WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal mail envelopes

  1. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  2. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2004-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  3. 76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change AGENCY: Postal... States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) for Mailing Services. This price change correlates to the Postal Service's January 13, 2011 filing of Docket No. R2011-2, Notice of Price Adjustment...

  4. 78 FR 63434 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-Exigent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...%) Registered Mail TM (4.2%) Return Receipt (4.2%) International Business Reply TM Cards and Envelopes (2.8... Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.30 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service, revise the fees to read as follows:] Fee: Envelopes...

  5. 77 FR 70849 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-2; Order No.1550] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning a Type 2 rate adjustment in conjunction with a mail contract with China Post... Equivalent Agreement, November 15, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The Agreement is a successor to...

  6. 77 FR 74032 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-5; Order No.1569] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning modification of a mail contract with Singapore Post Limited. This notice informs... Additional Functionally Equivalent Agreement, December 4, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The...

  7. 78 FR 4906 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-43; Order No. 1624] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This document invites... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The...

  8. 78 FR 3476 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-37; Order No. 1617] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  9. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-36; Order No. 1616] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  10. 78 FR 3922 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-39; Order No. 1620] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 1C contract. This document invites... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 1C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  11. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-38; Order No. 1619] International Mail Contracts...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  12. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at 1. The Postal...

  13. 76 FR 76201 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-5; Order No. 1011] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with Canada Post...

  14. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-49; Order No. 1654] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract 1 Negotiated Service... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ It...

  15. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-14; Order No. 1138] International Mail Contract...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package contract... Expedited Package (GREP) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contract is functionally...

  16. 77 FR 73699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-24; Order No. 1566] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the addition of several articles...

  17. 78 FR 48728 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-39; Order No. 1798] International Mail Contract... provide its contracting partner, on a periodic basis, with a list of countries to which Commercial ePacket... an Additional Global Plus 1C Contract, January 11, 2013. IV. Ordering Paragraphs It is ordered: 1...

  18. 77 FR 26583 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2012-21; Order No. 1325] International Mail Contract... Package contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service states that the instant...

  19. 77 FR 72412 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-22; Order No. 1557] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the deletion of an article, the...

  20. 77 FR 75678 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-27; Order No. 1582] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice concerning changes to Inbound Air Parcel Post (at UPU Rates). This document...

  1. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within the GEPS 3 product...

  2. 76 FR 72452 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-4; Order No. 981] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with HongKong Post Group...

  3. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-23; Order No. 1562] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal.... The Postal Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as revisions to...

  4. Mail Office

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Mail Office wishes to remind users that the CERN mail service is exclusively reserved for official CERN mail. All external official mail must be sent to the Mail Office in an unstamped envelope on which your name and Department must be clearly indicated below the official CERN address (see example) to help us to find you in the event that it cannot be delivered. If you wish to send private mail from the CERN site you must use the post offices at Meyrin (63-R-011) or Prévessin (866-R-C02). Please use "PRIORITY" envelopes only in the case of urgent mail. Any mail containing merchandise (i.e. anything other than documents) must be sent using an EDH shipping request form. INTERNAL MAIL Please remember to include the recipient’s MAILBOX number on the internal mail envelopes, either in the relevant box (new envelopes) or next to the name (old envelopes). This information, which can be found in the CERN PHONEBOOK, simplifies our t...

  5. 76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR part 20 is... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes--Mailing Services... of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) throughout various...

  6. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR part 20 is revised to read as follows: PART 20... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) to new standards when mailing...

  7. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... CFR 20.1. List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations, International postal services... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) section 135.6, to...

  8. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  9. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Service filing seeking to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement within the... Postal Service seeks to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement (Agreement... a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated...

  10. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  11. 77 FR 16568 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  12. 78 FR 21171 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5 announcing that it has entered into an additional International Business... of United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply.... MC2011-21 and CP2011-59, Order No. 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive...

  13. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  14. 78 FR 21632 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5 announcing that it has entered into an additional International Business... of United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply.... MC2011-21 and CP2011-59, Order No. 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive...

  15. 78 FR 21633 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5 announcing that it has entered into an additional International Business... of United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply.... MC2011-21 and CP2011-59, Order No. 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive...

  16. 77 FR 12888 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  17. 77 FR 10577 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service...

  18. 39 CFR 20.3 - Availability of the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the International Mail Manual. 20.3 Section 20.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.3 Availability of the International Mail Manual. Copies of the International Mail Manual may...

  19. 39 CFR 20.2 - Effective date of the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of the International Mail Manual. 20.2 Section 20.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.2 Effective date of the International Mail Manual. The provisions of the International Mail...

  20. 39 CFR 20.4 - Amendments to the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the International Mail Manual. 20.4 Section 20.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.4 Amendments to the International Mail Manual. New issues of the International Mail Manual will be...

  1. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: International Mail Transportation (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    government facilities, and healthcare and public health sectors rely heavily on the postal and shipping sector for the shipment and delivery of...different carriers, requiring careful planning and coordination. • Transit Mail: mail that is staged and reprocessed at the IMPC of the transit...the AOA air carrier). Transit mail is staged and reprocessed at the IMPC of the intermediate country (with all of the requisite handoffs between the

  2. 77 FR 28488 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries and Other Dangerous Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Subjects in 39 CFR Part 20 Foreign relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR part 20 is... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries and Other... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) part 136...

  3. 75 FR 39475 - International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Fee International Reply Coupons International Business Reply Service Registered Mail TM Return Receipt....3a to change the price to $2.20.] * * * * * 382 International Business Reply Service * * * * * 382.4... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees AGENCY...

  4. Monitoring for Radioactive Material in International Mail Transported by Public Postal Operators. Reference Manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The illegal transport of conventional explosives and biological material has been observed in public mail and could lead to serious health hazards. In response to Member States' requests to establish guidance for detecting the movement of radioactive material in international mail, the IAEA and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) undertook a joint effort to prepare this publication. It considers how radioactive materials in international mail might be detected, how best to monitor for these materials in mail facilities and how to respond appropriately. This publication brings together a concise but comprehensive description of the various techniques and equipment used to detect and control radioactive material during mail processing.

  5. 39 CFR 20.1 - International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Mail Manual; incorporation by reference. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL... Director of the Federal Register. In conformity with that provision, with 39 U.S.C. 410(b)(1), and as...

  6. 78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Mailing (5.5%) Registered Mail TM (1.2%) Return Receipt (2.9%) International Business Reply TM Cards and...)......... 0.90 Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.25 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service, revise the fees to read as follows:] Fee...

  7. Mapping network development of international new ventures with the use of company e-mails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, I.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    International new ventures use e-mail frequently to communicate with globally dispersed contacts. In this paper we present and discuss a qualitative research method to map international network development based on company e-mails. Our approach also allows for combinations of inductive and deductive

  8. 76 FR 65639 - International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Customs Clearance and Delivery Fee International Reply Coupons International Business Reply Service The... * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply Service... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes AGENCY...

  9. 76 FR 46853 - International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...] International Business Machines Corporation, ITD Business Unit, Division 7, E-mail and Collaboration Group..., the Department is amending this certification to include workers of International Business Machines... is hereby issued as follows: All workers of International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), ITD...

  10. 77 FR 46772 - Public Inquiry on International Mail Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... responsible for formulating, coordinating, and overseeing foreign policy related to international postal... terms of UPU organization and terminology the United States is a member country, the Department of State... years, the UPU Congress meets ``to define the future world postal strategy, the Union's 4-year roadmap...

  11. The internal envelope. A new way to conceive the internal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Conti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the most recent tendencies in terms of design experimentation and technological innovation concerning the technical elements of the internal envelope, focusing in particular to the mobile and dry-assembled systems as vertical partitions, raised floors and false ceilings, which show the tendency to become a sort of internal “shell”, separated from the structural systems of the building and equipped with all devices finalized to the generation and maintenance of the thermal, acoustic and luminous comfort. From the analysis of the tendencies it seems that the concept of an internal environment defined through this kind of “shell” can be one of the possible, if not prevailing, directions, in order to easily respond to functional and aesthetical requests for interior spaces.

  12. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available have controllable internal blinds and external solar shading which can be used to maximise internal daylight quality and avoid glare and solar gain. • Ecological: Green building envelopes aim to support the development of ecosystems and plant... problems such as large solar heat gains which can only be solved through mechanical plant. • Large sections: 1:10 sections of building envelopes are very useful in understanding the design of a building envelope and should be developed early...

  13. MAIL DISTRIBUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Ferguson

    2002-01-01

    Following discussions with the mail contractor and Mail Service personnel, an agreement has been reached which permits deliveries to each distribution point to be maintained, while still achieving a large proportion of the planned budget reduction in 2002. As a result, the service will revert to its previous level throughout the Laboratory as rapidly as possible. Outgoing mail will be collected from a single collection point at the end of each corridor. Further discussions are currently in progress between ST, SPL and AS divisions on the possibility of an integrated distribution service for internal mail, stores items and small parcels, which could lead to additional savings from 2003 onwards, without affecting service levels. J. Ferguson AS Division

  14. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Marchesini

    Full Text Available Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24 is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  15. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  16. International Marriage Brokers and Mail Order brides. : Analysing the need for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinold, Julia; Roosen, Inez; Hoogenboom, Alexander; Westendorp, Ingrid; Koch, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The study was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality and commissioned, overseen and published by the Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs. This Study analyses the socio-legal status of the Mail-Order Bride industry in the

  17. UNSOLICITED ELECTRONIC MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Judy RICHARDS

    1999-01-01

    Since November 1997 we have been actively trying to reduce the amount of unsolicited electronic mail, commonly known as SPAM mail that arrives in CERN mailboxes. Unfortunately this is not an easy job since the spammers are constantly finding new ways of breaking our defences! Today spammers are 'forging' addresses in the headers and envelopes of mail in such a way that it is difficult to distinguish between legitimate mail and spams. An additional problem, that does not directly affect most CERN users but does use CERN resources and affects the reputation of CERN, is caused by the spammers who try to make mail look as if it comes from a CERN machine.They either try to route the mail via a CERN machine or simply forge the mail headers to a CERN address so it will have less chance of being blocked by the recipient's anti-spam defences.Although some anti-spam measures can be automated, for many someone has to look at the system logs and spam reports from users and make a human judgement as to what should be bloc...

  18. 77 FR 64768 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...:] 5. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North Korea): First- Class Package International Service... economy letter-post, postcards, and printed matter. 241.2 Physical Characteristics * * * * * 241.23...

  19. Zaumland. Serge Segay and Rea Nikonova in the International Mail Art Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    -)procuces recognizable signs of subjectivity. This "subjectivity" takes the form of signs of autenticity and internal memory, which are used and reused by its participants and, thereby, create a certain communicative language within a group. More than any of the Soviet artists who have been participating in the network...

  20. Smooth Mailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In fundraising today, a wealth of communications tools makes it increasingly easier to contact prospective donors--but is it getting harder to really connect with them? Do the new tools work as well as the old ones? In the second decade of online marketing, all the tools of the trade are subject to scrutiny. Direct mail has been a mainstay of the…

  1. Mail Service

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM Group

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 19 October 2004 Please note that the distribution and collection of mail are likely to be disrupted on Tuesday, October 19, 2004, because of traffic and other restrictions enforced on that day in connection with CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The service may be completely interrupted in certain areas. Group TS-FM, Tel. 77551

  2. Herpesvirus envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R W; Moss, L H

    1968-01-01

    The growth and envelopment processes of three representative herpesviruses, equine abortion, pseudorabies, and herpes simplex, were examined in baby hamster kidney (BHK 21/13) cells by bioassay (plaque-forming units) and electron microscopy. The envelopment process was identical for all three viruses. After assembly in the nucleus, the nucleocapsid acquired an envelope by budding from the inner nuclear membrane. This membrane was reduplicated as the enveloped particle was released so that the budding process did not result in disruption of the continuity of the nuclear membrane. That portion of the nuclear membrane which comprised the viral envelope was appreciably thicker than the remainder of the membrane and exhibited numerous projections on its surface. Once enveloped, the viral particles were seen in vesicles and vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. These appeared to open at the cytoplasmic membrane, releasing the virus from the cell. There was no detectable difference in the size or appearance of enveloped particles in intra- or extracellular locations.

  3. Data envelopment analysis a handbook of modeling internal structure and network

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Wade D

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook on state-of-the-art topics in DEA modeling of internal structures and networks presents work by leading researchers who share their results on subjects including additive efficiency decomposition and slacks-based network DEA.

  4. Efficiency of international cooperation schemata in African countries: A comparative analysis using a data envelopment analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martin-Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficiency measurement by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA in the non-profit sector has focused on the so-called Stage I of non-profit organisations, namely, fundraising efforts (which are the most influential determinants of raising funds in order to increase the amount of contributions. However, for the so-called Stage II of non-profit organisations, namely, spending the achieved resources to program services delivery, DEA studies are very scarce. In attempting to address this research gap and to the best of our knowledge, this investigation is the first study that applies DEA to the assessment of international cooperation schemata. Consequently, we offer a significant contribution to the literature by overcoming the limitations of other techniques used to assess the efficiency and providing new insight into the efficiency of targeted different international cooperation schemata (ICS in international cooperation development projects. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the ICS of developmental projects funded by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development. Setting: Our setting is composed of different international cooperation projects funded with different schemata by the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development between 2002 and 2006 in two African countries that are top priority targets of Spanish international aid: Morocco, and Mozambique. Methods: Using a sample of 48 international cooperation projects carried out in two African countries considered priorities in the Spanish Cooperation Master Plan, we analyse project efficiency using DEA. Results: The findings suggest that some schemata are more efficient than others when applied to international cooperation projects (ICS. Specifically, we find that permanent open-call subsidies are more efficient than non-governmental development organisation subsidies. Conclusion: Measures for evaluating

  5. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  6. Biomimetic Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-01-01

    How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes prot...

  7. Federal Mail Expenditures

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Agencies annually report mail data using the Simplified Mail Accountability Reporting Tool (SMART), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by GSA and the Department...

  8. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  9. Mail Delivery | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2014-01-01

    Due to the annual closure of CERN, no mail will be distributed on Friday, 19 December but mail will still be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, it will be possible for you to bring outgoing mail to building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.

  10. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  11. E-mail security: mail clients must use encrypted protocols

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In the coming weeks, users of mail clients other than Outlook (e.g. Pine, Mozilla, Mac Mail, etc.) may receive an e-mail from Mail-service@cern.ch with instructions to update the security settings of their mail client. The aim of this campaign is to enforce the use of encrypted and authenticated mail protocols in order to prevent the propagation of viruses and protect passwords from theft. As a first step, from 6 June 2006 onwards, access to mail servers from outside CERN will require a securely configured mail client as described in the help page http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=191040. On this page most users will also find tools that will update their mail client settings automatically. Note that Outlook clients and WebMail access are not affected. The Mail Team

  12. Technology Corner: Analysing E-mail Headers For Forensic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Mail (E-Mail, which is one of the most widely used applications of Internet, has become a global communication infrastructure service.  However, security loopholes in it enable cybercriminals to misuse it by forging its headers or by sending it anonymously for illegitimate purposes, leading to e-mail forgeries. E-mail messages include transit handling envelope and trace information in the form of structured fields which are not stripped after messages are delivered, leaving a detailed record of e-mail transactions.  A detailed header analysis can be used to map the networks traversed by messages, including information on the messaging software and patching policies of clients and gateways, etc. Cyber forensic e-mail analysis is employed to collect credible evidence to bring criminals to justice. This paper projects the need for e-mail forensic investigation and lists various methods and tools used for its realization. A detailed header analysis of a multiple tactic spoofed e-mail message is carried out in this paper. It also discusses various possibilities for detection of spoofed headers and identification of its originator. Further, difficulties that may be faced by investigators during forensic investigation of an e-mail message have been discussed along with their possible solutions.

  13. 7 CFR 352.11 - Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., plant pests, and soil which arrive in the United States in closed dispatches by international mail or international parcel post and which are in transit through the United States to another country shall be allowed... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. The project for virus mails and junk mails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fazhi; Shou Xuejian

    2003-01-01

    Along with the application of network, Email is becoming more and more important for people's communication. But like other net work applications, Email is being infracted by Virus Mails and Junk mails. Sendmail and Procmail are used to deal with Virus Mails and Junk mails in this paper. It is effective to prevent the IHCP (Institute of High Energy Physics Academia Sinica) mail server from attacks now

  15. E-mail: apseebuteaoicgm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept. of Sociology,. Univ, of Nigeria, Nsukka. E-mail: apseebuteaoicgm. ABSTRACT. This paper examines the issue of poverty in contemporary Nigerian society. The new thing ... pampered workers, leadership corruption, cash flight and economic .... widespread leadership corruption, Therefore, the Structural Adjustment.

  16. Real Snail Mail

    OpenAIRE

    Isley, Vicky; Smith, Paul; boredomresearch,

    2008-01-01

    boredomresearch exhibited the Real Snail Mail installation in Process as Paradigm Exhibition, LABoral Centro de Arte y Creacion, Gijon Spain (23rd April - 30th Aug 2010). A group exhibition which is showing artwork that is continually evolving and in a state of flux. the exhibition includes artworks by Ralf Baecker, Gregory Chatonsky, Peter Flemming, Roman Kirschner, C.E.B. Reas, Antoine Schmitt and Ralf Schreiber. Vicky Isley & Paul Smith (aka boredomresearch) in 2009 developed an installati...

  17. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  18. Electronic Computer Originated Mail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Takao

    Electronic mail originated by computer is exactly a new communication media which is a product of combining traditional mailing with electrical communication. Experimental service of this type of mailing started in June 10, 1985 at Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Its location in various communication media, its comparison with facsimile type electronic mailing, and status quo of electronic mailing in foreign countries are described. Then, this mailing is briefed centering around the system organization and the services. Additional services to be executed in near future are also mentioned.

  19. Contrast enhancement of mail piece images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Chul; Sridhar, Ramalingam; Demjanenko, Victor; Palumbo, Paul W.; Hull, Jonathan J.

