.; Thakur, J. S.; Freeman, D. C.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Miller, R. F.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra of normal mammary gland tissues, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph nodes have been recorded using fresh tissue from mice. Tumors were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting 4T1 BALB/c mammary tumor (a highly malignant) cell line. The Raman spectra were collected using the same tissues that were examined by histopathology for determining the cancerous/normal state of the tissue. Differences in various peak intensities, peak shifts and peak ratios were analyzed to determine the Raman spectral features that differentiate mammary gland tumors from non-tumorous tissue. Tissues that were confirmed by pathology as cancerous (tumors) show several distinctive features in the Raman spectra compared to the spectra of the normal tissues. For example, the cancerous tissues show Raman peaks at 621, 642, 1004, 1032, 1175 and 1208 cm-1 that are assignable to amino acids containing aromatic side-chains such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. Further, the cancerous tissues show a greatly reduced level of phospholipids compared to the normal tissues. The Raman spectral regions that are sensitive to pathologic alteration in the tissue will be discussed.

  20. The role of mammary gland on 131-I uptake by neonatal of wistar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darussalam, M.; Soedjono, I.; Ilyas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to know the role of mammary gland of Wistar mice in transfering Iodine (I) to neonatal that fit in the role of I itself, and the degree of neonate need to I. Twenty four albino Wistar mouse post natal, were divided into 4 groups of six mouse for each, based on the interval observation. Each mice was given per oral 0.25 ml Na131-I with the activity of 300 uCi. The observation were pointed to tissues and organs such as: blood, liver, kidney, digestion cannal, tiroid gland, lymphe, mammary gland and urine; where as for neonatal: blood, kidney, digestion cannal, and the tiroid gland. The resuls show thet the high 131-I repentions were bound on tiroid gland (between 5.72 and 21.76 %) and on mammary gland (batween 9.30 and 21.90 %) of Wistar mice at lactation period in line with the increasing of mammary gland function and increasing the need of iodine for neonatal. In uptake of 131-I the thyroid gland of neonatal seemed superior compared to tissue or other neonatal organs. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  2. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-02-08

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions.

  3. Interleukin-8 as a prognostic serum marker in canine mammary gland neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Jardim, Bruna Victorasso; Leonel, Camila; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Zuccari, Debora Ap Pires de Campos

    2012-04-15

    Mammary gland tumors in female dogs are an excellent model for the clinic-pathological, diagnostic and prognostic investigation of mammary neoplasias. Prognostic and predictive markers are effective in research and routine diagnosis. Interleukins play a fundamental role in cancer, with a particular function in tumor growth, invasion and metastatic potential. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is known to possess tumorigenic and pro-angiogenic properties, and its overexpression is seen in a number of human tumors. IL-8 serum levels were determined and correlated with the clinic-pathological features and clinical evolution of mammary gland neoplasias in female dogs. IL-8 was measured by an immunoenzymatic assay in 30 female dogs with mammary neoplasias within a 12 month follow-up and in 50 control animals. The correlation between IL-8 concentration and clinical parameters was investigated. A statistically significant difference in the IL-8 serum levels was found in tumor-bearing dogs compared to the controls. In addition, when the individual parameters were evaluated, IL-8 content showed a positive correlation with the tumor progression, lymph node involvement, recurrence and death. Single and multivariate analyses showed associations between tumor recurrence, metastasis, high clinical staging and high IL-8, and also with the death risk. This was also consistent with the high IL-8 content in dogs showing tumor recurrence and metastasis. IL-8 superexpression has been detected in a number of human tumors, usually associated with a poor prognostic. Besides promoting angiogenesis, IL-8 is strongly related with the metastatic phenotype of mammary tumor cells. High IL-8 concentration was found in mammary gland cancer patients with advanced disease stages. Our results show that IL-8 can be used as a non-invasive prognostic marker for mammary gland cancer, and can be useful for the prediction of disease progression and recurrence in dogs with mammary neoplasias. The increased level of

  4. A comparison of survival between on-pump and off-pump left internal mammary artery bypass graft surgery for isolated left anterior descending coronary artery disease: an analysis of the UK National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Pullan, Mark; Oo, Aung; Mediratta, Neeraj; Chalmers, John; Bridgewater, Ben; Poullis, Michael

    2016-05-01

    To determine if the use of cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with all-cause in-hospital and mid-term survival for patients undergoing left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for single coronary vessel disease. Data from the National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit registry for all elective and urgent isolated CABG procedures performed between April 2003 and March 2013 in first-time cardiac surgery patients were extracted. Experienced surgeons (those with ≥300 records) were classified by their technique preference (as 'off-pump preference', 'mixed practice', 'on-pump preference') based on their entire isolated CABG data. In-hospital mortality and time to death were analysed using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models, respectively. From a total of 3402 records, 65.5% were performed off-pump. There were 16 (0.47%) in-hospital deaths: 6 (0.51%) in the on-pump group and 10 (0.45%) in the off-pump group. The risk-adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in the direction of on-pump was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39-3.04; P = 0.86]. The overall 5-year survival in the on- and off-pump groups was 93.1 and 93.4%, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in the direction of on-pump CABG was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.49; P = 0.28). Comparing off-pump cases performed by experienced CABG surgeons with a preference for the off-pump technique with on-pump cases performed by surgeons with a preference for the on-pump technique indicated a significant difference (HR for on-pump = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.19-2.47; P = 0.004). Elective and urgent first-time CABG for isolated LAD disease is associated with excellent mid-term survival in the England and Wales population, conferring a 5-year survival rate of 93.1 and 93.4% in the on-pump and off-pump groups, respectively. There was no difference in risk-adjusted survival between the on-pump and off-pump techniques when analysing all

  5. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    % of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...... in 20% of patients with cervical lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: OSNA in its current form is not suitable for use in OSCC SLNB due to inadequate expression of the CK19 target in all case. However, the same assay technology would likely be very promising if applied using a more ubiquitous squamous...

  6. Video-assisted breast surgery and 3-dimensional computed tomographic mammary lymphography (2). Sentinel node biopsy with 3D-CT mammary lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    I have studied endoscopic surgery for breast diseases and 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) lymphography for sentinel node (SN) biopsy. In this second in a series of reports, I explain the techniques of 3D-CT lymphography. 3D-CT lymphography can show the detailed lymphatic flow from the breast tumor toward the SNs and the exact local relation between axillary lymph nodes. I have developed this 3D image-processing system to more precisely depict the anatomical structures of the mammary lymphovascular system. This system allows us to systematically collect axillary lymph nodes, including SNs. 3D-CT lymphography was performed to mark SNs on the skin on the day before surgery. Above the tumor and near the areola, 2 ml of Iopamiron 300 was injected subcutaneously. Sixteen-channel multidetector-row helical CT scan images were obtained 1 minute after injection to detect SNs, and after 3 and 5 minutes to observe lymph flow into the venous angle. The scan images were reconstructed to produce 3D images. SN biopsy was performed with the dye-staining method and endoscopy. 3D-CT lymphography accurately showed lymphatic flow from the tumor to SNs. We classified the relationship between the lymph ducts and the drained SNs into 4 patterns. Following up 3 and 5 minutes after injection of the contrast agent, we can follow the lymph ducts beyond the SN into the second and third nodes toward the venous angle with the complex plexus. The figure of the axillary nodes shows 5 beads-like grouped nodes. 3D-CT lymphography can also recognize the metastatic patterns of the enhanced lymph node. These patterns will predict the metastasis before SN biopsy. 3D-CT lymphography can also be used to detect lymph flow from the arm to avoid harming the arm lymph channel during axillary node dissection and SN biopsy. With 3D-CT lymphography, we can more accurately and precisely recognize lymph flow and the positional relations of SN and axillary nodes to surrounding anatomical structures

  7. Long-term outcome in patients with four or more positive lymph nodes treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kiran; Haffty, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review management strategies with respect to systemic therapy, radiation therapy treatment techniques, and patient outcome (local regional control, distant metastases, and overall survival) in patients undergoing conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS + RT) who had four or more lymph nodes involved at the time of original diagnosis. Methods and Materials: Of 1040 patients undergoing CS + RT at our institution prior to December 1989, 579 patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Of those patients undergoing axillary lymph node dissection, 167 had positive nodes and 51 of these patients had four or more positive lymph nodes involved and serve as the patient population base for this study. All patients received radiation therapy to the intact breast using tangential fields with subsequent electron beam boost to the tumor bed to a total median dose of 64 Gy. The majority of patients received regional nodal irradiation as follows: 40 patients received RT to the supraclavicular region without axilla to a median dose of 46 Gy, 10 patients received radiation to the supraclavicular region and axilla to a median dose of 46 Gy. Thirty of the 51 patients received a separate internal mammary port with a mixed beam of photons and electrons. One patient received radiation to the tangents alone without regional nodal irradiation. Adjuvant systemic therapy was used in 49 of the 51 patients (96%) with 27 patients receiving chemotherapy alone, 14 patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and tamoxifen, and 8 patients receiving tamoxifen alone. Results: As of December 1994, with a minimum evaluable follow-up of 5 years and a median follow-up of 9.29 years, there have been 18 distant relapses, 2 nodal relapses, and 5 breast relapses. Actuarial statistics reveal a 10-year distant metastases-free rate of 65%, 10-year nodal recurrence-free rate of 96%, and a 10-year breast recurrence-free rate of 82%. All five patients who

  8. Radiation biology of human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.S.; Yang, T.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Hackett, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for growing mass cultures of normal mammary epithelial cells (from reduction mammoplasties) and, most recently, for growing mammary epithelial cells in a highly efficient clonal assay. The availability of this clonal assay has enabled us to examine the dose-response curves for x rays

  9. A study of technetium-labelled sulphide colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, J.L.; Agwunobi, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    With appropriate controls, experimental groups of inbred C 3 H mice bearing a syngeneic mammary carcinoma challenge in their right rear footpads were injected in both rear footpads with 99 Tcsup(m)ASC. Mice were sacrificed 15 and 90 min after the labelled colloid injection. Popliteal and sacral lymph nodes were weighed and counted in a well scintillation counter. A marked inhibition of labelled colloid uptake was demonstrated in regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area. Rabbits bearing VX 2 carcinoma in a forelimb received 99 Tc sup(m)ASC into each front footpad. Depression of labelled colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining tumour was evident on gamma-camera scanning. (author)

  10. A Phyllodes-like Mammary Tumor in a Breeding Galago (Otolemur garnettii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carissa P; Apple, Troy M; Burton, Bryce J; Sanders, Melinda E; Boyd, Kelli L; Salleng, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    In humans, phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial tumors that are further characterized as benign, borderline, or malignant according to their histomorphologic features. Phyllodes tumors are poorly responsive to treatment other than excision. NHP have a much lower frequency of mammary neoplasia than do humans, and none of the lesions reported previously in NHP are consistent with phyllodes tumors. Here we present the case of a mammary tumor in a northern greater galago (Otolemur garnettii) that was histologically characteristic of a malignant phyllodes tumor. An 11-y-old, multiparous, pregnant galago presented with a mass in the right middle mammary gland. A fine-needle aspirate yielded neoplastic epithelial cells. Because the animal was pregnant and showed no signs of skin ulceration, pain, or distress, she was allowed to deliver and nurse the infant. At 20 wk after initial presentation, the infant was weaned and the mother was euthanized. At necropsy, the mammary mass measured 3.5 × 2.5 × 1.5 cm, a 13-fold increase in volume since initial presentation. There was no evidence of metastasis in draining lymph nodes, lungs, or any other tissue examined. The tumor was composed of neoplastic stromal, glandular, and adipose tissues and was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor in light of its high stromal cellularity, high mitotic rate, and marked atypia. This tumor also exhibited liposarcomatous differentiation, which occurs frequently in malignant phyllodes tumors. To our knowledge, this report represents the first described case involving an NHP of a mammary tumor with characteristics consistent with human phyllodes tumors.

  11. Negative Expression of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM Correlated with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Nurwenda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is breast cancer that demonstrate the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC has an aggressive behaviour, high frequency of metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes and recurrence, and poor prognosis. Metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes will affect the rate of survival and recurrence in TNBC. Melanoma cell adhession molecule (MCAM is a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in the cells binding, which later became known as the marker for the progression and metastasis of melanoma and carcinoma of the prostate. However, MCAM role in mammary carcinoma still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between MCAM expression with incidence of metastatic to axillary lymph nodes in TNBC. This research was conducted during January 1st 2010–April 31st 2015 at Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. This study used a cross-sectional design, using lambda correlation test. MCAM immunohistochemical staining performed on 56 samples of paraffin blocks of TNBC group that did not metastasized and has metastasized to the axillary lymph nodes. A total of 22 of 28 (78.6% of TNBC metastatic to axillary lymph nodes have histoskor MCAM value <4 (negative, whereas 16 of 28 (57.1% of TNBC non-metastatic have histoskor value ≥ 4 (positive. Negative expression of MCAM correlated with TNBC that had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes, although not the only factor that influenced them.

  12. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary ...

  13. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. B. Derksen

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30–40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, which accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  14. Mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping on chest CT using spatial priors and random forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hoffman, Joanne; Zhao, Jocelyn; Yao, Jianhua; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system for mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping for chest CT. Methods: The contextual organs, trachea, lungs, and spine are first automatically identified to locate the region of interest (ROI) (mediastinum). The authors employ shape features derived from Hessian analysis, local object scale, and circular transformation that are computed per voxel in the ROI. Eight more anatomical structures are simultaneously segmented by multiatlas label fusion. Spatial priors are defined as the relative multidimensional distance vectors corresponding to each structure. Intensity, shape, and spatial prior features are integrated and parsed by a random forest classifier for lymph node detection. The detected candidates are then segmented by the following curve evolution process. Texture features are computed on the segmented lymph nodes and a support vector machine committee is used for final classification. For lymph node station labeling, based on the segmentation results of the above anatomical structures, the textual definitions of mediastinal lymph node map according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer are converted into patient-specific color-coded CT image, where the lymph node station can be automatically assigned for each detected node. Results: The chest CT volumes from 70 patients with 316 enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes are used for validation. For lymph node detection, their system achieves 88% sensitivity at eight false positives per patient. For lymph node station labeling, 84.5% of lymph nodes are correctly assigned to their stations. Conclusions: Multiple-channel shape, intensity, and spatial prior features aggregated by a random forest classifier improve mediastinal lymph node detection on chest CT. Using the location information of segmented anatomic structures from the multiatlas formulation enables accurate identification of lymph node stations.

  15. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  16. Breast metastases primitive extra mammary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.; Alonso, I.; Sabini, G.

    2004-01-01

    Less than 3% of all breast cancers originate from a primitive extra mammary. In 40% of cases it is the first manifestation of the primitive properly studied but 80% are associated with widely disseminated disease. It typically presents as a nodule on external quadrant s painful in half the cases. The majority (60%) of metastases derived from breast contralateral breast tumors are believed to via the lymphatic system. of the ; extra mammary the most common tumors are melanoma; hematologic and neuroendocrine. Although some imaging characteristics can guide diagnosis is histological. Cytology has good performance in experienced hands; but up to 25% of cases there may be difficulty in establishing diagnosis. Treatment depends on the type of tumor. Mastectomy should not be practiced or axillary clearance routine as is generally the context of disease disseminated. Radiation therapy may be useful for local control. It has been proposed laser ablation but no experience with it. The overall prognosis is bad. For a man of 45 with a breast metastasis occurs only a clear cell carcinoma of the kidney

  17. High COX-2 expression is associated with increased angiogenesis, proliferation and tumoural inflammatory infiltrate in canine malignant mammary tumours: a multivariate survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M I; Pires, I; Prada, J; Raposo, T P; Gregório, H; Lobo, L; Queiroga, F L

    2017-06-01

    COX-2 expression affects mammary tumourigenesis by promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation, encouraging metastatic spread and tumour-associated inflammation. Samples of canine mammary tumours (n = 109) were submitted to immunohistochemistry to detect COX-2, CD31, VEGF, Ki-67, CD3 and MAC387 expression. Concurrent high expression of COX-2/CD31, COX-2/VEGF, COX-2/Ki-67, COX-2/CD3 and COX-2/MAC was associated with elevated grade of malignancy, presence of intravascular emboli and presence of lymph node metastasis. Tumours with high COX-2 (P COX-2 and high CD31 (P = 0.008); high VEGF (P COX-2/CD31 and high COX-2/VEGF retained their significance after multivariate analysis arising as independent predictors of OS. Present data highlight the importance of COX-2 in canine mammary tumourigenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sialyl Lewis x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours: correlation with clinicopathological features and E-Cadherin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Salomé S; Matos, Augusto JF; Lopes, Célia; Marcos, Nuno T; Carvalheira, Júlio; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ) antigen is a carbohydrate antigen that is considered not only a marker for cancer but also implicated functionally in the malignant behaviour of cancer cells. Overexpression of sLe x is associated with enhanced progression and metastases of many types of cancer including those of the mammary gland. Canine mammary tumours can invade and give rise to metastases via either lymphatic or blood vessels. E-Cadherin is specifically involved in epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion. In cancer, E-Cadherin underexpression is one of the alterations that characterizes the invasive phenotype and is considered an invasion/tumour suppressor gene. Partial or complete loss of E-Cadherin expression correlates with poor prognosis in canine malignant mammary cancer. The aim of this study was to analyse the sLe x expression in canine malignant mammary tumours and to evaluate if the presence of sLe x correlates with the expression of E-Cadherin and with clinicopathological features. Fifty-three cases of canine mammary carcinomas were analysed immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against sLe x (IgM) and E-Cadherin (IgG). The clinicopathological data were then assessed to determine whether there was a correlation with sLe x tumour expression. Double labelled immunofluorescence staining was performed to analyse the combined expression of sLe x and E-Cadherin. sLe x expression was consistently demonstrated in all cases of canine mammary carcinomas with different levels of expression. We found a significant relationship between the levels of sLe x expression and the presence of lymph node metastases. We also demonstrated that when E-Cadherin expression was increased sLe x was reduced and vice-versa. The combined analysis of both adhesion molecules revealed an inverse relationship. In the present study we demonstrate the importance of sLe x in the malignant phenotype of canine malignant mammary tumours. Our results support the use of sLe x as a prognostic tumour

  19. Robotic Salvage Lymph Node Dissection After Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction and objective:Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy.Materials and Methods:A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA of 7.45ng/ mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4. Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C–Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection.Results:Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy.Conclusion:Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.

  20. Does the Mouse Mammary Gland Arise from Unipotent or Multipotent Mammary Stem/Progenitor Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gilbert H; Medina, Daniel

    2018-04-11

    The presence of long-lived lineage restricted progenitor and multipotent progenitor cells in adult mouse mammary gland for cancer development is compelling. Mammary cancers are phenotypically diverse This might be explained by transformation of long-lived, lineage-limited progenitor subpopulations. Mammary multipotent epithelial stem cells and their environmental niches must be considered, since their niche(s), once empty might be occupied by lineage-limited progenitors that are proximal. The existence of premalignant mammary populationst that manifest characteristics of lineage limitation argues strongly for this proposition.

  1. Leptin Regulation of Mammary Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pighetti, Gina

    2000-01-01

    .... The studies of this proposal were designed to test the hypothesis that the interaction of leptin with its receptor regulates normal and pathologic mammary epithelial cell proliferation and/or differentiation...

  2. Tumor-Specific Immunotherapy of Mammary Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    .... To enhance the activation of CD4(+) T helper cells, autologous mouse mammary tumor cells have been transfected with syngeneic MHC class II genes plus costimulatory and antigen presentation accessory molecules, including B7-1, B7-2...

  3. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  4. TGFa-myc Interactions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goals our project were twofold. First, we were to characterize rapid onset bitransgenic TGF alpha-Myc mouse mammary tumors for expression of sex steroid receptors and for indicators of epithelial differentiation status...

  5. Mammary fibroadenoma in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Tolga; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca B.; Sozgen, Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    A fibroadenoma was diagnosed in the left udder of a 3-month-old female Chios lamb. No recurrence was observed after surgery. Grossly, the tumor had a whitish-gray lobular appearance, and the lobules were interlaced with thin septa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of proliferating fibroepithelial tissue, including differentiated ducts lined by whorls and interlacing bundles of abundant loose fibrovascular stroma. Immunohistochemistry revealed the ductal epithelium to be positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and loose fibrovascular stroma was positive for vimentin and basal cells covering the ductal epithelium of alpha-smooth-muscle actin. Immunostaining for the estrogen and progesterone receptors was negative. A diagnosis of mammary fibroadenoma was made based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17993758

  6. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Kikuchi's disease of lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, Nadira; Haroon, Asna; Luqman, Muhammad; Jamal, Shahid

    2003-03-01

    To observe and document the clinical features, mode of presentation, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of Kikuchi's disease. An observational and descriptive study. Histopathology department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from January, 1997 to December, 2001. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-one cases of Kikuchi's disease of lymph node were diagnosed during the study period. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides were examined and histological features including extent of architectural effacement, zonation, extent of necrosis, and cellular composition were recorded. Special stains and immunohistochemistry was done. Kikuchi's disease was diagnosed in 31 cases (1.9%) out of 5762 lymph node biopsies received. There were 10 male and 21 female patients. Ten patients were aged between 21 and 25 years (33%). Eight (25.8%) patients were from pediatric age group. Thirty patients (96.4%) presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Thirteen (41.9%) lymph nodes showed fragmentation, while 8 (25.8%) revealed perinodal spill. Seventeen cases (54.7%) showed more than 50% necrosis. Zonation was seen in 13 (41.9%) cases. Immunohistochemistry showed majority of cells to be histiocytes and T-lymphocytes. Eight cases were followed-up, all of which showed regression of symptoms over 4-8 months. Kikuchi's disease is an uncommon cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in young females. Necrotic areas, karyorrhexis, zonation, absence of neutrophils and predominance of histiocytes with many plasmacytoid monocytes are features that aid in diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry can be used to differentiate it from malignant lymphoma. It is important for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of this entity as it is a benign disorder with a self-limiting course.

  8. [Lymph node tuberculosis treatment: from recommendations to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoix, J-P; Douadi, Y; Borel, A; Andrejak, C; El Samad, Y; Ducroix, J-P; Schmit, J-L

    2011-02-01

    Lymph node infection is the most frequent localization of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, there is still no consensus on the length of antimicrobial treatment. We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of infectious diseases and internal medicine in the Amiens Teaching Hospital, France. All patients diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis between 1998 and 2007 were included; some patients presented with bi- or multifocal tuberculosis. The aim of the study was a practice analysis. We studied 48 medical records, 16 were excluded for lack of more than 40% of data or because lymph node tuberculosis was non-active. The mean age of the 32 patients included was 49 years. The mean duration of treatment was 10.9 months (standard deviation 2.6, median 11, range 6-18). There was no statistical age difference between subgroups (lymph node tuberculosis versus multifocal tuberculosis). There was no significant difference between the 6-month treatment group and the 9-month treatment group in term of clinical response. One relapse was diagnosed, eight patients (25%) were lost to follow-up at 1 year after treatment. DISCUSSION AND REVIEW: No reliable published data was found as to the optimal duration of treatment. A high quality clinical trial should be carried out to suggest a consensus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cervical lymph node tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaatar, R; Biet, A; Smail, A; Strunski, V; Page, C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of surgery for diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymph node tuberculosis. This was a retrospective study from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2007 including 30 patients with cervical lymph node tuberculosis. The population included 60% autochthones with a mean age of 47.1 years and a female predominance (73.33%). The lymph nodes were most often supraclavicular, unilateral, firm, and a mean 3 cm at its largest span. Lymph nodes were excised for diagnosis in 22 patients, which demonstrated specific granulomatous and giant cell lesions with caseous necrosis in 21 patients out of 22. Five abscessed adenopathies required surgical drainage, and three cases required repeated lymph node cleaning after well-conducted medical treatment. Surgery retains an important place in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymph node tuberculosis.

  10. Lymph transport of soluble and insoluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallberger, J.A.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Lebel, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and transport mechanisms of soluble [Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ] and insoluble (polydispersed PuO 2 ) plutonium were studied in afferent and efferent lymph from the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs after simulated-wound exposures. Lymph was partitioned into acellular and cellular fractions. Plutonium nitrate concentration was higher in the acellular fraction of both afferent lymph and efferent lymph than in the cellular fraction, whereas the polydispersed PuO 2 concentration was higher in the cellular fraction at the end of the collection period. Discontinuous-gel, isoelectric-focusing-gel, and cellulose acetate strip electrophoresis indicated that transferrin and albumin were the two principal proteins transporting plutonium in the acellular fraction of both afferent and efferent lymph

  11. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  12. Mammary gland involution is associated with rapid down regulation of major mammary Ca**2+-ATPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty percent of calcium in milk is transported across the mammary cells apical membrane by the plasma membrane Ca**2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2). The effect of abrupt cessation of milk production on the Ca**2+-ATPases and mammary calcium transport is unknown. We found that 24 hours after stopping milk prod...

  13. First description of feline inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Alenza, M Dolores; Jiménez, Ángeles; Nieto, Ana I; Peña, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer is a special type of locally advanced mammary cancer that is associated with particularly aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis. The dog was considered the only natural model in which to study the disease because, until now, it was the only species known to present with inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) spontaneously. In the present study we describe clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of three cats with IMC, in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. We prospectively studied three female cats with clinical symptoms of IMC, identified over a period of 3 years. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations of Ki-67, and oestrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors were performed. All three animals presented with secondary IMC (postsurgical) characterized by a rapid onset of erythema, severe oedema, extreme local pain and firmness, absence of subjacent mammary nodules, and involvement of extremities. Rejection of the surgical suture was observed in two of the cats. Histologically, highly malignant papillary mammary carcinomas, dermal tumour embolization of superficial lymphatic vessels, and severe secondary inflammation were observed. The animals were put to sleep at 10, 15 and 45 days after diagnosis. Metastases were detected in regional lymph nodes and lungs in the two animals that were necropsied. All tumours had a high Ki-67 proliferation index and were positive for oestrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors. Our findings in feline IMC (very low prevalence, only secondary IMC, frequent association of inflammatory reaction with surgical suture rejection, steroid receptor positivity) indicate that feline IMC could be useful as an animal model of human inflammatory breast cancer, although the data should be considered with caution

  14. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Andreia A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several histopathological and clinical features of canine mammary gland tumours have been widely studied from a prognostic standpoint, considerable variations in tumour individual biologic behaviour difficult the definition of accurate prognostic factors. It has been suggested that the malignant behaviour of tumours is the end result of several alterations in cellular physiology that culminate in tumour growth and spread. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine, using a multivariable model, the independent prognostic value of several immunohistochemically detected tumour-associated molecules, such as MMP-9 and uPA in stromal cells and Ki-67, TIMP-2 and VEGF in cancer cells. Results Eighty-five female dogs affected by spontaneous malignant mammary neoplasias were followed up for a 2-year post-operative period. In univariate analysis, tumour characteristics such as size, mode of growth, regional lymph node metastases, tumour cell MIB-1 LI and MMP-9 and uPA expressions in tumour-adjacent fibroblasts, were associated with both survival and disease-free intervals. Histological type and grade were related with overall survival while VEGF and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with none of the outcome parameters. In multivariable analysis, only a MIB-1 labelling index higher than 40% and a stromal expression of MMP-9 higher than 50% retained significant relationships with poor overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that MMP-9 and Ki-67 are independent prognostic markers of canine malignant mammary tumours. Furthermore, the high stromal expressions of uPA and MMP-9 in aggressive tumours suggest that these molecules are potential therapeutic targets in the post-operative treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  15. Pattern of Colon Cancer Lymph Node Metastases in Patients Undergoing Central Mesocolic Lymph Node Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Nielsen, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended mesocolic lymph node dissection in colon cancer surgery seems to improve oncological outcome. A possible reason might be related to metastases in the central mesocolic lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mesocolic lymph node...... metastases, particularly in central lymph nodes, and the risk of skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament metastases as the argument for performing extended lymph node dissection. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and PubMed were searched using the terms colon or colorectal with sentinel node, lymph node mapping, or skip...... node; lymph node resection colon; and complete or total and mesocolic excision. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the risk of metastases in central, skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament lymph node metastases from colon adenocarcinomas in 10 or more patients were included. No languages were...

  16. Analysis of Multistep Mammary Tumorigenesis in Wnt-1 Transgenic Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shankar, Deepa

    1997-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is used as an insertion mutagen in transgenic mice that express the Wnt1 gene in their mammary gland, to produce additional events like activation of a second oncogene...

  17. Transgenic mice with mammary gland targeted expression of human cortactin do not develop (pre-malignant) breast tumors: studies in MMTV-cortactin and MMTV-cortactin/-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossum, Agnes GSH van; Bragt, Maaike PA van; Schuuring-Scholtes, Ellen; Ploeg, Jan CM van der; Krieken, Johan HJM van; Kluin, Philip M; Schuuring, Ed

    2006-01-01

    In human breast cancers, amplification of chromosome 11q13 correlates with lymph node metastasis and increased mortality. To date, two genes located within this amplicon, CCND1 and EMS1, were considered to act as oncogenes, because overexpression of both proteins, respectively cyclin D1 and cortactin, correlated well with 11q13 amplification. Cyclin D1 is involved in cell cycle regulation and the F-actin-binding protein cortactin in cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. To study the role of cortactin in mammary gland tumorigenesis, we examined mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-cortactin transgenic mice and MMTV-cortactin/-MMTV-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice. MMTV-cortactin transgenic mice were generated and intercrossed with previously described MMTV-cyclin D1 transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical, Northern and Western blot analyses were performed to study the expression of human transgene cortactin during mammary gland development and in mammary tumors. For tumor incidence studies, forced-bred, multiparous mice were used to enhance transgene expression in the mammary gland. Microscopical examination was performed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Mammary gland tumors arose stochastically (incidence 21%) with a mean age of onset at 100 weeks. This incidence, however, did not exceed that of aged-matched control FVB/N mice (38%), which unexpectedly, also developed spontaneous mammary gland tumors. We mimicked 11q13 amplification by generating MMTV-cortactin/-MMTV-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice but did not observe any synergistic effect of cortactin on cyclin D1-induced mammary hyperplasias or carcinomas, nor development of distant metastasis. From this study, we conclude that development of (pre-malignant) breast tumors in either wild type or MMTV-cyclin D1 mice was not augmented due to mammary gland targeted overexpression of human cortactin

  18. Transfer of Mammary Gland-forming Ability Between Mammary Basal Epithelial Cells and Mammary Luminal Cells via Extracellular Vesicles/Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Shih-Yin; He, Pei-Lin; Luo, Wen-Ting; Li, Hua-Jung

    2017-06-03

    Cells can communicate via exosomes, ~100-nm extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Non-adherent/mesenchymal mammary epithelial cell (NAMEC)-derived extracellular vesicles can be isolated from NAMEC medium via differential ultracentrifugation. Based on their density, EVs can be purified via ultracentrifugation at 110,000 x g. The EV preparation from ultracentrifugation can be further separated using a continuous density gradient to prevent contamination with soluble proteins. The purified EVs can then be further evaluated using nanoparticle-tracking analysis, which measures the size and number of vesicles in the preparation. The extracellular vesicles with a size ranging from 50 to 150 nm are exosomes. The NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes can be ingested by mammary epithelial cells, which can be measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Some mammary stem cell properties (e.g., mammary gland-forming ability) can be transferred from the stem-like NAMECs to mammary epithelial cells via the NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes. Isolated primary EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells cannot form mammary glands after being transplanted into mouse fat pads, while EpCAM lo /CD49f hi basal mammary epithelial cells form mammary glands after transplantation. Uptake of NAMEC-derived EVs/exosomes by EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells allows them to generate mammary glands after being transplanted into fat pads. The EVs/exosomes derived from stem-like mammary epithelial cells transfer mammary gland-forming ability to EpCAM hi /CD49f lo luminal mammary epithelial cells.

  19. Positional Variations in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M.; Ramsdell, Ann F.; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary...

  20. Growth control and differentiation in mammary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Borellini, F; Oka, T

    1989-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of the mammary gland are controlled by various hormones and other environmental factors. The role of hormones and growth factors in mammary development is discussed with regard to animal species, physiological stages, and the various experimental systems in vitro. In the female embryo, mammary morphogenesis is induced by the mesenchyme and is hormone independent, whereas androgens cause the partial necrosis of mammary epithelium in the male. Ductal growth during ado...

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianning He

    Full Text Available The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1 SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12 were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD, high animal fat diet (HAFD, and high fructose diet (HFruD. MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, and saturated fatty acids (SFA were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001 and HFruD (p < 0.01 mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03 but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10. The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04 mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative

  2. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  3. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  4. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  5. Sentinel lymph node identification with magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Most solid malignancies have a tendency to spread through the lymphatic system to locoregional lymph nodes. Presence of metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and is used to determine the optimal treatment of the patient. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) receive direct lymphatic drainage from

  6. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of sentinel lymph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. ... To determine effective histological examination of sentinel lymph node (SLN) sections for the detection of metastatic breast carcinoma. Methods. A prospective hospital-based ...

  7. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without... accordance with the provisions of part 311 of this subchapter. (c) Lactating mammary glands of cattle, sheep... as “Brucellosis reactors” or as “Mastitis elimination cows” shall be condemned. ...

  8. Bioluminescent human breast cancer cell lines that permit rapid and sensitive in vivo detection of mammary tumors and multiple metastases in immune deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Darlene E; Hornig, Yvette S; Oei, Yoko; Dusich, Joan; Purchio, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Our goal was to generate xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer based on luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 tumor cells that would provide rapid mammary tumor growth; produce metastasis to clinically relevant tissues such as lymph nodes, lung, and bone; and permit sensitive in vivo detection of both primary and secondary tumor sites by bioluminescent imaging. Two clonal cell sublines of human MDA-MB-231 cells that stably expressed firefly luciferase were isolated following transfection of the parental cells with luciferase cDNA. Each subline was passaged once or twice in vivo to enhance primary tumor growth and to increase metastasis. The resulting luciferase-expressing D3H1 and D3H2LN cells were analyzed for long-term bioluminescent stability, primary tumor growth, and distal metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bone and soft tissues by bioluminescent imaging. Cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of nude and nude-beige mice or were delivered systemically via intracardiac injection. Metastasis was also evaluated by ex vivo imaging and histologic analysis postmortem. The D3H1 and D3H2LN cell lines exhibited long-term stable luciferase expression for up to 4–6 months of accumulative tumor growth time in vivo. Bioluminescent imaging quantified primary mammary fat pad tumor development and detected early spontaneous lymph node metastasis in vivo. Increased frequency of spontaneous lymph node metastasis was observed with D3H2LN tumors as compared with D3H1 tumors. With postmortem ex vivo imaging, we detected additional lung micrometastasis in mice with D3H2LN mammary tumors. Subsequent histologic evaluation of tissue sections from lymph nodes and lung lobes confirmed spontaneous tumor metastasis at these sites. Following intracardiac injection of the MDA-MB-231-luc tumor cells, early metastasis to skeletal tissues, lymph nodes, brain and various visceral organs was detected. Weekly in vivo imaging data permitted longitudinal analysis of metastasis at

  9. Mammary fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia in a heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ferreira Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This manuscript described the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a rare case of mammary fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia in a 12-month-old Holstein heifer. A yellow, multilobulated, firm 20cm x 9cm x 6.5cm mass affecting the right quarters of the udder was observed. Total mastectomy was performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed severe hyperplasia of the mammary epithelium and numerous well-differentiated and mildly pleomorphic acini. Additionally, moderate proliferation of the fibrous connective tissue and the myoepithelial cells near the proliferating acini was evident. About 50% of the proliferating epithelial cells showed positive nuclear labeling for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and approximately one-third were positive for Ki-67. In addition, the myoepithelial cells exhibited diffuse nuclear immunoreactivity for p63. Based on the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of mammary fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia with probable influence of ovarian steroids was made.

  10. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  11. PTEN deficiency: a role in mammary carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, Teresa; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2001-01-01

    The PTEN gene is often mutated in primary human tumors and cell lines, but the low rate of somatic PTEN mutation in human breast cancer has led to debate over the role of this tumor suppressor in this disease. The involvement of PTEN in human mammary oncogenesis has been implicated from studies showing that germline PTEN mutation in Cowden disease predisposes to breast cancer, the frequent loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus, and reduced PTEN protein levels in sporadic breast cancers. To assay the potential contribution of PTEN loss in breast tumor promotion, Li et al. [1] crossed Pten heterozygous mice with mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Wnt-1 TG, Pten+/-) mice. Mammary ductal carcinoma developed earlier in Wnt-1 TG, Pten+/- mice than in mice bearing either genetic change alone, and showed frequent loss of the remaining wild-type PTEN allele. These data indicate a role for PTEN in breast tumorigenesis in an in vivo model

  12. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  13. Mammary tumorigenesis by radiation and its prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Makoto; Suzuki, Keiko; Inano, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Since the breast cancer in women emerged as an important risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, we have investigated to clarify the relationship between the induction of mammary tumors by irradiation and the developmental stage of the mammary glands that regulated by the action of endocrine hormones. Besides the radiation, epidemiological studies showed that the process of biosynthesis/metabolism of steroid hormones and hyperlipidemia may be associated with an increased risk of mammary carcinogenesis. In this context, we have undertaken investigations to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic activities of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a major secretory steroid of the adrenal glands, bezafibrate (BEZF), an anti-hyperlipidemic drug derived from clofibrate, and simvastatin (SIMV), a prodrug of a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, against diethylstilbestrol (DES)-dependent promotion/progression of rat mammary tumors initiated by γ-rays. Pregnant Wistar-MS rats received whole-body irradiation with 2.6 Gy of γ-rays from a 60 Co source at day-20 of pregnancy. The mother rats were fed a diet containing either 0.6% DHEA, 0.15% BEZF or 0.03% SIMV beginning immediately after weaning. They were then implanted subcutaneously with a pellet of DES (3 mg/pellet) in the interscapular area 30 days after termination of nursing and were observed for 1 year for detection of palpable mammary tumors starting from the time of pellet implantation. The administration of dietary DHEA, BEZF or SIMV together with DES implantation in rats irradiated in late pregnancy significantly decreased the total incidence of mammary tumors to 35%, 27% and 36%, respectively, for the 1 year period, while higher tumor incidence (96%, 90% and 88%) was observed in rats fed controldiet. However, neither the number of mammary tumors per tumor-bearing rat nor the latency period in the drug treated groups was different from that observed in the control group. From histological

  14. Progenitor Cell Fate Decisions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Generation of a functional mammary gland from a single stem cell. Nature 439:84-88 Sleeman KE, Kendrick H, Robertson D, Isacke CM, Ashworth A, Smalley...buds. (C) Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the mammary fat pad of NBSl+/-;neu mouse. Section is stained with hematoxylin and eosin; scale bar...epithelial cells and duelS. Scale bar= 50 pro. (E) Metastatic tumor in lung of NBSI+/-;neu mouse. Magnification is same as in (D). A 100 >.. 0 90 c

  15. Increased Lymph Node Yield Is Associated with Improved Survival in Rectal Cancer Irrespective of Neoadjuvant Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjaer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the lymph node yield achieved during rectal cancer resection is associated with survival. It is debated whether a high lymph node yield improves survival, per se, or whether it does so by diminishing the International Union Against Cancer stage drifting effect....... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implications of the lymph node yield in curative resected rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study was based on data from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database. SETTINGS: This was a national cohort study. PATIENTS: All 6793...... are associations rather than causal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Increased lymph node yield was associated with better overall survival in rectal cancer, irrespective of neoadjuvant treatment. Stage migration was observed....

  16. STAT5A Regulates the Survival of Mammary Epithelial Cells and the Development of Mammary Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humphreys, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The in vivo relationship between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and prolactin/Jak/Stat signaling pathways in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis was explored in transgenic nice overexpressing the TGF alpha gene (TGFalphaTG...

  17. Gene expression profiles of progestin-induced canine mammary hyperplasia and spontaneous mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N A S; van Wolferen, M E; Gracanin, A; Bhatti, S F M; Krol, M; Holstege, F C; Mol, J A

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in women as well as in female dogs. Although ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are known to play a key role in mammary tumorigenesis, conflicting reports have been obtained from in vivo and in vitro studies concerning the role of especially progesterone in mammary tumorigenesis. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of progesterone during the unusually long luteal phase of the estrous cycle is suspected to be the key event in canine mammary tumorigenesis. Accordingly, previous studies have shown the development of mammary hyperplasia in dogs upon prolonged progestin administration. In this study, a dog-specific cDNA microarray was used to identify oncogenic determinants in progestin-induced canine hyperplasia (CMH) and spontaneous mammary tumors (CMC) by comparing expression profiles to those obtained from mammary glands of healthy dogs. The CMH profile showed elevated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation such as PCNA, NPY, RAN and also alterations in expression of transcription factors and cell adhesion molecules. Whereas in CMC, major alterations to the expression of genes involved in cell motility, cytoskeletal organization and extra cellular matrix production was evident besides differential expression of cell proliferation inducing genes. The overall gene expression profile of CMH was related to cell proliferation where as that of CMC was associated with both cell proliferation as well as neoplastic transformation. In conclusion, our findings support a strong cell proliferation inducing potential of progestins in the canine mammary gland. Moreover, deregulated genes identified in CMC are potentially involved in their malignant and may serve as prospective therapeutic targets.

  18. The dog as a natural animal model for study of the mammary myoepithelial basal cell lineage and its role in mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasotto, R; Goldschmidt, M H; Castagnaro, M; Carnier, P; Caliari, D; Zappulli, V

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like tumours constitute 2-18% of all human breast cancers (HBCs). These tumours have a basal myoepithelial phenotype and it has been hypothesized that they originate from either myoepithelial cells or mammary progenitor cells. They are heterogeneous in morphology, clinical presentation, outcome and response to therapy. Canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) have epidemiological and biological similarities to HBCs, are frequently biphasic and are composed of two distinct neoplastic populations (epithelial and myoepithelial). The present study evaluates the potential of CMCs as a natural model for basal-like HBCs. Single and double immunohistochemistry was performed on serial sections of 10 normal canine mammary glands and 65 CMCs to evaluate expression of cytokeratin (CK) 8/18, CK5, CK14, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), calponin (CALP), p63 and vimentin (VIM). The tumours were also evaluated for Ki67 and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 expression. A hierarchical model of cell differentiation was established, similar to that for the human breast. We hypothesized that progenitor cells (CK5(+), CK14(+), p63(+) and VIM(+)) differentiate into terminally-differentiated luminal glandular (CK8/18(+)) and myoepithelial (CALP(+), SMA(+) and VIM(+)) cells via intermediary luminal glandular cells (CK5(+), CK14(+) and CK8/CK18(+)) and intermediary myoepithelial cells (CK5(+), CK14(+), p63(+), SMA(+), CALP(+) and VIM(+)). Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in canine complex carcinomas had labelling similar to that of terminally-differentiated myoepithelial cells, while those of carcinomas-and-malignant myoepitheliomas with a more aggressive biological behaviour (i.e. higher frequency of vascular/lymph node invasion and visceral metastases and higher risk of tumour-related death) were comparable with intermediary myoepithelial cells and had significantly higher Ki67 expression. The majority of CMCs examined were negative for expression of HER-2. The biphasic appearance of

  19. Dietary genistein stimulates mammary development in gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible role of the phytoestrogen, genistein, on prepubertal development of mammary glands, hormonal status and bone resorption was investigated in gilts. Forty-five gilts were fed a control diet containing soya (CTLS, n = 15), a control diet without soya (CTL0, n = 15) or the CTLS diet supplem...

  20. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. E. Lyah; V. G. Guryanov; E. A. Yakobson

    2016-01-01

    Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT) and malignant thermograms (MT).

  1. MIBI-99mTc mammary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayosky, Maria C.; Parma, Elvira P.; Armesto, Amparo M.; Zarlenga, Ana C.; Cresta, Carlos; Azar, Maria E.; Noblia, Cristina

    1999-01-01

    121 patients suspected of breast cancer were studied with MIBI- 99m Tc to evaluate the suitability of the mammary scintigraphy in patients with doubtful cancer diagnosis.The results show 93 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity and indicate the usefulness of this procedure to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis

  2. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  3. The association of exosomes with lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2017-07-01

    Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells. Interactions with endothelial cells are also likely. The functional significance of these associations depends on exosome type. Continued investigations into the relationship between exosomes and lymph nodes will further our understanding of how exosomes regulate immune cells subsets and may serve to inspire new exosome based therapeutics to treat a variety of diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intravital Microscopy of the Inguinal Lymph Node

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, Stephanie L.; Payne, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN's), located throughout the body, are an integral component of the immune system. They serve as a site for induction of adaptive immune response and therefore, the development of effector cells. As such, LNs are key to fighting invading pathogens and maintaining health. The choice of LN to study is dictated by accessibility and the desired model; the inguinal lymph node is well situated and easily supports studies of biologically relevant models of skin and genital mucosal infe...

  5. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  6. Gammascintigraphy of metastases of the lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shishkina, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    It was indicated that according to the degree of informative value all the methods used in this study can be listed as follows: the method of combined use of positive and negative scintigraphy, the method of positive scintigraphy with Ga 67 -citrate (the tymph nodes above the diagram) and Tc 99 -pertechnate (the lymph nodes below the diaphragm), the method of indirect radionuclide lymphography with colloids. The main indices of radionuclide methods in the diagnosis of the lymph node metastatic involvement are presented

  7. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Axillary lymph node treatment in breast cancer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick A; Suggs, Jeanann; Mangana, Sophy H

    2014-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) is the standard of care for staging of breast cancer. Patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx) do not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI). However, if a patient has a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx), then axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) is the standard treatment. Recent studies, notably the Z-0011 and MA-20 trials, have demonstrated that omission of axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did not decrease overall survival. MA-20 demonstrated that inclusion of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in addition to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) did increase survival when compared to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) without regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Ongoing studies are randomizing patients to axillary lymph nodal dissection (ALND) or regional nodal irradiation (RNI) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNbx).

  9. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  10. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  11. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M; O’Leary, Patrick; Callanan, John J; Crown, John; Gallagher, William M; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw

    2012-01-01

    Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques

  12. First signs of late-presenting cervical lymph node metastasis in oral cancers during follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, J; Uzawa, N; Ohyama, Y; Michi, Y; Kawamata, A; Mizutani, M; Yamashiro, M

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the presence of lymph node metastasis. Therefore, the early detection of late-presenting cervical lymph node metastasis is important. Although many studies have assessed diagnostic modalities for detecting metastatic cervical lymph nodes, no study has evaluated the process, especially first signs, for detecting late-presenting cervical lymph node metastasis. A retrospective analysis comparing methods for detecting the first signs of late-presenting lymph node metastasis was performed. A total of 65 OSCC patients were assessed. These patients were identified retrospectively as having presented late metastasis during follow-up after initial treatment with curative intent. The findings of four detection methods were analyzed: palpation, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and subjective symptoms. The numbers of cases identified by each method were as follows: palpation, 31 (47.7%); ultrasonography, 17 (26.1%); computed tomography, 12 (18.5%); and subjective symptoms, 5 (7.7%). Palpation played a major role in the discovery of late-presenting lymph node metastasis. In contrast, metastatic lymph nodes were detected by other methods in about half of the cases. The results suggest a possible stratification of the various methods used for metastatic lymph node detection, depending on the characteristics of individual cases. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of mediastinal lymph node metastasis of lung cancer by thin-section computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwa, Naoki; Yamada, Kozo; Nakayama, Haruhiko [Kanagawa Cancer Center (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the predictive value of evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. We reviewed 110 patients with operable lung cancer, and compared preoperative thin-section CT findings and postoperative histo-pathological findings. The positive criteria for a CT diagnosis based on not only node size ({>=}10 mm), but external morphological evaluation (long axisinternal morphological evaluation (homogeneous). Specificity and accuracy were better than in the former reports (94.6% : 89.7%), but sensitivity was not improved (55.2%). Considering internal morphological features, lymph nodes showing a central defect resembling a doughnut were all truly negative. These positive criteria improved specificity and accuracy, but not sensitivity. Usage with other modalities is desirable to improve prospective evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer. (author)

  14. Reconstitution of Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis by Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shuxian; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Fu, Yigong; Avraham, Shalom; Lim, Bing; Avraham, Hava Karsenty

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mam...