    1992-08-01

    A New approach to contrast enhancement of mail piece images is presented. The contrast enhancement is used as a preprocessing step in the real-time address block location (RT-ABL) system. The RT-ABL system processes a stream of mail piece images and locates destination address blocks. Most of the mail pieces (classified into letters) show high contrast between background and foreground. As an extreme case, however, the seasonal greeting cards usually use colored envelopes which results in reduced contrast osured by an error rate by using a linear distributed associative memory (DAM). The DAM is trained to recognize the spectra of three classes of images: with high, medium, and low OCR error rates. The DAM is not forced to make a classification every time. It is allowed to reject as unknown a spectrum presented that does not closely resemble any that has been stored in the DAM. The DAM was fairly accurate with noisy images but conservative (i.e., rejected several text images as unknowns) when there was little ground and foreground degradations without affecting the nondegraded images. This approach provides local enhancement which adapts to local features. In order to simplify the computation of A and (sigma) , dynamic programming technique is used. Implementation details, performance, and the results on test images are presented in this paper.

  20. Also by Mail

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Olumide

    2013-01-01

    Also by Mail is a modern family comedy-drama that follows the experiences of Nigerian German siblings Funke and Wale who fly to Nigeria to bury their suddenly deceased father. Their upbringing clashes with their uncle’s expectations and initial misunderstandings soon come to an éclat. When Wale returns to Germany, frustrated, he is bitterly reminded of how little his father acknowledged and prepared them for racist encounters there.\\ud Loss and racism, sibling rivalry and cross-cultural etiqu...

  1. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  2. AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.

  3. Internet versus mail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye

    are obtained in the two samples, but the internet sample is apparently less prone to protest bidding. A thorough parametric analysis cannot reject that stated preferences elicited by use of the two different modes of sampling are identical. This suggests that the fear of a potential survey mode effect...... is unfounded, and using the internet for stated preference surveys does not introduce any additional major biases that are not already present in the traditional paper-and-pencil surveys.......In a choice experiment setup, this paper suggests that internet surveys can be a viable alternative to traditional mail surveys when gathering feedback from a sample of respondents. In a study concerning preferences for avoiding encroachment of nature areas in future motorway planning in Denmark...

  4. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  5. Optimal selection for direct mail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, [No Value; Wansbeek, T

    1995-01-01

    Direct marketing (mail) is a growing area of marketing practice, yet the academic journals contain very little research on this topic. The most important issue for direct marketers is how to sample targets from a population for a direct mail campaign. Although some selection methods are described in

  6. Peer Tutoring via Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedderich, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Describes a three-year project devoted to fostering semester-long e-mail exchanges between American and German college students. Based on the tandem approach to language learning, peer tutoring via e-mail helped improve students' writing ability and cross-cultural competence. Presents types of writing activities and suggestions for setting up…

  7. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any carrier authorized to engage in foreign air transportation may transport...

  8. 76 FR 4820 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ..., weighs no more than 3.5 ounces, and is eligible for and claims automation letter prices or Standard Mail... Machinable Pieces [Delete 2.4.3, Surcharge, in its entirety.] * * * * * 402 Elements on the Face of a...

  9. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning proposed revisions to the Global Expedited Package Services--Non-Published Rates 4 model contract. This notice informs the public of the filing, ] invites... Postal Service seeks approval of proposed revisions to the Global Expedited Package Services--Non...

  10. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  11. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  12. 78 FR 70601 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Service's net financial position or enhances performance of operational functions; (2) will not cause... financial documentation. Notice at 1-2. The Postal Service also filed unredacted copies of the Agreement and the [[Page 70602

  13. 77 FR 70850 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... three statutory criteria: whether the agreement (1) improves the Postal Service's net financial position... text of the Agreement and unredacted supporting financial documentation. Id. at 2. Attachment 2 is a redacted copy of the Agreement. The public Excel file is a redacted version of the supporting financial...

  14. 78 FR 70600 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... the Postal Service's net financial position or enhances performance of operational functions; (2) will...), filed separately; \\2\\ and a redacted Excel file with supporting financial documentation. Notice at 2. The Postal Service also filed unredacted copies of the Agreement and the supporting financial...

  15. 77 FR 70852 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... criteria: whether the agreement (1) improves the Postal Service's net financial position or enhances the... consists of the unredacted text of the Agreement and unredacted supporting financial documentation. Id. at... the supporting financial documentation. Id. \\2\\ The Application was filed pursuant to 39 CFR 3007.21...

  16. 78 FR 57419 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... review are whether the Agreement (1) improves the Postal Service's net financial position or enhances... supporting financial documentation. Notice at 3. The Postal Service also filed unredacted copies of the Agreement and the supporting financial documentation under seal. Id. The Agreement is the most recent in a...

  17. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  18. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  19. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  20. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics...

  1. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Bass, Gary K.; Dolan, James T.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang; Levin, Izrail; Roy, Robert J.; Shanks, Bruce; Smith, Malcolm; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  2. Mail2Print online tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Mail2print is a feature which allows you to send documents to a printer by mail. This tutorial (text attached to the event page) explains how to use this service. Content owner: Vincent Nicolas Bippus Presenter: Pedro Augusto de Freitas Batista Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) https://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  3. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  4. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... handling in the mail. The shipment must be mailed in a strong outer package. c. Mailed With Equipment. The... hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or without equipment... Mailing Services 601 Mailability * * * * * [[Page 28260

  5. 39 CFR 121.3 - Standard Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard Mail. 121.3 Section 121.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.3 Standard Mail. (a) End-to-End. (1) The service standard for Sectional Center...

  6. Electronic Mail for Personal Computers: Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Christinger

    1994-01-01

    Examines competing, commercially developed electronic mail programs and how these technologies will affect the functionality and quality of electronic mail. How new standards for client-server mail systems are likely to enhance messaging capabilities and the use of electronic mail for information retrieval are considered. (Contains eight…

  7. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  8. Forensic Application of Microbiological Culture Analysis To Identify Mail Intentionally Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a letter intentionally filled with dried Bacillus anthracis spores in the office of a United States senator prompted the collection and quarantine of all mail in congressional buildings. This mail was subsequently searched for additional intentionally contaminated letters. A microbiological sampling strategy was used to locate heavy contamination within the 642 separate plastic bags containing the mail. Swab sampling identified 20 bags for manual and visual examination. Air sampling within the 20 bags indicated that one bag was orders of magnitude more contaminated than all the others. This bag contained a letter addressed to Senator Patrick Leahy that had been loaded with dried B. anthracis spores. Microbiological sampling of compartmentalized batches of mail proved to be efficient and relatively safe. Efficiency was increased by inoculating culture media in the hot zone rather than transferring swab samples to a laboratory for inoculation. All mail sampling was complete within 4 days with minimal contamination of the sampling environment or personnel. However, physically handling the intentionally contaminated letter proved to be exceptionally hazardous, as did sorting of cross-contaminated mail, which resulted in generation of hazardous aerosol and extensive contamination of protective clothing. Nearly 8 × 106 CFU was removed from the most highly cross-contaminated piece of mail found. Tracking data indicated that this and other heavily contaminated envelopes had been processed through the same mail sorting equipment as, and within 1 s of, two intentionally contaminated letters. PMID:16885280

  9. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...

  10. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... composite layers and their relative layer lengths thereby embedding the merged material effect to create a responsive behavioural architectural envelope. Copper and polypropylene are used as base materials for the composite structure due to their high differences in thermal expansion, surface emissivity...... alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model...

  11. Is it too early to move to full electronic PROM data collection?: A randomized controlled trial comparing PROM's after hallux valgus captured by e-mail, traditional mail and telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Leonieke N; Schrier, Joost C M; Scholten, Ruben; Jansen, Justus H W; Koëter, Sander

    2016-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROM's) after hallux valgus surgery are used to rate the effectiveness as perceived by the patient. The interpretability of these PROM's is highly dependent on participation rate. Data capture method may be an important factor contributing to the response rate. We investigated the effect on response rate of traditional paper mail, telephone and e-mail PROM's after hallux valgus surgery. All consecutive patients operated between January and September 2013, were identified. Included patients were randomized by envelope in three groups: traditional pen and paper mail, e-mail and telephone. They were asked to fill in a FFI and EQ-5D. Two weeks later non-responders were sent a reminder. Of the 73 included patients, 25 were approached by mail, 24 by e-mail and 24 patients by telephone. The response rate on traditional mail was highest (88%), while response on e-mail was lowest (33%). Response rate on telephone was also high (79%). Response rate on traditional mail and telephone was significantly higher (pmail. Though electronic data collection has enormous potential, this study shows that e-mail yields unacceptable low response rates. It is too early to replace traditional pen-and-paper PROM's by electronic questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 29785 - Priority Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Priority Mail pieces, the Postal Service hopes to improve the competitiveness of Priority Mail and... be 3.619. Id. \\4\\ This is based on the Consumer Price Index-All Urban Consumers, U.S. All Items (the...

  13. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  14. 77 FR 65912 - Priority Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. CP2010-1; Order No. 1517] Priority Mail Contract AGENCY... filing concerning an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 19. This notice informs the public of the filing... Service filed notice that it has agreed to an amendment to the existing Priority Mail Contract 19 subject...

  15. Electronic Mail in the Library: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Becki

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of electronic mail in libraries. Topics discussed include general business applications; interlibrary loan; acquisition and claims systems; document delivery; complete text journal databases; reference requests and answers; obstacles to electronic mail usage; telecommunications; cost factors; and the impact of voice mail and…

  16. 34 CFR 300.505 - Electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic mail. 300.505 Section 300.505 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.505 Electronic mail. A....508 by an electronic mail communication, if the public agency makes that option available. (Authority...

  17. Electronic Mail and the Writing Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawisher, Gail E.; Moran, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of electronic mail among academicians. Offers a rhetoric and a pedagogy that include electronic mail in their fields of vision. Argues that writing instructors should continue to do research into the issues inherent in electronic mail. (HB)

  18. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  19. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, Omari [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-08

    “The cost for blower testing is high, because it is labor intensive, and it may disrupt occupants in multiple units. This high cost and disruption deter program participants, and dissuade them from pursuing energy improvements that would trigger air leakage testing, such as improvements to the building envelope.” This statement found in a 2012 report by Heschong Mahone Group for several California interests emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost and complexity of blower testing in multifamily buildings. Energy efficiency opportunities are being bypassed. The cost of single blower testing is on the order of $300. The cost for guarded blower door testing—the more appropriate test for assessing energy savings opportunities—could easily be six times that, and that’s only if you have the equipment and simultaneous access to multiple apartments. Thus, the proper test is simply not performed. This research seeks to provide an algorithm for predicting the guarded blower door test result based upon a single, total blower door test.

  20. On Successful E-Mail Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vulić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to be a simplified guide for the efficient use of e-mail in business and private communication in English. E-mailing is frequently used as a substitute for other kinds of communication in today’s working environment, due in particular, to the fact that messages are transmitted instantly, irrespective of the distance of the recipient. Due to the speed and volume of e-mail, mastering the art of effective e-mail writing includes the knowledge of Network Etiquette or ‘Netiquette’ and it is therefore important that whether it be for business or private use, the basics of e-mail etiquette are followed. When writing an e-mail it is important to consider the recipient. Careful consideration will determine the content and style of the e-mail. No less important is knowing the points of detail in writing e-mail. That is, to be clear and concise in the specific information that the e-mail should contain. Furthermore, abbreviations, acronyms and emoticons are frequently found in e-mail and their use should also be considered. An e-mail is a valuable communication tool and it is essential to use it effectively in order to improve both professional and private communication.

  1. Assessing e-mail intent and tasks in e-mail messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappelli, M.; Pasi, G.; Verberne, S.; Boer, M. de; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze corporate e-mail messages as a medium to convey work tasks. Research indicates that categorization of e-mail could alleviate the common problem of information overload. Although e-mail clients provide possibilities of e-mail categorization, not many users spend effort on

  2. 39 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Mail Classification Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Authentication Confirm International Reply Coupon Service International Business Reply Mail Service Money Orders... Description] International Reply Coupon Service [Reserved for Product Description] International Business... Entry Contracts with Foreign Postal Administrations 1 (MC2008-6 and CP2009-62) International Business...

  3. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  4. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  5. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  6. Multigeneration Cross-Contamination of Mail with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Edmonds

    Full Text Available The release of biological agents, including those which could be used in biowarfare or bioterrorism in large urban areas, has been a concern for governments for nearly three decades. Previous incidents from Sverdlosk and the postal anthrax attack of 2001 have raised questions on the mechanism of spread of Bacillus anthracis spores as an aerosol or contaminant. Prior studies have demonstrated that Bacillus atrophaeus is easily transferred through simulated mail handing, but no reports have demonstrated this ability with Bacillus anthracis spores, which have morphological differences that may affect adhesion properties between spore and formite. In this study, equipment developed to simulate interactions across three generations of envelopes subjected to tumbling and mixing was used to evaluate the potential for cross-contamination of B. anthracis spores in simulated mail handling. In these experiments, we found that the potential for cross-contamination through letter tumbling from one generation to the next varied between generations while the presence of a fluidizer had no statistical impact on the transfer of material. Likewise, the presence or absence of a fluidizer had no statistically significant impact on cross-contamination levels or reaerosolization from letter opening.

  7. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  8. Speech spectrum envelope modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin

    Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  9. 77 FR 75362 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... requested that we clarify the names for Standard Mail parcels. There will be Marketing parcels, mailable at... response questioned if the new handling charges for inbound First-Class Mail[supreg] will apply to First... 75364

  10. 14 CFR 1212.603 - Mailing lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1212.603 Section 1212.603 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT-NASA REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.603 Mailing lists. NASA will not sell, rent, or otherwise disclose an...

  11. 75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. MC2010-19; Order No. 415] Mail Classification Change... change affects a change in terminology. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this.... concerning a change in classification which reflects a change in terminology from Bulk Mailing Center (BMC...

  12. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2011-27; Order No. 785] Mail Classification Change...-filed Postal Service request for a change in classification to the ``Reply Rides Free'' program. The change increases the qualifying First-Class mail letter weight. This notice addresses procedural steps...

  13. Building mail server on distributed computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Shibata; Osamu Hamada; Tomoko Oshikubo; Takashi Sasaki

    2001-01-01

    The electronic mail has become the indispensable function in daily job, and the server stability and performance are required. Using DCE and DFS we have built the distributed electronic mail sever, that is, servers such as SMTP, IMAP are distributed symmetrically, and provides the seamless access

  14. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... design. The provisions concerning the mailing of products and product samples have been updated and....3.4.3, Products. DMM 707.3.5, Mailpiece Construction. [cir] Specifically DMM 3.5.4, Without Mailing... 1995 changes, although welcome, unduly limit creativity in designing publications that appeal to their...

  15. 76 FR 16534 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats...] flats and Periodicals flats within the same bundle, when placed on pallets, and to combine bundles of Standard Mail flats and bundles of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service also withdraws...

  16. 76 FR 16588 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats....1 to provide a new option for mailers to combine Standard Mail[supreg] flats and Periodicals flats... of Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service also proposes to revise section 121.2 of...

  17. 76 FR 10757 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats... a new option for mailers to combine Standard Mail[supreg] flats and Periodicals flats within the... Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service is also amending the Code of Federal Regulations to...

  18. 76 FR 37655 - Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 111 and 121 Combined Mailings of Standard Mail and Periodicals Flats... a new option for mailers to combine Standard Mail[supreg] flats and Periodicals flats within the... Periodicals flats on the same pallet. The Postal Service is also amending title 39, Code of Federal...

  19. Did You Get My E-Mail? Moving E-Mails beyond the Inbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge today is how to make e-mail and other forms of electronic communication effective in motivating volunteer action. Is it possible to make e-mails feel personal and welcoming? E-mail, instant messaging, texting, and social media are tools that allow individuals to communicate quickly and inexpensively, but they are lifeless without the…

  20. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moist......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  1. A data envelopment analysis approa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 42 No. 1 January 2016. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. Efficiency evaluation of urban and rural municipal water service authorities in South Africa: A data envelopment analysis approach. Warren Brettenny1* ...

  2. Handbook on data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, William W; Zhu, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on extensively used Data Envelopment Analysis topics, this volume aims to both describe the state of the field and extend the frontier of DEA research. New chapters include DEA models for DMUs, network DEA, models for supply chain operations and applications, and new developments.

  3. Compulsory registration of mail servers in order to accept e-mail from the Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    This announcement is intended only for administrators of a mail server (sendmail, postfix, etc.). It concerns e-mails sent from the Internet to addresses of the following type: somemailbox@somehost.cern.ch. Mail server managers are requested to register their servers so that they can accept e-mail from outside CERN. In future the CERN mail infrastructure will relay messages from outside CERN only to officially registered mail servers. This rule applies only to messages sent from the Internet. There will be NO change with respect to messages sent from inside CERN. If you are responsible for a mail server that accepts e-mails from outside CERN, please read the following page: http://cern.ch/mail/Help/?kbid=191090, where you can find information about the new rule and check if your host is already registered in the system. If you wish to register a mail server please send a message to: mailto:mail.support@cern.ch. This rule will be gradually enforced from 20 February 2008 onwards. Thank you for your cooperation...

  4. [E-mail communication in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Niels Kristian; Jepsen, Kristian L; Ruwald, Steen; Jepsen, Nis P; Nielsen, Hanne Hynding

    2005-11-21

    Our aim was to examine how e-mail communication in general practice affects the doctor/patient relationship and doctors' workload. Registration was done of e-mail activity in three Danish GP surgeries over a period of 12 months and focus group interviews with patients and doctors. The practices received 191 e-mails per 1,000 patients per year. The male/female ratio was 0.9 to 1. The average patient age was 47.2 years; the oldest user was 88 years old. Qualitative data were categorized under various headings, such as need, expectations, usability, workload, patient service, the communication part of professionalism, worries and barriers against use. E-mail is a requested and useful communication form between doctors and patients in general practice. But it requires guidance and structured communication. It works best when the doctor and patient know each other. It is being used less than might be expected. The barriers from patients' point of view are lack of knowledge of and access to computers, lack of awareness of the possibility of contacting the physician by e-mail and the absence of a personal invitation for use by the personal physician. It is a matter of concern that patients apparently don't read the recommendations concerning proper use of e-mail communication, even though they are clearly described on the Web site and patients have to click "has been read" to be able to continue.