  15. MR angiography and determination of the flow reserve after minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) surgery of the left internal mammary arteria in comparison to the multidetector-row CT; MR-Angiographie und Flussreservenbestimmung nach minimalinvasiver direkter Koronararterien-Bypass(MIDCAB)-Operation der linken Arteria mammaria interna im Vergleich zur Mehrzeilen-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, N.I.; Fenchel, M.; Kuettner, A.; Kramer, U.; Claussen, C.D.; Miller, S. [Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany); Stauder, H.; Scheule, A.M. [Abt. Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie, Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate graft patency, flow and flow reserve in patients with minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts using a combined MR protocol with phase-contrast technique and MR angiography. Material and methods: At a 1.5T Magnetom Sonata (SIEMENS), 19 symptomatic (angina CCS I-III, intermittent thoracic discomfort, scar disorders) patients (59.9{+-}7.9 years old) with 19 left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts implanted in minimal invasive technique were examined 6.9{+-}1.5 years post surgery. Contrast enhanced MR angiography (TR 2.5 ms, TE 1 ms, flip angle 20 , spatial resolution 1.4 x 0.9 x 1.0 mm{sup 3}, breath hold technique, no ECG-triggering, 25 ml Gd-DTPA) was performed to assess bypass patency. Phase-contrast flow measurements with retrospective gating (TR 41 msec, TE 3.2 msec, flip angle 30 , spatial resolution 1.1 x 1.1 x 5 mm{sup 3}, temporal resolution 42 msec, venc 90 cm/sec) were applied in the IMA grafts at rest and after stress induction with dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg/BW). For comparison, graft patency was evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography (16-row CT). In 9 patients a selective catheter angiography was performed. Results: MIDCAB grafts were occluded in 4/19 patients. In 4 patients the anastomosis to LAD was highly stenotic (>70%) at MDCT (2 experienced investigators in consensus reading). In MRA 9 grafts could be delineated completely including the distal anastomosis to LAD (47%). In 9 patients the distal part could not be evaluated. In patients with patent grafts (MDCT), a significant improvement of graft flow (at rest 75.4{+-}33.3 ml/min; after stress 202.7{+-}49.6; P<0.002) and flow reserve (patent grafts 3.0{+-}1.1; stenotic grafts 1.5{+-}0.2, P<0.02; occluded grafts 0.9{+-}0.2, P<0.01) after stress induction was detected. Diastolic-to-systolic peak velocity ratios (D/S-PVR) at baseline were not significant between patent and stenotic grafts. Mean flow at baseline and

  16. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  18. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M

    2013-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  19. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  20. MAMMARY NEOPLASMS IN DOGS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. C. Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to gather information on breast tumors that occur in dogs addressing characteristics of the mammary glands from its embryogenesis until the occurrence of this disease and its treatment. The mammary tumors in female dogs share many characteristics with breast tumors in women, and the dog is becoming a major ally in the clarification, treatment and search for new therapies for oncological diseases. They are the most common type of cancer in the species and are increasingly present in the routine of veterinary clinics due to increased longevity of pets, and all breeds are predisposed. Thus, knowledge of several aspects of this disease for a higher probability of cure is important.

  1. Mammary gland stem cells: more puzzles than explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimala, Suneesh; Bisana, Swathi; Kumar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin (-) CD29 (i) CD49f (i) CD24 (+/mod) Sca- 1 (-) cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  2. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jiyoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs.

  3. Preoperative evaluation of lymph node spread of rectal cancer with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itabashi, Michirou (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    Selection of adequete method of surgical operation based on the accurate pre-operative diagnosis should be an important procedure for rectal cancer. However, it was difficult to give correct diagnosis for the pre-operative judgement in metastasis to the lateral lymph nodes. The authors examined 64 cases of rectal cancer for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis using MRI. For metastasis to the lateral rectal lymph nodes, 0.5 tesla MRI device gave accurate informaiton of 95.5% as compared to giving less information with 0.15 tesla MRI or CT. In the diagnosis of metastasis to the lateral lymph nodes, a new method of diagnosis with MRI (sagittal tomography at the pelvic lateral wall) was developed, and the usefulness of the method was investigated. Identification of the vascular system by the present method was 100% for the internal iliac artery, 100% for the external iliac artery, 86.7% for the peripheral branch of the internal iliac artery, 100% for the obturator artery, 60.0% for the right obturator nerve and 86.7% for the left obturator nerve. Accurate diagnosis of the pelvic sagittal tomography was found in 93.3% for the middle rectal lymph node metastasis, 93.3% for the metastasis to the obturate lymphnodes, being better than diagnoses by 0.5 tesla MRI device 79.2% and CT 87.3%. (author).

  4. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  5. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  6. Technical note: Mammary gland ultrasonography to evaluate mammary parenchymal composition in prepubertal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, R L; Guimarães, S E F; Daniels, K M; Fontes, M M S; Machado, A F; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2017-02-01

    Bovine mammary gland development studies are often terminal or involve invasive biopsy procedures. Therefore, noninvasive means of assessing mammary development should be considered as alternative methods in live animals. The objective was to test if mammary ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive way to estimate mammary parenchyma (PAR) composition in prepubertal dairy heifers with different average daily body weight gains. In the 84 d preceding, the ultrasound exam heifers were maintained in 1 of 3 treatment groups. Individual heifers were fed a high gain (1 kg/d; n = 6), low gain (0.5 kg/d, n = 6), or maintenance (n = 6) treatment diet. To achieve desired body weight gains, heifers were fed differing amounts of the same silage-based diet. Mammary glands of 18 crossbred heifers Holstein:Gyr underwent a single mammary ultrasound exam immediately before heifer slaughter, which took place when heifers weighed 142.0 ± 8.0 kg and were 200 d old. The 4 mammary glands of each heifer were evaluated using a real-time B-mode ultrasound machine equipped with a 6.5-MHz micro-convex transducer. Digital images (8-bit) of glands were obtained and PAR was identified within gland. Average pixel values per unit of PAR area were determined for each gland and analyzed at the level of heifer. Pixel results were interpreted on the basis that lower average pixel values reflect PAR with relatively high amounts of protein as opposed to fat. To help validate that the pixel value within PAR is associated with composition of PAR, pixel findings were compared with histological [number of adipocytes in PAR (Nad) and epithelial area in PAR (Ep)] and biochemical [percent crude protein in PAR (%CP), percent ether extract in PAR (%EE), PAR weight (WPAR), and mammary fat pad weight (WFAT)] composition of PAR in these same heifers. Within PAR, %EE and WFAT were positively correlated with pixel values, whereas %CP, Ep, and Nad were negatively correlated. Parenchyma weight did not correlate

  7. Enhancement characteristics of retroperitoneal lymphomatous lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Aaloekken, Trond Mogens [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], e-mail: trond.mogens.aalokken@rikshospitalet.no; Graff, Bjoern Anton [Div. of Diagnostics, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Kongsberg Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway); Holte, Harald [Dept. of Oncology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck and the mediastinum showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose: To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the retroperitoneum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, to test whether differences between these curves could be of diagnostic value, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the retroperitoneum with the curves of LLN of the neck and the mediastinum from previous similar investigations. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with LLN of the retroperitoneum (three with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 21 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal retroperitoneal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and the investigation of mediastinal lymph nodes comprised 24 patients with LLN. Results: The enhancement curves of the retroperitoneal LLN had significantly lower attenuation than those of the retroperitoneal control nodes. A combination of peak contrast value and time to peak adjusted to total body weight yielded a diagnostic accuracy which at the best showed a sensitivity of 90.5% with a specificity of 82.6%. The LLN of the retroperitoneum had higher attenuation values than corresponding nodes of the mediastinum but no significant difference was found between LLN of the retroperitoneum and LLN of the neck in previous similar investigations. Conclusion: The comparison of enhancement curves of retroperitoneal LLN with retroperitoneal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck and of the mediastinum. The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved by combining the parameters peak contrast value and time to peak and adjusting these values to the body weight. Peak enhancement of the

  8. Simultaneous dual pathology in lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [Abstract] Tubercuous lymphadenitis and Non Hodgkins’ Lymphoma are common in India. As both diseases can occur in elderly persons there is a definite chance of co-existence of both diseases; but that coexistence has not been reported. Here we present a unique case in an elderly woman who had synchronous double pathology of tuberculosis (TB and Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL of the lymph nodes.     Key words:- lymph nodes, tuberculosis (TB, Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL.

  9. SU-E-T-59: A Novel Multi-Beam Dynamic IMRT with Fixed-Jaw Technique for Left Breast Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Nodes Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Yang, Z; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study was to investigate the dosimetric benefit of a novel intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for irradiating the left breast and regional lymph node (RLN). Methods: The breast and RLN (internal mammary node and periclavicular node) and normal tissue were contoured for 16 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with RT after lumpectomy. Nine equi-spaced fields IMRT (9 -field IMRT), tangential multi-beam IMRT (tangential-IMRT) and IMRT with fixed-jaw technique (FJT-IMRT) were developed and compared with three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). Prescribed dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose distributions and dose volume histograms were used to evaluate plans. Results: All IMRTs achieved similar target coverage and substantially reduced heart V30 and V20 compared to the 3DCRT. The average heart mean dose had different changes, which were 9.0Gy for 9-field IMRT, 5.7Gy for tangential-IMRT and 4.2Gy for FJT-IMRT. For the contralateral lung and breast, the 9-field IMRT has the highest mean dose; and the FJT-IMRT and tangential-IMRT had similar lower value. For the thyroid, both 9-field IMRT and FJT-IMRT had similar V30 (20% and 22%) and were significantly lower than that of 3DCRT (34%) and tangential-IMRT (46%). Moreover, the thyroid mean dose of FJT-IMRT is the lowest. For cervical esophagus and humeral head, the FJT-IMRT also had the best sparing. Conclusion: All 9-field IMRT, tangential-IMRT and FJT-IMRT had superiority for targets coverage and substantially reduced the heart volume of high dose irradiation. The FJT-IMRT showed advantages of avoiding the contralateral breast and lung irradiation and decreasing the thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophagus radiation dose at the expense of a slight monitor units (MUs) increasing.

  10. Automatic definition of the central-chest lymph-node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P M; Higgins, William E

    2011-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Central to the lung-cancer diagnosis and staging process is the assessment of the central-chest lymph nodes. This assessment requires two steps: (1) examination of the lymph-node stations and identification of diagnostically important nodes in a three-dimensional (3D) multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) chest scan; (2) tissue sampling of the identified nodes. We describe a computer-based system for automatically defining the central-chest lymph-node stations in a 3D MDCT chest scan. Automated methods first construct a 3D chest model, consisting of the airway tree, aorta, pulmonary artery, and other anatomical structures. Subsequent automated analysis then defines the 3D regional nodal stations, as specified by the internationally standardized TNM lung-cancer staging system. This analysis involves extracting over 140 pertinent anatomical landmarks from structures contained in the 3D chest model. Next, the physician uses data mining tools within the system to interactively select diagnostically important lymph nodes contained in the regional nodal stations. Results from a ground-truth database of unlabeled lymph nodes identified in 32 MDCT scans verify the system's performance. The system automatically defined 3D regional nodal stations that correctly labeled 96% of the database's lymph nodes, with 93% of the stations correctly labeling 100% of their constituent nodes. The system accurately defines the regional nodal stations in a given high-resolution 3D MDCT chest scan and eases a physician's burden for analyzing a given MDCT scan for lymph-node station assessment. It also shows potential as an aid for preplanning lung-cancer staging procedures.

  11. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: A Wnt Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097

  12. P-Cadherin Expression in Feline Mammary Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Figueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for molecular markers in the feline mammary gland, namely, the adhesion molecules belonging to the cadherin family, is useful in the understanding of the development of mammary carcinomas in felines and humans. To study P-cadherin expression in the feline mammary gland, 61 samples of normal (n=4, hyperplastic (n=12, and neoplastic (n=45 feline mammary tissues were examined. In both normal and hyperplastic mammary tissues as well as in benign tumours, P-cadherin immunolabelling was restricted to myoepithelial cells. In malignant tumours, however, there was an aberrant epithelial P-cadherin immunoexpression in 64.1% (n=25 of cases, with a membranous and/or cytoplasmic pattern of distribution. A statistically significant relationship was seen between epithelial P-cadherin expression and malignant mammary lesions (P=0.0001. In malignant mammary tumours, there was likewise a statistically significant relationship between aberrant P-cadherin immunoexpression and histological grade (P=0.0132. Aberrant epithelial P-cadherin expression seems to be related to malignancy in the feline mammary gland. To confirm the results of this investigation, further studies with larger samples and follow-up studies are warranted.

  13. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  14. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-28

    Apr 28, 2012 ... cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells ... Abbreviations used: CK, cytokeratin; EBs, embryoid bodies; ER, estrogen receptor; ES cells, embryonic stem cells; LRC, label retaining cells;. MaSCs, mammary gland ...

  15. The Possible Relationship Between Mammary Dysplasia and Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: There is need to resolve the continuing difficult question regarding the possible relationship between mammary dysplasia and breast cancer. Method: This is a 30-year study of the incidences of both mammary dysplasia and breast cancer occurring among the Igbos, a major ethnic group in Nigeria, West Africa. Results: ...

  16. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... First, the igf-1 gene was cloned from liver tissue harvested from a Saanen dairy goat and inserted downstream of the ... expression plasmids that can target expression of IGF-1 to mammary tissue, with the goal of increasing milk production. ... loss of mammary epithelial cells during the recession phase of ...

  17. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  18. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-28

    Apr 28, 2012 ... mouse mammary epithelial cells are pluripotent, self-renewing and sensitive to TGF-beta1 expression. Oncogene 24 552–560. Brisken C 2002 Hormonal control of alveolar development and its implications for breast carcinogenesis. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 7 39–48. Buehring GC 1972 Culture of ...

  19. Genes Altered by Intracisternal A Particles in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    present in many mouse mammary tumors and preneoplasias, whereas little or no expression is detected in normal mammary glands from virgin, pregnant...agarose gel and gel purified using either the MERmaid isolation kit or the Geneclean isolation kit (both Bio 101) depending on the size of the amplicon. The

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    M.S. (SYD.) Department of Surgery, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. General Surgery. TABLE I. CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCERS AND LYMPH. NODES. Primary tumour ... The 3 cases of dye failure illustrate the problems encountered with this ... undergone cosmetic surgery, ID injection of dye into the skin.

  1. Groin surgery and the sentinel lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; van der Zee, AGJ

    Vulvar cancer is a rare disease. Squamous-cell carcinomas account for 90% of vulvar cancers. The main mode of spread is lymphogenic to the inguinofemoral lymph nodes. Therefore, elective unior bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy is part of the standard treatment in combination with radical

  2. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  3. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: The Role of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, C.; van Diest, P.J.; Vooijs, M.

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation and involution, a process controlled by stem cells. The last decade much progress has been made in the identification of signaling pathways that function in these stem cells to control self-renewal, lineage commitment and epithelial differentiation in the normal mammary gland. The same signaling pathways that control physiological mammary development and homeostasis are also often found deregulated in breast cancer. Here we provide an overview on the functional and molecular identification of mammary stem cells in the context of both normal breast development and breast cancer. We discuss the contribution of some key signaling pathways with an emphasis on Notch receptor signaling, a cell fate determination pathway often deregulated in breast cancer. A further understanding of the biological roles of the Notch pathway in mammary stem cell behavior and carcinogenesis might be relevant for the development of future therapies. PMID:21506923

  4. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri AJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Almir José Sarri,1 Rogério Dias,2 Carla Elaine Laurienzo,1 Mônica Carboni Pereira Gonçalves,3 Daniel Spadoto Dias,2 Sonia Marta Moriguchi4 1Department of Physical Therapy, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Mastology, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 4Department of Tropical Diseases and Diagnostic Imaging, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using lymphoscintigraphy (LS.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images. For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%.Results: There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01 and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01 in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004, while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan

  5. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus invasion into bovine mammary epithelial cells by contact with live Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen.

  6. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Invasion into Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells by Contact with Live Lactobacillus casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S.; Rault, Lucie; Berkova, Nadia; Le Loir, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen. PMID:23183972

  7. Mammary fibroadenoma with pleomorphic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Najla; Kallel, Rim; Ellouze, Sameh; Mellouli, Manel; Gouiaa, Naourez; Mnif, Héla; Boudawara, Tahia

    2015-01-01

    The presence of enlarged and pleomorphic nuclei is usually regarded as a feature of malignancy, but it may on occasion be seen in benign lesions such as mammary fibroadenomas. We present such a case of fibroadenoma occurring in a 37-year-old woman presenting with a self-palpable right breast mass. Histological examination of the tumor revealed the presence of multi and mononucleated giant cells with pleomorphic nuclei. The recognition of the benign nature of these cells is necessary for differential diagnosis from malignant lesions of the breast. fibroadenoma - pleomorphic stromal cells - atypia - breast.

  8. Nitric Oxide in Mammary Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    vance. Ann Surg 221: 339-349, 1995 38. Edwards P, Cendan JC, Topping DB, Moldawer LL, Mackay 24. Albina JE: On the expression of nitric oxide synthase...Carcinogen 16: 20-31, 68. Kibbey MC, Grant DS, Kleinman HK: Role of SIKVAV site 1996 of laminin in promotion of angiogenesis and tumor growth: 55. Albina ...therapy on the development and progression of 77. Albina JE, Abate JA, Henry WL Jr.: Nitric oxide production spontaneous mammary tumors in C3H/HCJ mice

  9. Postsurgical telecobalt radiotherapy of mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of the study is a literature survey. The second part deals with patients and results of radiotherapy of the Klinik and Poliklinik fuer Radiologie der Universitaet Muenchen. The patients with mammary carcinomas, who were treated between 1960 and 1969 were classified according to the TNM classification or they were attributed to stage I or II or III. When the therapy was begun, the mean age of the patients was 55 years, 80% of the patients was between 40 and 60 years old, 45% of the patients were in stage I, 35% in stage II and almost 20% in stage III. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of mammary tomosynthesis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rayre Janaína Vieira; Perini, Ana Paula; Santos, William de Souza; Vedovato, Uly P.; Neves, Lucio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the results of the research on the evaluation of radiation doses usually applied in mammary procedures, using the Monte Carlo method. A virtual environment was created, to mimic the procedures room, including the room, its components, patient and source. The spectrum was obtained from the literature. The percentage of energy deposited compared to energy deposited in the breast was determined, and the scattered radiation was absorbed in specific areas. The regions of the head and neck were the most affected by scattered radiation. (author)

  11. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  12. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape [38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes ...earlier study showed that the lipid composition in adipose tissue of virgin rat mammary glands resemble that of the retroperitoneal adipose [99]. 609Y. Su...mammary epith indicate an ongoing dialog between the mammary compartments. Mammary epithelial and m The composite actions of each mammary cell type

  13. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  14. Effect of Ovariohysterectomy at the Time of Tumor Removal in Dogs with Mammary Carcinomas: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, V M; Peña, L; Díez Córdova, L; Illera, J C; Skjerve, E; Breen, A M; Cofone, M A; Langeland, M; Teige, J; Goldschmidt, M; Sørenmo, K U

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian hormones play crucial roles in mammary carcinogenesis. However, whether ovarian ablation by ovariohysterectomy (OHE) improves the prognosis in dogs with mammary carcinomas is unclear. Determine if OHE at the time of mastectomy improves the prognosis in dogs with mammary carcinomas and evaluate if hormonal factors influence the effect of OHE. Sixty intact dogs with mammary carcinomas. Dogs were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo OHE (n = 31) or not (n = 29) at the time of tumor removal. Peri-surgical serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone concentrations were measured, tumor diagnosis was confirmed histologically, and tumor estrogen and progesterone receptor status was immunohistochemically determined. The dogs were monitored for recurrence and metastases every 3-4 months for at least 2 years. Uni- and multivariable survival analyses were performed with relapse and all-cause death as endpoints in addition to univariable subgroup analyses. Overall, OHE did not significantly decrease hazard of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; P = .18) or all-cause death (HR, 0.87; P = .64) in univariable analyses. In multivariable analysis OHE did not significantly influence the hazard of relapse (HR, 0.54; P = .12), but an interaction effect was identified between ER status and E2 (P = .037). Subgroup analysis identified decreased hazard of relapse in the OHE group compared to the non-OHE group in the subsets of dogs with increased E2 (HR, 0.22; P = .012) or grade 2 tumors (HR, 0.26; P = .02). Dogs with grade 2, ER-positive tumors, or with increased peri-surgical serum E2 concentration represent a subset of dogs with mammary carcinomas likely to benefit from OHE. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report

  16. Surface scanning: an application to mammary surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Camilla; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Aliverti, Andrea; Pedotti, Antonio

    1998-04-01

    The possibility of mathematically describing the body surface represents a useful tool for several medical sectors, such as prosthetics or plastic surgery, and could improve diagnosis and objective evaluation of deformities and the follow-up of progressive diseases. The approach presented is based on the acquisition of a surface scanned by a laser beam. The 3D coordinates of the spot generated on the surface by the laser beam are computed by an automatic image analyzer. Using at least two different views of the subject, the 3D coordinates are obtained by stereophotogrammetry. A software package for graphic representation and extraction of linear superficial and volumetric features from the acquired surface has been developed and some preliminary results with mammary reconstruction are presented. A good mammary reconstruction after mastectomy must achieve two results. First, the reconstruction should follow the patients' wishes and second, the reconstructed breast should be as similar as possible to the contralateral one. To achieve these goals, a knowledge of breast volume, area, and shape features are essential for the surgeon. In such a context, this system could be a valuable tool in improving breast reconstructive surgery.

  17. Mammary Epithelial Cell Hierarchy in the Dairy Cow Throughout Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Arévalo-Turrubiarte, Magdalena; Dufreneix, Florence; Finot, Laurence; Lollivier, Vanessa; Chanat, Eric; Mayeur, Frédérique; Dessauge, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The plasticity of the mammary gland relies on adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and their progenitors, which give rise to various populations of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). To face global challenges, an in-depth characterization of milk-producing animal mammary gland plasticity is required, to select more sustainable and robust dairy cows. The identification and characterization of MaSC and their progenitors will also provide innovative tools in veterinary/human medicine regarding mammary tissue damage (carcinogenesis, bacterial infections). This study aimed to determine the dynamics of mammary cell populations throughout a lactation cycle. Using mammary biopsies from primiparous lactating dairy cows at 30, 90, 150, and 250 days of lactation, we phenotyped cell populations by flow cytometry. To investigate cell lineages, we used specific cell-surface markers, including CD49f, CD24, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), and CD10. Two cell populations linked to milk production were identified: CD49f(+)/EpCAM(-) (y = 0.88x + 4.42, R(2) = 0.36, P < 0.05) and CD49f(-)/EpCAM(-) (y = -1.15x + 92.44, R(2) = 0.51, P < 0.05) cells. Combining immunostaining analysis, flow cytometry, daily milk production data, and statistical approaches, we defined a stem cell population (CD24(+)/CD49f(+)) and four progenitor cell populations that include bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)), lumino-alveolar progenitors (CD24(-)/EpCAM(+)), myoepithelial progenitors (CD24(+)/CD10(-)), and lumino-ductal progenitors (CD49f(-)/EpCAM(+)). Interestingly, we found that the bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during lactation. This study provides the first results of mammary cell lineage, allowing insight into mammary cell plasticity during lactation.

  18. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  19. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, ETV6-NTRK3, Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma, secretory breast carcinoma. PMID:25481229

  20. A candidate metastasis-associated DNA marker for ductal mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achary, Patnala Mohan R; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Zuoheng; Gogineni, Swarna; Pulijaal, Venkat R; Herbst, Lawrence; Mahadevia, Panna S; Jones, Joan G; Klinger, Harold P

    2003-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers to identify the 13% lymph node-negative mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastases would clearly be of considerable value in indicating those cases in need of early aggressive therapy. Representational difference analysis was used in an attempt to identify genetic alterations related to breast cancer metastasis by comparing genomic DNA from microdissected normal cells and from metastatic cells of ductal breast carcinoma patients. Representational difference analysis products yielded 10 unique metastasis-associated DNA sequences (MADS), i.e. products apparently lost in metastatic cell DNA. Of these sequences, MADS-IX was found to be lost in the transition from primary to metastasis in two out of five ductal breast carcinoma cases. This sequence was localized on chromosome 10q21 by radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The PTEN gene, which is also located on chromosome 10q, was detected to be present by PCR in all five cases. On the contrary, a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC-1937, which has homozygous loss of a region encompassing the PTEN gene, showed the presence of MADS-IX. PCR screening of three additional breast carcinoma cell lines with known losses in specific chromosomal regions also showed the presence of MADS-IX. These data suggest that MADS-IX possibly is part of a novel candidate metastasis-associated gene located close to the PTEN gene on chromosome 10q. The first set of PCR screening in five patient samples indicates that it could be used as a molecular marker for ductal mammary metastasis

  1. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of canine inflammatory mammary cancer: IPC-366.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC. The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366 for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %. At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the

  2. Sarcoidal Granuloma in Cervical Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease, the most common head and neck manifestation of which is cervical lymphadenopathy. Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who had a 2-month history of a progressively increasing mass with soreness in his right neck. The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. The differential diagnoses of mycobacterial or fungal infections were excluded. Thoracic evaluations, including chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography, revealed no abnormal findings. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improved clinical symptoms. No recurrence of the neck mass or other signs of systemic sarcoidosis were noted during 1.5 years of follow-up. Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.