  5. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  6. The use of electronic mail in biomedical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R; Shaw, A; Cheetham, R; Moots, R J

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the content of electronic mail (e-mail) and conventional mail sent to authors of papers published in medical journals. Prospective study by postal questionnaire. Over two one-month periods, corresponding authors of papers published in medical journals were asked to record details of the correspondence prompted by their publications. Conventional and e-mail correspondence received. Reprint requests. Content of correspondence. Quality of correspondence. Eighty-two of 96 authors replied. Fifty received e-mail (mean, 5.7+/-8.8 e-mails per author) and 72 received conventional mail (15.5+/-32.8 letters per author) (p mails and only 53% of correspondence sent by conventional mail (p electronic mail. However, the content of e-mail may be of greater scientific relevance. Electronic mail can be encouraged without fear of diminishing the quality of the communications received.

  7. The Use of Electronic Mail in Biomedical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Richard; Shaw, Anthony; Cheetham, Roz; Moots, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the content of electronic mail (e-mail) and conventional mail sent to authors of papers published in medical journals.

  8. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  9. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  10. E-mail to SMS service change

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    If you have a CERN e-mail account, you have probably already used one of the popular services that CERN’s IT Department offers to CERN users: the mail2SMS service. It allows any CERN e-mail account holder to send short messages (SMS) free of charge to CERN GSM phone numbers. Further to recent negotiations with our GSM operator, this service has been extended. It is now possible to send short messages free of charge to any Swiss mobile number. This extension of service aims at replacing the similar service that was made available by SWITCH(1) to CERN users (address: mobilenumber@sms.switch.ch). Because of repeated abuse, this service will be definitively stopped for CERN users on 15th January 2010. Please keep in mind that CERN’s e-mail to SMS service still has some restrictions: messages can only be sent from CERN mail accounts, and not from personal ones, such as GMAIL, MSN, Yahoo; the maximum length of the message is 160 characters (standard maximum SMS length); and only Swiss mobile...

  11. Regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by cell envelope stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cytoplasm lies within a multilayered envelope that must be protected from internal and external hazards. This protection is provided by cell envelope stress responses (ESRs), which detect threats and reprogram gene expression to ensure survival. Pathogens frequently need these ESRs to survive inside the host, where their envelopes face dangerous environmental changes and attack from antimicrobial molecules. In addition, some virulence genes have become integrated into ESR regulons. This might be because these genes can protect the cell envelope from damage by host molecules, or it might help ESRs to reduce stress by moderating the assembly of virulence factors within the envelope. Alternatively, it could simply be a mechanism to coordinate the induction of virulence gene expression with entry into the host. Here, we briefly describe some of the bacterial ESRs, followed by examples where they control virulence gene expression in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens.

  12. 77 FR 64775 - New Mailing Standards for Domestic Mailing Services Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...-Class Mail prices, on a mixed network distribution center (NDC) pallet. The Postal Service also would... Marketing Parcels, Including Product Samples Prices for marketing parcels are designed for parcels... obtain information. Standard Mail Marketing parcels would be mailable at Presorted prices only, except...

  13. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: Mail Induction (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    particularly during times of stress and disruption. The USPIS objectives for this project included the following [Crabb 2012, Joch 2013]: • Define...that access to mail must be restricted as appropriate to postal service personnel or authorized contractors with mail handling responsibilities [UPU PSS

  14. Take control of spam with Apple Mail

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Questions answered in this book include: How does Mail's Junk Mail filtering really work?How does the spam filter use my Previous Recipients list?How could a spammer's email addresses get on my Previous Recipients list?What can I do to not get so much spam in the first place?What's the deal with email that pretends to come from my bank?What features should I look for in a spam-fighting utility or service?Should I try server-based filtering?

  15. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  16. 76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 998] Standard Mail Market Test AGENCY... Service application for an exemption from the annual revenue limitation that applies to market tests of... limitation in any year during the test of an experimental market dominant product.\\1\\ Pursuant to 39 U.S.C...

  17. Using Electronic Mail To Foster Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuail, Josephine A.

    Electronic mail is one means of dealing with resistance and recalcitrance among students faced with class materials that challenge their beliefs. A professor at a small technical university in the south found three topics particularly difficult for her conservative Christian students to deal with: the radicalism of the Romantic poets, feminism,…

  18. 7 CFR 322.32 - Mailed packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.32 Section 322.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  19. 7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.9 Section 322.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult...

  20. 7 CFR 322.17 - Mailed packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailed packages. 322.17 Section 322.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted...

  1. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and takes other administrative steps. DATES: Comment Date: May 6, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments...

  2. Don’t let your mail leak

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    At CERN, data privacy is of paramount importance, and we are currently developing a comprehensive data protection policy. For example, your CERN mailbox and your “private” folders on AFS and DFS are considered yours...   You might feel like you have nothing to hide, but we are not only talking about personal e-mail: data privacy also pertains to financial mail (acquisitions, tenders), mail related to HR (contracts, assessments), medical information, etc.  As this is considered “private” even if it is work-related, the data cannot normally be accessed by your supervisor, the AFS/DFS/mail service administrators or even the Computer Security Team. Tight procedures have been established for the rare cases where such access is necessary, and these require the prior approval of the CERN Computer Security Officer or the IT Department Head, the Legal Service and the DG (see here for more details). Data privacy is not only the responsibility of the O...

  3. Direction, Function, and Signature in Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherblom, John

    1988-01-01

    Presents a content analysis performed on 157 electronic mail files received over the course of several months by a middle level manager in a computer services department of a large organization. Suggests that computer mediated communication changes communication function and context in certain specific ways, which are reflected throughout the…

  4. 77 FR 71643 - Standard Mail Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Classification Schedule Changes (MCS) V. Administrative Actions I. Background In Order No. 1541, the Commission... Order No. 1541 n.65 in Attachment C of its Response, regarding the High Density Plus rate category. IV. Mail Classification Schedule Changes (MCS) In conformance with 39 CFR 3010.14(b)(9), the Postal Service...

  5. Who Owns Your E-mail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Joe

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent findings that could influence the use of e-mail on university campuses. National privacy legislation and the inviolability of student records are discussed. It is concluded that more effective safeguards are necessary, and that the current steps are inadequate for the protection of students' rights. (Author/LRW)

  6. E-mail security a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Furnell, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide will help businesses to address the most important issues. Its comprehensive approach covers both the technical and the managerial aspects of the subject, offering valuable insights for IT professionals, managers and executives, as well as for individual users of e-mail.

  7. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.11 Mailing. The provisions of this part requiring or... obtained by the lender or settlement agent, except that a revised address shall be used where the lender or settlement agent has been expressly informed in writing of a change in address. ...

  8. Secure e-mail and Web browsing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is an entry-level 1.5-hour training course aimed to show how to detect and avoid typical security pitfalls encountered when e-mailing and browsing the Web. It is designed for non-technical users of Internet Explorer and Outlook. Register at CTA

  9. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  10. Efficient communication in the electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    The literature on the electronic mail game shows that players’ mutual expectations may lock them into requiring an inefficiently large number of confirmations and confirmations of confirmations from one another. This paper shows that this result hinges on the assumption that, with the exception of

  11. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... provisions concerning the mailing of products and product samples have been updated and simplified. Finally...: DMM 707.3.3.1, Pages. DMM 707.3.3.5, Supplements. DMM 707.3.4.3, Products. DMM 707.3.5, Mailpiece... creativity in designing publications that appeal to their readers and advertisers. These publishers also...

  12. Nonstationary envelope process and first excursion probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of stationary random envelope proposed by Cramer and Leadbetter, is extended to the envelope of nonstationary random process possessing evolutionary power spectral densities. The density function, the joint density function, the moment function, and the crossing rate of a level of the nonstationary envelope process are derived. Based on the envelope statistics, approximate solutions to the first excursion probability of nonstationary random processes are obtained. In particular, applications of the first excursion probability to the earthquake engineering problems are demonstrated in detail.

  13. Using E-mail in the Social Studies Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the pros and cons of e-mail in the social studies classroom; in particular, the problems concerning what e-mail service a school should subscribe to. Lists different precautions schools must take when finally deciding on the appropriate e-mail system. Provides names of organizations that have established databases of e-mail projects.…

  14. 21 CFR 1321.01 - DEA mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DEA mailing addresses. 1321.01 Section 1321.01 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEA MAILING ADDRESSES § 1321.01 DEA mailing addresses. The following table provides information regarding mailing addresses to be used...

  15. Discovery and analysis of e-mail-driven business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, Marco; Wortmann, Hans

    E-mail is used as the primary tool for business communication and collaboration. This paper presents a novel e-mail interaction mining method to discover and analyze e-mail-driven business processes. An e-mail-driven business process is perceived as a human collaboration process that consists of

  16. 77 FR 62446 - Every Door Direct Mail-Retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... contains the revisions to Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM... has been very successful in making it easier for new customers to mail and increase their marketing... through Business Mail Entry Units are not changing. We are adding an alternative marketing name of Every...

  17. 39 CFR 121.1 - First-Class Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 121.1 Section 121.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.1 First-Class Mail. (a) For all intra-Sectional Center Facility (SCF) domestic...

  18. Electronic Mail in Academic Settings: A Multipurpose Communications Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1992-01-01

    Explores possible uses of electronic mail in three areas of the academic setting: instruction, research, and administration. Electronic mail is defined, the components needed to get started with electronic mail are discussed, and uses and benefits of electronic mail in diverse educational environments are suggested. (12 references) (DB)

  19. Building Construction Elements, Building Envelope and Method for Constructing a Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope.......High-strength concrete building system and method of assembly for construction a buiding envelope....

  20. 77 FR 72960 - International Mail: Product Rate and Fee Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... footnote 5 to read as follows:] 5. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North Korea): First- Class... airmail letter-post and economy letter-post, postcards, and printed matter. 241.2 Physical Characteristics...

  1. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... implementation of the aforementioned amendment until the UPU revisions could be reviewed by the ICAO Dangerous Goods Panel, and if approved, incorporated into The Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air manual. Therefore, the UPU has informed its member countries that the date of newly...

  2. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    OpenAIRE

    Yang , Yingying; Sempey , Alain; Vogt Wu , Tingting; Sommier , Alain; Dumoulin , Jean; Batsale , Jean ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used f...

  3. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  4. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  5. Voting-based Classification for E-mail Spam Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Awad Al-Shboul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of spam e-mail has gained a tremendous amount of attention. Although entities tend to use e-mail spam filter applications to filter out received spam e-mails, marketing companies still tend to send unsolicited e-mails in bulk and users still receive a reasonable amount of spam e-mail despite those filtering applications. This work proposes a new method for classifying e-mails into spam and non-spam. First, several e-mail content features are extracted and then those features are used for classifying each e-mail individually. The classification results of three different classifiers (i.e. Decision Trees, Random Forests and k-Nearest Neighbor are combined in various voting schemes (i.e. majority vote, average probability, product of probabilities, minimum probability and maximum probability for making the final decision. To validate our method, two different spam e-mail collections were used.

  6. E-mail, decisional styles, and rest breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Phillips, James G

    2007-10-01

    E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail.

  7. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  8. MHTGR thermal performance envelopes: Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    This document discusses thermal performance envelopes which are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point accounting for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion

  9. 77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of FMR Bulletin G-03. SUMMARY: The General... guidance to Executive Branch agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and activities...

  10. Direct Mail Marketing--Ways To Make It Worth It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how including direct mail in marketing a child care program can enhance enrollment. Describes how to develop an effective plan and design the mailing pieces creatively. Discusses the importance of having realistic expectations of the level of response. (KB)

  11. Genetic algorithm for building envelope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutierrez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration methodology using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Uncertainty analysis formulas implemented directly in EnergyPlus. • The methodology captures the heat dynamic of the building with a high level of accuracy. • Reduction in the number of parameters involved due to sensitivity analysis. • Cost-effective methodology using temperature sensors only. - Abstract: Buildings today represent 40% of world primary energy consumption and 24% of greenhouse gas emissions. In our society there is growing interest in knowing precisely when and how energy consumption occurs. This means that consumption measurement and verification plans are well-advanced. International agencies such as Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) have developed methodologies to quantify savings. This paper presents a methodology to accurately perform automated envelope calibration under option D (calibrated simulation) of IPMVP – vol. 1. This is frequently ignored because of its complexity, despite being more flexible and accurate in assessing the energy performance of a building. A detailed baseline energy model is used, and by means of a metaheuristic technique achieves a highly reliable and accurate Building Energy Simulation (BES) model suitable for detailed analysis of saving strategies. In order to find this BES model a Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used, together with a highly efficient engine to stimulate the objective, thus permitting rapid achievement of the goal. The result is a BES model that broadly captures the heat dynamic behaviour of the building. The model amply fulfils the parameters demanded by ASHRAE and EVO under option D.

  12. Determining the direct mailing frequency with dynamic stochastic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Piersma (Nanda); J-J. Jonker (Jedid-Jah)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBoth in business to business and in consumer markets direct mailings are an important means of communication with individual customers. This paper studies the mailing frequency problem that addresses the issue of how often to send a mailing to an individual customer in order to establish

  13. 78 FR 12368 - Priority Mail Contract; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-7; Order No. 1660] Priority Mail Contract... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to the existing Priority Mail Contract 47... that it has agreed to an amendment to existing Priority Mail Contract 47, which was added to the...

  14. 31 CFR 560.508 - Telecommunications and mail transactions authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunications and mail... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.508 Telecommunications and mail... telecommunications and mail between the United States and Iran are authorized. For purposes of this section, the term...

  15. 19 CFR 145.2 - Mail subject to Customs examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mail subject to Customs examination. 145.2 Section 145.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS General Provisions § 145.2 Mail subject to Customs...

  16. Summary of Data Analysis of the YES2 Tethered SpaceMail Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, M.; Van der Heide, E.J.; Ockels, W.J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 2nd Young Engineers' Satellite (YES2) is a 36 kg student-built experiment that piggybacked on the Foton-M3 microgravity platform in September 2007. YES2 intended to demonstrate tethered SpaceMail, a concept for frequent sample return originally proposed for the International Space Station (ISS).

  17. High Court to Weigh Denials of Visas to College Guests, Union's Use of Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    Cases on the Supreme Court's agenda that involve higher education are discussed including: the delivery of labor-union material through a university's internal mail system, the denial of visas to foreigners invited to speak on campuses, the Veterans Administration's refusal to extend GI Bill education benefits of alcoholic veterans, etc. (MLW)

  18. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  19. Teleradiology applications with DICOM-e-mail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, G.; Ruggiero, S.; Runa, A.; Engelmann, U.; Schroeter, A.; Baur, S.; Walz, M.

    2007-01-01

    For the connection of several partners to a Dicom-e-mail based teleradiology network concepts were developed to allow the integration of different teleradiology applications. The organisational and technical needs for such an integration were analysed. More than 60 institutions including 23 hospitals in the Rhein-Neckar-Region, Germany were connected. The needed functionality was grouped in six teleradiology applications (emergency consultation, tele-guided examinations, expert consultations, cooperative work, scientific cooperations and homework with on call services) and their technical and organisational needs according to availability, speed of transfer, workflow definitions and data security needs was analysed. For the local integration of teleradiology services the setup and workflow is presented for a standalone teleradiology workstation and a server based teleradiology gateway. The line type needed for different groups of applications and users is defined. The security concept and fallback strategies are laid out, potential security problems and sources of errors are discussed. The specialties for the emergency teleradiology application are presented. The DICOM-e-mail protocol is a flexible and powerful protocol that can be used for a variety of teleradiology applications. It can meet the conditions for emergency applications but is limited if synchronous applications like teleconferences are needed. (orig.)

  20. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  1. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's “protective shield” and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's “protective shield” describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's “Skin-Ego” is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's “psychic skin” establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's “narrative envelope” derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation. PMID:25076924

  2. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  3. Genetic diversity of koala retroviral envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqin; Gorman, Kristen; Santiago, Jan Clement; Kluska, Kristen; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2015-03-17

    Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A) were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  4. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  5. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  6. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  7. 76 FR 58433 - Proposal To Revise Service Standards for First-Class Mail, Periodicals, and Standard Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ..., Periodicals, and Standard Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking... the expectation of overnight service for First-Class Mail and Periodicals, and, for each of these... Mail and Periodicals, particularly their overnight service standards. In Section 302 of the Postal...

  8. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.2...

  9. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... the approval of the Director of the Federal Register.” In conformity with that provision, and with 39...

  10. The effects of mailing design characteristics on direct mail campaign performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, S.; Frenzen, H.; Krafft, Manfred; Peters, K.; Verhoef, P.C.