  3. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2010-01-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed...... obtained from both mammary glands of 3 PP and 6 MP (=2 parity) dairy goats at parturition (d 1), d 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Gene transcription relating to MEC turnover and vascular function was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, mammary morphology was characterized (quantitative...

  4. Mammary masses in Nigerian nuns | Muobike | International Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36.2%). Their respective mean ages of 33.3 ± 22.6 years and 28.1 ± 12.6 years were statistically significant. The mode of presentation was generally that of a painless lump. Nuns in Igboland are generally young, and their breast diseases ...

  5. Control of ductal vs. alveolar differentiation of mammary clonogens and susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Yokoro, Kenjiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Clifton, K.H.; Gould, M.N.

    1991-12-01

    We have developed an in vitro-in vivo transplantation assay for measuring the concentration of clonogenic epithelial cells in cell suspensions of rat mammary tissue. Rat mammary clonogens from organoid cultures are capable of the same degree of PLDR as clonogens in vivo. The growth and differentiation of mammary clonogens to alveolar colonies or ductal colonies is regulated as follows: (a) in the presence of E{sub 2} and high prolactin (Prl), cortisol induces mammary clonogens to proliferate and differentiate to form alveolar colonies which secrete milk and begin losing clonogenic potential, (b) in cortisol deficient rats, Prl and E{sub 2} synergistically stimulate non-secretory ductal colonies, formation of which retain clonogenic potential, (c) E{sub 2} without progesterone stimulates alveolar colony formation in the presence of cortical and high Prl, (d) progesterone inhibits mammary clonogen differentiation to milk-producing cells and induces ductogenesis in a dose responsive fashion in the presence of E{sub 2}, cortisol and high Prl. High prolactin levels coupled with glucocorticoid deficiency increases the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis following low dose radiation exposure by increasing the number of total mammary clonogens which are the presumptive target cells and by stimulating their proliferation after exposure. (author).

  6. Control of ductal vs. alveolar differentiation of mammary clonogens and susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Clifton, K.H.; Gould, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro-in vivo transplantation assay for measuring the concentration of clonogenic epithelial cells in cell suspensions of rat mammary tissue. Rat mammary clonogens from organoid cultures are capable of the same degree of PLDR as clonogens in vivo. The growth and differentiation of mammary clonogens to alveolar colonies or ductal colonies is regulated as follows: a) in the presence of E 2 and high prolactin (Prl), cortisol induces mammary clonogens to proliferate and differentiate to form alveolar colonies which secrete milk and begin losing clonogenic potential, b) in cortisol deficient rats, Prl and E 2 synergistically stimulate non-secretory ductal colonies, formation of which retain clonogenic potential, c) E 2 without progesterone stimulates alveolar colony formation in the presence of cortical and high Prl, d) progesterone inhibits mammary clonogen differentiation to milk-producing cells and induces ductogenesis in a dose responsive fashion in the presence of E 2 , cortisol and high Prl. High prolactin levels coupled with glucocorticoid deficiency increases the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis following low dose radiation exposure by increasing the number of total mammary clonogens which are the presumptive target cells and by stimulating their proliferation after exposure. (author)

  7. Stromal and Epithelial Caveolin-1 Both Confer a Protective Effect Against Mammary Hyperplasia and Tumorigenesis : Caveolin-1 Antagonizes Cyclin D1 Function in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Terence M.; Sotgia, Federica; Lee, Hyangkyu; Hassan, Ghada; Di Vizio, Dolores; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Capozza, Franco; Mercier, Isabelle; Rui, Hallgeir; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigate the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in breast cancer onset and progression, with a focus on epithelial-stromal interactions, ie, the tumor microenvironment. Cav-1 is highly expressed in adipocytes and is abundant in mammary fat pads (stroma), but it remains unknown whether loss of Cav-1 within mammary stromal cells affects the differentiated state of mammary epithelia via paracrine signaling. To address this issue, we characterized the development of the mammary ductal system ...

  8. Impact on survival of the number of lymph nodes resected in patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Zhong-Fa

    2015-06-01

    Patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer show a better overall survival rate than those who have a pathological lymph node-positive gastric cancer. But a large number of patients still develop recurrence. We aimed to explore the significant prognostic factors of lymph node-negative gastric cancer and determine how many lymph nodes should be removed. A total of 3103 patients who underwent radical operation are identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Standard survival methods and restricted multivariable Cox regression models were applied. The overall survival rate was significantly higher with an increasing number of negative lymph node resected. Among the 843 patients who had the exact T stage, the overall survival rate was significantly better in T3-4 group with more than 15 lymph nodes resected (P patients (P = 0.44). A further 25 more lymph nodes resection did not show additional survival benefits. Multivariate analysis of patients demonstrated that age, depth of tumor invasion, and the number of lymph nodes resected were the significant and independent prognostic factors. A lymphadenectomy with more than 15 lymph nodes removal should be performed for T3-4 lymph node-negative gastric cancer. But the survival benefit of a lymphadenectomy with more than 25 lymph nodes removal is disputed. And the further treatment should refer to the prognostic indicators.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins stimulate mammary fibroblasts to promote mammary carcinoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Owens

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs are secreted cytokines that are part of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ superfamily. BMPs have been shown to be highly expressed in human breast cancers, and loss of BMP signaling in mammary carcinomas has been shown to accelerate metastases. Interestingly, other work has indicated that stimulation of dermal fibroblasts with BMP can enhance secretion of pro-tumorigenic factors. Furthermore, treatment of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs derived from a mouse prostate carcinoma with BMP4 was shown to stimulate angiogenesis. We sought to determine the effect of BMP treatment on mammary fibroblasts. A large number of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix-metallo proteases (MMPs were found to be upregulated in response to BMP4 treatment. Fibroblasts that were stimulated with BMP4 were found to enhance mammary carcinoma cell invasion, and these effects were inhibited by a BMP receptor kinase antagonist. Treatment with BMP in turn elevated pro-tumorigenic secreted factors such as IL-6 and MMP-3. These experiments demonstrate that BMP may stimulate tumor progression within the tumor microenvironment.

  10. Mammary Gland Ontogeny and Neoplasia in Oxytocin Deficient Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amico, Janet

    1999-01-01

    The hormonal environment in which mammary tumors develop and are maintained is important for understanding not only the progression, but also the potential strategies for treatment, of breast cancer...

  11. Molecular Markers of Metastasis in Ductal Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achary, Patnala

    2002-01-01

    ...% of those patients, however, the disease spreads, and they are at risk of death. Our goal is to develop DNA markers that could be reliably used to identify the ductal mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastasis...

  12. The Role of Src in Mammary Epithelial Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kusdra, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    ...) and its effects in the transformation of fibroblast cells. While these studies have gained insight into several aspects of Src signaling and biology, the role of endogenous c-Src in mammary epithelial cells remains unclear...

  13. Mammary remodelling and metabolic activity in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina

    glands continuously milked throughout late gestation still need to be resolved. The decreasing mammary metabolic activity with progressing lactation appears to alter the sensitivity of the mammary gland towards variations in nutrient supply. Milk protein synthesis requires presence in the MEC of building...... of epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis; 2) the secretory activity of these cells, which in turn is affected by their differentiation; and 3) the provision of nutrients and removal of metabolic waste products via the blood. The present thesis aimed to address the hypotheses that 1) differences between PP...... and MP animals with respect to milk production and lactation persistency may be related to differences in mammary growth and remodelling also during lactation, 2) the factors responsible for interfering with mammary remodelling in continuous lactation throughout the dry period into the subsequent...

  14. Particular molecular and ultrastructural aspects in invasive mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalcea, Corina Elena; Moroşanu, Ana Maria; Murăraşu, Daniela; Puiu, Liliana; Cinca, Sabin; Voinea, Silviu Cristian; Mirancea, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopic investigations of invasive mammary carcinoma tumors revealed that intercellular junctions, namely desmosomes are severely altered; some desmosomes became internalized. Tumor cells, especially by their invadopodia, generate and disseminate membrane vesicles, including exosomes, inside of peritumoral stroma. Telocytes, a new described interstitial/stromal cell phenotype, considered to play important roles in cell signaling, exhibited a reduced number of hetero-cellular contacts, which suggests a possible perturbation of tissular homeostasis modulation. Signaling PIK3/Akt pathway plays an important role both in carcinogenesis and in proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. Alteration of this pathway has been observed in many human cancers, often involving an increase in the activity of PIK3CA, p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K. Our study confirms the high prevalence of PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer. In accordance with the results of the largest previous studies, 87.5% of mutations detected by DNA direct sequencing were hot spot mutations, most of them located in the kinase domain. High percentage of mutations detected by high-resolution melting makes the assay an attractive choice for mutation scanning, especially, in samples with low percentage of tumor cell.

  15. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  16. Feasibility of Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Nodular Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proven to be successful and accurate in predicting the nodal status in melanoma and breast cancer. Occult lymph node metastases are common in well differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). Although the prognostic significance of these occult lymph node metastases remains controversial, identifying these patients may help direct therapy. The purpose of the study was to assess the technical feasibility and the safety of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in uni-nodular thyroid disease. Methods: Patients of previously untreated benign solitary thyroid nodule, diagnosed preoperatively by fine needle aspiration cytology without any palpable cervical lymph node were prospectively studied. The nodule was injected with iso sulfan blue vital dye. Blue stained lymphatics were traced. Then, hemi thyroidectomy was per-formed. Results: A total of 30 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy; lymph tics were observed in 23 patients and sentinel lymph nodes were found in 18. In 5 patients, blue stained lymphatics were traced to the outside of the central compartment but no sentinel lymph node was identified. Sentinel lymph nodes were located in the central compartment in 14 cases, in the lateral compartment in 3 cases and in one patient 2 sentinel lymph nodes were found in both the central and the lateral compartments. Overall detection of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in 60% of cases. There were no intra or postoperative complications. Conclusions: The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy has yet to be determined in the thyroid setting. Certainly the technique can be performed safely, but its accuracy needs further refinement and investigation on larger series of patients before it can be recommended in the routine management of thyroid neoplasia. Key Words: Sentinel node - Biopsy - Solitary thyroid nodule

  17. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ivica Gjurovski; Trpe Ristoski; Goran Nikolovski; Pandorce Trenkoska; Plamen Trojacanec; Ksenija Ilievska; Toni Dovenski; Gordana Petrushevska

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of m...

  19. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    5G ). The elucidation of mammary stem cells and breast cancer stem cells has stimulated greatly the discussion of the cellular origins of breast...stem/progenitor cells (Fig. 5G ). Researchers have tried to apply GSI on breast cancer treatment and showed that GSI is effective in suppression of...adult muscle satellite cells. NAT. CELL BIOL. 2006;8(7):677-687. 33. Smith GH. Label-retaining epithelial cells in mouse mammary gland divide

  20. Genomic and Phenomic Study of Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo E Blum

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a major etiological agent of intra-mammary infections (IMI in cows, leading to acute mastitis and causing great economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Particular strains cause persistent IMI, leading to recurrent mastitis. Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC involved pathogenesis of mastitis as well as those differentiating strains causing acute or persistent mastitis are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify virulence markers in MPEC through whole genome and phenome comparative analysis. MPEC strains causing acute (VL2874 and P4 or persistent (VL2732 mastitis were compared to an environmental strain (K71 and to the genomes of strains representing different E. coli pathotypes. Intra-mammary challenge in mice confirmed experimentally that the strains studied here have different pathogenic potential, and that the environmental strain K71 is non-pathogenic in the mammary gland. Analysis of whole genome sequences and predicted proteomes revealed high similarity among MPEC, whereas MPEC significantly differed from the non-mammary pathogenic strain K71, and from E. coli genomes from other pathotypes. Functional features identified in MPEC genomes and lacking in the non-mammary pathogenic strain were associated with synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and other membrane antigens, ferric-dicitrate iron acquisition and sugars metabolism. Features associated with cytotoxicity or intra-cellular survival were found specifically in the genomes of strains from severe and acute (VL2874 or persistent (VL2732 mastitis, respectively. MPEC genomes were relatively similar to strain K-12, which was subsequently shown here to be possibly pathogenic in the mammary gland. Phenome analysis showed that the persistent MPEC was the most versatile in terms of nutrients metabolized and acute MPEC the least. Among phenotypes unique to MPEC compared to the non-mammary pathogenic strain were uric acid and D-serine metabolism

  1. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Javanbakht, Javad; Atyabi, Nahid; Bahrami, Alimohammad; Kheradmand, Danial; Safaei, Reyhaneh; Khadivar, Farshid; Hosseini, Ehsan

    2013-08-13

    The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 μm thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage localized in the different

  2. The role of tight junctions in mammary gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelwagen, Kerst; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-03-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) are cellular structures that facilitate cell-cell communication and are important in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of epithelia. It is only during the last two decades that the molecular make-up of TJ is becoming unravelled, with two major transmembrane-spanning structural protein families, called occludin and claudins, being the true constituents of the TJ. These TJ proteins are linked via specific scaffolding proteins to the cell's cytoskeleton. In the mammary gland TJ between adjacent secretory epithelial cells are formed during lactogenesis and are instrumental in establishing and maintaining milk synthesis and secretion, whereas TJ integrity is compromised during mammary involution and also as result of mastitis and periods of mammary inflamation (including mastitis). They prevent the paracellular transport of ions and small molecules between the blood and milk compartments. Formation of intact TJ at the start of lactation is important for the establishment of the lactation. Conversely, loss of TJ integrity has been linked to reduced milk secretion and mammary function and increased paracellular transport of blood components into the milk and vice versa. In addition to acting as a paracellular barrier, the TJ is increasingly linked to playing an active role in intracellular signalling. This review focusses on the role of TJ in mammary function of the normal, non-malignant mammary gland, predominantly in ruminants, the major dairy producing species.

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  4. Melanoma Exosomes Enable Tumor Tolerance in Lymph Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma preferentially spreads via lymph nodes. Melanoma exosomes can induce angiogenesis and immune suppression. However, a role for melanoma exosomes in facilitating tumor tolerance in lymph nodes has not been considered. Herein, the hypothesis that melanoma exosome mediated induction of vascular endothelial cell (VEC) derived TNF-α results in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) mediated tumor tolerance is explored. To support this hypothesis, experiments involving ex vivo lymph node associat...

  5. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-11-04

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N -ethyl- N '-nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA.

  6. Mammary sensitivity to protein restriction and re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, M G; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1996-09-01

    The present study tested the influence of protein undernutrition and re-alimentation on mammary gland size and secretory cell activity in lactating rats. During gestation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were offered a high-protein diet (215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg DM; H); litters were standardized to twelve pups at parturition. During lactation, two diets were offered ad libitum, diet H and a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L). Lactational dietary treatments were the supply ad libitum of either diet H (HHH) or diet L (LLL) for the first 12 d of lactation, or diet L transferring to diet H on either day 6 (LHH) or 9 (LLH) of lactation. On days 1, 6, 9 and 12 of lactation, rats from each group (n > or = 6) were used to estimate mammary dry mass, fat, protein, DNA and RNA; the activities of lactose synthetase (EC 2.4.1.22) enzyme and Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) were also measured. Rats offered a diet considered protein sufficient (H) from day 1 of lactation showed a decrease in mammary dry mass and fat but an increase in DNA, RNA and protein on day 6, after which there was no further change, except for mammary protein which continued to increase. However, rats offered diet L showed a steady loss in mammary mass and fat throughout the 12 d lactation period and no change in mammary DNA, RNA or protein. Rats previously protein restricted for either the first 6 or 9 d of lactation had their mammary dry mass and mammary fat loss halted and showed a rapid increase in mammary DNA, RNA and protein on re-alimentation. Lactose production in group HHH, as measured by lactose synthetase activity, was similar on days 1 and 6 of lactation, after which a significant increase was seen. Protein-restricted rats showed no change in lactose synthetase activity during the 12 d experimental period. Changing from diet L to diet H led to a significant increase in lactose synthetase activity to levels comparable with those offered diet H from day 1. These results show that rats

  7. Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene 1 Is Expressed in Primary Ductal Breast Carcinoma, Lymph Node Infiltration, and Distant Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances that have been made in the fields of molecular and cell biology, there is still considerable debate explaining how the breast cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability. The lack of preventive methods and effective therapies underlines the pressing need to identify new biomarkers that can aid early diagnosis and may be targets for effective therapeutic strategies. In this study we explore the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1 expression in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Three human cell lines, 184B5 derived from normal mammary epithelium, HCC70 from a primary ductal carcinoma, and MDA-MB-361 from a breast metastasis, were used for quantifying PTTG1 mRNA expression. The PTTG1 immunohistochemical expression was carried out on specimens taken from eight patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who underwent surgical treatment and followup for five years retrospectively selected. The study demonstrated that PTTG1 is expressed gradually in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Our findings suggest that the immunohistochemical evaluation of PTTG1 expression might be a powerful biomarker of recognition and quantification of the breast cancer cells in routine pathological specimens and a potential target for developing an effective immunotherapeutic strategy for primary and metastatic breast cancer.

  8. Metastasis of breast cancer cells to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes resistance to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Iwadate, Manabu; Tachibana, Kazunoshin; Waguri, Satoshi; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times. The established metastatic cell lines were assessed for cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion, clonogenic survival, and apoptosis. The established metastatic cell lines possessed an increased proliferative potential in vivo and were more chemotactic, invasive, and resistant to X-ray-induced clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis in vitro. Breast cancer metastasis to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  9. Metastasis of breast cancer cells to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes resistance to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Iwadate, Manabu; Tachibana, Kazunoshin; Waguri, Satoshi; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times. The established metastatic cell lines were assessed for cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion, clonogenic survival, and apoptosis. The established metastatic cell lines possessed an increased proliferative potential in vivo and were more chemotactic, invasive, and resistant to X‑ray-induced clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis in vitro. Breast cancer metastasis to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes radioresistance.

  10. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-09-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses.

  11. Primary tuberculosis of cystic duct lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Aamir; Asghar, Afifa; Khan, Naqeeb Ullah; Hassan, Iram

    2017-06-16

    Tuberculosis (TC) is very common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Isolated cystic duct lymph node TC cases without involvement of gallbladder are exceedingly rare. It is difficult to diagnose preoperatively because of lack of characteristic signs and symptoms of TC. We report a man aged 45 years who presented with right upper abdominal pain since 1week. It was associated with nausea and postprandial fullness. There was no evidence of jaundice and lymphadenopathy. Abdominal examination showed moderate right upper quadrant tenderness with positive Murphy's sign and splenomegaly but no signs of peritonism. Abdomen ultrasound revealed sludge in gallbladder, dilated pancreatic duct, coarse exotexture of liver, splenomegaly and no lymphadenopathy. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy; histological report showed chronic caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis with Langhans type of giant cells in lymph node near cystic duct with chronic cholecystitis of gallbladder. Standard antituberculosis therapy was given for 12 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  13. Detection of disseminated tumor cells in the lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotspeich, Erkki; Schoene, Markus; Gerngross, Heinz; Schmidt, Roland; Steinmann, Reinhard; Ramadani, Marco; Gansauge, Susanne

    2007-09-01

    Postoperative treatment for colorectal cancer depends on tumor stage as defined by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). Adjuvant chemotherapy is not recommended in patients without lymph node involvement (UICC stages I and II). As many as 20-30% of these patients, however, will develop recurrence. We conducted this study to determine the presence of disseminated tumor cells in the lymph nodes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in an attempt to provide supplementary information compared to histopathological findings. Using a standard QRT-PCR assay, we examined primary tumors and 391 lymph nodes from 31 patients with completely resected colorectal cancer. Of the 31 primary tumors, 29 were positive for CK20 by QRT-PCR. An examination of the lymph nodes from the 29 patients with CK20-positive primary tumors revealed that 35 (92.1% sensitivity) of the 38 histopathologically positive lymph nodes and 54 (16.7%) of the 324 histopathologically negative lymph nodes were positive by molecular analysis. CK20 expression was detected in 10 (100%) of 10 patients with a histopathologically positive lymph node status (pN1). In 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients with negative histopathological results (pN0), we detected a CK20 mRNA signal in at least one lymph node. Whereas eight patients with histopathologically negative lymph nodes could be upstaged on the basis of the molecular findings, no patient would be downstaged. Our results suggest that QRT-PCR for CK20 is a useful tool for the quantitative detection of micrometastases in the regional lymph nodes. We introduce a standardized procedure that integrates a molecular diagnostic technique in the clinical staging.

  14. Detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse using (18)F/(11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Cordula A; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Drendel, Vanessa; Vach, Werner; Wieser, Gesche; Krauss, Tobias; Jandausch, Anett; Hölz, Stefanie; Henne, Karl; Reske, Sven N; Grosu, Anca-L; Weber, Wolfgang A; Rischke, H Christian

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography for nodal relapse of prostate cancer according to topographical site and tumor infiltration size in lymph nodes. A total of 72 patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse after primary therapy underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection. Salvage was done after whole body positron emission tomography/computerized tomography with (11)C-choline or (18)F-fluoroethylcholine showed positron emission tomography positive lymph nodes but no other detectable metastasis. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in 160 dissected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal), 498 subregions (common, external and internal iliac, obturator, presacral, aortic bifurcation, aortal, vena caval and interaortocaval) and 2,122 lymph nodes. Lymph node metastasis was present in 32% of resected lymph nodes (681 of 2,122), resulting in 238 positive subregions and 111 positive regions. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was positive for 110 regions and 209 subregions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 91.9%, 83.7%, 92.7%, 82.0% and 89.4% (region based), 80.7%, 93.5%, 91.9%, 84.1% and 87.3% (subregion based), and 57.0%, 98.4%, 94.5%, 82.6% and 84.9% (lesion based), respectively. Of 393 positive lymph node metastases detected by this method 278 (70.7%) were in lymph nodes with a less than 10 mm short axis diameter. Imaging sensitivity was 13.3%, 57.4% and 82.8% for a tumor infiltration depth of 2 or greater to less than 3 mm, 5 or greater to less than 6 mm and 10 or greater to less than 11 mm, respectively. Lymph node metastasis site and the radiotracer ((11)C-choline/(18)F-fluoroethylcholine) had no substantial impact on diagnostic accuracy. Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography detects affected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal) in patients with

  15. Proteotypic classification of spontaneous and transgenic mammary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, Igor; Blades, Natalie; Churchill, Gary A; Fancher, Karen; Knowles, Barbara B; Eppig, Janan T; Sundberg, John P

    2004-01-01

    Mammary tumors in mice are categorized by using morphologic and architectural criteria. Immunolabeling for terminal differentiation markers was compared among a variety of mouse mammary neoplasms because expression of terminal differentiation markers, and especially of keratins, provides important information on the origin of neoplastic cells and their degree of differentiation. Expression patterns for terminal differentiation markers were used to characterize tumor types and to study tumor progression in transgenic mouse models of mammary neoplasia (mice overexpressing Neu (Erbb2), Hras, Myc, Notch4, SV40-TAg, Tgfa, and Wnt1), in spontaneous mammary carcinomas, and in mammary neoplasms associated with infection by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). On the basis of the expression of terminal differentiation markers, three types of neoplasm were identified: first, simple carcinomas composed exclusively of cells with a luminal phenotype are characteristic of neoplasms arising in mice transgenic for Neu, Hras, Myc, Notch4, and SV40-TAg; second, 'complex carcinomas' displaying luminal and myoepithelial differentiation are characteristic of type P tumors arising in mice transgenic for Wnt1, neoplasms arising in mice infected by the MMTV, and spontaneous adenosquamous carcinomas; and third, 'carcinomas with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)' are a characteristic feature of tumor progression in Hras-, Myc-, and SV40-TAg-induced mammary neoplasms and PL/J and SJL/J mouse strains, and display de novo expression of myoepithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. In sharp contrast, EMT was not detected in papillary adenocarcinomas arising in BALB/cJ mice, spontaneous adenoacanthomas, neoplasms associated with MMTV-infection, or in neoplasms arising in mice transgenic for Neu and Wnt1. Immunohistochemical profiles of complex neoplasms are consistent with a stem cell origin, whereas simple carcinomas might originate from a cell committed to the

  16. Investigating the Role of FIP200 in Mammary Carcinogenesis Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagy, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    ...) deletion in mammary-specific polyoma middle-T transgenic mice. We monitored mammary carcinogenesis in positive control (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-PyVT) and target (FAKFlox/Flox; MMTV-Cre; MMTV-PyVT) females...

  17. Mechanisms Underlying the Very High Susceptibility of the Immature Mammary Gland to Carcinogenic Initiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to explore the toxic effects of physical and chemical carcinogens on the immature mammary gland as compared to the effects on the young adult mammary gland using a rat model. We have: I...

  18. Isolation and characterization of proteins of the mouse mammary tumour virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenbrink, F.

    1980-01-01

    A vaccination procedure was developed to mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis. The structural proteins of MuMTV were purified so that their immunogenic qualities were retained. Radioimmunoassays were developed for the proteins. (Auth.)

  19. Surgical pathologic factors that predict recurrence in stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma patients with negative pelvic lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samlal, R. A.; van der Velden, J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Schilthuis, M. S.; Hart, A. A.; Lammes, F. B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to identify pathologic risk factors for recurrence and patterns of recurrence in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB and IIA cervical carcinoma and negative pelvic lymph nodes after radical hysterectomy. During the period

  20. Axillary treatment for patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis: systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Amit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with early breast cancer and lymph node metastasis, axillary treatment is widely recommended. This is either surgical removal of the axillary lymph nodes, or axillary radiotherapy. The rationale for axillary treatment is that it will reduce the risk of recurrence in the axilla, and may improve survival. However, both treatments are associated with adverse effects, such as lymphedema, pain and sensory loss, and are costly to the health services and to patients. With improvements in adjuvant therapy, routine axillary treatment may no longer offer any overall advantage. Objectives To assess the short and long term benefits and adverse effects of routine axillary treatment (axillary lymph node clearance or axillary radiotherapy for patients with lymph node positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods/Design Criteria for potentially eligibility for the study will be that the participants are men and women with early breast cancer and lymph nodes with metastasis. The study compares either axillary treatment with no axillary treatment, or axillary node clearance with axillary radiotherapy, and the study is a randomized trial. Primary outcomes are axillary recurrence, disease-free and overall survival. Secondary outcomes include breast or chest wall recurrence, distant metastasis, time to axillary recurrence, axillary recurrence-free survival, arm morbidity, quality of life and health economic costs. The search strategy will include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP search portal. Two independent reviewers will assess studies for inclusion in the review, assess study quality and extract data. Characteristics of included studies will be described. Meta-analysis will be conducted using ReVman software. Comment This review addresses an important clinical question, and results will inform clinical practice and health care policy.

  1. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Stephanie L; Payne, Geoffrey W

    2011-04-04

    Lymph nodes (LN's), located throughout the body, are an integral component of the immune system. They serve as a site for induction of adaptive immune response and therefore, the development of effector cells. As such, LNs are key to fighting invading pathogens and maintaining health. The choice of LN to study is dictated by accessibility and the desired model; the inguinal lymph node is well situated and easily supports studies of biologically relevant models of skin and genital mucosal infection. The inguinal LN, like all LNs, has an extensive microvascular network supplying it with blood. In general, this microvascular network includes the main feed arteriole of the LN that subsequently branches and feeds high endothelial venules (HEVs). HEVs are specialized for facilitating the trafficking of immune cells into the LN during both homeostasis and infection. How HEVs regulate trafficking into the LN under both of these circumstances is an area of intense exploration. The LN feed arteriole, has direct upstream influence on the HEVs and is the main supply of nutrients and cell rich blood into the LN. Furthermore, changes in the feed arteriole are implicated in facilitating induction of adaptive immune response. The LN microvasculature has obvious importance in maintaining an optimal blood supply to the LN and regulating immune cell influx into the LN, which are crucial elements in proper LN function and subsequently immune response. The ability to study the LN microvasculature in vivo is key to elucidating how the immune system and the microvasculature interact and influence one another within the LN. Here, we present a method for in vivo imaging of the inguinal lymph node. We focus on imaging of the microvasculature of the LN, paying particular attention to methods that ensure the study of healthy vessels, the ability to maintain imaging of viable vessels over a number of hours, and quantification of vessel magnitude. Methods for perfusion of the microvasculature

  2. [Hemorheological changes during mammary coronary bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Iu A; Roĭtman, E V; Charnaia, M A

    2004-01-01

    Hemorheological studies were performed in 44 patients subjected to mammary coronary bypass surgery during induction of anesthesia, at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, at the end of operation, on the 1(st) and 2(nd) or 3(rd) postoperative day. Methods included determination of whole blood and plasma viscosity with estimation of suspension stability and calculation of Caisson viscosity and fluidity limit. Rigidometry was used for assessment times of linear (T(1)) and three dimensional (T(2)) aggregates formation, final aggregates dimensions, total hydrodynamic strength of aggregates (beta), index of strength of especially large aggregates. Indexes of aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes were also calculated. Cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with lengthening of T(1) and shortening of T(2), increase of aggregates dimension and their hydrodynamic strength beta and lowering deformability of erythrocytes. By the end of operation increase of difference between Caisson and asymptotic viscosity was noted. Postoperative period was characterized by improvement of deformability of erythrocytes, prolongation of T(2), increases of aggregates dimension, their hydrodynamic strength beta, and fluidity limit. Thus measures of intensive therapy should be directed at correction of disturbances of rheological properties of blood with consideration of their changes specific for cardiosurgical patients.

  3. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, J.F.; van de Velde, C.J.; Goslings, B.M.; Fleuren, G.J.; Hermans, J.; Delemarre, J.F.; van Slooten, E.A. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of {sup 131}I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references.

  4. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamming, J.F.; van de Velde, C.J.; Goslings, B.M.; Fleuren, G.J.; Hermans, J.; Delemarre, J.F.; van Slooten, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of 131 I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references

  5. Feasibility of Charcoal Tattooing for Localization of Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Robotic Selective Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang Myeon; Park, Jeong Seon; Park, Woosung; Ji, Yong Bae; Cho, Seok Hyun; Tae, Kyung

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of ultrasound-guided charcoal tattooing in locating metastatic lymph nodes in robotic selective neck dissection (SND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The overall study group comprised 21 patients with PTC who underwent robotic SND via a unilateral transaxillary approach for treatment of suspicious lymph node metastasis in the lateral compartment. Charcoal suspension was injected into 10 of the patients (total of 23 lesions) 1 day before robotic SND. The authors evaluated the location of the tattoos, the success rate of localization, the intraoperative detection rate, and the complications associated with the procedure. The perioperative results were compared with those in the control group of 11 patients who did not receive charcoal tattooing. Charcoal suspension was successfully injected into 22 of the 23 suspicious lymph nodes (95.7 %). The remaining lesion was located posterior to the internal jugular vein. Therefore, the charcoal was injected into the soft tissue around the lymph node. Ultrasound-guided injections were well tolerated in all the patients, and no major complications occurred. All the charcoal-tattooed lesions were identified intraoperatively by the surgeon. The number of harvested and metastatic lymph nodes in the lateral compartment was greater in the patients with charcoal tattoo localization than in the control group. The two groups did not differ in terms of perioperative complications, operation time, or volume of drainage. Ultrasound-guided charcoal tattooing for localization of metastatic lymph nodes is feasible and effective in robotic SND for the treatment of PTC with lateral compartment lymph node metastasis.

  6. Quantification of mammary organoid toxicant response and mammary tissue motility using OCT fluctuation spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Blackmon, Richard L.; Carabas-Hernendez, Patricia; Fuller, Ashley; Troester, Melissa A.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mammary epithelial cell (MEC) organoids in 3D culture recapitulate features of breast ducts in vivo. OCT has the ability to monitor the evolution of MEC organoids non-invasively and longitudinally. The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox) is able to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells and has been widely used for chemotherapy of breast cancers; while environmental toxins implicated in breast cancer such as estrogen regulates mammary tumor growth and stimulates the proliferation and metastatic potential of breast cancers. Here we propose a quantitative method for measuring motility of breast cells in 3D cultures based upon OCT speckle fluctuation spectroscopy. The metrics of the inverse power-law exponent (α) and fractional modulation amplitude (M) were extracted from speckle fluctuation spectra. These were used to quantify the responses of MEC organoids to Dox, and estrogen. We investigated MEC organoids comprised of two different MEC lines: MCF10DCIS.com exposed to Dox, and MCF7 exposed to estrogen. We found an increase (pMCF7 treated with estrogen (0, 1 nM and 10 nM) exhibited the opposite trend along time. This novel technology provides rapid and non-invasive measurements of the effects of toxicants on MEC motility for understanding breast cancer development and assessing anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Can Recent Theory of New Lymph Vessel Formation Called ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in lymph vessel staining techniques, it is hypothesized that the formation of new lymph channels, called lymphangiogenesis, sufficiently explains the peculiar relationship between stomach primaries and ovarian (Krukenberg) secondaries. Furthermore, this conclusion can be tested (a) by strictly avoiding the old fashioned ...

  8. Mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis in an adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Emami Naeini; Abdolali Foroozmehr; Abbas Tabatabae

    2006-01-01

    Mediastinal lymph node enlargement is an uncommon feature of intrathoracic tuberculosis in adults, whereas it is the rule in primary tuberculosis in children. Herein, we report a 56–year-old female with three-year history of non-productive cough, which was diagnosed as mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis.

  9. Detailed examination of lymph nodes improves prognostication in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, Fania S.; Mesker, Wilma E.; Kuppen, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Gijs A.; Morreau, Hans; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Putter, Hein; Tanke, Hans J.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.; Tollenaar, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to 30% of stage II patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop disease recurrence. We evaluated whether examination of lymph nodes by multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemical staining can improve prognostication. Lymph nodes (n = 780) from 36 CRC patients who had

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, Meintje Hylkje Edwina

    2007-01-01

    Summary and conclusions In the introduction, a short overview of the development of the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept is presented. In addition to melanoma and breast cancer, the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a surgical assessment method for squamous cell carcinoma of penis and

  11. Myofibroblast activation in colorectal cancer lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeung, T. M.; Buskens, C.; Wang, L. M.; Mortensen, N. J.; Bodmer, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblasts have an important role in regulating the normal colorectal stem cell niche. While the activation of myofibroblasts in primary colorectal cancers has been previously described, myofibroblast activation in lymph node metastases has not been described before. Paraffin-embedded lymph node

  12. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny Edge, Athar Nizami, Judith Whittaker, Robert Mansel. Background. Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... Department of Surgery, Cardiff University, UK. Robert Mansel, MB BS, MRCS, LRCP, MS ..... Lucci A, Keleman P, Miller C, Chardkoft L, Wilson Li National practice patterns of sentinel lymph node dissection for breast ...

  14. Quantitative extracellular matrix proteomics to study mammary and liver tissue microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Erica T.; Hill, Ryan C.; Barrett, Alexander; Betts, Courtney; Guo, Qiuchen; Maller, Ori; Borges, Virginia F.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-01

    Normal epithelium exists within a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) that is tuned to regulate tissue specific epithelial cell function. As such, ECM contributes to tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and disease, including cancer. Though it is now recognized that the functional unit of normal and transformed epithelium is the epithelial cell and its adjacent ECM, we lack a basic understanding of tissue-specific ECM composition and abundance, as well as how physiologic changes in ECM impact cancer risk and outcomes. While traditional proteomic techniques have advanced to robustly identify ECM proteins within tissues, methods to determine absolute abundance have lagged. Here, with a focus on tissues relevant to breast cancer, we utilize mass spectrometry methods optimized for absolute quantitative ECM analysis. Employing an extensive protein extraction and digestion method, combined with stable isotope labeled Quantitative conCATamer (QconCAT) peptides that serve as internal standards for absolute quantification of protein, we quantify 98 ECM, ECM-associated, and cellular proteins in a single analytical run. In rodent models, we applied this approach to the primary site of breast cancer, the normal mammary gland, as well as a common and particularly deadly site of breast cancer metastasis, the liver. We find that mammary gland and liver have distinct ECM abundance and relative composition. Further, we show mammary gland ECM abundance and relative compositions differ across the reproductive cycle, with the most dramatic changes occurring during the pro-tumorigenic window of weaning-induced involution. Combined, this work suggests ECM candidates for investigation of breast cancer progression and metastasis, particularly in postpartum breast cancers that are characterized by high metastatic rates. Finally, we suggest that with use of absolute quantitative ECM proteomics to characterize tissues of interest, it will be possible to reconstruct more relevant in vitro

  15. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandriota, Stefano J; Tenan, Mirna; Ferrari, Paolo; Sappino, André-Pascal

    2016-12-15

    Aluminium salts, present in many industrial products of frequent use like antiperspirants, anti-acid drugs, food additives and vaccines, have been incriminated in contributing to the rise in breast cancer incidence in Western societies. However, current experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is limited. For example, no experimental evidence that aluminium promotes tumorigenesis in cultured mammary epithelial cells exists. We report here that long-term exposure to concentrations of aluminium-in the form of aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 )-in the range of those measured in the human breast, transform normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) epithelial cells in vitro as revealed by the soft agar assay. Subcutaneous injections into three different mouse strains with decreasing immunodeficiency, namely, NOD SCID gamma (NSG), NOD SCID or nude mice, revealed that untreated NMuMG cells form tumors and metastasize, to a limited extent, in the highly immunodeficient and natural killer (NK) cell deficient NSG strain, but not in the less permissive and NK cell competent NOD SCID or nude strains. In contrast, NMuMG cells transformed in vitro by AlCl 3 form large tumors and metastasize in all three mouse models. These effects correlate with a mutagenic activity of AlCl 3 . Our findings demonstrate for the first time that concentrations of aluminium in the range of those measured in the human breast fully transform cultured mammary epithelial cells, thus enabling them to form tumors and metastasize in well-established mouse cancer models. Our observations provide experimental evidence that aluminium salts could be environmental breast carcinogens. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  16. Mammary carcinogenesis in rats: basic facts and recent results in Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.; Stone, J.P.; Holtzman, s.

    1982-01-01

    Some research results from experiments investigating neutron-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats are presented. The additive effects of neutrons and 3-methylcholanthrene on mammary adenocarcinoma were determined. Synergism between diethylstilbestrol and neutrons was likewise studied. Differences in mammary neoplastic response between strains of laboratory rats was also investigated

  17. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Oth.Brs.20.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells mm9 TFs and others Breast Mammary cells SRX187508,SR...X403482,SRX852565,SRX187509,SRX403483,SRX187514,SRX852563,SRX852562,SRX187513,SRX852564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_cells.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Oth.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Mammary_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  15. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  16. Melanoma exosomes enable tumor tolerance in lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma preferentially spreads via lymph nodes. Melanoma exosomes can induce angiogenesis and immune suppression. However, a role for melanoma exosomes in facilitating tumor tolerance in lymph nodes has not been considered. Herein, the hypothesis that melanoma exosome mediated induction of vascular endothelial cell (VEC) derived tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) results in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) mediated tumor tolerance is explored. To support this hypothesis, experiments involving ex vivo lymph node associated VECs, LECs, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes are proposed based upon a previously established fluorescent exosome lymph node trafficking model. The implication of the hypothesis in the context of melanoma exosome mediated induction of tumor tolerance in lymph nodes is then discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cervical lymph node tuberculosis in Libreville: epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouba, John Florent; Miloundja, Jérôme; Mimbila-Mayi, Mylène; Ndjenkam, Florent Tchouansi; N'zouba, Léon

    2011-01-01

    To analyse the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of cervical lymph node tuberculosis (TB) in Libreville. This retrospective descriptive multicentre study included all 140 patients with complete files who were treated for cervical lymph node TB from 2001 through 2006, regardless of whether TB was found at any other site. A slight predominance of men was observed. The infected lymph nodes were most often located at the posterior triangle of the neck. Histological proof was obtained for 81 patients. We recorded 94 cures, 4 cases of therapeutic failure, 34 patients lost to follow-up and 8 deaths. Cervical lymph node tuberculosis is a common ailment. Excisional lymph node biopsy has a twofold interest -therapeutic and diagnostic. It is based on histological examination, which must henceforth be systematic. Tuberculosis is a major HIV-related opportunistic infection and must be screened for or monitored at every HIV check-up.

  18. Gene expression profiling in lymph node-positive and lymph node-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Roh, Mee-Sook; Kim, Jae-Seok; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Hong-Jo; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2004-02-01

    To identify the genes involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles of colorectal cancer cells from 12 tumors with corresponding noncancerous colonic epithelia using a cDNA microarray representing 4,08 genes. We classified both samples and genes by using a two-way clustering analysis and identified genes that were differentially expressed in the cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified by means of the supervised learning technique. Differentially expressed genes (77 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated genes) were identified in more than 75 percent of the tumors. The functional categories of these genes belonged to signal transduction (19 percent), metabolism (17 percent), cell structure/motility (14 percent), cell cycle (13 percent), and gene protein expression (13 percent). The gene expression pattern of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results from randomly selected genes shows a pattern similar to that of cDNA microarray. Moreover, the gene expression patterns observed were similar to those reported previously, suggesting rare racial differences. Sixty genes possibly associated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer were selected on the basis of clinicopathological data obtained by performing signal-to-noise calculations. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation testing correctly classified 10 of 12 patients (83.3 percent) as having colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis vs. those without metastasis. These results provide not only a new molecular basis for understanding the biologic properties of colorectal cancer, including lymph node metastasis, but also provide a resource for future development of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for colorectal cancer.

  19. Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm. (author)

  20. [Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm.

  1. Radiotherapy of the regional lymph nodes: shooting at the sheriff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkler, Ian H

    2009-10-01

    The role of immune surveillance in controlling the spread of breast cancer to the regional nodes is poorly understood. In theory regional nodal irradiation (RNI) might compromise this host function. However the clinical evidence suggests that the risk of regional recurrence is lower in patients with early breast cancer whose axilla has been irradiated compared to no axillary treatment. The role of RNI after breast conserving surgery has not been well studied. A policy of level III clearance and only irradiating the axilla for residual disease and a selective policy of axillary irradiation in node positive patients after sentinel node biopsy or lower axillary node sample is recommended. Irradiation of the medial supraclavicular fossa after axillary dissection is suggested where there are four or more nodes involved on axillary dissection. There is little data to inform selection of patients for RNI after neoadjuvant systemic therapy. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) was largely established on the basis of comprehensive RNI. It is unclear whether irradiating less than the chest wall and peripheral lymphatics confers the same level of benefit. The role of PMRT in women with 1-3 involved nodes remains controversial and investigational. Biological factors such as oestrogen and progesterone receptor status and HER-2 protein expression may play a role in determining benefits from PMRT. The role of internal mammary nodal irradiation is unclear. The individualisation of RNI based on molecular and genetic factors should be a priority for research. The benefits of RNI need to be carefully balanced against the risks of cardiotoxicity, pneumonitis, lymphoedema, brachial plexopathy and secondary malignancy.

  2. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolganova, I.P.; Zolotarevskij, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax) [ru

  3. Intraductal papilloma in an axillary lymph node of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottom, Hannah; Rengabashyam, Bhavani; Turton, Philip E; Shaaban, Abeer M

    2014-05-23

    Inclusions of ectopic breast tissue in axillary lymph nodes are reported very infrequently and typically are only identified microscopically as an incidental finding. Furthermore the development of a benign proliferative lesion in the form of an intraductal papilloma from intranodal ectopic breast tissue is an extremely rare phenomenon with only three previous cases reported. This report describes an unusual and rare case of an intraductal papilloma arising in an axillary lymph node of a patient known to have the human immunodeficiency virus. A 40-year-old Black African woman underwent excision of an enlarged palpable axillary lymph node. In the preceding 7 years she had received at least six separate surgical excisions to her ipsilateral breast for papillomatosis. The last surgical intervention was performed 1 year prior to presentation with an enlarged axillary lymph node. Histological examination of her axillary lymph node revealed a papillomatous proliferative epithelial lesion within an apparent encompassing duct, resembling a mammary intraductal papilloma. In the surrounding lymphoid tissue small groups of duct-like structures were additionally noted. Immunostaining with a panel of myoepithelial markers in conjunction with oestrogen receptor produced a mixed heterogeneous staining pattern in both the papillomatous lesion and the peripheral duct-like structures. This confirmed the diagnosis of a benign intraductal papilloma within an axillary lymph node, considered to have arisen from ectopic breast tissue. This case demonstrates that intranodal ectopic breast tissue has the potential to undergo benign proliferative change albeit extremely rarely. Therefore this possibility must be considered to ensure the correct diagnosis is made. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report which has described recurrent intraductal papillomas and the subsequent development of an intraductal papilloma within an ipsilateral axillary lymph node, in

  4. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissacot Denise Z

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7% as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3% with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8% presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2% degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.

  5. The mammary gland in domestic ruminants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Bislev, Stine L; Bendixen, Emøke; Almeida, André M

    2013-12-06

    Milk and dairy products are central elements in the human diet. It is estimated that 108kg of milk per year are consumed per person worldwide. Therefore, dairy production represents a relevant fraction of the economies of many countries, being cattle, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and other ruminants the main species used worldwide. An adequate management of dairy farming cannot be achieved without the knowledge on the biological mechanisms behind lactation in ruminants. Thus, understanding the morphology, development and regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production is crucial. Presently, innovative and high-throughput technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on such issues. Additionally, the application of a systems biology approach to animal science is vastly growing, as new advances in one field of specialization or animal species lead to new lines of research in other areas or/and are expanded to other species. This article addresses how modern research approaches may help us understand long-known issues in mammary development, lactation biology and dairy production. Dairy production depends upon the knowledge of the morphology and regulation of the mammary gland and lactation. High-throughput technologies allow a much broader and detailed knowledge on the biology of the mammary gland. This paper reviews the major contributions that genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics approaches have provided to understand the regulation of the mammary gland in health, disease and production. In the context of mammary gland "omics"-based research, the integration of results using a Systems Biology Approach is of key importance. © 2013.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11 revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5% and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%, one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.

  7. Large mammary hamartoma with focal invasive ductal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervatikar Suneet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary hamartomas are uncommon benign lesions rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of a 25-year-old female patient presenting with a lump in the left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of invasive ductal carcinoma along with normal benign glands that were mistaken for normal breast tissue. However, the mastectomy specimen revealed the malignant mass within a larger hamartomatous mass. Mammary hamartomas are benign lesions but, on exceedingly rare occasions, they may be involved by incidental, coexisting carcinoma, as illustrated in this case report.

  8. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF...

  9. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process

  10. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2008-01-01

    ewes were fed restrictedly (50% of energy and protein requirements) the last 38 days of pregnancy. Half the ewes in each feeding treatment group were slaughtered d -6 from parturition. Both mammary glands were collected at slaughter. From the remaining five sheep in each feeding group, blood...... and mammary biopsies were collected on d -16, d - 6, d 5 and d 30 from parturition. Fetus weights, weight of mammary parenchyma, amount of mammary epithelium and rate of mammary cell proliferation increased from d -38 to d -6 from parturition, but was not significantly affected by late gestation feed...

  11. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...... 6.5 h after feeding. The MPF in the right cranial mammary vein was measured by downstream dilution of infused pAH (3.0 mmol/h). Total MPF-pAH was calculated assuming that the measured flow constituted the flow from 5 out of 14 suckled glands on the basis of the anatomical structure of the mammary...