    Designing effective direct mail pieces is considered a key success factor in direct marketing. However, related published empirical research is scarce while design recommendations are manifold and often conflicting. Compared with prior work, our study aims to provide more elaborate and empirically

  11. Factors That Impact Nurses’ Utilization of Electronic Mail (E-Mail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    e-mail (Hebda, Czar, & Mascara , 1998; Holtzclaw et al., 1993; Murray, 1996; Staggers, 1996). Staggers (1989) identified nurses as primary processors...pp. 247-274). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book. Hebda, T., Czar, P., & Mascara , C. (1998). Handbook of informatics for nurses and health care

  12. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs

  13. Moving inhomogeneous envelopes of stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oskinova, L.M.; Kubátová, Brankica; Hamann, W.-R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, Special Issue (2016), s. 100-112 ISSN 0022-4073. [International Conference on Radiation Mechanisms of Astrophysical Objects - Classics Today. St. Petersburg, 21.09.2016-25.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * mass-loss * winds Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.419, year: 2016

  14. Enveloped and non-enveloped viral-like particles in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Presas, Ana María; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Ingeborg-Becker; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Solano, Sandra; Delgado, Jose; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron microscopy is routinely used to identify viral infections in protozoan parasites. These viruses have been described as non-enveloped and icosahedral structures with a diameter of 30-60 nm. Most of them are classified within the non-segmented dsRNA Totiviridae family. We observed virus-like particles (VLPs) through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in cultures. Clusters of electrodense enveloped VLPs having a diameter of 48 nm were also observed. These clusters appear to have been released from distended Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, a paracrystalline array of electrodense, non-enveloped VLPs (with a diameter of 32 nm) were found in distended Golgi cisternae or as smaller clusters at a distance from the RE or Golgi. We cannot rule out that the 48 nm enveloped VLPs belong to the ssRNA Flaviviridae family because they are within its size range. The localization of enveloped VLPs is consistent with the replication strategy of these viruses that transit through the Golgi to be released at the cell surface. Due to the size and shape of the 32 nm non-enveloped VLPs, we propose that they belong to the dsRNA Totiviridae family. This is the first description of cytoplasmic enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs in T. cruzi epimastigotes. PMID:28793017

  15. Cohort profile: The men androgen inflammation lifestyle environment and stress (MAILES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Janet F; Martin, Sean A; Taylor, Anne W; Wilson, David H; Araujo, Andre; Adams, Robert J T; Jenkins, Alicia; Milne, Robert W; Hugo, Graeme J; Atlantis, Evan; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-08-01

    The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study was established in 2009 to investigate the associations of sex steroids, inflammation, environmental and psychosocial factors with cardio-metabolic disease risk in men. The study population consists of 2569 men from the harmonisation of two studies: all participants of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) and eligible male participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS). The cohort has so far participated in three stages of the MAILES Study: MAILES1 (FAMAS Wave 1, from 2002-2005, and NWAHS Wave 2, from 2004-2006); MAILES2 (FAMAS Wave 2, from 2007-2010, and NWAHS Wave 3, from 2008-2010); and MAILES3 (a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey of all participants in the study, conducted in 2010). Data have been collected on a comprehensive range of physical, psychosocial and demographic issues relating to a number of chronic conditions (including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis and mental health) and health-related risk factors (including obesity, blood pressure, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and inflammatory markers), as well as on current and past health status and medication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. Implementasi Pengamanan PGP Pada Platform Zimbra Mail Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandy Pramana Hostiadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail is a communication model that is fundamental in the era of globalization. Proven on any form of registration data or information requires the presence of email address(electronic mail. The use of email itself cannot be separated from the abuse (such as stelling password and mail spoofing from some parties so it needs security form in email communication. Communication security on mail server such as ZIMBRA mail server has been well-implemented, such as the use of ssl certificate.  But the security is still standard.  So, when user and password have been found out by third party, email content will be read easily (in cryptography technique it is called plaintext reading. On research that was conducted with pretty good privacy (PGP method email communication security was focused on the email content by encrypting mail text along with the attachment file. In a study conducted, using the mail engine Zimbra mail server. Result of research shows that PGP security is able to secure email content whether the text or the attachment, showing difference of attachment file size is bigger on PGP using and change mail header from the standard mail.

  17. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  18. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  19. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...... formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we...

  20. A Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface-Based Mail Client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyou Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface-based communication plays an important role in brain-computer interface (BCI applications; electronic mail is one of the most common communication tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid BCI-based mail client that implements electronic mail communication by means of real-time classification of multimodal features extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG. With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write, and attach files to their mail. Using a BCI mouse that utilizes hybrid brain signals, that is, motor imagery and P300 potential, the user can select and activate the function keys and links on the mail client graphical user interface (GUI. An adaptive P300 speller is employed for text input. The system has been tested with 6 subjects, and the experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  1. A hybrid brain-computer interface-based mail client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface-based communication plays an important role in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications; electronic mail is one of the most common communication tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid BCI-based mail client that implements electronic mail communication by means of real-time classification of multimodal features extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). With this BCI mail client, users can receive, read, write, and attach files to their mail. Using a BCI mouse that utilizes hybrid brain signals, that is, motor imagery and P300 potential, the user can select and activate the function keys and links on the mail client graphical user interface (GUI). An adaptive P300 speller is employed for text input. The system has been tested with 6 subjects, and the experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  2. Important update of CERN Mail Services

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Mail Services are evolving. In the course of June and July 2009, all CERN mailboxes will be updated with a new infrastructure for hosting mailboxes, running Exchange 2007. This update is taking place in order to provide the capacity upgrade for the constantly growing volume of CERN mailboxes. It is also the opportunity to provide a number of improvements to CERN mailboxes: new and improved Outlook Web Access (the web interface used to access your mailbox from a web browser, also known as "webmail"), new features in the Out-of-Office auto-reply assistant, easier spam management... The update will preserve the mailbox configuration and no specific action is required by users. During the next weeks, each mailbox will be individually notified of the upcoming update the day before it takes place. We invite all users to carefully read this notification as it will contain the latest information for this update. The mailbox will be unavailable for a short time during the ni...

  3. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010 The Mail Team

  4. E-mail security: new restriction on attachments

    CERN Multimedia

    The Mail Team

    2006-01-01

    In order to further protect CERN mail users against viruses that spread using malicious files, from 1st March onwards dangerous file types already forbidden as mail attachments will also be forbidden as contents of an archive attachment (.zip and .rar compressed files). More details, including a list of blocked file types, can be found at http://cern.ch/mmmservices/Help/?kbid=171010. The Mail Team

  5. 77 FR 64725 - International Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... International Priority Mail International (PMI) offers economical prices for reliable delivery of documents and... being damaged during postal handling and transport. First-Class Package International Service items that..., economical international delivery of First-Class Mail International and First-Class Package International...

  6. A study of some Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The envelope model and emission region radius of six Be stars have been determined from 36 lines on 15 spectra taken with the Isaac Newton telescope. The results have been compared with earlier determinations to search for changes with the time. No definite evidence for such changes has been found, although there may be an indication of a change in phi Per. A re-determination of the errors involved in the method of analysis shows that these are smaller than previously estimated and range from about 9% to 35% for both envelope model and emission region radius. (Auth.)

  7. Degradation of rubella virus envelope components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Terry, Linda; Cohen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Tween-ether treatment of rubella virus, which has no effect on the antigenic and electrophoretic properties of the two envelope glycoproteins, destroys infectivity and enhances haemagglutinating activity. Trypsin treatment alters the electrophoretic pattern of the envelope glycoproteins so that the VPI peak is no longer evident and the VPII peak is reduced. At the same time, both the properties of haemagglutination and infectivity are inactivated but the capacity to combine with neutralizing antibody is retained, which suggests that VPII may be responsible for inducing the production of neutralizing antibody. (author)

  8. Asymmetry of the SN 1987A envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugaj, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the peculiar structure in the profiles of the emission lines observed in the spectrum of SN 1987A, namely, (1) redshift of maxima, and (2) fine structure of hydrogen lines, is considered. Among the three proposed hypothesis for the redshift, at least two (electron scattering in the spherically-symmetric envelope, and geometrical effects in the fragmented envelope) have serious drawbacks. More favorable is the third hypothesis which invokes asymmetric distribution of 56 Ni and of the iron-peak elements

  9. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  10. Global Envelope Tests for Spatial Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed d......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  11. Global envelope tests for spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  12. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  13. E-MAIL USAGE BEHAVIOR AT WORK: THE PORTUGUESE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Filipe Cerqueira Quaresma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available E-mail is one of the most used information and communication technologies by organizations. This technology has an enormous potential to transform the way organizations and their processes work. E-mail can speed-up processes and transaction, facilitate information exchange, improve quality, increase employees speed and productivity, and strengthen the relationship with stakeholders. The present paper analysis e-mail usage behavior at work, through empirical data collected in Portugal. The majority of users reveal adequate e-mail usage behavior, in spite of some situations that might prove to be problematic to organizations.

  14. 31 CFR 545.509 - Transactions related to mail authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS... controlled by the Taliban are authorized, provided that mail is limited to personal communications not...

  15. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  16. The Impact of a Targeted Training Program on E-Mail System Processing Capabilities and Self-Perception of E-Mail Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    As business e-mail volumes continue to grow and employees spend increasingly larger portions of their day processing e-mail, there is strong evidence of the negative impacts of e-mail processing, especially with respect to e-mail overload. This study sought to determine whether a training program focused on select e-mail features and processing…

  17. An additional DNS feature for different routing of electronic mail inside and outside of a campus network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyshev, A.; Ernst, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several years ago DESY faced the need to change the Electronic Mail Service to support it on a central cluster of servers. The centralized architecture was necessary for deployment of unified internal E-Mail standards, better quality of service and security. To implement a new policy for Electronic Mail Service and avoid huge modifications to a few hundreds network nodes, an additional DNS feature has been added to ISC's (Internet Software Consortium) software bind-4.9.7. The DNS servers running at DESY are capable of distinguishing between DNS queries coming from inside and outside of the campus network and reply with different list of MX (Mail Exchanger) records. The external hosts always get a list of MX records pointing to the central mail servers while the internal hosts may use different paths for mail exchange within the campus network. A modified version of DNS software has been used at DESY since 1997. It is fully compliant with the original goal of the project and shows good operational performance and reliability

  18. Universal enveloping algebras for Malcev color algebras

    OpenAIRE

    de-la-Concepción, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we give a construction of the universal enveloping algebra of a Malcev algebra in categories of group algebra comodules with a symmetry given by a bicharacter of the group. A particular example of such categories is the category of super vector spaces.

  19. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  20. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  1. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  2. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Owen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei.

  3. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  4. 75 FR 54287 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... USPS using properly formatted Mail.dat or Mail.XML files. Electronic postage statements prepared... electronic documentation (Mail.dat or Mail.XML) for the copalletized portion of the mailing. For copalletized Periodicals mail, electronic postage statements and payment must be entered at the consolidator's site...

  5. 75 FR 68430 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... flats bearing Intelligent Mail[supreg] barcodes (IMb TM ). Delivery Confirmation TM service (electronic... Mail only at the time of mailing. Electronic option: Available for Express Mail, Priority Mail (except... Express Mail, mailers must establish an electronic link with USPS to exchange acceptance and delivery data...

  6. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  7. Validating predictions from climate envelope models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I Watling

    Full Text Available Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species' distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967-1971 (t1 and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998-2002 (t2. Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on

  8. 7 CFR 351.6 - Packages in closed mail dispatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL § 351.6... packages containing plants or plant products received in closed mail dispatches made up for transmission...

  9. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 649] Market Test of Marketing Mail... recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of Marketing Mail..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www...

  10. Target Marketing and Direct Mail: A Smart Campaign Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostoff, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that helps identify and classify a camp's product or service and determine the needs of a targeted market for the purpose of allocating marketing resources. Offers strategies for defining a target market and discusses the benefits of direct mail, deriving a mailing list, and suggestions for using a…

  11. PENGIRIMAN E-MAIL SPAM SEBAGAI KEJAHATAN CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nugraha Putra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is part of the development of technology, where the internet provides many impacts, both positive and negative. Currently, privacy issues on the internet have also become a complicated legal issue, this is due to quite a number of privacy-related issues, but not all countries in the world manage privacy issues on the internet. As a means of communicating the Internet has introduced e-mail that provides convenience and practicality. But in its development e-mail has an adverse impact on its users in the form of e-mail spam. In terms of its actions, sending spam e-mail is quite a disadvantage, even violate the privacy. Some countries have also set it to one type of cybercrime (cybercrime. This research will discuss e-mail spam in Indonesia, how the legislation in Indonesia see the action of this spam e-mail, is there any possibility of spam e-mail is criminalized as a cybercrime. The research will also look at how spam e-mails violate privacy and review and analyze internet privacy settings in Indonesia in relation to the criminalization of spam email.

  12. 37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Trademark Cases § 2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases enumerated in...

  13. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  14. Gender Differences in Perceived Gratifications Obtained through Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic mail provides users with unique positive psychological consequences that differentiate it from other media. These consequences or gratifications have been mentioned separately across the electronic mail literature, yet there is no specific measure for these gratifications. The study found that females (M = 7.7; SD = 1.8) achieve higher…

  15. Differences between Males and Females Concerning Perceived Electronic Mail Appropriateness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic mail is one of the most successfully diffused modern communication technologies. Yet, few researchers have investigated whether gender differences exist in perceptions of the types of appropriateness embedded within electronic mail messages. A framework originally created by Wiemann and Backlund (1980) served as the basis for the…

  16. 1 CFR 5.7 - Delivery and mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery and mailing. 5.7 Section 5.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.7 Delivery and mailing. The Government Printing Office shall distribute the Federal Register by delivery or by deposit at...

  17. 76 FR 60765 - Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... refund notices to buyers by any means at least as fast and reliable as first class mail, clarify sellers..., benefits, and the continuing need for the Rule.\\7\\ The Commission specifically sought comment on whether to... provide refunds and refund notices by means at least as fast and reliable as first class mail; and (3...

  18. BEBAN JARINGAN SAAT MENGAKSES EMAIL DARI BEBERAPA MAIL SERVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expensive internet facilities require prudent in its use both as a source of information and communication media. This paper discusses observations of the perceived burden of network bandwidth when accessing some of the mail server using a webmail application. Mail server in question consists of three commercial server and 2 non-commercial server. Data when it download home page, while logged in, open the email, and during idle logout recorded with sniffer Wireshark. Observations in various situations and scenarios indicate that access Yahoo email gives the network load is very high while the SquirrelMail gives the network load is very low than 5 other mail servers. For an institution, use a local mail server (institutional is highly recommended in the context of banddwidth savings.

  19. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  20. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  1. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  2. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor

  3. 39 CFR 233.3 - Mail covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... act; (ii) Sabotage, or international terrorism; or (iii) Clandestine intelligence activities..., only when the releasing official is satisfied that an emergency situation exists. (f)(1) Exceptions. A... conclusive and not subject to further administrative review. (k) Military postal system. Section 233.3 does...

  4. Analysis of E-mail Transactions in Virtual Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astutik Nur Qomariyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (ref-desk@petra.ac.id.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and

  5. THE PROPERTIES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GIANT PLANET ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The core-accretion model for giant planet formation suggests a two-layer picture for the initial structure of Jovian planets, with heavy elements in a dense core and a thick H–He envelope. Late planetesimal accretion and core erosion could potentially enrich the H–He envelope in heavy elements, which is supported by the threefold solar metallicity that was measured in Jupiter’s atmosphere by the Galileo entry probe. In order to reproduce the observed gravitational moments of Jupiter and Saturn, models for their interiors include heavy elements, Z , in various proportions. However, their effect on the equation of state of the hydrogen–helium mixtures has not been investigated beyond the ideal mixing approximation. In this article, we report results from ab initio simulations of fully interacting H–He– Z mixtures in order to characterize their equation of state and to analyze possible consequences for the interior structure and evolution of giant planets. Considering C, N, O, Si, Fe, MgO, and SiO{sub 2}, we show that the behavior of heavy elements in H–He mixtures may still be represented by an ideal mixture if the effective volumes and internal energies are chosen appropriately. In the case of oxygen, we also compute the effect on the entropy. We find the resulting changes in the temperature–pressure profile to be small. A homogeneous distribution of 2% oxygen by mass changes the temperature in Jupiter’s interior by only 80 K.

  6. Incorporating International Business Topics into Every Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Heidi; Burchfield, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Presents activities and resources for addressing international business in the curriculum, including e-mail partnerships, international document specifications, currency comparisons, marketing to other cultures, scavenger hunt, business lunch, and international telephone and travel etiquette. (SK)

  7. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...

  8. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  9. 75 FR 69334 - International Product and Price Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...] (GXG[supreg]). Express Mail International[supreg] (EMI). Priority Mail International[supreg] (PMI...] International Postal Money Orders. [cir] International Insurance for EMI and PMI service. New prices are located... International (PMI) offers economical prices for reliable delivery of documents and merchandise, usually within...

  10. Save our inboxes! Use e-mail wisely

    CERN Multimedia

    Achintya Rao

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, with collaborators all over the world, e-mail is inevitably the primary means of communication: we use it for everything from coordinating projects to organising lunches. But e-mail can also be one of the most inefficient means of communication we have! Here's how to fix it.   Let’s get straight to the point: we receive too many e-mails. Think about all the e-mails that you deleted without a second thought. Think about the times you’ve unnecessarily been in CC. Take a look at the unread e-mails sitting in your inbox at this very moment, ones that you have no intention of ever looking at. You can, however, tame this overload with a few simple measures and turn e-mail into an important communication and productivity tool. Many recommendations for improving e-mail etiquette suggest an abrasive approach riddled with bullet points. In a vastly multi-cultural setting such as CERN, however this approach may fail. So, here are a few dos and don’ts based o...

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI)

  13. Flight envelope limit detection and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Joseph Francis

    1999-12-01

    New advanced algorithms, control laws, and pilot cueing methods were developed to provide flight envelope limit protection on rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. The envelope limiting systems were designed to detect an approaching limit boundary and then provide force-feel cues on the control stick so that the pilot can avoid violations of structural and controllability limits. The limit detection algorithms were designed to predict the future response of a limited parameter in order to give an adequate time margin for corrective action. The dynamic trim estimation method, which uses a neural network to estimate the quasi-steady response of the aircraft based on stick position and measured flight data, was applied to provide torque and V-n envelope protection on the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft and demonstrated in simulations with a pilot model. This system was also applied to provide angle-of-attack and load factor protection on the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft and demonstrated using real-time piloted simulation. The adaptive dynamic trim estimation method extended this approach by using sensor data history to adapt to model uncertainties. The peak response limiting algorithm, which is used to detect and prevent limit violations that occur in the transient response, was applied to provide longitudinal flapping limiting on the XV-15 and demonstrated in batch simulations. Simulation results showed that the dynamic trim estimation scheme has the potential to effectively expand an aircraft's flight envelope by allowing the pilot to safely fly near limit boundaries. An adaptive algorithm was used to adjust to variations in the mass properties of the aircraft, but improvements to the adaptation method are warranted. The peak response limiting system was shown to be effective in determining rate and position constraints on the stick travel to ensure that flapping limits are not violated.

  14. Direct e-mail marketing: Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Jelena A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc. The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers. Direct e-mail marketing is not aimed at momentary sale, but at boosting certain product preferences due to the engagement of numerous electronic media.

  15. Analysis of E-mail Transactions in Virtual Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astutik Nur Qomariyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the use of traditional reference desk in the academic libraries has been rarely used, thus expanding or even move to a virtual reference service. A minimum level of virtual reference services are provided in the academic library is currently in general is the electronic mail (e-mail. One of the academic library specifically provide virtual reference services via e-mail is a Petra Christian University (PCU Library (refdesk@petra.ac.id.. In such services librarians provide assistance to users in finding information and answer questions. This study aimed to analyze the transaction reference services virtually through e-mail at the PCU Library, with a view of the types of questions based on user background, the writing style of language communication interaction used based on user background, and cultural values are revealed behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail. This study uses content analysis (content analysis of the transcript e-mail received librarians of reference services began March 10 until June 16, 2015. The results showed that the types of questions asked in reference service virtual (e-mail in the Library UK Petra include: specific search, access online resources, operation of online resources, policies and procedures for services, and library holdings with background the student (PCU and non-PCU, faculty, and librarians. Based on the background of users found that overall more types of questions asked in virtual reference services (e-mail is a problem of access to online resources, and generally submitted by the students. Then, the writing style of the user's language in interaction reference service virtual (e-mail tends to be formal, which includes the word greeting, the message will be delivered, and regards cover, either by the student (PCU and non-PCU, lecturer, or librarians. While cultural values that revealed the background behind the user in virtual reference services (e-mail is obedience, courtesy and

  16. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  17. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Judith M.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH, and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion triggering mechanisms. A key take home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors, and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion. PMID:26935856

  18. A new technique for quantifying temporal envelope contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, T W; Woodruff, B D; Preves, D A

    1994-02-01

    A new technique has been developed for precisely quantifying the temporal contrasts that exist between two sound samples. This technique is based on envelope subtraction, and generates an Envelope Difference Index that may be used to help clarify whether alteration of the natural speech envelope via amplification improves or degrades speech intelligibility. The Envelope Difference Index method may also be used to assess hearing aid saturation, and may have other applications as well. The technique is applicable whenever a precise quantification of the difference between two temporal envelopes is required, regardless of stimulus duration.

  19. Did Your Mailed Ballot Count: The Unrecognized Unreliability of Voting By Mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Yasinsac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Voting By Mail (VBM was developed to support absentee voters. It was originally intended to handle canonical absentee voters who now fall under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Voting Act (UOCAVA and those with legally acceptable reasons for being unable to appear at the polls on Election Day. Its use slowly expanded to more casual justifications, such as those with planned Election Day travel. More recently, there has been a trend of further expansion to on-demand VBM in many states. As a result, the percentage of VBM ballots has skyrocketed, with little research regarding its impacts on security, privacy, reliability, and accuracy on U. S. elections. In virtually every close election, the outcome must await tabulation of VBM ballots. Yet, VBM may be the least reliable voting approach in wide spread use today. Vote By Mail fraud is recognized by some as possibly the single greatest security vulnerability in U. S. elections. The lack of in-person, at-the-polls accountability makes absentee ballots the tool of choice for those inclined to commit fraud," the Florida Department of Law Enforcement concluded in 1998, after a mayoral election in Miami was thrown out when officials learned that "vote brokers" had signed hundreds of phony absentee ballots.1 Conversely, others recognize theoretical weaknesses in VBM, but generally dismiss its practical impact [1, 2]. Others continue to promote VBM expansion [3, 4]. In this paper, we identify inherent, widespread vulnerability in VBM systems and illustrate their practical impact with numerous examples. We show specifically why VBM systems are not auditable and demonstrate how their unreliability can negatively impact real elections.

  20. Antiviral Activity of Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses.

  1. Office Skills: Junk Mail: Added Dimension to Teaching Records Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemin, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    A junk mail filing simulation is described as a simple but effective approach to teaching records management. Implementation of the approach is described in sixteen steps. Eight objectives and five variations to the simulation are included. (SH)

  2. Direct e-mail marketing: Case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Končar Jelena A.; Vukmirović Goran; Katai Žita

    2005-01-01

    Direct e-mail marketing refers to approaching customers directly, without employing intermediaries. It represents a direct mode of communication with the target population, which affects the creation of stronger and more loyal relationships with prospective customers, compared to traditional direct marketing resources (TV, radio, print and advertising panels, etc). The main goal of direct e-mail marketing is building long-term "one to one" relationships with current and prospective customers....

  3. Program For Local-Area-Network Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    MailRoom is computer program for local-area network (LAN) electronic mail. Enables users of LAN to exchange electronically notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computers. Links all users of LAN into communication circle in which messages created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through series of menu-driven screens. Includes feature that enables users to determine whether messages sent have been read by receivers. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  4. Safety and effectiveness of mail order pharmacy use in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Karter, Andrew J; Dyer, Wendy T; Chan, James; Duru, O Kenrick

    2013-11-01

    Although research suggests that mail order pharmacy use is associated with greater medication adherence and cardiovascular disease risk factor control, no research has examined the potential impact of mail order pharmacy use on patient safety and utilization. To compare safety and utilization outcomes in patients using mail order versus local pharmacies. Cross-sectional, observational study of 17,217 Kaiser Permanente Northern California adult diabetes patients prescribed new cardiometabolic medications in 2006. Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the association between mail order pharmacy use and all-cause and preventable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits; laboratory tests for monitoring persistent medications; and overlapping days of supply of contraindicated medications. Results were stratified by patient age and converted to adjusted predicted percentages. Patients aged less than 65 years using mail order had fewer ED visits (33.8% vs 40.2%; P pharmacy use is not associated with adverse outcomes in most diabetes patients, and is associated with lower ED use. Interventions to increase mail order pharmacy use should use a patient-centered approach that is sensitive to primary and preventive care access.

  5. The value of ProMED-mail for the Early Warning Committee in the Netherlands : more specific approach recommended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeldenrust, M E; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Postma, M.J.; van Vliet, J A

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a retrospective and descriptive study into the added value of ProMED-mail--the global electronic reporting system for outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases and toxins maintained by the International Society for Infectious Diseases--as an early warning system for The

  6. 76 FR 75461 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... signature. * * * * * 115 Mail Preparation * * * * * 2.0 Express Mail Next Day and Second Day * * * * * 2.2... 215.2.2 for more information regarding the addressee's signature. * * * * * 215 Mail Preparation... Mail Preparation * * * * * 2.0 Express Mail Next Day and Second Day * * * * * 2.2 Waiver of Signature...

  7. 75 FR 30300 - Restricting the Mailing of Replica or Inert Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 601.11, to implement a new standard restricting the mailing of... the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM), which is incorporated by reference in... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) as follows: * * * * * Mailing...

  8. The Educational Impact of E-Mail: Extraverted versus Introverted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunderewicz, Larisa; Michener, Stacey; Chambliss, Catherine

    College students (N=151) completed surveys assessing the relationship between e-mail use and extraversion. The variables studied included time spent on e-mail; the frequency of e-mail usage; and the purposes e-mail served for each student. The results suggest that extraverts use e-mail as a form of procrastination more than introverts, and that…

  9. Cell envelope associations of Aquaspirillum serpens flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, J W; Murray, R G

    1978-12-01

    Specific regions of the cell envelope associated with the flagellar basal complex of the gram-negative bacterium Aquaspirillum (Spirillum) serpens were identified by studying each of the envelope layers: outer membrane, mucopeptide, and plasma membrane. The outer membrane around the flagella insertion site was differentiated by concentric membrane rings and central perforations surrounded by a closely set collar. The perforations in both the outer membrane and the isolated mucopeptide layer were of a size accomodating the central rod of the basal complex but smaller than either the L or the P disks. The P disk of the complex may lie between the mucopeptide and the outer membrane. Electron microscopy of intact, spheroplasted, or autolyzed preparations did not adequately resolve the location of the inner pair of disks of the basal complex. Freeze-etching, however, revealed differentiation within the plasma membrane that appeared to be related to the basal complex. The convex fracture face showed depressions which are interpreted as impressions of a disk surrounded by a set of evenly spaced macromolecular studs and containing a central "plug" interpreted as the central rod. In thin sections, blebs, which appear to be associated with the flagellar apparatus, were seen on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Superimposing the dimensions of the flagellar basal complex and the spacings of the cell envelope layers and using the position of the L disk within the outer membrane for reference, showed that the S disk might be within and the M disk beneath the plasma membrane. A tentative model was developed for comparison with that based on the structure of the Escherichia coli basal complex.

  10. Model Dust Envelopes Around Silicate Carbon Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have modeled dust envelopes around silicate carbon stars using optical properties for a mixture of amorphous carbon and silicate dust grains paying close attention to the infrared observations of the stars. The 4 stars show various properties in chemistry and location of the dust shell. We expect that the objects that fit a simple detached silicate dust shell model could be in the transition phase of the stellar chemistry. For binary system objects, we find that a mixed dust chemistry model would be necessary.

  11. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  12. Phase Change Materials in Transparent Building Envelopes: A Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vigna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building envelopes can play a crucial role in building improvement efficiency, and the adoption of Phase Change Materials (PCMs, coupled with transparent elements, may: (i allow a better control of the heat flows from/to the outdoor environment, (ii increase the exploitation of solar energy at a building scale and (iii modulate light transmission in order to prevent glare effects. Starting from a literature review, focused on experimental works, this research identifies the main possible integrations of PCMs in transparent/translucent building envelope components (in glazing, in shutters and in multilayer façade system in order to draw a global picture of the potential and limitations of these technologies. Transparent envelopes with PCMs have been classified from the simplest “zero” technology, which integrates the PCM in a double glass unit (DGU, to more complex solutions—with a different number of glass cavities (triple glazed unit TGU, different positions of the PCM layer (internal/external shutter, and in combination with other materials (TIM, aerogel, prismatic solar reflector, PCM curtain controlled by an electric pump. The results of the analysis have been summarised in a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis table to underline the strengths and weaknesses of transparent building envelope components with PCMs, and to indicate opportunities and threats for future research and building applications.

  13. Ignition of detonation in accreted helium envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami Glasner, S.; Livne, E.; Steinberg, E.; Yalinewich, A.; Truran, James W.

    2018-02-01

    Sub Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs accreting helium have been considered as candidates for SNIa progenitors since the early 1980's (helium shell mass >0.1M⊙). These models, once detonated did not fit the observed spectra and light curve of typical SNIa observations. New theoretical work examined detonations on much less massive (<0.05M⊙) envelopes. They find stable detonations that lead to light curves, spectra and abundances that compare relatively well with the observational data. The exact mechanism leading to the ignition of helium detonation is a key issue, since it is a mandatory first step for the whole scenario. As the flow of the accreted envelope is unstable to convection long before any hydrodynamic phenomena develops, a multidimensional approach is needed in order to study the ignition process. The complex convective reactive flow is challenging to any hydrodynamical solver. According to our best knowledge all previous 2D studies ignited the detonation artificially. We present here, for the first time, fully consistent results from two hydrodynamical 2D solvers that adopt two independent accurate schemes. For both solvers an effort was made to overcome the problematics raised by the finite resolution and numerical diffusion by the advective terms. Our best models lead to the ignition of a detonation in a convective cell. Our results are robust and the agreement between the two different numerical approaches is very good.

  14. Solution of K-V envelope equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1995-04-01

    The envelope equations for a KV beam with space charge have been analyzed systematically by an e expansion followed by integrations. The focusing profile as a function of axial length is assumed to be symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. Given the bean current, emittance, and peak focusing field, we find the envelopes a(s) and b(s) and obtain , a max , σ, and σ 0 . Explicit results are presented for various truncations of the expansion. The zeroth order results correspond to those from the well-known smooth approximation; the same convenient format is retained for the higher order cases. The first order results, involving single correction terms, give 3--10 times better accuracy and are good to ∼1% at σ 0 = 70 degree. Third order gives a factor of 10--30 improvement over the smooth approximation and derived quantities accurate to ∼1% at σ 0 = 112 degree. The first order expressions are convenient design tools. They lend themselves to variable energy problems and have been applied to the design, construction, and testing of ESQ accelerators at LBL

  15. Solitons, envelope solitons in collisonless plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Watanabe, S.

    1977-08-01

    A review is given to extensive development of theoretical, computational and experimental studies of nonlinear wave propagation in collisionless plasmas. Firstly, the historical experiment of Ikezi et al. is discussed in comparison with theoretical analysis based on the Korteweg-de Vries equation. Systematic discrepancy between the observation and the theoretical prediction suggests that it is necessary to examine such as higher order mode coupling effect and contribution of trapped particles. Secondly, effects of the nonlinear Landau damping on the envelope solution of ion plasma wave is discussed on the basis of theoretical study of Ichikawa-Taniuti, experimental observation of Watanabe and numerical analysis of Yajima et al. Finally, a new type of evolution equation derived for the Alfven wave is examined in some detail. The rigorous solution obtained for this mode represents a new kind of envelope solution, in which both of its phase and amplitude are subject to modulation of comparable spatial extension. In conclusion, the emphasis will be placed on the fact that much more intensive experimental researches are expected to be done, since the powerful methods to disentangle various nonlinear evolution equations are now available for theoretical approach. (auth.)

  16. SPAM: Beware of e-mails asking for passwords

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN’s Computing Rules (Operational Circular No. 5) require that passwords remain confidential and never be given to anyone, not even helpdesk or other support personnel. If you think that your password could have been exposed then you must immediately change it. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake e-mail messages and Web sites to steal account and identity information from users. This technique is called ‘phishing’. The fake e-mails often look real and try to trick you into giving your password or other personal data. CERN has recently been targeted by a fake e-mail message which requested users to send their username, password and date of birth. This case was promptly blocked by the CERN Mail Service, but future cases may still occur. Users need to be vigilant regarding any requests for passwords or personal data. Fake e-mails should be immediately deleted. In case of questions on this topic, you may contact mailto:helpdesk@cern.ch. CERN IT Department

  17. A new Listbox Service for Electronic Mail Distribution Lists

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    A new Web interface for users to manage mailing lists (http://cern.ch/simba) was put in production on September 20th. The new interface replaces the old one and provides several improved functionalities. Behind the new interface there is a completely new distribution mechanism and all CERN mailing lists will be progressively migrated to a new service during the next two months. This change will be almost transparent for users and list owners will be informed by email when their list is moved to the new system. The new interface gives access to all lists, and users are automatically redirected to the old interface for lists not migrated yet. CERN has been providing the High Energy Physics community with a large number of mailing lists for several years. The current service has more than 3,000 mailing lists, with more than 50,000 users worldwide and around 400,000 archived mails. Currently around 150 lists are already hosted by the new system. Please do not hesitate to report any problem to the Helpdesk@cern.c...

  18. Nuclear envelope remnants: fluid membranes enriched in sterols and polyphosphoinositides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Garnier-Lhomme

    Full Text Available The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a highly dynamic compartment where membranes readily undergo fission and fusion to reorganize the cytoplasmic architecture, and to import, export and transport various cargos within the cell. The double membrane of the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus, segregates the chromosomes from cytoplasm and regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport through pores. Many details of its formation are still unclear. At fertilization the sperm devoid of nuclear envelope pores enters the egg. Although most of the sperm nuclear envelope disassembles, remnants of the envelope at the acrosomal and centriolar fossae do not and are subsequently incorporated into the newly forming male pronuclear envelope. Remnants are conserved from annelid to mammalian sperm.Using lipid mass spectrometry and a new application of deuterium solid-state NMR spectroscopy we have characterized the lipid composition and membrane dynamics of the sperm nuclear envelope remnants in isolated sperm nuclei.We report nuclear envelope remnants are relatively fluid membranes rich in sterols, devoid of sphingomyelin, and highly enriched in polyphosphoinositides and polyunsaturated phospholipids. The localization of the polybasic effector domain of MARCKS illustrates the non-nuclear aspect of the polyphosphoinositides. Based on their atypical biophysical characteristics and phospholipid composition, we suggest a possible role for nuclear envelope remnants in membrane fusion leading to nuclear envelope assembly.

  19. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  20. Global surveillance of emerging diseases: the ProMED-mail perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Woodall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is changing the way global disease surveillance is conducted. Countries and international organizations are increasingly placing their outbreak reports on the Internet, which speeds up distribution and therefore prevention and control. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the value of nongovernmental organizations and the media in reporting outbreaks, which it then attempts to verify through its country offices. However, WHO and other official sources are constrained in their reporting by the need for bureaucratic clearance. ProMED-mail has no such constraints, and posts outbreak reports 7 days a week. It is moderated by infectious disease specialists who add relevant comments. Thus, ProMED-mail complements official sources and provides early warning of outbreaks. Its network is more than 20,000 people in over 150 countries, who place their computers and time at the network's disposal and report on outbreaks of which they have knowledge. Regions and countries could benefit from adopting the ProMED-mail approach to complement their own disease surveillance systems.

  1. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  2. Discourse strategies in professional e-mail negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    -mail communication which covers a period of three months, during which the relationship progresses from initial contact to on-going business. Drawing on Hyland's (2005) concept of metadiscourse combined with Charles' (1996) categories of ‘old and new relationship negotiations', this study provides insights......The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e...... into naturally occurring language in an e-mail communication between a Danish Company and its business contact in Taiwan. During the three-month period observed, the frequency in use of interpersonal strategies converges as the relationship progresses towards a more contextually stable and more personalised...