  12. Hemosiderin: a new marker for sentinel lymph node identification Hemossiderina: um novo marcador para identificação do linfonodo sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and present our initial results of a new marker (hemosiderin for mammary sentinel lymph node identification in an experimental model. METHODS: Skins mapped like a lymphatic duct draining to the axilla in patients submitted to breast biopsy, in our mastology service, stimulated us to try it in an animal model (female dogs. Our theory was that some blood derivate (hemosiderin was captured by macrophages and accessed the lymphatic ducts in direction to the axilla. Six female dogs of no defined race were studied. We injected 0,2 ml of technetium on both superior mammary glands. After ten minutes, a 2,5 ml solution of hemolized blood (hemosiderin from the own animal was injected in the subareolar lymphatic plexus on the left superior mammary gland and 2,5 ml of patent blue concomitantly and equally on the contralateral gland. Ten minutes after, incisions on both axilas were made to search, through the lymphatic mapping and a gamma probe, the sentinel lymph nodes. RESULTS: Seven brown sentinel lymph nodes were indentified and also radiomarked on the left axilla. Six blue sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the right axilla. CONCLUSION: Preliminary studies of a potential new dye for sentinel lymph node identification are presented. It may be the change of the current use of the blue dyes and their severe side-effects on patients submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsies.OBJETIVO: Avaliar e apresentar resultados preliminares de um novo marcador (hemossiderina para a identificação de linfonodos sentinela mamários em um modelo experimental. MÉTODOS: Durante acompanhamento de dois casos de biópsias excisionais de tumores da mama, no nosso serviço de mastologia, observou-se trajeto pigmentado no quadrante inferior externo daquelas mamas, sugerindo ser marcação cutânea do ducto de drenagem linfática a partir da papila mamária em direção a axila homolateral. Levantamos a hipótese que um derivado

  13. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 97 patients treated for maxillary sinus carcinoma with radiotherapy at Stanford University and at the University of California, San Francisco between 1959 and 1996. Fifty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 4 had adenocarcinoma (ADE), 16 had undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), and 19 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (AC). Eight patients had T2, 36 had T3, and 53 had T4 tumors according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. Eleven patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis: 9 with SCC, 1 with UC, and 1 with AC. The most common sites of nodal involvement were ipsilateral level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. Thirty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, and 61 received a combination of surgical and radiation treatment. Thirty-six patients had neck irradiation, 25 of whom received elective neck irradiation (ENI) for N0 necks. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months. Results: The median survival for all patients was 22 months (range: 2.4-356 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals were 34% and 31%, respectively. Ten patients relapsed in the neck, with a 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse of 12%. The 5-year risk of neck relapse was 14% for SCC, 25% for ADE, and 7% for both UC and ACC. The overall risk of nodal involvement at either diagnosis or on follow-up was 28% for SCC, 25% for ADE, 12% for UC, and 10% for AC. All patients with nodal involvement had T3-4, and none had T2 tumors. ENI effectively prevented nodal relapse in patients with SCC and N0 neck; the 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse was 20% for patients without ENI and 0% for those with elective neck therapy. There was no correlation between neck relapse and primary tumor control or tumor extension into areas containing a rich lymphatic network. The most common sites of nodal relapse were in the

  14. Quality of life and pain in dogs with early-stage mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Larissa; Lallo, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Quality of life (QOL) was evaluated in bitches with mammary tumours (MTs) by applying a scale to assess QOL in dogs with pain secondary to cancer. Two groups were constituted: Group 1 with 80 bitches with MT, oncologically classified as stage I (mean age ± SD = 9.9 ± 3.8 years), and Group 2 consisting of 80 healthy bitches without MT (mean age: 7.7 ± 1.8 years). The results were based on responses from owners using a standardised, internationally accepted pain-scale questionnaire. This prospective and descriptive study showed that 63% of the dogs in Group 1 had a change in QOL due to the presence of MT. The risk of QOL impairment was 2.1 times higher in Group 1 animals than in bitches without MT. Mammary tumour increased the presence of pain 8.3 times and defecation difficulties 10 times. It can be concluded that even small MTs can elicit pain in dogs, which interferes with their quality of life.

  15. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  16. Differentiation of hyperplastic from metastatic lymph nodes using a lymph node specific MR contrast agent gadofluorine M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, SNUMRC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    We wanted to evaluate the value of a lymph node specific MR contrast agent, Gadofluorine M, for the differentiation of hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes. This study included thirty-one rabbits. In ten rabbits, an injection of egg yolk or feces of rat into the calf muscles induced hyperplasia of the lymph node. In sixteen rabbits, metastasis of the lymph node was induced by implantation of VX2 tumor. Five rabbits were normal control models. We acquired the T1-, T2-weighted and SPGR coronal imaging before enhancement with 1.5 T MR. After injection of Gadofluorine M (5 {mu}mol/mL, total amount: 4 mL) interstitially into the interdigital skin fold of the hind limb, we acquired the SPGR coronal imaging at 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes. We calculated the signal-to-noise ratios on the sequential images, and we recorded the number, size and location of the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. Three readers assessed the state of the lymph nodes according to the pattern of enhancement: they were deemed hyperplastic nodes when totally enhanced and as metastatic nodes when there was no or partial enhancement. We also compared the imaging patterns with the histopathological results. Among the 26 hyperplasia- or metastasis-induced rabbits, two rabbits were excluded because of failure to be enhanced. Histopathologic evaluation of the 24 rabbits detected one hundred seventeen lymph nodes: forty-six lymph nodes in nine hyperplasia-induced rabbits and seventy-one (metastasis in twenty-eight) lymph nodes in fifteen metastasis-induced rabbits. Out of one hundred two lymph nodes that were larger than 5 mm in size, MR enabled us to detect one hundred one lymph nodes (99.1%). The means of sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis by three readers were 97.6% (82/84), 98.2% (215/219), and 95.3% (82/86), and 99.1% (215/217), respectively ({rho} < 0.05). Interstitial MR lymphography using Gadofluorine M showed excellent

  17. Diet-induced obesity impairs mammary development and lactogenesis in murine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, David J; Travers, Maureen T; Barber, Michael C; Binart, Nadine; Kelly, Paul A

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a mouse model of diet-induced obesity that shows numerous abnormalities relating to mammary gland function. Animals ate approximately 40% more calories when offered a high-fat diet and gained weight at three times the rate of controls. They exhibited reduced conception rates, increased peripartum pup mortality, and impaired lactogenesis. The impairment of lactogenesis involved lipid accumulation in the secretory epithelial cells indicative of an absence of copius milk secretion. Expression of mRNAs for beta-casein, whey acid protein, and alpha-lactalbumin were all decreased immediately postpartum but recovered as lactation was established over 2-3 days. Expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-alpha mRNA was also decreased at parturition as was the total enzyme activity, although there was a compensatory increase in the proportion in the active state. By day 10 of lactation, the proportion of ACC in the active state was also decreased in obese animals, indicative of suppression of de novo fatty acid synthesis resulting from the supply of preformed fatty acids in the diet. Although obese animals consumed more calories in the nonpregnant and early pregnant states, they showed a marked depression in fat intake around day 9 of pregnancy before food intake recovered in later pregnancy. Food intake increased dramatically in both lean and obese animals during lactation although total calories consumed were identical in both groups. Thus, despite access to high-energy diets, the obese animals mobilized even more adipose tissue during lactation than their lean counterparts. Obese animals also exhibited marked abnormalities in alveolar development of the mammary gland, which may partially explain the delay in differentiation evident during lactogenesis.

  18. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended histopathologic work-up has increased the detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine if (A) step-sectioning of the central 1000 microM at 250 microM levels with immunostaining were accurate...... when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified...

  19. Characterization of the Six1 homeobox gene in normal mammary gland morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManaman James L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Six1 homeobox gene is highly expressed in the embryonic mammary gland, continues to be expressed in early postnatal mammary development, but is lost when the mammary gland differentiates during pregnancy. However, Six1 is re-expressed in breast cancers, suggesting that its re-instatement in the adult mammary gland may contribute to breast tumorigenesis via initiating a developmental process out of context. Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that Six1 overexpression in the adult mouse mammary gland is sufficient for initiating invasive carcinomas, and that its overexpression in xenograft models of mammary cancer leads to metastasis. These data demonstrate that Six1 is causally involved in both breast tumorigenesis and metastasis, thus raising the possibility that it may be a viable therapeutic target. However, because Six1 is highly expressed in the developing mammary gland, and because it has been implicated in the expansion of mammary stem cells, targeting Six1 as an anti-cancer therapy may have unwanted side effects in the breast. Results We sought to determine the role of Six1 in mammary development using two independent mouse models. To study the effect of Six1 loss in early mammary development when Six1 is normally expressed, Six1-/- embryonic mammary glands were transplanted into Rag1-/- mice. In addition, to determine whether Six1 downregulation is required during later stages of development to allow for proper differentiation, we overexpressed Six1 during adulthood using an inducible, mammary-specific transgenic mouse model. Morphogenesis of the mammary gland occurred normally in animals transplanted with Six1-/- embryonic mammary glands, likely through the redundant functions of other Six family members such as Six2 and Six4, whose expression was increased in response to Six1 loss. Surprisingly, inappropriate expression of Six1 in the adult mammary gland, when levels are normally low to absent, did not inhibit

  20. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  1. Lymph node metastasis of carcinomas of transverse colon including flexures. Consideration of the extramesocolic lymph node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, Aristotelis; Weber, Klaus; Merkel, Susanne; Matzel, Klaus; Agaimy, Abbas; Gebbert, Carol; Hohenberger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is nowadays state of the art in the treatment of colon cancer. In cases of carcinoma of transverse colon and of both flexures an extramesocolic lymph node metastasis can be found in the infrapancreatic lymph node region (ILR) and across the gastroepiploic arcade (GLR). These direct metastatic routes were not previously systematically considered. In order to validate our hypothesis of these direct metastatic pathways and to obtain evidence of our approach of including dissection of these areas as part of CME, we initiated a prospective study evaluating these lymph node regions during surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients with primary tumour manifestation in transverse colon and both flexures between May 2010 and January 2013 were prospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Mode of surgery, histopathology, morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a carcinoma of transverse colon, 16 patients one of hepatic flexure and four patients one of splenic flexure. The median lymph node yield was 40. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in ILR was registered in five patients and in GLR in four patients. The mean lymph node ratio was 0.085. Postoperative complications occurred in nine patients, and postoperative mortality was 2 %. We were able to demonstrate this novel metastatic route of carcinomas of the transverse colon and of both flexures in ILR and GLR. These could be considered as regional lymph node regions and have to be included into surgery for cancer of the transverse colon including both flexures.

  2. Solexa sequencing and custom microRNA chip reveal repertoire of microRNAs in mammary gland of bovine suffering from natural infectious mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhihua; Jiang, Qiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiuge; Luo, Guojing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jibin; Zhong, Jifeng; Huang, Jinming

    2018-02-01

    Identification of microRNAs (miRNAs), target genes and regulatory networks associated with innate immune and inflammatory responses and tissue damage is essential to elucidate the molecular and genetic mechanisms for resistance to mastitis. In this study, a combination of Solexa sequencing and custom miRNA chip approaches was used to profile the expression of miRNAs in bovine mammary gland at the late stage of natural infection with Staphylococcus aureus, a widespread mastitis pathogen. We found 383 loci corresponding to 277 known and 49 putative novel miRNAs, two potential mitrons and 266 differentially expressed miRNAs in the healthy and mastitic cows' mammary glands. Several interaction networks and regulators involved in mastitis susceptibility, such as ALCAM, COL1A1, APOP4, ITIH4, CRP and fibrinogen alpha (FGA), were highlighted. Significant down-regulation and location of bta-miR-26a, which targets FGA in the mastitic mammary glands, were validated using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and dual-luciferase reporter assays. We propose that the observed miRNA variations in mammary glands of mastitic cows are related to the maintenance of immune and defense responses, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and tissue injury and healing during the late stage of infection. Furthermore, the effect of bta-miR-26a in mastitis, mediated at least in part by enhancing FGA expression, involves host defense, inflammation and tissue damage. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then the neo gene was amplified from plasmid pCDNA3.1 and placed downstream of the β-casein 3' arm as a positive selection marker. In order to analyze the bioactivity of plasmid pIN, it was transfected into the Bcap-37 cell line and injected into goat mammary gland. Western-blotting and quantitative polymerase chain ...

  5. Development and characterization of MCF7 mammary carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the development of mammary tumours in female Sprague-dawley rats through a simple subcutaneous injection of human adenocarcinoma breast cells (MCF7) in combination with basement membrane matrix (BME). Methods: Nine Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group A ...

  6. Mammary fibroadenoma: ductal pattern in pneumo-oncography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Pabon, I.; Garcia Alvarez, A.; Castello Camerlinck, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present 25 cases affected by mammary fibroadenoma which underwent pneumo-oncography; in all instances they obtained a characteristic pattern of air distribution, the ductal pattern, which allows fibroadenoma to be reliably diagnosed. No carcinoma demonstrated this type of air pattern. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Evaluation of blood enzymes showed significantly higher (P < 0.005) serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tumor-bearing than in normal rats. This LA7 cell-induced rat mammary gland tumor model may be useful for studies in breast cancer drug or nutraceutical research.

  8. The Role of Src in Mammary Epithelial Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kusdra, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    ...') similar to the physiological lobular-aveoli structures found in the mammary tissue. Additionally, more invasive carcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) whereby Src signaling was pharmacologically or genetically inhibited were unable to form actin-rich invasive structures in 3D-rBM culture.

  9. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current methods for tumor induction in breast cancer research animal models are time-consuming, hazardous, expensive, sometimes irreproducible and inconvenient. We successfully developed a new, simple and cost-effective method in developing solid mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rat using LA7 ...

  10. Ultrastructural changes in porcine mammary tissue during lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, R S; Collier, R J; Bazer, F W

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes occurring in porcine mammary tissue were characterised between Day 90 of pregnancy and Day 4 of lactation. Porcine mammary tissue on Day 90 of pregnancy was composed of alveoli which contained negligible to moderate amounts of secretion. Epithelial cells of these alveoli were relatively undifferentiated. The appearance and distribution of cellular organelles suggested that mammary epithelial differentiation had been initiated by Day 105 of pregnancy in the pig. A further increase in intracellular lipid droplets and granular endoplasmic reticulum suggested that differentiation had progressed by Day 112. On the day of parturition, secretions within the alveolar lumina assumed the appearance of normal milk (as opposed to colostrum) and the epithelia displayed a distinct cellular polarity characteristic of lactating mammary tissue. By Day 4 of lactation, differentiation of epithelial cells appeared to be complete, with dilated cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and with numerous secretory vesicles. Elongated microvilli were present and numerous cells contained lipid droplets which were being extruded into the lumina. Data from this and previous studies indicate that lactogenesis in the pig occurs in two stages. Stage 1 occurs between Days 90 and 105 of pregnancy, and Stage 2 between Days 112 of pregnancy and early lactation when the predominant feature is active milk secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3429308

  11. Aflatoxins ingestion and canine mammary tumors: There is an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehse, M S; Martins, M I M; Ono, E Y S; Bracarense, A P F R L; Bissoqui, L Y; Teixeira, E M K; Santos, N J R; Freire, R L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of mycotoxins on dogs feed and to explore the potential association between mycotoxins exposure and the chance of mamary tumors in a case-control study. The study included 256 female dogs from a hospital population, 85 with mammary tumors (case group) and 171 without mammary tumors (control group). An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to both groups, and the data were analyzed by the EpiInfo statistical package. For the study, 168 samples of the feed offered to dogs were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycotoxins were found in 79 samples (100%) in the case group and 87/89 (97.8%) in the control group. Mycotoxins were detected in all types of feed, regardless feed quality. Level of aflatoxin B1 (p = 0.0356, OR = 2.74, 95%, CI 1.13 to 6.60), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (p = 0.00007, OR = 4.60, 95%, CI = 2.16 to 9.79), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (p = 0.0133, OR = 9.91, 95%, CI 1.21 to 81.15) were statistically higher in case of mammary cancer. In contrast, neutering was a protective factor for mammary cancer (p = 0.0004, OR = 0.32, 95%, CI = 0.17 to 0.60). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  13. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  14. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-04-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.

  15. A mouse model of mammary hyperplasia induced by oral hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Materials: To address the mechanism, we developed a mouse model of mammary hyperplasia. We gave mice estradiol valerate tablets and progesterone capsules sequentially for one month by intragastric administration. Results: Mice treated by this method had a series of pathological changes which are ...

  16. Effect of Prunella vulgaris L extract on hyperplasia of mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p < 0.01) in rats treated with highdose PVE. Conclusion: These results suggest that PVE exerts anti-HMG effect in rats induced by estrogen and progestogen. Keywords: Prunella vulgaris L; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-hyperplasia of mammary gland ...

  17. Mammary gland chondrosarcoma in a German Shepherd bitch: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine mammary tumours are the most common tumours in intact bitches and they constitute about 25% of the neoplasm in this species followed by skin tumours (Benjamin et al.,1999) and their incidence varies from 198 to 622.6 cases per 100,000 dogs per year (Vail and MacEwen,2000). According to Yager et al.(1993) ...

  18. Intravital imaging of cancer stem cell plasticity in mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A.; Ellenbroek, S.I.; Ritsma, L.; Beerling, E.; Vrisekoop, N.; van Rheenen, J.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely debated whether all tumor cells in mammary tumors have the same potential to propagate and maintain tumor growth or whether there is a hierarchical organization. Evidence for the latter theory is mainly based on the ability or failure of transplanted tumor cells to produce detectable

  19. Cat Mammary Tumors: Genetic Models for the Human Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Adega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The records are not clear, but Man has been sheltering the cat inside his home for over 12,000 years. The close proximity of this companion animal, however, goes beyond sharing the same roof; it extends to the great similarity found at the cellular and molecular levels. Researchers have found a striking resemblance between subtypes of feline mammary tumors and their human counterparts that goes from the genes to the pathways involved in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneous cat mammary pre-invasive intraepithelial lesions (hyperplasias and neoplasias and malignant lesions seem to share a wide repertoire of molecular features with their human counterparts. In the present review, we tried to compile all the genetics aspects published (i.e., chromosomal alterations, critical cancer genes and their expression regarding cat mammary tumors, which support the cat as a valuable alternative in vitro cell and animal model (i.e., cat mammary cell lines and the spontaneous tumors, respectively, but also to present a critical point of view of some of the issues that really need to be investigated in future research.

  20. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 108:3264-69. 2011 Chin, K, Ortiz de Solorzano , C, Knowles, D, Jones, A, Chou, W, Rodriguez, E, Kuo, W-L, Ljung, B-M...Transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by oncogenic retro- viruses. Cancer Res 1988;48:4689–94. 13. Chin K, de Solorzano CO, Knowles D, et al

  1. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio S S; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-06-04

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4+ (> or = 66.7%) or CD8+ T-cells ( or = 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P carcinomas.

  2. Panaxanthone isolated from pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of a mouse model of mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hitoshi; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Shibata, Eiko; Morimoto, Junji; Akao, Yukihiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2009-07-01

    The antitumor growth and antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone (approximately 80% alpha-mangostin and 20% gamma-mangostin) were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model that produces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancer. Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879 cells, were subsequently treated with panaxanthone at 0, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm in their diet. In vitro studies were also conducted to evaluate the effects of alpha-mangostin, the main component of panaxanthone, on BJMC3879 cells. In the in vivo study, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in mice treated with 2,500 and 5,000 ppm panaxanthone in their diet. The multiplicity of lung metastasis was significantly lower in the 5,000 ppm group. Lymph node metastasis also tended to decrease in the 5,000 ppm group but not significantly. The antitumor effects of panaxanthone were associated with elevation of apoptotic cell death, antiproliferation (inhibition of PCNA) and antiangiogenesis (inhibition of microvessel density). The in vitro study demonstrated that alpha-mangostin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, elevated activities of caspases and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest in the G(1)-phase and decreases in the cell population in the S- and G(2)/M-phases. These results suggest that the observed antimetastatic activity of panaxanthone may be of clinical significance as adjuvant therapy in metastatic human breast cancer, and may also be useful as a chemopreventative of breast cancer development.

  3. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients...... with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were re-classified histologically to find possible ITC and to describe technical pitfalls. RESULTS: Primarily we found metastatic spread in 12 of 108 sentinel lymph nodes: five macrometastasis and seven micrometastasis. After re-classification, we found seven lymph nodes...... with macrometastasis, five with micrometastasis and two with ITC. CONCLUSION: The ITC are probably precursors of micrometastasis waiting to grow and should be treated as such. Benign inclusions and dendritic cells did not cause problems, but can mimic ITC....

  4. Spiral CT for cervical lymph node enlargement. Early clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.J.; Keske, U.; Schedel, J.; Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    Spiral CT was performed before treatment in 35 patients with suspected cervical lymph node enlargement. By coronary and sagittal reconstruction it is possible to utilise the M/Q quotient which has become accepted as the result of sonographic and MRI examinations. It is now possible to obtain high diagnostic accuracy (97%) for distinguishing between reactive change from metastatic infiltration of lymph nodes (>8 mm) by using CT. Using spiral CT with 5 mm table movement, three patients diagnosed as stage N1 by axial CT were shown to be N2b. This represents a highly sensitive and highly specific method of lymph node diagnosis. Further diagnostic improvement derives from the ability to relate the lymph nodes to surrounding tissues. Spiral CT is also suitable for defining other space occupying lesions, e.g., the exact extent of retropharyngeal abscesses, abnormalities of the salivary glands or laryngocoeles. (orig.)

  5. Lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Long considered to be ectopic breast tissue representing the caudal remnants of the milk ridges, anogenital mammary-like glands are nowadays thought to represent a normal constituent of the anogenital area. Lesions involving these glands, benign or malignant, epithelial or stromal manifest a striking similarity to their mammary counterparts. This review addresses the recent literature on lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and our personal experience with various lesions related to these structures. Discussed are the normal anatomy and histology of these glands as well as the clinical presentation, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, molecular biological aspects, and differential diagnosis of various lesions involving anogenital mammary-like glands, including lactating adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, hidradenocarcinoma papilliferum, fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumor, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, extramammary Paget disease, and other carcinomas. In addition, "nonspecific" epithelial or stromal changes some of which can be likened to similar changes occurring in a range of benign breast disease, including sclerosing adenosis, columnar cell lesions, ductal lesions and various metaplastic changes affecting epithelium and myoepithelium are discussed. Although lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands are often discussed in many dermatopathology textbooks in the context of cutaneous adnexal neoplasms we advocate that the best approach to the diagnosis of these lesions is to relate them to analogous well recognized lesions occurring in the breast, that is, through the eyes of a breast pathologist. This will enable their recognition, precise classification and should introduce greater uniformity in how they are reported in the literature so that more meaningful clinicopathological comparisons and correlations may be made.

  6. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  7. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconato Laura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous tumors in dog have been demonstrated to share many features with their human counterparts, including relevant molecular targets, histological appearance, genetics, biological behavior and response to conventional treatments. Mammary tumors in dog therefore provide an attractive alternative to more classical mouse models, such as transgenics or xenografts, where the tumour is artificially induced. To assess the extent to which dog tumors represent clinically significant human phenotypes, we performed the first genome-wide comparative analysis of transcriptional changes occurring in mammary tumors of the two species, with particular focus on the molecular pathways involved. Results We analyzed human and dog gene expression data derived from both tumor and normal mammary samples. By analyzing the expression levels of about ten thousand dog/human orthologous genes we observed a significant overlap of genes deregulated in the mammary tumor samples, as compared to their normal counterparts. Pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed a great degree of similarity in the perturbation of many cancer-related pathways, including the 'PI3K/AKT', 'KRAS', 'PTEN', 'WNT-beta catenin' and 'MAPK cascade'. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional relationships between different gene signatures observed in human breast cancer are largely maintained in the canine model, suggesting a close interspecies similarity in the network of cancer signalling circuitries. Conclusion Our data confirm and further strengthen the value of the canine mammary cancer model and open up new perspectives for the evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics and the development of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers to be used in clinical studies.

  8. Spontaneous chylothorax revealing a mediastinal and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Jihen Ben; Zaibi, Haifa; Dahri, Besma; Aouina, Hichem

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. We report a case of spontaneous chylothorax due to tuberculosis. A 62-year-old woman was admitted with fever, chest pain and dyspnea. Chest and abdominal computed tomography revealed a fluid collection with necrotic mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Biopsy of lymph nodes by mediastinoscopy. The patient was treated with anti-tuberculosis medication. He is clinically improved and his pleural effusion also completely resolved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, step sectioning and immunohistochemistry have changed detection of tumour deposits. Isolated tumour cells (ITC) are detected more frequently than earlier because of a changed level of detection. METHODS: A total of 108 sentinel lymph nodes from 30 patients ...... with macrometastasis, five with micrometastasis and two with ITC. CONCLUSION: The ITC are probably precursors of micrometastasis waiting to grow and should be treated as such. Benign inclusions and dendritic cells did not cause problems, but can mimic ITC....

  10. Assessment of mammary gland metabolism in the sow. II. Cellular metabolites in the mammary secretion and plasma during lactogenesis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, C S; Toussaint, J K; Hartmann, P E

    1995-05-01

    The concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, UDPglucose, UDPgalactose, UDP, UMP, inorganic phosphate, ADP and AMP (metabolites involved in the lactose synthesis pathway), and cAMP, galactose and fructose were measured in the mammary secretion from sucked (n = 9) and unsucked (n = 4) mammary glands of nine sows during the first 5 d post partum. The concentrations of lactose, glucose, galactose and fructose were also measured in plasma during this time. The progressive increase in the concentration of lactose, and changes in the concentrations of cellular metabolites in the mammary secretion from sucked glands were consistent with an increase in the metabolic activity of those glands during lactogenesis II. In contrast, unsucked glands showed a progressive decrease in the concentration of lactose, while the concentrations of cellular metabolites in the milk generally remained unchanged. These results indicated that there was no increase in the metabolic activity of unsucked glands (no increase in lactose synthesis or utilization of glucose and ATP) and that the rate of lactose synthesis prior to milk removal was limited by the availability of glucose and/or UDPgalactose. Therefore, the removal of colostrum from the mammary gland was necessary for an increase in the rate of lactose synthesis (and probably de novo fatty acid synthesis) and implies that autocrine mechanisms are operating to control the rate of milk synthesis during lactogenesis in the sow. The low concentration of glucose in colostrum compared with that in plasma is discussed in view of the paracellular pathway.