  3. Generation of bioaerosols during manual mail unpacking and sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, H; Bachofen, R; Bischoff, M

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of bioaerosol generation in specific occupational environments where mail is manually unpacked and sorted was investigated. Total number of airborne particles was determined in four different size classes (0.3-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-5 and >5 microm) by laser particle counting. Time dependent formation of bioaerosols was monitored by culturing methods and by specific staining followed by flow cytometry. Besides handling of regular mail, specially prepared letters ('spiked letters') were added to the mailbags to deliberately release powdered materials from letters and to simulate high impact loads. These letters contained various dry powdered biological and nonbiological materials such as milk powder, mushrooms, herbs and cat litter. Regarding the four size classes, particulate aerosol composition before mail handling was determined as 83.2 +/- 1.0, 15.2 +/- 0.7, 1.7 +/- 0.4 and 0.04 +/- 0.02%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during sorting to 66.8 +/- 7.9, 22.3 +/- 3.6, 10.4 +/- 4.0 and 0.57 +/- 0.27%, respectively. Mail processing resulted in an increase in culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. Maximum concentrations of bacteria reached 450 CFU m(-3), whereas 270 CFU of fungi were detected. Indoor particle concentrations steadily increased during mail handling mostly associated with particles of diameters >1 microm. However, it was not possible to distinguish spiked letters from nonspiked by simple particle counting and CFU determinations. The dynamics of bioaerosol generation have to be addressed when monitoring specific occupational environments (such as mail sorting facilities) regarding the occurrence of biological particles.

  4. Publication’s e-mail marketing procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Your research findings and publications have to reach thousands of your peers and colleagues by sending an email. If you have recently published a study that would be of interest to others in your field, market it through email. “E-mail marketing” allow the researchers to increase the research impact and citations for their publications. This workshop will provide various techniques to increase the visibility and enhance the impact of researcher’s output by employing the publications E-mail m...

  5. Promotion and communication through e-mail marketing campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.

  6. BEWARE OF OPENING ATTACHMENTS IN E-MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Following the recent e-mail viruses you are asked to be cautious when opening e-mail attachments on your PC. Attachments that are apparently harmless might hide active content producing nasty effects as soon as they are opened. Some of these so called 'Trojan horses' can conceal themselves in very attractive pictures and funny slide shows.On the PC Windows infrastructure, CERN runs software to protect users from known viruses, but new ones can sometimes arrive before our software recognises them. They can enter your system when you open an attachment. To remove them it may be necessary to re-install the Windows software on your PC.

  7. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  8. Cricket team selection using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Gholam R; Sharma, Sujeet Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a new method for cricket team selection using data envelopment analysis (DEA). We propose a DEA formulation for evaluation of cricket players in different capabilities using multiple outputs. This evaluation determines efficient and inefficient cricket players and ranks them on the basis of DEA scores. The ranking can be used to choose the required number of players for a cricket team in each cricketing capability. A real dataset, Indian Premier League 4 (IPL 2011), cricket players having various capabilities is used to choose the best cricket team. The proposed method has the advantage of considering multiple factors related to the performance of players in multiple capabilities collected from IPL 4 and aggregates their scores using a linear programming DEA model. This DEA Aggregation gives the scores of players objectively instead of using subjective computations. The proposed DEA method can be used to form a national cricket team from several clubs or a team of top cricketers.

  9. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  10. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...... place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of façades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part...... of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages...

  11. Polarimetry and physics of Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, G.V.; McLean, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the most recent developments in polarization studies of Be stars is presented. New polarization techniques for high-resolution spectropolarimetry and for near infrared polarimetry are described and a wide range of new observations are discussed. These include broad-band, intermediate-band and multichannel observations of the continuum polarization of Be stars in the wavelength interval 0.3-2.2 microns, high resolution (0.5 A) line profile polarimetry of a few stars and surveys of many stars for the purposes of statistical analyses. The physical significance of the observational material is discussed in the light of recent theoretical models. Emphasis is placed on the physical and geometrical parameters of Be star envelopes which polarimetry helps to determine. (Auth.)

  12. Diversity in the fertilization envelopes of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Reich, Adrian; Wong, Julian L.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface changes in an egg at fertilization are essential to begin development and for protecting the zygote. Most fertilized eggs construct a barrier around themselves by modifying their original extracellular matrix. This construction usually results from calcium induced exocytosis of cortical granules, the contents of which in sea urchins function to form the fertilization envelope (FE), an extracellular matrix of cortical granule contents built upon a vitelline layer scaffold. Here we examined the molecular mechanism of this process in sea stars, a close relative of the sea urchins, and analyze the evolutionary changes that likely occurred in the functionality of this structure between these two organisms. We find that the FE of sea stars is more permeable than in sea urchins, allowing diffusion of molecules in excess of 2 megadaltons. Through a proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we find that most, but not all of the proteins present in the sea urchin envelope are present in sea stars, including SFE9, proteoliaisin, rendezvin, and ovoperoxidase. The mRNAs encoding these FE proteins accumulated most densely in early oocytes, and then beginning with vitellogenesis, these mRNAs deceased in abundance to levels nearly undetectable in eggs. Antibodies to the SFE9 protein of sea stars showed that the cortical granules in sea star also accumulated most significantly in early oocytes, and different from sea urchins, they translocated to the cortex of the oocytes well before meiotic initiation. These results suggest that the preparation of the cell surface changes in sea urchins has been shifted to later in oogenesis and perhaps reflects the meiotic differences among the species–sea star oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis and fertilized during the meiotic divisions, as in most animals, whereas sea urchins are one of the few taxa in which eggs have completed meiosis prior to fertilization. PMID:23331915

  13. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... areas but excluding vents, grilles, and pipes. 402.2Air Leakage and Moisture Mitigation. The... envelope shall be designed to limit moisture migration that leads to deterioration in insulation or... the potential for condensation within the envelope and to determine the position of the vapor retarder...

  14. Mauritius green building handbook, vol 1: Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard to the green building components. This chapter will focus on the external building envelope only, i.e., sub-structure, super structure, and roof...

  15. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any combination of height and forward speed (including hover) under which a safe landing cannot be made under the...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of heights exists at any speed, including zero, within which it is not possible to make a safe landing...

  17. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  18. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  19. The non addressed mail; Le courrier non adresse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 1999, the non addressed mail aggregated i million tons. Today there is no selective collection of these wastes. The ADEME (french agency for the environment and the energy mastership) drove a study to propose and evaluate the cost of a selective collection. This document presents the results of the study. (A.L.B.)

  20. Exploring the Academic Self within an Electronic Mail Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Hiller A.; Mason, Cheryl; Crissman, Cris; Jackson, Alecia

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study at North Carolina State University that examined the use of electronic mail to encourage critical literacy among college developmental reading students. States that randomly selected students were paired with professionals who served as online mentors. Reports that, after one semester, this group scored higher than the control…

  1. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  2. The Discourse of all.department e-mails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz; Søderberg, Anne-Marie

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based on an explorative case study of all.department e-mails that were sent on the Intranet of a Danish university department. Following a social constructionist approach, our analysis assumes that language use shapes relations, identities, and representations. We thus investigate...

  3. 76 FR 79072 - New Standards for Domestic Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... operational or marketing purposes to realize more value from their mailings. On average, the price of First... weighing over 3.3 ounces at the mixed ADC sort level. There will be no DSCF entry prices for nonmachinable letters at mixed ADC prices. We received a comment requesting that we confirm that the prices for Standard...

  4. Changing a Course of Action: Teachers' E-mail Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This study examined the e-mail interactions of teachers who were graduate students in an educational leadership program at a commuter university. Participants attended a 3-hour-per-week course. The instructor inserted into the course syllabus an assessment plan that required computer use, making the students responsible for accessing the…

  5. E-mail et Web : pour une navigation sans risque

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en anglais. À travers des exemples concrets, vous consoliderez vos connaissances et pourrez ainsi réajuster vos habitudes concernant l’utilisation sécurisée de votre boîte e-mail et de votre navigateur Web.

  6. Beneficial long communication in the multiplayer electronic mail game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the two-player electronic mail game (EMG), as is well-known, the probability of collective action is lower the more confirmations and reconfirmations are made available to players. In the multiplayer EMG, however, we show players may coordinate on equilibria where they require only few of the

  7. 75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... in planning for future mailings and preparing for system changes necessary to adopt the new IMpb... absence of information associating the piece with its specific payment method; and have limited...) and 3-digit Service Type Code. The data construction of the IMpb barcode will be different from that...

  8. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  9. Hesitative introduction of E-mail consultations in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.; Ton, C.; Tates, K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care reported in 2005 that 70% of internet users would want to have the opportunity to consult their own general practitioner by e-mail [1]. Since January 1, 2006, general practitioners in the Netherlands are reimbursed 4.50 euro for

  10. On the Efficiency of Spam Mailing and Portal Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bandulet

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a simple approach endogenizing the welfare reducing or welfare enhancing effect of informative advertising. Using this approach, it is possible to analyse the welfare consequences of a technology shock that reduces unit information costs, and to explain whether electronic junk mails or portal advertising will cause welfare gains or losses in a competitive environment.

  11. Design reference year for development of photovoltaic envelope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, Peter; Matiasovsky, Peter

    2017-07-01

    An application of photovoltaic cells on external surfaces of building envelope represents a development of new construction element. A mutual coupling between thermal behaviour of photovoltaic layer and the other layers of the structure, with special properties, requires a specific selection of the characteristic outdoor thermal boundary conditions, necessary for optimum design of the envelope from the aspect of structure, material composition and geometry. The main design criteria are the effectiveness and elimination of overheating of photovoltaic module and the optimisation of heat distribution in the envelope structure during particular year seasons. The paper contains the results of the analysis of time courses of climatic elements during a real year as the boundary conditions for simulation of photovoltaic integrated building envelope systems, used in simulations of thermal behaviour of photovoltaics integrated with building envelope systems.

  12. 76 FR 62000 - Express Mail Domestic Postage Refund Policy and Waiver of Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... signature. * * * * * 115 Express Mail Preparation * * * * * 2.0 Express Mail Next Day and Second Day... Preparation * * * * * 2.0 Express Mail Next Day and Second Day * * * * * 2.2 Waiver of Signature [Revise the... more information regarding the addressee's signature. * * * * * 315 Mail Preparation * * * * * 2.0...

  13. 77 FR 65279 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes... and mailing standards for the following competitive products: Express Mail[supreg], Priority Mail.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This final rule describes new prices and product features for competitive products...

  14. 77 FR 33640 - International Service Change-Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR part 20 is amended as follows: PART 20... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Service Change--Timor-Leste AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... is adding this country to Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail...

  15. The role of across-frequency envelope processing for speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Speech intelligibility models consist of a preprocessing part that transforms the stimuli into some internal (auditory) representation, and a decision metric that quantifies effects of transmission channel, speech interferers, and auditory processing on the speech intelligibility. Here, two recent...... a phase jitter process or noise reduction via spectral subtraction. The contributions of the individual preprocessing stages in the models and the role of the decision metrics were analyzed in the different experimental conditions. It is demonstrated that an explicit across-frequency envelope processing...... stage, as assumed in the STMI, together with the metric based on the envelope power signal-to-noise ratio, as assumed in the sEPSM, are required to account for all three conditions. However, a simple weighting of the across-frequency variance of the modulation power at the output of the (purely temporal...

  16. Relationship between the Intracellular Integrity and the Morphology of the Capsular Envelope in Attached and Free-Living Marine Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Heissenberger, A.; Leppard, G. G.; Herndl, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    The integrity of the intracellular structures and the presence and dimension of the capsular envelope were investigated in marine snow-associated and marine free-living bacteria by transmission electron microscopy and special fixation techniques. Three categories depending on the presence of internal structures were differentiated. In marine snow, 51% of the marine snow-associated bacterial community was considered intact, 26% had a partly degraded internal structure, and 23% were empty with ...

  17. Ultraviolet extinction in M-supergiant circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Snow, T.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Using International Ultraviolet (IUS) archival low-dispersion spectra, ultraviolet spectral extinctions were derived for the circumstellar envelopes of two M supergiants: HD 60414 and HD 213310. The observed stellar systems belong to a class of widely-separated spectroscopic binaries that are called VV Cephei stars. The total extinction was calculated by dividing the reddened fluxes with unreddened comparison fluxes of similar stars (g B2.5 for HD 213310 and a normalized s+B3 for HD 60414) from the reference atlas. After substracting the interstellar extinctions, which were estimated from the E(B-V) reddening of nearby stars, the resultant circumstellar extinctions were normalized at about 3.5 inverse microns. Not only is the 2175 A extinction bump absent in the circumstellar extinctions, but the far-ultraviolet extinction rise is also absent. The rather flat, ultraviolet extinction curves were interpreted as signatures of a population of noncarbonaceous, oxygen-rich grains with diameters larger than the longest observed wavelength

  18. Energy transport by convection in the common envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabach, Efrat; Hillel, Shlomi; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2017-12-01

    We argue that outward transport of energy by convection and photon diffusion in a common envelope evolution (CEE) of giant stars substantially reduces the fraction of the recombination energy of hydrogen and helium that is available for envelope removal. We base our estimate on the properties of an unperturbed asymptotic giant branch spherical model, and on some simple arguments. Since during the CEE the envelope expands and energy removal by photon diffusion becomes more efficient, our arguments underestimate the escape of recombination energy. We hence strengthen earlier claims that recombination energy does not contribute much to common envelope removal. A large fraction of the energy that jets deposit to the envelope, on the other hand, might be in the form of kinetic energy of the expanding and buoyantly rising hot bubbles. These rapidly rising bubbles remove mass from the envelope. We demonstrate this process by conducting a three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation where we deposit hot gas in the location of a secondary star that orbits inside the envelope of a giant star. Despite the fact that we do not include the large amount of gravitational energy that is released by the in-spiralling secondary star, the hot bubbles alone remove mass at a rate of about 0.1 M⊙ yr- 1, which is much above the regular mass-loss rate.

  19. The eikonal equation, envelopes and contact transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Kamran, Niky; Newman, Ezra T

    2003-01-01

    We begin with an arbitrary but given conformal Lorentzian metric on an open neighbourhood, U, of a four-dimensional manifold (spacetime) and study families of solutions of the eikonal equation. In particular, the families that are of interest to us are the complete solutions. Their level surfaces form a two-parameter (points of S 2 ) family of foliations of U. We show that, from such a complete solution, it is possible to derive a pair of second-order PDEs defined solely on the parameter space S 2 , i.e., they have no reference to the spacetime points. We then show that if one uses the classical envelope method for the construction of new complete solutions from any given complete solution, then the new pair of PDEs (found from the new complete solution) is related to the old pair by contact transformations in the second jet bundle over S 2 . Further, we demonstrate that the pair of second-order PDEs obtained in this manner from any complete solution lies in a subclass of all pairs of second-order PDEs defined by the vanishing of a certain function obtained from the pair and is referred to as the generalized-Wuenschmann invariant. For completeness we briefly discuss the analogous issues associated with the eikonal equation in three dimensions. Finally we point out that conformally invariant geometric structures from the Lorentzian manifold have natural counterparts in the second jet bundle over S 2 on which the pair of PDEs lives

  20. Unraveling mulitple translatorship through an e-mail correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on questions of “multiple translatorship” and particularly on translation collaboration processes. The empirical material consists of more than three hundred e-mails exchanged between two co-translators who translated Claudio Magris’s novel Alla cieca (2005......) into Danish. The theoretical framework presents a double perspective through which the e-mail correspondence is studied: on the one hand, as an ethnographic “thick description” (focusing on translation as an event), with the aim of uncovering who the agents involved are, how they interact, and what...... their impact is on the final product; and on the other, as a “think-aloud correspondence” (focusing on translation as a cognitive act), with the aim of shedding light on the two translators’ strategies of problem solving and decision-making....

  1. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  2. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  3. The absolute energy flux envelopes of B type stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute energy flux envelopes covering the region of 1100 to 6000 A for main-sequence stars of types B3, B7 and A0 derived from published, ground-based observations and from spectrum scans with OAO-II are presented. These flux envelopes are compared with the predicted flux envelopes from lightly line-blanketed model atmospheres. The line blanketing at wavelengths shorter than 3000 A is severe, about one-half the predicted light being observed at 1600 A. These results demonstrate that a model which represents well the observed visible spectrum of a star may fail seriously for representing the ultraviolet spectrum.

  4. The nuclear envelope environment and its cancer connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Factor, Rachel E.; Ullman, Katharine S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the association between aberrant nuclear structure and tumour grade, nuclear morphology is an indispensible criterion in the current pathological assessment of cancer. Components of the nuclear envelope environment have central roles in many aspects of cell function that affect tumour development and progression. As the roles of the nuclear envelope components, including nuclear pore complexes and nuclear lamina, are being deciphered in molecular detail there are opportunities to harness this knowledge for cancer therapeutics and biomarker development. In this Review, we summarize the progress that has been made in our understanding of the nuclear envelope and the implications of changes in this environment for cancer biology. PMID:22337151

  5. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  6. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  7. Therapeutic neuroscience education via e-mail: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE) aims to alter a patient's thoughts and beliefs about pain and has shown efficacy in treating chronic pain. To date, TNE sessions mainly consist of one-on-one verbal communication. This approach limits availability of TNE to pain patients in remote areas. A 32-year-old patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) who underwent surgery for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) attended a single clinic one-on-one TNE session followed by TNE via electronic mail (e-mail), pacing and graded exposure over a 4-month period. A physical examination, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) were assessed during her initial physical therapy visit as well as 1 and 4 months later. Pre-TNE, the patient reported: NPRS (arm) = 7/10; NPRS (leg) = 4/10; ODI = 10.0%; DASH = 36.7%; FABQ-W = 24; and FABQ-PA = 17. After 5 e-mail sessions all outcome measures improved, most noticeably NRS (arm) = 2/10; NRS (leg) = 0/10; DASH = 16.7%; FABQ-W = 8; and FABQ-PA = 7. TNE can potentially be delivered to suffering pain patients in remote areas or to individuals who have time and financial constraints, and likely at a significant reduced cost via e-mail.

  8. E-mail communication patterns and job burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A considerable body of research has documented the negative effects of job burnout on employees and their organizations, emphasizing the importance of the identification of early signs of the phenomenon for the purposes of prevention and intervention. However, such timely identification is difficult due to the time and cost of assessing the burnout levels of all employees in an organization using established scales. In this paper, we propose an innovative way to identify employees at risk of job burnout by analyzing their e-mail communication patterns. Building on the Job Demands–Resources model, we theorize about the relationship between e-mail communication patterns and levels of employee exhaustion and disengagement (two dimensions of burnout). We analyzed 52,190 e-mails exchanged between 57 employees of a medium sized R&D company over a five-month period. We then related these employees’ communication patterns to their levels of burnout, collected using an established scale (the OLBI–Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). Our results provide support for the overall proposition of the paper, that e-mail communications can be used to identify individuals at risk of job burnout. Our models explain up to 34% of the variance of burnout and up to 37% and 19% respectively of the variance of exhaustion and disengagement. They also successfully distinguish between employees with a higher risk of burnout and those with lower levels of risk (F1 score of 84% with recall of 100% and 73% precision). We discuss the implications of our results and present suggestions for future research. PMID:29518128

  9. Development of a Mailing List on Variable Stars, VSNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, D.; Kato, T.; Baba, H.; Kunjaya, C.

    Various usages of the Internet have been developed and made remarkable progress these years, which is now dramatically changing the style of astronomical study. Among those, the maing list is thought to be most useful to study of unpredictable objects for the characteristics, especially rapidness and equality. We started a mailing list (VSNET) on variable stars, mainly on cataclysmic variables and supernovae, in 1994 July for mutual exchange of information and ideas between astronomers including professionals and amateurs. Up to now, the various articles have been distributed, for example, calls for follow up observations of transient objects discovered in the UV or X-ray region, calls for ground-based observations simultaneous with ones by the space telescopes, discoveries of supernovae, alert notices of outbursts in long dormant dwarf novae (EG Cnc, AL Com, UZ Boo, HT Cas, etc), and so on. You can get long-term light curves of variable stars drawn using VSNET data on the VSNET web pages http://www.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/vsnet/. The archives of VSNET mails are available via VSNET web pages and anonymous ftp ftp://ftp.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pub/vsnet/Mail/. If you have any questions and suggestions on VSNET, please feel free to contact us (vsnet-adm@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp).

  10. E-Mail-Weiterbildungsberatungen. Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Korrespondenzanalyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Stanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Beratung in der Weiterbildung wird wieder vermehrt gesellschaftliche und damit auch wissenschaftliche Bedeutung zugemessen, da sich Bedarfe nach Orientierungen und Entscheidungsunterstützungen erhöhen (vgl. Käpplinger und Maier-Gutheil 2015. Dies ist auch der Grund, warum sich die empirische und theoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dieser pädagogischen Handlungsform (vgl. Giesecke 2000, 87 ff. in den letzten Jahren intensiviert hat, um Beiträge zur deren Professionalisierung zu leisten. Während Prozessverläufe von Beratungsinteraktionen mittlerweile häufig Gegenstand empirischer Studien geworden sind, wurden asynchrone, computervermittelte Weiterbildungsberatungen bislang noch nicht untersucht, wenngleich Konsens darüber herrscht, dass diese – nicht mehr neuen – Kommunikationsformen das gesellschaftliche Leben nachhaltig verändert haben. An diesem Forschungsdesiderat setzt der vorliegende Beitrag insofern an, als erstmalig E-Mail-Weiterbildungsberatungen empirisch analysiert werden. Auf Basis dieser Analysen konnten zwei Typen von E-Mail-Weiterbildungsberatungen mit zwei Prozessierungsmodi unterschieden werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass E-Mail-Weiterbildungsberatungen einerseits spezifische (medienpädagogische Anforderungen für Beratende bereithalten und andererseits, dass die in diesem medienvermittelten Angebot liegenden Potenziale nicht immer hinreichend ausgeschöpft werden. Diese Befunde werden zum Anlass genommen, um die Notwendigkeit von entsprechenden medienpädagogischen Fortbildungen zu diskutieren.

  11. Electronic mail was not better than postal mail for surveying residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Maroun, Nancy; Klocke, Robert A; Montori, Victor; Schünemann, Holger J

    2005-04-01

    To compare response rate, time to response, and data quality of electronic and postal surveys in the setting of postgraduate medical education. A randomized controlled trial in a university-based internal medicine residency program. We randomized 119 residents and 83 faculty to an electronic versus a postal survey with up to two reminders and measured response rate, time to response, and data quality. For residents, the e-survey resulted in a lower response rate than the postal survey (63.3% versus 79.7%; difference -16.3%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -32.3% to -0.4%%; P=.049), but a shorter mean response time, by 3.8 days (95% CI 0.2-7.4; P=.042). For faculty, the e-survey did not result in a significantly lower response rate than the postal survey (85.4% vs. 81.0%; difference 4.4%, 95% CI -11.7 to 20.5%; P=.591), but resulted in a shorter average response time, by 8.4 days (95% CI 4.4 to 12.4; P < 0.001). There were no differences in the quality of data or responses to the survey between the two methods. E-surveys were not superior to postal surveys in terms of response rate, but resulted in shorter time to response and equivalent data quality.

  12. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  13. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United.... 39 June 16, 1991 56 FR 56015 40 September 15, 1991 56 FR 56013 41 December 15, 1991 57 FR 21611 42... July 1, 1997 62 FR 30457 53 January 1, 1998 62 FR 63851 54 January 10, 1999 64 FR 39 55 January 10...

  14. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  15. Low Permeation Envelope Material Development for Titan Aerobot, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerobot vehicles for missions on Titan require envelope materials that are strong, light and durable. Unlike terrestrial balloon materials, these must be able to...

  16. Low Permeation Envelope Material Development for Titan Aerobot, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerobot vehicles for missions on Titan require envelope materials that are strong, light and durable. In particular they must be able to withstand flexing at liquid...

  17. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-01-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modeled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored.

  18. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  19. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  20. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  1. Envelope determinants of equine lentiviral vaccine protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi K Craigo

    Full Text Available Lentiviral envelope (Env antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0, and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13 with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes

  2. Envelope Determinants of Equine Lentiviral Vaccine Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Ezzelarab, Corin; Cook, Sheila J.; Chong, Liu; Horohov, David; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Lentiviral envelope (Env) antigenic variation and associated immune evasion present major obstacles to vaccine development. The concept that Env is a critical determinant for vaccine efficacy is well accepted, however defined correlates of protection associated with Env variation have yet to be determined. We reported an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine study that directly examined the effect of lentiviral Env sequence variation on vaccine efficacy. The study identified a significant, inverse, linear correlation between vaccine efficacy and increasing divergence of the challenge virus Env gp90 protein compared to the vaccine virus gp90. The report demonstrated approximately 100% protection of immunized ponies from disease after challenge by virus with a homologous gp90 (EV0), and roughly 40% protection against challenge by virus (EV13) with a gp90 13% divergent from the vaccine strain. In the current study we examine whether the protection observed when challenging with the EV0 strain could be conferred to animals via chimeric challenge viruses between the EV0 and EV13 strains, allowing for mapping of protection to specific Env sequences. Viruses containing the EV13 proviral backbone and selected domains of the EV0 gp90 were constructed and in vitro and in vivo infectivity examined. Vaccine efficacy studies indicated that homology between the vaccine strain gp90 and the N-terminus of the challenge strain gp90 was capable of inducing immunity that resulted in significantly lower levels of post-challenge virus and significantly delayed the onset of disease. However, a homologous N-terminal region alone inserted in the EV13 backbone could not impart the 100% protection observed with the EV0 strain. Data presented here denote the complicated and potentially contradictory relationship between in vitro virulence and in vivo pathogenicity. The study highlights the importance of structural conformation for immunogens and emphasizes the need for

  3. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  4. 300 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) Authorization Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRIGHT, E.J.; STORDEUR, R.T.

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of this document is to establish the facility Authorization Envelope (AE) for the 300 Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEP )Project and identify the requirements related to the maintenance of the AE as Specified in HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The 300 LEF Project consists of two separate facilities operating under one management organization. They are the 310 Facility and the 340 Facility. The AE documents the limits of operations for all 300 LEF Project activities.

  5. Use of response envelopes for seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete walls and slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ile, Nicolas; Frau, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.frau@cea.fr

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a method for application of the elliptical envelope to RC shell elements. • Proposal of new algorithms for the seismic margin evaluation for RC shell elements. • Verification of a RC wall 3D structure, using the proposed assessment approach. - Abstract: Seismic safety evaluations of existing nuclear facilities are usually based on the assumption of structural linearity. For the design basis earthquake (DBE), it is reasonable to apply a conventional evaluation of the seismic safety of building structures and carry out a linear elastic analysis to assess the load effects on structural elements. Estimating the seismic capacity of a structural element requires an estimation of the critical combination of responses acting in this structural element and compare this combination with the capacity of the element. By exploiting the response-spectrum-based procedure for predicting the response envelopes in linear structures formulated by Menun and Der Kiureghian (2000a), algorithms are developed for the seismic margin assessment of reinforced concrete shell finite elements. These algorithms facilitate the comparison of the response-spectrum-based envelopes to prescribed capacity surfaces for the purpose of assessing the safety margin of this kind of structures. The practical application of elliptical response envelopes in case of shell finite elements is based on the use of layer models such as those developed by Marti (1990), which transfer the generalized stress field to three layers under the assumption that the two outer layers carry membrane forces and the internal layer carries only the out-of-plane shears. The utility of the assessment approach is discussed with reference to a case study of a 3D structure made of reinforced concrete walls.

  6. Electronic mail and organizational knowledge: Media use in a global corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Robert E.; Attewell, Paul

    1993-12-01

    Several attributes of communication media influence the costs of their use and utility, and these in turn have the potential to influence their patterns of use and organizational consequences. The goal of this paper is to examine some of these media attributes and their consequences in a large international firm. The data come from a survey of 973 employees of a multi-national corporation. They show that the distinguishing attributes of different media are not dominant: people whose jobs require substantial communication are likely to communicate heavily using all media available to them. The best predictor of which medium is used is the extent to which the medium can put people into contact with their important communication partners. When the job is the unit of analysis, the data from this survey do not support the media richness hypothesis - that use is determined by the fit between the richness of a medium and the degree to which people have complex, ambiguous, or social jobs. Yet when one takes a single conversation as a unit of analysis, the data show that media differing in interactivity and expressiveness are valuable for different tasks. Employees who use electronic mail extensively are better informed about their company and more committed to its management's goals. One reason for their superior knowledge about the organization seems to be that electronic mail promotes 'information spillover' from a focal recipient to others less directly interested in a message, without subjecting these marginal parties to the burdens of interruption and information overload.

  7. "Gone are the days of mass-media marketing plans and short term customer relationships": tobacco industry direct mail and database marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-07-01

    As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers' names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers' names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing's flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail's limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers' perceptions and smoking behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Multicriteria approach to data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Vieira Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of making Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA more acceptable to the managers' community, the Weights Restrictions approaches were born. They allow DEA to not dispose of any data and permit the Decision Maker (DM to have some management over the method. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a Weights Restrictions DEA model that incorporates the DM preference. In order to perform that, we employed the MACBETH methodology as a tool to find out the bounds of the weights to be used in a Weights Restrictions approach named Virtual Weights Restrictions. Our proposal achieved an outcome that has an expressive correlation with three widely used decision-aids methodologies: the ELECTRE III, the SMART and the PROMETHEE I and II. In addition, our approach was able to join the most significant outcomes of all the above three Multicriteria decision-aids methodologies in one unique outcome.Com o objetivo de fazer a Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA mais aceitável pela comunidade gerencial, as abordagens de Restrição aos Pesos foram criadas. Estas abordagens fazem com que a DEA não descarte nenhum dado e permitem que o Decisor (DM tenha alguma gerência sobre o método. O objetivo deste artigo é sugerir um modelo de restrição aos pesos que incorpore as preferências do DM. Para realizar isto, nós empregamos a metodologia MACBETH como ferramenta para descobrir os limites dos pesos a serem utilizados na abordagem de restrição aos pesos chamada "Restrição aos Pesos Virtuais". Nossa proposta alcançou um resultado que apresenta uma correlação expressiva com três metodologias de apoio à decisão amplamente utilizadas: o ELECTRE III, o SMART e o PROMETHEE I e II. Adicionalmente, nossa abordagem foi capaz de reunir os resultados mais significativos de todas estas três metodologias de apoio à decisão em um único resultado.

  9. The Communicative Functions of Emoticons in Workplace E-Mails :-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovholt, Karianne; Grønning, Anette; Kankaanranta, Anne

    2014-01-01

    CMC research presents emoticons as visual representations of writers' emotions. We argue that the emoticons in authentic workplace e-mails do not primarily indicate writers' emotions. Rather, they provide information about how an utterance is supposed to be interpreted. We show that emoticons fun...... as humorous, they are joke/irony markers. Third, they are hedges: when following expressive speech acts (such as thanks, greetings, etc.) they function as strengtheners and when following directives (such as requests, corrections, etc.) they function as softeners....

  10. Understanding the "Other Side": Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English E-Mail Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Reviews recent research on intercultural learning and reports on a yearlong e-mail exchange between Spanish and English second year university students. Identifies key characteristics of e-mail exchanges that helped to develop learners' intercultural communicative competence. Outlines elements of e-mail messages that may enable students to develop…

  11. Students' Use of E-Mail in an Undergraduate Public Relations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Tom; Dodd, Julie E.

    A study examined the use of e-mail between the students in an introductory public relations class and their instructor. E-mail use was parallel to the use of face-to-face communication, with students reporting that they used office time and e-mail primarily to ask questions about quizzes, tests, and assignments. Older students and students further…

  12. 77 FR 63771 - Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Requirements for Automation Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... to respond to and avoid potential service failures. Advance notification of volumes and makeup of... pieces of Business Reply Mail[supreg] (BRM TM ), Courtesy Reply Mail TM (CRM TM ), and Metered Reply Mail... TM (QBRM). In addition, ABRM provides the option to create a FIM & Barcode only for CRM and BRM...

  13. 76 FR 77133 - Domestic Shipping Services Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... add certain destinations where postage refunds will not be available for money back guarantee. The...\\ locations and online at http://www.usps.com . Priority Mail Board Game Large Flat Rate Box Priority Mail Flat Rate packaging options are being expanded to include the Priority Mail Board Game Large Flat Rate...

  14. 12 CFR 563b.280 - Must I mail a member's proxy solicitation material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must I mail a member's proxy solicitation... TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.280 Must I mail a member's proxy solicitation material? (a) You must mail the member's authorized proxy...

  15. 25 CFR 115.405 - How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How frequently will a minor's statement of performance be mailed? 115.405 Section 115.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL... minor's statement of performance be mailed? We will mail a minor's statement of performance to the...

  16. Cost and performance tradeoffs between mail and internet survey modes in a nonmarket valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2018-01-01

    Using the results of a choice modeling survey, internet, mail-only and mixed internet and mail survey modes were examined with regards to their cost-effectiveness, representativeness, and willingness to pay (WTP). The topical focus of the study was biomass energy generation preferences of the residents of Montana, Colorado and Arizona, USA. Compared to the mail and...

  17. The Application of E-Mail to College English Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    With the development of information technology in the past 10 years, e-mail has been widely used in the field of English teaching. This paper, based on an analysis of the ways of using e-mail in college English teaching in China, probes the feasibility and the benefits of application of e-mail to college English teaching.

  18. Filling in the Gaps: Conservation and Reconstruction of Archaeological Mail Armour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Mail armour is made of many interlinking metal rings. It has been a popular type of defensive gear through the centuries, and this popularity has in part been due to mail armour’s flexibility. However, this very flexibility today hinders its conservation, interpretation and display. Mail pieces

  19. 76 FR 23749 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for... scanning of Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcodes (IMpb) and other extra services barcodes via automated processing equipment and Intelligent Mail scanning devices. Once fully implemented, tracking data...

  20. 76 FR 59504 - Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for Commercial Parcels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Intelligent Mail Package Barcode (IMpb) Implementation for... various sections to require the use of an Intelligent Mail unique tracking barcode on all commercial... extra services barcodes with automated processing equipment and Intelligent Mail scanning devices. Once...

  1. 78 FR 13006 - New Intelligent Mail Package Barcode Standards To Enhance Package Visibility; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Intelligent Mail Package Barcode Standards To Enhance Package... comments. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is exploring the advisability of requiring the use of Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcodes (IMpb) or unique tracking Intelligent Mail barcodes (IMb TM ) on all...

  2. 41 CFR 102-192.30 - What types of mail does this part apply to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 192-MAIL MANAGEMENT Introduction to this Part § 102-192.30 What types of mail does this part apply to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of mail does this part apply to? 102-192.30 Section 102-192.30 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  3. The Effect of Reticence on College Students' Use of Electronic Mail To Communicate with Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynne; Duran, Robert L.; Zolten, J. Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of reticence on college students' use of electronic mail to communication with faculty. Notes the difference in the frequency of using electronic mail by reticent and non-reticent students. Considers how reticent students prefer to use electronic mail over speaking to faculty at their offices. (SG)

  4. 36 CFR 1236.22 - What are the additional requirements for managing electronic mail records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for managing electronic mail records? 1236.22 Section 1236.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Electronic Records § 1236.22 What are the additional requirements for managing electronic mail... requirements for electronic mail records: (1) The names of sender and all addressee(s) and date the message was...

  5. 32 CFR 806b.29 - Sending personal information over electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information over electronic mail. (a) Exercise caution before transmitting personal information over e-mail to... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sending personal information over electronic mail. 806b.29 Section 806b.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...

  6. AN EFFECTIVE SPAM FILTERING FOR DYNAMIC MAIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Mozhi Selvi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spam is commonly defined as unsolicited email messages and the goal of spam categorization is to distinguish between spam and legitimate email messages. The economics of spam details that the spammer has to target several recipients with identical and similar email messages. As a result a dynamic knowledge sharing effective defense against a substantial fraction of spam has to be designed which can alternate the burdens of frequent training stand alone spam filter. A weighted email attribute based classification is proposed to mainly focus to encounter the issues in normal email system. These type of classification helps to formulate an effective utilization of our email system by combining the concepts of Bayesian Spam Filtering Algorithm, Iterative Dichotmiser 3(ID3 Algorithm and Bloom Filter. The details captured by the system are processed to track the original sender causing disturbances and prefer them to block further mails from them. We have tested the effectiveness of our scheme by collecting offline data from Yahoo mail & Gmail dumps. This proposal is implemented using .net and sample user-Id for knowledge base.