  11. Mammary gland-specific ablation of focal adhesion kinase reduces the incidence of p53-mediated mammary tumour formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, van M.H.; Nimwegen, van M.J.; Tijdens, R.B.; Lalai, R.A.; Kuiper, R.; Klarenbeek, S.; Schouten, P.C.; Vries, de A.; Jonkers, J.M.M.; Water, van de B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) occurs in numerous human cancers including colon-, cervix- and breast cancer. Although several studies have implicated FAK in mammary tumour formation induced by ectopic oncogene expression, evidence supporting a role for FAK in

  12. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and

  13. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio SS; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4 + (≥ 66.7%) or CD8 + T-cells (<33.3%) were not associated with worse survival rate. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only lymphocytic infiltrate intensity ≥ 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P < 0.05). The relative percentage of CD4 + T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC), (P < 0.05) while the proportion of CD8 + T-cells was higher in MC-BMT without

  15. Comparative analysis of peptidylarginine deiminase-2 expression in canine, feline and human mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, B D; Mohanan, S; Diep, A N; Fleiss, R; Sudilovsky, D; Anguish, L J; Coonrod, S A; Wakshlag, J J

    2012-01-01

    The peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme family converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. In the canine mammary gland, PAD2 expression is first detected in epithelial cells in oestrus and becomes more widely expressed during dioestrus. PAD2 appears to modify nuclear histones, suggesting a role for the enzyme in chromatin remodelling and gene regulation. Recent evidence suggests that PAD2 plays a role in gene regulation in primary human breast epithelial cells. PAD2 may therefore be involved in gene regulation as it relates to mammary development, the oestrus cycle and potentially to neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PAD2 expression was increased or decreased in mammary carcinoma compared with normal mammary tissue. A human mammary tissue microarray and archival surgical biopsy tissues from canine and feline mammary tumours were used to demonstrate differential expression of PAD2 in mammary carcinoma that appeared to be consistent across species. Normal human and canine mammary epithelium showed strong cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of PAD2, but there was reduced PAD2 expression in mammary carcinomas from both species. Feline mammary carcinomas had complete loss of nuclear PAD2 expression. Loss of nuclear PAD2 expression may therefore represent a marker of progression towards more aggressive neoplasia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A correlative study between histopathological malignancy grading and lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Acharya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Moderate to good agreement between observers greatly increases the validity of the MFG system. The multifactorial malignancy grading could serve as a predictor for metastasis in the cervical lymph nodes.

  17. Transcriptomic signature of bexarotene (rexinoid LGD1069) on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Martin C; Hu, Yuhui; Levy, Carla C; Gaddis, Sally; Kittrell, Frances S; Zhang, Yun; Hill, Jamal; Bissonnette, Reid P; Medina, Daniel; Brown, Powel H; Aldaz, C M

    2008-09-11

    The rexinoid bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) is a highly selective retinoid x receptor (RXR) agonist that inhibits the growth of pre-malignant and malignant breast cells. Bexarotene was shown to suppress the development of breast cancer in transgenic mice models without side effects. The chemopreventive effects of bexarotene are due to transcriptional modulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our goal in the present study was to obtain a profile of the genes modulated by bexarotene on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models in an effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action and for the identification of biomarkers of effectiveness. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was employed to profile the transcriptome of p53-null, MMTV-ErbB2, and C3(1)-SV40 mammary cells obtained from mice treated with bexarotene and their corresponding controls. This resulted in a dataset of approximately 360,000 transcript tags representing over 20,000 mRNAs from a total of 6 different SAGE libraries. Analysis of gene expression changes induced by bexarotene in mammary gland revealed that 89 genes were dysregulated among the three transgenic mouse mammary models. From these, 9 genes were common to the three models studied. Analysis of the indicated core of transcripts and protein-protein interactions of this commonly modulated genes indicate two functional modules significantly affected by rexinoid bexarotene related to protein biosynthesis and bioenergetics signatures, in addition to the targeting of cancer-causing genes related with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

  18. Transcriptomic signature of Bexarotene (Rexinoid LGD1069 on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissonnette Reid P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rexinoid bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin is a highly selective retinoid × receptor (RXR agonist that inhibits the growth of pre-malignant and malignant breast cells. Bexarotene was shown to suppress the development of breast cancer in transgenic mice models without side effects. The chemopreventive effects of bexarotene are due to transcriptional modulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our goal in the present study was to obtain a profile of the genes modulated by bexarotene on mammary gland from three transgenic mouse mammary cancer models in an effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action and for the identification of biomarkers of effectiveness. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was employed to profile the transcriptome of p53-null, MMTV-ErbB2, and C3(1-SV40 mammary cells obtained from mice treated with bexarotene and their corresponding controls. Results This resulted in a dataset of approximately 360,000 transcript tags representing over 20,000 mRNAs from a total of 6 different SAGE libraries. Analysis of gene expression changes induced by bexarotene in mammary gland revealed that 89 genes were dysregulated among the three transgenic mouse mammary models. From these, 9 genes were common to the three models studied. Conclusion Analysis of the indicated core of transcripts and protein-protein interactions of this commonly modulated genes indicate two functional modules significantly affected by rexinoid bexarotene related to protein biosynthesis and bioenergetics signatures, in addition to the targeting of cancer-causing genes related with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  20. Procedure guidelines for sentinel lymph node diagnosis; Verfahrensanweisung fuer die nuklearmedizinische Waechter-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schmidt, Matthias [Universitaeten zu Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bares, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a procedure guideline for scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and other skin tumours, in breast cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in prostate and penile carcinoma. Important goals of sentinel lymph node scintigraphy comprise reduction of the extent of surgery, lower postoperative morbidity and optimization of histopathological examination focussing on relevant lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy itself does not diagnose tumorous lymph node involvement and is not indicated when lymph node metastases have been definitely diagnosed before sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Procedures are compiled with the aim to reliably localise sentinel lymph nodes with a high detection rate typically in early tumour stages. Radiation exposure is low so that pregnancy is not a contraindication for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Even with high volumes of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node procedures surgeons, theatre staff and pathologists receive a radiation exposure <1 mSv/year so that they do not require occupational radiation surveillance. (orig.)

  1. Predictors for lymph nodes involvement in low risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Yfat; Calvino, Abdul Saied; Katz, Andrew; Katz, Steven; Moore, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease. The node-positive group presented with lower BMI than the node-negative group, 31.5 and 34.4, respectively (p = .03). The mean NLR was higher in the node-positive group 3.4 vs 2.9 (p = .08), showing a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lower BMI was found to be an independent predictor for nodal metastasis. Our data suggest that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. Impact statement Most endometrial cancer patients have low-risk disease with low risk for lymph nodes metastasis. In order to reduce the number of patients that will undergo unnecessary lymph node dissection, different types of preoperative predictors for lymph node involvement were studied. CA 125 and different imaging modalities were found as useful predictors for more advanced disease. Less studied predictors are the systemic inflammatory response markers and patient's BMI. This study suggests that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph node involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was close to significance as a predictor for lymph node involvement. In practice, physicians might favour comprehensive lymph node dissection when there is a doubt regarding the procedure but the patient is lean. The study's conclusion can be utilised for triaging patients to general gynaecologist vs gynaecologic oncologist. Further research should focus on combining predictors such as

  2. Lymph node dissection during laparoscopic (LRC) and open (ORC) radical cystectomy due to muscle invasive bladder urothelial cancer (pT2-3, TCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlosta, Piotr; Drewa, Tomasz; Siekiera, Jerzy; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Petrus, Andrzej; Kamecki, Krzysztof; Mikołajczak, Witold; Obarzanowski, Mateusz; Wronczewski, Andrzej; Krasnicki, Krzysztof; Jasinski, Milosz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the number of nodes dissected during laparoscopic and open radical cystoprostatectomy in men or anterior exenteration in women due to muscle invasive bladder urothelial cancer (IBC). Fifty-one patients treated with laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) and 63 with open radical cystectomy (ORC) were compared. The LRC group consisted of 47 pT2 tumours and 4 pT3, while the ORC group was composed of 27 pT2 tumours and 36 pT3. During ORC external, internal, common iliac and obturator lymph nodes were removed separately, but were added and analysed together for each side. Nodes dissected from one side during ORC were compared to en bloc dissected nodes in the LRC group. There were no complications associated with extended pelvic lymph node dissection during LRC or ORC. There were significant differences in the mean number of resected lymph nodes between LRC and ORC for pT2 tumours. The laparoscopic approach allowed about 8-9 more lymph nodes to be removed than open surgery in the pT2 group. In 15% of patients with pT2 disease treated with open radical cystectomy node metastases were observed. Active disease was detected in 18% of nodes resected laparoscopically due to pT2 disease. Fourty-seven percentage of patients with pT3 disease treated with open surgery were diagnosed as harbouring metastatic lymph nodes. The laparoscopic group with pT3 disease was too small to analyse. We have found that laparoscopic radical cystectomy can be performed without any compromise in lymph node dissection. The technique of lymph node dissection (LND) during laparoscopic cystectomy (LRC) resulted in sufficient resected lymphatic tissue, especially in patients with bladder-confined tumours with a low volume of lymph nodes.

  3. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  4. Autocrine-paracrine regulation of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Hernandez, L L

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity for regulation at a local level, particularly with respect to its main function: milk secretion. Regulation of milk synthesis has significant effects on animal and human health, at the level of both the mother and the neonate. Control by the mammary gland of its essential function, milk synthesis, is an evolutionary necessity and is therefore tightly regulated at a local level. For at least the last 60 yr, researchers have been interested in elucidating the mechanisms underpinning the mammary gland's ability to self-regulate, largely without the influence from systemic hormones or signals. By the 1960s, scientists realized the importance of milk removal in the capacity of the gland to produce milk and that the dynamics of this removal, including emptying of the alveolar spaces and frequency of milking, were controlled locally as opposed to traditional systemic hormonal regulation. Using both in vitro systems and various mammalian species, including goats, marsupials, humans, and dairy cows, it has been demonstrated that the mammary gland is largely self-regulating in its capacity to support the young, which is the evolutionary basis for milk production. Local control occurs at the level of the mammary epithelial cell through pressure and stretching negative-feedback mechanisms, and also in an autocrine fashion through bioactive factors within the milk which act as inhibitors, regulating milk secretion within the alveoli themselves. It is only within the last 20 to 30 yr that potential candidates for these bioactive factors have been examined at a molecular level. Several, including parathyroid hormone-related protein, growth factors (transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor), and serotonin, are synthesized within and act upon the gland and possess dynamic receptor activity resulting in diverse effects on growth, calcium homeostasis, and milk composition. This review will focus on the

  5. Number of Lymph Nodes Harvested From a Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Decker, Paul A.; Ballman, Karla; Malthaner, Richard A.; Inculet, Richard I.; Jones, David R.; McKenna, Robert J.; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Putnam, Joe B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status is a major determinant of stage and survival in patients with lung cancer; however, little information is available about the expected yield of a mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 prospective, randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling vs complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection enrolled 1,111 patients from July 1999 to February 2004. Data from 524 patients who underwent complete mediastinal lymph node dissection were analyzed to determine the number of lymph nodes obtained. Results: The median number of additional lymph nodes harvested from a mediastinal lymphadenectomy following systematic sampling was 18 with a range of one to 72 for right-sided tumors, and 18 with a range of four to 69 for left-sided tumors. The median number of N2 nodes harvested was 11 on the right and 12 on the left. A median of at least six nodes was harvested from at least three stations in 99% of patients, and 90% of patients had at least 10 nodes harvested from three stations. Overall, 21 patients (4%) were found to have occult N2 disease. Conclusions: Although high variability exists in the actual number of lymph nodes obtained from various nodal stations, complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy removes one or more lymph nodes from all mediastinal stations. Adequate mediastinal lymphadenectomy should include stations 2R, 4R, 7, 8, and 9 for right-sided cancers and stations 4L, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for left-sided cancers. Six or more nodes were resected in 99% of patients in this study. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00003831; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20829340

  6. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma

  7. Expression and Functions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 is important as a mesenchymal mediator of epithelial growth and morphogenesis. In this study, the expression and localization of the FGF10 protein were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy during mouse postnatal mammary gland development. Mammary explants were cultured to investigate the functions of FGF10. The results revealed that FGF10 localizes mainly in the mesenchyme near the ductal epithelial cells and the alveolar epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Peak FGF10 expression levels were observed at lactation day 10. FGF10 induced FGFR2-IIIb expression in the mammary epithelium, except in virgin or pregnant mice. FGF10 promoted the proliferation of mammary gland epithelial cells and reduced apoptosis. FGF10 is important during the mouse mammary gland growth, development, and reconstruction, and its effects are mediated by FGFR2-IIIb.

  8. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  9. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Value and efficiency of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in patients with penile carcinoma with palpable inguinal lymph nodes as a new multimodal, minimally invasive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy, Kiel (Germany); Colberg, Christian; Knuepfer, Stephanie; Juenemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Kiel (Germany); Baumann, Rene [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Radio Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Kaehler, Katharina Charlotte [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Kiel (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The international guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (LN) but it is not recommended with palpable inguinal LN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and morbidity of SLNB in combination with an ultrasound-guided resection of suspect inguinal LNs as a new multimodal, minimally invasive staging approach in these patients. We performed SLNB in 26 penile cancer patients with 42 palpable inguinal LNs. Prior to the combined staging procedures the patients underwent an ultrasound examination of the groins as well as planar lymphatic drainage scintigraphy and SPECT/CT scans. During the surgical procedure, the radioactive-labelled sentinel lymph nodes and, in addition, sonographically suspect LNs, were resected under ultrasound guidance. Follow-up screening was done by ultrasound examination of the groins according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology. Nineteen groins of 42 preoperatively palpable inguinal findings were histologically tumor-positive. SLNB alone showed lymphogenic metastases in 14 groins. Sonography revealed five further metastatic groins, which would not have been detected during SLNB due to a tumor-related blockage of lymphatic drainage or a so-called re-routing of the tracer. During follow-up, none of the 28 groins with tumor-negative LN status showed any LN recurrence in this combined investigation technique. The median follow-up period was 46 (24 to 92) months. Morbidity of this procedure was low at 4.76 % in relation to the number of groins resp. 7.69 % in relation to the number of patients. The results show that this combined procedure is a reliable multimodal diagnostic approach for treatment of penile cancer patients with palpable inguinal LNs. It is associated with low morbidity rates. SLNB alone would lead to a significantly higher false-negative rate in these patients. The encouraging results of this work can

  11. Histological step sectioning of pelvic lymph nodes increases the number of identified lymph node metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, Birte; Poulsen, Mads H; Staun, Pia W

    2014-01-01

    Pathological examinations of lymph nodes (LN) in prostate cancer patients are handled differently at various institutions. The objective of this study is to provide means to improve the guidelines by examining the impact of step sectioning on LN status in patients with intermediate and high......-risk prostate cancer. Two hundred ten patients who awaited curative indented therapy were included. We first performed a standard pathological examination of the LN, followed by an extended pathological examination of the patients who were LN negative in the standard examination. The extended pathological...... indicate that an extended pathological examination of LN will improve the staging of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients; however, we acknowledge that it is both costly and time consuming. We do not recommend the use of cytokeratin staining in routine staining because...

  12. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue and ch....... Additionally, the results represent comprehensive goat mammary transcriptome information and demonstrate the applicability of the comparative genomics approach for annotation of goat data, using transcriptome information of a closely related species (Bos taurus) as a reference....

  13. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related diseases. Part 2. Malignant tumors of the anogenital glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    Mammary-like glands are a normal anatomical component of the anogenital region and can give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic the similar diseases of the breast. The literature review is complemented by a description of 199 cases of malignant tumors of mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of various malignant tumors of mammary-like glands, including extramammary Paget's disease, ductal, tubulolobular, adenoid cystic adenocarcinoma, low-grade phyllodes tumor, etc.

  14. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1995-06-01

    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  15. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  16. Significance of rat mammary tumors for human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jose

    2015-02-01

    We have previously indicated that the ideal animal tumor model should mimic the human disease. This means that the investigator should be able to ascertain the influence of host factors on the initiation of tumorigenesis, mimic the susceptibility of tumor response based on age and reproductive history, and determine the response of the tumors induced to chemotherapy. The utilization of experimental models of mammary carcinogenesis in risk assessment requires that the influence of ovarian, pituitary, and placental hormones, among others, as well as overall reproductive events are taken into consideration, since they are important modifiers of the susceptibility of the organ to neoplastic development. Several species, such as rodents, dogs, cats, and monkeys, have been evaluated for these purposes; however, none of them fulfills all the criteria specified previously. Rodents, however, are the most widely used models; therefore, this work will concentrate on discussing the rat rodent model of mammary carcinogenesis. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  17. Phyllodes malignant mammary tumors:communication of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschizza, V.; Rosasco, M.; Episcopo, S.; Dorfman, N.; Centurion, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three cases of phyllode malignant mammary tumors were studied in the Anatomo-Pathology Chair of the Montevideo, Uruguay.The discussion covered epidemiology, morphologic staging and biological significance of phyllode tumor within the broader spectrum of libro-epithelial breast tumors.An overview of literature shows that histo-pathological criteria recommended by world Health Organization(WHO) are the ones which determine the behaviour of phyllode mammary tumors, wheter bening, malignant of borderline.Prognostic factors of metastases are those involved in stroma overgrowth, anaplasia high mitotic index and infiltrative edge of tumor.None of the clinical aspects,including tumor size, are significant from the viewpoint of prognosis.Efective treatment is broad extended surgical excision (adequate margins),mastectomy being reserved for large tummors that are borderline, malignant or recurrent

  18. Hormonal receptors and oncogenesis in mammary cancer: experience in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, E.; Artagaveytia, N.

    2000-01-01

    Uruguay in the American continent, it is the country that has high index of mortality for mammary cancer in the woman, staying in levels of 25 for 100.000 women, similar to the countries of westerrn Europe.It is presents particular characteristics related with our nutritious habits among other factors interest it has been directed to the search of different molecular indicators related with the evolution and with the answer to the treatment in the mammary cancer, such as receiving hormonals factors of growths and related oncogenes The purpose of the present work is to revise the carried out experience and to analyse the achieved advances in the detection of these tumorals markers in our country

  19. Modeling and analysis of transport in the mammary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Ana; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    The transport of three toxins moving from the blood stream into the ducts of the mammary glands is analyzed in this work. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from the literature. The utility of the model lies in its potential to improve our understanding of toxin transport as a pre-disposing factor to breast cancer. This work is based on a multi-layer transport model to analyze the toxins present in the breast milk. The breast milk in comparison with other sampling strategies allows us to understand the mass transport of toxins once inside the bloodstream of breastfeeding women. The multi-layer model presented describes the transport of caffeine, DDT and cimetidine. The analysis performed takes into account the unique transport mechanisms for each of the toxins. Our model predicts the movement of toxins and/or drugs within the mammary glands as well as their bioaccumulation in the tissues.

  20. Characterization and identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J L

    1988-06-01

    A total of 317 gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci isolated from bovine mammary glands were characterized and identified using current species descriptions. Two hundred eighty-seven isolates (90.5%) could be placed in 11 distinct species. Streptococcus uberis was the most frequently encountered species and could be separated into two previously described genetic types based upon sucrose utilization. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and a newly described species, Streptococcus saccharolyticus, were the most frequently isolated organisms from teat canal swabs. Thirty isolates could not be placed in currently described species. A proposed identification scheme based upon serological grouping and seven biochemical tests would permit 24 h identification of streptococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.

  1. Prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadili, Ali; Smylie, Michael; Danyluk, John; Dabbs, Kelly

    2009-06-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard at many institutions caring for melanoma patients. Patients with positive SLNB results are currently offered completion lymph node dissection (CLND) of the affected lymph node basin. This procedure entails considerable morbidity and is often applied to patients with shortened life expectancies. Because 80% of CLNDs yield no additional positive nodes and there is no proof that CLND leads to survival improvement, criteria are needed to limit this procedure to those most likely to harbor nonsentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases. A retrospective review of 349 cases of melanoma from January 1999 to April 2007 that underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at a single institution was done. Statistical analysis was used to compare two subgroups of patients: a positive CLND group and a negative CLND group. These two groups were compared with regards to multiple variables related to patient demographics, primary tumor characteristics, and SLN tumor burden. Age and total size of SLN tumor deposit were the factors with the strongest correlation with CLND positivity. By applying a risk score model that uses the cutoff values of age 55 y and SLN tumor deposit of 5 mm, it is possible to predict CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients. The likelihood of CLND positivity in SLN-positive melanoma patients can be predicted from two criteria readily available: size of SLN tumor deposit and patient age.

  2. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  3. Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Aaloekken, Trond Mogens (Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), email: trond.mogens.aalokken@rikshospitalet.no; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf (Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Univ. of Oslo (Norway)); Graff, Bjoern Anton (Div. of Diagnostics, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen (Norway)); Holte, Harald (Div. of Surgery and Cancer Medicine, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    Background. Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose. To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the mediastinum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the mediastinum with the curves of LLN of the neck from a previous similar investigation. Material and Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients with LLN in the mediastinum (9 with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 23 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal mediastinal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and 20 control patients. Results. The enhancement curves of the mediastinal LLN had significantly lower values than those of the mediastinal control nodes. The LLN of the mediastinum had lower mean peak contrast values than the corresponding nodes of the neck from a previous investigation. Conclusion. The comparison of enhancement curves of mediastinal LLN with mediastinal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck

  4. Enhancement characteristics of lymphomatous lymph nodes of the mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Aaløkken, Trond Mogens; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Graff, Bjørn Anton; Holte, Harald; Kolbenstvedt, Alf

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the mediastinum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the mediastinum with the curves of LLN of the neck from a previous similar investigation. Twenty-four consecutive patients with LLN in the mediastinum (9 with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 23 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal mediastinal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and 20 control patients. The enhancement curves of the mediastinal LLN had significantly lower values than those of the mediastinal control nodes. The LLN of the mediastinum had lower mean peak contrast values than the corresponding nodes of the neck from a previous investigation. The comparison of enhancement curves of mediastinal LLN with mediastinal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck.

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Matthey-Giè

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM, and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors, in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated.

  6. [Lymph node tuberculosis as primary manifestation of Hodgkin's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Franz; Schneidewind, Arne; Hartmann, Pia; Kullmann, Frank; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2006-06-15

    A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to the authors' hospital for further diagnostic work-up for suspected reactivation of a previously successfully treated lymph node tuberculosis, which had been diagnosed 1 year prior to the current admission. The clinical signs consisted of worsening of the patient's general condition, negacervical lymphadenopathy, night sweats, dyspnea, and superficial inflammation of the right mamma. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck, thorax and abdomen revealed a generalized enlargement of the cervical, axillar, mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, multiple intrapulmonary nodular lesions with a diameter of up to 6 mm, and a substantial right-sided pleural effusion. Under the assumption of reactivation of a lymph node tuberculosis, the patient was initially treated with an extended tuberculostatic therapy. Because of disease progression another lymph node biopsy was performed revealing Hodgkin's disease of mixed-cellularity type with a partly histiocytic necrotizing, partly tuberculoid reaction. The biopsy was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Thereupon initiated chemotherapy according to the ABVD protocol led to a rapid amelioration of the clinical symptoms. In the clinical setting of suspected or confirmed lymph node tuberculosis malignant lymphoma should always be considered. This consideration is particular important since Hodgkin's disease is typically associated with a cellular immunosuppression predisposing the subject to tuberculosis.

  7. Regulation of Cripto-1 Signaling and Biological Activity by Caveolin-1 in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Caterina; Strizzi, Luigi; Mancino, Mario; Watanabe, Kazuhide; Gonzales, Monica; Hamada, Shin; Raafat, Ahmed; Sahlah, Lawson; Chang, Cindy; Sotgia, Federica; Normanno, Nicola; Lisanti, Michael; Salomon, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Human and mouse Cripto-1 (CR-1/Cr-1) proteins play an important role in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined the relationship between Cripto-1 and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a membrane protein that acts as a tumor suppressor in the mammary gland. Cripto-1 was found to interact with Cav-1 in COS7 cells and mammary epithelial cells. Using EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells expressing Cr-1 (EpH4 Cr-1) or Cr-1 and Cav-1 (EpH4 Cr-1/Cav-1), we demonstrate that Cav-1 exp...

  8. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: Useful markers for the diagnosis of canine mammary tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluz, Ana; Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Rigau, Teresa; García, Félix; Rivera del Álamo, Maria Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of 60 pro-inflammatory cytokines as possible markers of malignancy in canine mammary tumours using a human cytokine antibody array. The cytokines were grouped into two different categories: (1) cytokines in which expression indicated the presence of a mammary tumour and (2) cytokines in which expression differentiated between simple mammary adenoma, tubulopapillary carcinoma or complex carcinoma. These data suggest that specific pro-inflammatory cytokines could be useful as tools for the diagnosis of canine mammary tumours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell kinetic parameters of a solid mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Several cell kinetic parameters of the mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 were evaluated by means of tumor volume measurements and of 125 I-UdR. The in-situ measured activity loss rate is disturbed by a slow elimination of labelled necrotic cells and by reutilization of 125 I-UdR. The restrictions of the I-UdR method are mentioned and the measured activity loss rates are compared with calculated volume loss rates. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Migrastatin analogues inhibit canine mammary cancer cell migration and invasion.

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    Kinga Majchrzak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6 on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. RESULTS: OUR RESULTS SHOWED THAT TWO OF SIX FULLY SYNTHETIC ANALOGUES OF MIGRASTATIN: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6 disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. CONCLUSION: Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs

  11. The Pathology of EMT in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cardiff, Robert Darrell

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) tumorigenesis in the mouse was first described over 100?years ago using various terms such as carcinosarcoma and without any comprehension of the underlying mechanisms. Such tumors have been considered artifacts of transplantation and of tissue culture. Recently, EMT tumors have been recognized in mammary glands of genetically engineered mice. This review provides a historical perspective leading to the current status in the context of some of the key m...

  12. Developmental Expression of Claudins in the Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Heidi K; Rudolph, Michael C; Ramanathan, Palaniappian; Burns, Valerie; Webb, Patricia; Bitler, Benjamin G; Stein, Torsten; Kobayashi, Ken; Neville, Margaret C

    2017-06-01

    Claudins are a large family of membrane proteins whose classic function is to regulate the permeability of tight junctions in epithelia. They are tetraspanins, with four alpha-helices crossing the membrane, two extracellular loops, a short cytoplasmic N-terminus and a longer and more variable C-terminus. The extracellular ends of the helices are known to undergo side-to-side (cis) interactions that allow the formation of claudin polymers in the plane of the membrane. The extracellular loops also engage in head-to-head (trans) interactions thought to mediate the formation of tight junctions. However, claudins are also present in intracellular structures, thought to be vesicles, with less well-characterized functions. Here, we briefly review our current understanding of claudin structure and function followed by an examination of changes in claudin mRNA and protein expression and localization through mammary gland development. Claudins-1, 3, 4, 7, and 8 are the five most prominent members of the claudin family in the mouse mammary gland, with varied abundance and intracellular localization during the different stages of post-pubertal development. Claudin-1 is clearly localized to tight junctions in mammary ducts in non-pregnant non-lactating animals. Cytoplasmic puncta that stain for claudin-7 are present throughout development. During pregnancy claudin-3 is localized both to the tight junction and basolaterally while claudin-4 is found only in sparse puncta. In the lactating mouse both claudin-3 and claudin-8 are localized at the tight junction where they may be important in forming the paracellular barrier. At involution and under challenge by lipopolysaccharide claudins -1, -3, and -4 are significantly upregulated. Claudin-3 is still colocalized with tight junction molecules but is also distributed through the cytoplasm as is claudin-4. These largely descriptive data provide the essential framework for future mechanistic studies of the function and regulation of

  13. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, R; Deschamps, T; Idica, A; Malladi, R; Ortiz de Solorzano, C

    2004-01-01

    Real-time three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for diagnosing breast cancer and planning treatment. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2-D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3-D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright-field microscopy and their background corrected using a phantom image. We then use the fast-marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the level-set method, which converges to an accurate (subpixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2-D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3-D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  14. Mammary candidiasis: A medical condition without scientific evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Arroyo, Rebeca; Cárdenas, Nivia; Marín, María; Serrano, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    Many physicians, midwives and lactation consultants still believe that yeasts (particularly Candida spp.) play an important role as an agent of nipple and breast pain despite the absolute absence of scientific proofs to establish such association. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the microorganisms involved in sore nipples and/or painful "shooting" breastfeeding by using a variety of microscopy techniques, as well as culture-dependent and-independent identification methods. Initially, 60 women (30 diagnosed as suffering "mammary candidiasis" and 30 with no painful breastfeeding) were recruited to elucidate the role of their pumps on the milk microbial profiles. After realizing the bias introduced by using such devices, manual expression was selected as the collection method for the microbiological analysis of milk samples provided by 529 women with symptoms compatible with "mammary candidiasis". Nipple swabs and nipple biopsy samples were also collected from the participating women. Results showed that the role played by yeasts in breast and nipple pain is, if any, marginal. In contrast, our results strongly support that coagulase-negative staphylococci and streptococci (mainly from the mitis and salivarius groups) are the agents responsible for such cases. As a consequence, and following the recommendations of the US Library of Medicine for the nomenclature of infectious diseases, the term "mammary candidiasis" or "nipple thrush" should be avoided when referring to such condition and replaced by "subacute mastitis".

  15. Mammary candidiasis: A medical condition without scientific evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Jiménez

    Full Text Available Many physicians, midwives and lactation consultants still believe that yeasts (particularly Candida spp. play an important role as an agent of nipple and breast pain despite the absolute absence of scientific proofs to establish such association. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the microorganisms involved in sore nipples and/or painful "shooting" breastfeeding by using a variety of microscopy techniques, as well as culture-dependent and-independent identification methods. Initially, 60 women (30 diagnosed as suffering "mammary candidiasis" and 30 with no painful breastfeeding were recruited to elucidate the role of their pumps on the milk microbial profiles. After realizing the bias introduced by using such devices, manual expression was selected as the collection method for the microbiological analysis of milk samples provided by 529 women with symptoms compatible with "mammary candidiasis". Nipple swabs and nipple biopsy samples were also collected from the participating women. Results showed that the role played by yeasts in breast and nipple pain is, if any, marginal. In contrast, our results strongly support that coagulase-negative staphylococci and streptococci (mainly from the mitis and salivarius groups are the agents responsible for such cases. As a consequence, and following the recommendations of the US Library of Medicine for the nomenclature of infectious diseases, the term "mammary candidiasis" or "nipple thrush" should be avoided when referring to such condition and replaced by "subacute mastitis".

  16. Treatment of Congenital Absence of the Mammary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yazawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction for breast deformity is significant not only for esthetic purposes but also from a psychological perspective. There have been a few reports on treatment of congenital simple absence of the mammary gland. For patients in puberty, even if they are in the middle of the growth phase, breast reconstruction is very important for the mental quality of life. In our two cases of congenital absence of unilateral mammary gland, breast reconstruction with a tissue expander worked well in terms of esthetic results and the psychological condition of the young patients. In our institute, operative indications are as follows: (1 a girl over 15 years old (this age is selected as breast growth can be determined at this time, (2 no endocrine-related disorders, (3 preoperative examination of breast MRI or US showing the absence or significant hypoplasia of mammary gland, and (4 a wish for breast reconstruction by the patient herself. For patients in the middle of the growth phase, silicone breast implant does not require a donor site and is easily adjustable in terms of volume to match the growth of the breast on the unaffected side by exchanging the silicone breast implant. Therefore, silicone breast implant is a better procedure than skin flaps with their accompanying large donor sites.

  17. Clinicopathologic evaluation of mammary Paget′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary and extramammary Paget′s diseases are rare neoplasms of epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Due to their nonspecific and variable clinical view, they have differential diagnosis with eczema, melanoma, Bowen′s disease, etc. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has been performed in Iran regarding the prevalence, clinical aspects, underlying disease and pathological characteristics of these two diseases. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and histopathological aspects of this disorder. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all Paget′s biopsied samples referred to the Pathology Department of Imam-Reza hospital, Mashhad, since 1984 till 2004 were evaluated. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Among 98925 specimens, there were 29 cases of Paget′s disease. All cases were married women suffering from mammary Paget. The mean age was 53 ± 11 years. Left and right breast involvement was observed in 17 and 12 cases, all unilateral. The most common clinical view was ulcerated (27% and then erythematosus exudative plaques. More than 50% of patients were symptomatic. Most common symptoms were itching, pain and burning. The exclusive underlying pathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma (55%. Discussion: In most cases, the clinical view of mammary Paget′s disease was helpful. Unilateral ulcerated plaque was the most common clinical sign. Majority of the accompanying pathology was ductal carcinoma. We had no cases of extramammary Paget′s disease in our study.

  18. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-02-17

    Real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of breast cancer initiation and progression. In this paper we present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced, and sections are stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy and their background is corrected using a phantom image. We then use the Fast-Marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the Level-Set method which converges to an accurate (sub-pixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples.

  19. Transport parameter estimation from lymph measurements and the Patlak equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P D; Wolf, M B

    1992-01-01

    Two methods of estimating protein transport parameters for plasma-to-lymph transport data are presented. Both use IBM-compatible computers to obtain least-squares parameters for the solvent drag reflection coefficient and the permeability-surface area product using the Patlak equation. A matrix search approach is described, and the speed and convenience of this are compared with a commercially available gradient method. The results from both of these methods were different from those of a method reported by Reed, Townsley, and Taylor [Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H1037-H1041, 1989]. It is shown that the Reed et al. method contains a systematic error. It is also shown that diffusion always plays an important role for transmembrane transport at the exit end of a membrane channel under all conditions of lymph flow rate and that the statement that diffusion becomes zero at high lymph flow rate depends on a mathematical definition of diffusion.

  20. Assessment of lymph node tuberculosis in two provinces in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Dursun; Senol, Gunes; Alptekin, Serpil; Gunes, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lymph node tuberculosis (LNT) cases in two provinces in Turkey with different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A total of 109 LNT cases were reviewed retrospectively. The cases were analyzed and compared for symptoms, findings, age, vaccination status, and diagnostic procedures. Socioeconomic conditions were also assessed for the two provinces. A palpable cervical node was considered a significant predictor for all LNT. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was found to be common in cases of pulmonary manifestation of LNT. Female patients were predominantly from the Van Province, while older patients were found to be from Izmir Province. LNT should be suspected in lymphadenitis patients of all age-groups especially in young adolescents with cervical lymph node enlargements. In the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated.

  1. Accuracy of abdominal lymph node scintigraphy in tumor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, D.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the diagnostical correspondence between lymph node scintigraphy and X-ray lymphograpy, this dissertation, which is based on 110 systematic comparative evaluations, examines the diagnostical weight of the scintigraphic criteria for tumor growth, discusses diagnostical discrepancies and confirms the efficacy of lymph node scintigraphy in detecting malignomas. In discussing the diagnostical results in the light of previous experience, the shortcomings of the nuclear medical method in tumor diagnostics are shown to be attributable to the uncertainty of the individual scintigraphic criteria. Owing to the variability of the lymph node system as to topography, anatomy and retention rate and the fact that it cannot morphologically be well differentiated in the scintigram, X-ray lymphography to verify the scintigraphic result and preclude misinterpretation remains an indispensable measure. (orig.) [de

  2. [Long-term outcomes of prostate cancer patients with lymph nodes metastasis after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vergie, S; Gaschignard, N; Baron, M; Branchereau, J; Luyckx, F; Butel, T; Perrouin-Verbe, M-A; Bouchot, O; Rigaud, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS) and to identify useful predictors of such survival in localized prostate cancer patients (cN0) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (pN+) treated with radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. This multicenter and retrospective study, assessed overall survival (OS), cancer specific survival (CSS) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS), between January 2005 until December 2010 with 5 years of distance. We evaluated factors predicting long-term RFS in node positive prostate cancer patients. Thus, 30 patients were included. Median follow-up was 89.9±27.4 months. After surgery, patients were treated with surveillance (n=4, 13.5%), adjuvant hormone therapy (n=22, 73%) or combination of radio and hormone therapy, (n=4, 13.5%). During the follow-up, 50% of patients had biochemical recurrence, with a mean time period of 38±30 months. Five and 10-year RFS were 57% and 41% respectively. Extra lymph nodes extension (P=0.00021) and pathological margin status (P=0.0065) were independent predictors of 5-year RFS. Biochemical RFS of patients treated with radical prostatectomy and subclinical lymph node metastatic disease is adequate and multifactorial. However, this study identifies pathological margin status and extra lymph node extension as independent factors of b RFS. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of cellular and molecular responses in the rat mammary gland to 17β-estradiol with susceptibility to mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Lina; Zhao, Yang; Warren, Christopher L; Sullivan, Ruth; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Shull, James D

    2013-01-01

    We are using ACI and BN rats, which differ markedly in their susceptibility to 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer, to identify genetic variants and environmental factors that determine mammary cancer susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular responses to E2 in the mammary glands of ACI and BN rats to identify qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that associate with and/or may confer differences in susceptibility to mammary cancer. Female ACI and BN rats were treated with E2 for 1, 3 or 12 weeks. Mammary gland morphology and histology were examined by whole mount and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cell proliferation and epithelial density were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantitative western blotting and flow cytometry. Mammary gland differentiation was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by microarray, qRT-PCR and quantitative western blotting assays. Extracellular matrix (ECM) associated collagen was evaluated by Picrosirius Red staining and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. The luminal epithelium of ACI rats exhibited a rapid and sustained proliferative response to E2. By contrast, the proliferative response exhibited by the mammary epithelium of BN rats was restrained and transitory. Moreover, the epithelium of BN rats appeared to undergo differentiation in response to E2, as evidenced by production of milk proteins as well as luminal ectasia and associated changes in the ECM. Marked differences in expression of genes that encode proteins with well-defined roles in mammary gland development (Pgr, Wnt4, Tnfsf11, Prlr, Stat5a, Areg, Gata3), differentiation and milk production (Lcn2, Spp1), regulation of extracellular environment (Mmp7, Mmp9), and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions (Cd44, Cd24, Cd52) were observed. We propose that these cellular and molecular phenotypes are heritable and may underlie, at least in

  4. Evaluation of mammary gland development and function in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Isabelle; Stewart, Michael K G; Laird, Dale W

    2011-07-21

    The human mammary gland is composed of 15-20 lobes that secrete milk into a branching duct system opening at the nipple. Those lobes are themselves composed of a number of terminal duct lobular units made of secretory alveoli and converging ducts. In mice, a similar architecture is observed at pregnancy in which ducts and alveoli are interspersed within the connective tissue stroma. The mouse mammary gland epithelium is a tree like system of ducts composed of two layers of cells, an inner layer of luminal cells surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells denoted by the confines of a basement membrane. At birth, only a rudimental ductal tree is present, composed of a primary duct and 15-20 branches. Branch elongation and amplification start at the beginning of puberty, around 4 weeks old, under the influence of hormones. At 10 weeks, most of the stroma is invaded by a complex system of ducts that will undergo cycles of branching and regression in each estrous cycle until pregnancy. At the onset of pregnancy, a second phase of development begins, with the proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to form grape-shaped milk secretory structures called alveoli. Following parturition and throughout lactation, milk is produced by luminal secretory cells and stored within the lumen of alveoli. Oxytocin release, stimulated by a neural reflex induced by suckling of pups, induces synchronized contractions of the myoepithelial cells around the alveoli and along the ducts, allowing milk to be transported through the ducts to the nipple where it becomes available to the pups. Mammary gland development, differentiation and function are tightly orchestrated and require, not only interactions between the stroma and the epithelium, but also between myoepithelial and luminal cells within the epithelium. Thereby, mutations in many genes implicated in these interactions may impair either ductal elongation during puberty or alveoli formation during early pregnancy

  5. Kinetics of mammary clonogenic cells and rat mammary cancer induction by X-rays or fission neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Higgins, P.D.; Tanner, M.A.; Gould, M.N.; Clifton, K.H.

    1999-12-01

    Following the hormonal treatment of rats with high prolactin levels and glucocorticoid deficiency (Prl+/Glc-) for 48 days (Day +48), total recoverable mammary DNA was increased by more than sevenfold, tritiated thymidine uptake by nearly fourfold, and total mammary clonogens by about fivefold. Irradiation with 4, 40, and 80 cGy X-rays on Day +48 increased total mammary carcinomas per rat-day-at-risk linearly with dose, and 40 and 80 cGy significantly decreased first carcinoma latency. A dose of 40 cGy X-rays before hormone treatment (Day -1) yielded tumor latencies and frequencies insignificantly different from unirradiated controls but significantly different from those when the dose was given on Day +48. Total carcinomas per rat-day-at-risk were fitted better by a function of dose to the power 0.4 than by a linear function after exposure to 1, 10. and 20 cGy fission neutrons, and 10 and 20 cGy significantly shortened the time to appearance of the first cancer. In contrast to results with X-rays, 10 cGy neutrons on Day -1 yielded tumor frequencies and latencies insignificantly different from 10 cGy neutrons on Day +48. The carcinogenic action of X-rays, but not of neutrons, was thus influenced by total clonogen numbers and/or proliferation rates. (author)

  6. Enlarged, painful cervical and axillary lymph nodes in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Débora Braga; da Costa Neves, Thaís; Célem, Lívia Ribeiro; Quintella, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-06-30

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important medical and social problem mainly in rural areas of Brazil, because of the high incidence of the diseases, its long clinical evolution, frequent recurrences and sequels leading to anatomical and functional incapacities. We present a 73-year-old patient with paracoccidioidomycosis showing significant lymph node manifestations, which are only common in children and teenagers. Paracoccidioidomycosis may have a long incubation period, and it can be diagnosed outside of the endemic regions, where it was acquired. Thus, all dermatologists should maintain a high index of suspicion, especially in unusual cases of extensive lymph node enlargement in the elderly patients.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, J Scott; Flam, Marshall S; Tashjian, David N; Tschang, Tai-Po

    2006-10-31

    Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) of the skin is rare in occurrence and may initially elude proper diagnosis and management. We describe a case of MBCC to cervical lymph nodes, originally evaluated and treated surgically as metastatic thyroid carcinoma. After definitive diagnosis of MBCC was made, chemotherapy and concomitant radiation treatment were initiated; however, despite these measures, the patient then developed MBCC to the lung. Risk factors and current therapeutic modalities for MBCC are also discussed. In addition to the more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma primary tumor should be considered when evaluating cervical lymph node metastases of an uncertain head and neck primary.

  8. Folic acid supplementation promotes mammary tumor progression in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidah Deghan Manshadi

    Full Text Available Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (preneoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (preneoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may

  9. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium--Effects of Prochloraz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yagdiran

    Full Text Available Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11 featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV. Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11 and bovine (BME-UV mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers.

  10. Parathyroid hormone-related protein activates Wnt signaling to specify the embryonic mammary mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Minoti; Dann, Pamela; Fischer, Jennifer; Butterworth, Daniela; Boras-Granic, Kata; Hens, Julie; Van Houten, Joshua; Shi, Wei; Wysolmerski, John

    2012-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates cell fate and specifies the mammary mesenchyme during embryonic development. Loss of PTHrP or its receptor (Pthr1) abolishes the expression of mammary mesenchyme markers and allows mammary bud cells to revert to an epidermal fate. By contrast, overexpression of PTHrP in basal keratinocytes induces inappropriate differentiation of the ventral epidermis into nipple-like skin and is accompanied by ectopic expression of Lef1, β-catenin and other markers of the mammary mesenchyme. In this study, we document that PTHrP modulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the mammary mesenchyme using a Wnt signaling reporter, TOPGAL-C. Reporter expression is completely abolished by loss of PTHrP signaling and ectopic reporter activity is induced by overexpression of PTHrP. We also demonstrate that loss of Lef1, a key component of the Wnt pathway, attenuates the PTHrP-induced abnormal differentiation of the ventral skin. To characterize further the contribution of canonical Wnt signaling to embryonic mammary development, we deleted β-catenin specifically in the mammary mesenchyme. Loss of mesenchymal β-catenin abolished expression of the TOPGAL-C reporter and resulted in mammary buds with reduced expression of mammary mesenchyme markers and impaired sexual dimorphism. It also prevented the ectopic, ventral expression of mammary mesenchyme markers caused by overexpression of PTHrP in basal keratinocytes. Therefore, we conclude that a mesenchymal, canonical Wnt pathway mediates the PTHrP-dependent specification of the mammary mesenchyme.

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Mammary Gland Density in Rodents Using Digital Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Henry J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent models have been used extensively to study mammary gland development and for studies of toxicology and carcinogenesis. Mammary gland gross morphology can visualized via the excision of intact mammary gland chains following fixation and staining with carmine using a tissue preparation referred to as a whole mount. Methods are described for the automated collection of digital images from an entire mammary gland whole mount and for the interrogation of digital data using a "masking" technique available with Image-Pro® plus image analysis software (Mediacybernetics. Silver Spring, MD. Results Parallel to mammographic analysis in humans, measurements of rodent mammary gland density were derived from area-based or volume-based algorithms and included: total circumscribed mammary fat pad mass, mammary epithelial mass, and epithelium-free fat pad mass. These values permitted estimation of absolute mass of mammary epithelium as well as breast density. The biological plausibility of these measurements was evaluated in mammary whole mounts from rats and mice. During mammary gland development, absolute epithelial mass increased linearly without significant changes in mammographic density. Treatment of rodents with tamoxifen, 9-cis-retinoic acid, or ovariectomy, and occurrence of diet induced obesity decreased both absolute epithelial mass and mammographic density. The area and volumetric methods gave similar results. Conclusions Digital image analysis can be used for screening agents for potential impact on reproductive toxicity or carcinogenesis as well as for mechanistic studies, particularly for cumulative effects on mammary epithelial mass as well as translational studies of mechanisms that explain the relationship between epithelial mass and cancer risk.

  12. Development of novel murine mammary imaging windows to examine wound healing effects on leukocyte trafficking in mammary tumors with intravital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolik, Tammy; Su, Ying-Jun; Ashby, Will; Schaffer, David K; Wells, Sam; Wikswo, John P; Zijlstra, Andries; Richmond, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We developed mammary imaging windows (MIWs) to evaluate leukocyte infiltration and cancer cell dissemination in mouse mammary tumors imaged by confocal microscopy. Previous techniques relied on surgical resection of a skin flap to image the tumor microenvironment restricting imaging time to a few hours. Utilization of mammary imaging windows offers extension of intravital imaging of the tumor microenvironment. We have characterized strengths and identified some previously undescribed potential weaknesses of MIW techniques. Through iterative enhancements of a transdermal portal we defined conditions for improved quality and extended confocal imaging time for imaging key cell-cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment.

  13. Performance strategies affect mammary gland development in prepubertal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, R L; Sguizzato, A L; Daniels, K M; Duarte, M S; Lopes, M M; Guimarães, S E F; Weller, M M D C A; Marcondes, M I

    2017-10-01

    In Brazil, the majority of dairy cattle are Holstein × Gyr (H×G). It is unknown whether excessive energy intake negatively affects their mammary development to the same extent as in purebred Holsteins. We hypothesized that mammary development of H×G heifers can be affected by dietary energy supply. We evaluated the effect of different average daily gains (ADG) achieved by feeding different amounts of a standard diet during the growing period on biometric measurements, development of mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP), and blood hormones. At the outset of this 84-d experiment, H×G heifers (n = 18) weighed 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and were 3 to 4 mo of age. Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 ADG programs using a completely randomized design. Treatments were high gain (HG; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain 1 kg/d; low gain (LG; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain 0.5 kg/d; and maintenance (MA; n = 6), where heifers were fed to gain a minimal amount of weight per day. Heifers were fed varying amounts of a single TMR to support desired BW gains. Over the 84 d, periodic biometric and blood hormone measurements were obtained. On d 84, all heifers were slaughtered and carcass and mammary samples were collected. At the end, HG heifers weighed the most (181 ± 7.5 kg), followed by LG (146 ± 7.5 kg) and MA (107 ± 7.5 kg) heifers. The ADG were near expected values and averaged 0.907, 0.500, and 0.105 ± 0.03 kg/d for HG, LG, and MA, respectively. In addition, body lengths, heart girths, and withers heights were affected by dietary treatment, with MA heifers generally being the smallest and HG heifers generally being the largest. Body condition scores differed by treatment and were highest in HG and lowest in MA heifers; in vivo subcutaneous fat thickness measurement and direct analysis of carcass composition supported this. The HG heifers had the heaviest MFP, followed by LG and then MA heifers. Amount of PAR was highest in LG heifers and was the

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  15. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Simian, Marina; Hirai, Yohei; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-01-01

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth fa...