  7. Send and Receive fax documents using electronic mail

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Any CERN Staff Member can now send and receive faxes directly through email using the new fax service. To do so, you need to register and obtain your “personal” fax number using the page http://cern.ch/fax. Once you have your fax number, you can fax someone by sending an email message to the address of the form name@number.mail2fax.cern.ch, for example: Joe.Bloggs@000441719999999.mail2fax.cern.ch In the example, “000441719999999” is the fax number to call, as seen from inside CERN, in this case, in London. “Joe.Bloggs” is the name of your correspondent and it will appear on the cover page along with your name, email address, your “personal” fax number, and the subject of the email. Documentation and additional examples of fax addresses are on http://cern.ch/fax The eventual text of your email will be transmitted in the fax, followed by the optional attachments, as extra pages. Attachments can be in Acrobat (.pdf), Text (.txt), Word (.doc) , Excel (.xls) or Powerpoint (.ppt) formats. Once the ...

  8. Send and Receive fax documents using electronic mail

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Any CERN Staff Member can now send and receive faxes directly through email using the new fax service. To do so, you need to register and obtain your “personal” fax number using the page http://cern.ch/fax. Once you have your fax number, you can fax someone by sending an email message to the address of the form name@number.mail2fax.cern.ch, for example: Joe.Bloggs@000441719999999.mail2fax.cern.ch In the example, “000441719999999” is the fax number to call, as seen from inside CERN, in this case, in London. “Joe.Bloggs” is the name of your correspondent and it will appear on the cover page along with your name, email address, your “personal” fax number, and the subject of the email. Documentation and additional examples of fax addresses are on http://cern.ch/fax The eventual text of your email will be transmitted in the fax, followed by the optional attachments, as extra pages. Attachments can be in Acrobat (.pdf), Text (.txt), Word (.doc) , Excel (.xls) or Powerpoint (.ppt) formats. Once ...

  9. Combating the corporate paper war: Electronic mail abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Botha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research was to investigate the mailing practices and filing methods in a computer support or administrative environment involving the resulting abuse of paper. In applied research, an exploratory investigation focused on selected higher education institutions in Gauteng with a structured questionnaire as measuring instrument. In the analysis and interpretations of the findings, correlation and cross-tabulation on all sets of variables determined whether any meaningful associations could be found. The investigation indicated that the war against paper abuse is not over by any means. Perceptions regarding a paperless office and assumptions that technology could assist organisations to combat paper abuse were unfounded, mainly because of a lack of guidance, training interventions and control measures. Consequently, follow-up research is presently conducted whereby models will be designed and implemented concomitant with specified computer software features in order to counteract the abuse of paper and facilitate the effective use of information and communication technology interfaced work processes and procedures. This article focuses only on the electronic mail and filing components of the investigation.

  10. Replication and reconfiguration in a distributed mail repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mark S.

    1987-04-01

    Conventional approaches to programming produce centralized programs that run on a single computer. However, an unconventional approach can take advantage of low-cost communication and small, inexpensive computers. A distributed program provides service through programs executing at several nodes of a distributed system. Distributed programs can offer two important advantages over centralized programs: high availability and scalability. In a highly-available system, it is very likely that a randomly-chosen transaction will complete successfully. A scalable system's capacity can be increased or decreased to match changes in the demands placed on the system. When a node is unavailable because of maintenance or a crash, transactions may fail unless copies of the node's information are stored at other nodes. Thus, high availability requires replication of data. This thesis considers the problem of building scalable and highly-available distributed programs without using special processors with redundant hardware and software. It describes a design and implementation of an example distributed program, an electronic mail repository. The thesis focuses on how to design and implement replication and reconfiguration for the distributed mail repository.

  11. Ombuds' corner: Code of Conduct and e-mails

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2011-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Luke* holds a key position in the coordination of a large project. He is also a recognized expert in modeling complicated structures. Because of his expertise in the field, he receives a considerable number of e-mails every day which he has trouble responding to in addition to his responsibilities of management and development. Constantly interrupted, he tends to answer his emails quickly, sometimes even in an instinctive way, which leads to somewhat laconic messages. One day he receives an e-mail from Dave* challenging some of the decisions taken by the project’s management. Luke agrees with Dave’s remarks, which seem justified given his own expertise of the su...

  12. Responsive envelope tessellation and stochastic rotation of 4-fold penttiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambit Datta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and control of a responsive envelope based on the rotation of tessellated components. The study investigates responsive and dynamic approaches for building facades and envelopes to regulate solar shading, light control, views and thermal gain within the building. It is well known that near real-time visual output from computational simulation can significantly impact the prediction of dynamic building-environment interactions and lead to the development of smart, adaptable, net zero energy buildings. To address these motivations, this paper reports the development of an experimental simulation of a responsive envelope based on using a 4-fold penttile scheme. The simulation is developed using a novel pentagonal approach involving component (tile design, tessellation and control methods. The paper further elaborates on the geometry and control aspects of the facade subdivision and presents the results of applying this tessellation geometry to a building envelope shading study based on facade components with rotation. Finally, it tests the “responsiveness” to multiple performance metrics by applying a non-deterministic exploration method for the stochastic rotation of individual panels. The sophisticated evaluation of alternative envelope configurations for a set of performance criteria require a tighter computational coupling between modelling and control of dynamic geometry.

  13. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  14. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  15. Jumping the nuclear envelop barrier: Improving polyplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency by a selective CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefei; Liu, Xiangrui; Zhao, Bingxiang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dingcheng; Qiu, Nasha; Zhou, Quan; Piao, Ying; Zhou, Zhuxian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing

    2016-07-28

    Successful transfection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) requires intranuclear internalization of pDNA effectively and the nuclear envelope appears to be one of the critical intracellular barriers for polymer mediated pDNA delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI), as the classic cationic polymer, compact the negatively charged pDNA tightly and make up stable polyplexes. The polyplexes are too large to enter the nuclear through nuclear pores and it is believed that the nuclear envelope breakdown in mitosis could facilitate the nuclear entry of polyplexes. To jump the nuclear envelope barrier, we used a selective and reversible CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306 to control the G2/M transition of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of mitotic cells which have disappeared nuclear envelope during transfection. Herein, we show that RO-3306 remarkably increases the transfection efficiency of PEI polyplexes through enhanced nuclear localization of PEI and pDNA. However, RO-3306 is less effective to the charge-reversal polymer poly[(2-acryloyl)ethyl(p-boronic acid benzyl)diethylammonium bromide] (B-PDEAEA) which responses to cellular stimuli and releases free pDNA in cytoplasm. Our findings not only offer new opportunities for improving non-viral based gene delivery but also provide theoretical support for the rational design of novel functional polymers for gene delivery. We also report current data showing that RO-3306 synergizes TRAIL gene induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dokumentaalfilm "Maile Grünbergi värvilised maailmad" = "Maile Grünberg's colourful worlds": a documentary / Karin Paulus, Priit Põldme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2015-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Maile Grünbergist ja 2014. aastal temast valminud dokumentaalfilmist "Maile Grünbergi värvilised maailmad". Režissöör Peeter Brambat, tegevprodutsent Priit Põldme, käsikiri Karin Paulus, Peeter Brambat, Priit Põldme. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  17. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olia, A.S.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2009-06-02

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-{angstrom} elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple {beta}-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes {beta}-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The {alpha}-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  18. Experimental evaluation of envelope tracking techniques for voltage disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, Mostafa I. [Electrical Power and Machines Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 El-Sarayat St., Abbasia, 11517 Cairo (Egypt); El-Saadany, Ehab F.; Salama, Magdy M.A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper a digital signal processor (DSP) based real time voltage envelope tracking system is developed and examined. The ADAptive LINEar neuron (ADALINE) and the Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithms are adopted for envelope tracking. The proposed ADALINE and RLS algorithms give accurate results even under rapid dynamic changes. The paper investigates the effects of different parameters on the performance of the ADALINE algorithm and that of the RLS algorithm. The experimental system is cantered around a Texas Instrument 16 bit fixed-point arithmetic (TMS320LF2407A) evaluation board. Both the ADALINE and the RLS tracking algorithms are developed using the DSP-assembly language. A simple voltage flicker generator is implemented to produce various voltage disturbances. Extensive tests of the proposed envelope tracking algorithms are conducted to evaluate their dynamic performance. (author)

  19. Application of data envelopment analysis models in supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soheilirad, Somayeh; Govindan, Kannan; Mardani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    have been attained to reach a comprehensive review of data envelopment analysis models in evaluation supply chain management. Consequently, the selected published articles have been categorized by author name, the year of publication, technique, application area, country, scope, data envelopment...... analysis purpose, study purpose, research gap and contribution, results and outcome, and journals and conferences in which they appeared. The results of this study indicated that areas of supplier selection, supply chain efficiency and sustainable supply chain have had the highest frequently than other...... of interest as a mathematical tool to evaluate supply chain management. While, various data envelopment analysis models have been suggested to measure and evaluate the supply chain management, there is a lack of research regarding to systematic literature review and classification of study in this field...

  20. Analysis of the documents about the core envelopment of nuclear reactor at the Laguna Verde U-1 power plant; Analisis de documentos de los materiales de la envolvente del nucleo del reactor nuclear de la CLV U-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L.; Medina F, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The degradation of internal components at BWR type reactors is an important subject to consider in the performance availability of the power plant. The Wuergassen nuclear reactor license was confiscated due to the presence of cracking in the core envelopment. In consequence it is necessary carrying out a detailed study with the purpose to avoid these problems in the future. This report presents a review and analysis of documents and technical information referring to the core envelopment of a BWR/5/6 and the Laguna Verde Unit 1 nuclear reactor in Mexico. In this document are presented design data, documents about fabrication processes, and manufacturing of core envelopment. (Author)

  1. Tobacco industry marketing: an analysis of direct mail coupons and giveaways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Despite marketing prohibitions, tobacco company marketing expenditures in the USA have continued to grow with tobacco companies shifting focus towards point-of-sale-marketing and direct marketing to consumers through the mail and on the web. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the content of direct marketing sent in response to registrations on select industry websites. An analysis of 659 tobacco company direct mail marketing pieces received between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. Mailings were coded for type and value of tobacco coupons, type of tobacco products promoted with coupons and number and type of giveaways offered. The most common type of mailing was tobacco coupon distribution; 86.5% of the mailings contained at least one coupon. Mailings with coupons had an average estimated coupon value of $4.17. The total coupon value of each mailing varied by the type of coupon offer and product promoted. The Camel and Marlboro coupon mailings heavily promoted snus, with over half of Camel coupon mailings (60.9%) and nearly half (44.8%) of Marlboro coupon mailings promoting snus alone. In addition, 47.9% of Marlboro coupon mailings and 11.4% of Camel mailings promoted snus alongside cigarettes. Tobacco companies use direct mail marketing to communicate with consumers and provide valuable tobacco coupons. More research is needed to understand the content of these mailings and how they are used by tobacco consumers in order to develop effective policy solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  3. Enveloping algebras of Lie groups with descrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen huu Anh; Vuong manh Son

    1990-09-01

    In this article we shall prove that the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of some unimodular Lie group having discrete series, when localized at some element of the center, is isomorphic to the tensor product of a Weyl algebra over the ring of Laurent polynomials of one variable and the enveloping algebra of some reductive Lie algebra. In particular, it will be proved that the Lie algebra of a unimodular solvable Lie group having discrete series satisfies the Gelfand-Kirillov conjecture. (author). 6 refs

  4. A Phase-Change Composite for Use in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Ron S. [LMES/ORNL; Stovall, T. K. [LMES/ORNL; Weaver, K. E. [LMES/ORNL; Wilkes, K. E. [LMES/ORNL; Roy, S. [PhD Research Group, Inc.

    1992-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop composite thermal insulations containing phase-change materials for use in the building envelope. The use of a phase-change insulation composite in the building envelope could result in a significant increase in energy efficiency. PhD Research provided candidate phase-change composites, and ORNL performed analytical and experimental evaluations of their thermal performance. The thermal resistance of the prototype panels was somewhat less than that of commercial products, although their thermal capacity was greater. Using these results, PhD Research has been working to modify the design and to produce practical building elements that incorporate phase-change material.

  5. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model in Operation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meilisa; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Quality management is an effective system in operation management to develops, maintains, and improves quality from groups of companies that allow marketing, production, and service at the most economycal level as well as ensuring customer satisfication. Many companies are practicing quality management to improve their bussiness performance. One of performance measurement is through measurement of efficiency. One of the tools can be used to assess efficiency of companies performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The aim of this paper is using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess efficiency of quality management. In this paper will be explained CCR, BCC, and SBM models to assess efficiency of quality management.

  6. Environmental and safety envelope analysis for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Frank, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an envelope analysis concept and a generic process flow model which together can be used to identify and isolate plant functions and provide for detailed mass- and energy-balance bookkeeping for environmental and safety studies. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) two laser fusion power plant concepts were analyzed with this approach. Samples of the detailed tables of material flow rates into and out of an envelope are presented in this paper. The tritium and lithium inventories and air activation were identified as having important potential environmental problems and safety risks

  7. Structure of the transmembrane domain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a heavily glycosylated, type I membrane protein that mediates fusion of viral and cell membranes to initiate infection. It is also a primary target of neutralizing antibodies and thus an important candidate for vaccine development. We have recently reported a nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in a membrane-like environment. Taking HIV-1 as an example, we discuss here how a TM domain can anchor, stabilize, and modulate a viral envelope spike and how its high-resolution structure can contribute to understanding viral membrane fusion and to immunogen design. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  9. “Gone are the days of mass-media marketing plans and short term customer relationships”: tobacco industry direct mail and database marketing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-01-01

    Background As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. Methods We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Results Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers’ names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers’ names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing’s flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail’s limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Conclusions Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers’ perceptions and smoking behaviours. PMID:26243810

  10. 77 FR 12724 - International Postal Service-Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... relations, International postal services. Accordingly, 39 CFR Part 20 is amended as follows: PART 20... POSTAL SERVICE\\TM\\ 39 CFR Part 20 International Postal Service--Global Expedited Package Services... Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM[supreg]) to...

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF E-MAIL LITERACY: FROM WRITING TO PEERS TO WRITING TO AUTHORITY FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fen Emily Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Though e-mail has become a common interpersonal communication medium, it does not mean that this medium is used without difficulty. While people can write e-mails to peers in any manner they like, writing e-mails to authority figures requires higher pragmatic competence and critical language awareness of how discourse shapes and reflects power asymmetry in an institutional context. For L2 learners, the challenge of composing this type of e-mail can be greater due not only to their limited linguistic ability but also their unfamiliarity with the target culture's norms and values. To provide a deeper understanding of how an L2 learner develops e-mail literacy in the target language environment, this paper presents a longitudinal case study of a Taiwanese graduate student’s e-mail practice in English during her studies at a U.S. university for two and a half years. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, the study reveals the complexity of an L2 learner’s evolving e-mail practice and struggle for appropriateness, particularly in her e-mail communication with professors. Her development of e-mail literacy is discussed in relation to her evolving understanding of the e-mail medium, changing performance of student identity, increasing knowledge of student-professor interaction and realization of culture-specific politeness.

  12. Filmer le travail dans un train postal. À propos de Night Mail Filming work in a mail train. A study of Night Mail Filmar el trabajo en un tren de correos. Acerca de Night Mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maillot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Night Mail est un documentaire de court-métrage sur le travail du tri postal dans les transports ferroviaires de nuit, produit par le service cinéma du GPO (General Post Office, Ministère des Postes du Royaume-Uni, en 1936. C’est d’abord, pour l’organisme d’État qui le produit, un film sur la Poste et les postiers qu’ils soient sur le terrain, à bord du train, ou dans les bureaux. Le film est nécessairement conduit à traiter aussi le travail de la compagnie de chemin de fer qui achemine le courrier, et donc celui des cheminots, de tous les cheminots. Ceux qui sont à la manipulation des machines, sur la voie, dans les gares traversées au long du trajet, et ceux des bureaux qui assurent les liaisons par téléphone, morse, et l’ensemble des télécommunications de l’époque en plein développement (1936. Le film devient ainsi une réflexion sur l’institution, les institutions, leur organisation, et leur collaboration sans laquelle il n’y a pas de travail possible. L’objectif central de cet article est d’offrir à ceux des sociologues qui s’intéressent à la sociologie filmique, des éléments pour comprendre les possibilités conceptuelles de l’écriture filmique.Night Mail, a short documentary about mail sorting on night trains, was produced by the UK General Post Office’s cinema department back in 1936. The first thing that can be said about this state-produced film is that it talks about the post office but also its employees, with some doing their pick-up rounds and others working on the train or in an office. It also necessarily highlights the work done by the rail company carrying the mail, focusing on different kinds of rail workers including machine operators, line maintenance crews or staff from the stations that the train passes through during the movie. On top of this, there are also railway office employees responsible for telephone connections, telegraph messages and all kinds of

  13. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  14. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  15. AM Envelope : The Potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauss, H.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous development of the building envelope over the past hundred years can be exemplified by a few ground-breaking inventions. Firstly, the separation of primary and secondary structure during the beginning of the 20th century; by implementing a curtain wall façade to physically separate

  16. Bioinformatics Analysis of Envelope Glycoprotein E epitopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E glycoprotein of dengue virus is responsible for the viral binding to the receptor. The crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein has already been determined. However, where the well-defined Bcell and T-cell epitopes are located is still a question. Because of the large variations among the four dengue genotypes, it is ...

  17. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...

  18. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  19. Envelope-Law and Geometric-Mean STAP Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Srinivasan, R.; Rangaswamy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two detectors for space-time adaptive processing (STAP) are proposed here. These are variants that use envelope-law and geometric-mean (GM) (or logarithmic) processing, both being well-known concepts from conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) square-law radar detection [212]. The variants

  20. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05).

  1. Access envelopes: A new accessibility mapping technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes the application of a GIS-based accessibility measurement technique suited to assessing the impact of both transport and spatial development strategies on the location-specific affordability of job access for poor households. The access envelope methodology extends existing accessibility measures by: ...

  2. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    To separate sounds from different sound sources, common properties of natural sounds are used by the auditory system, such as coherent temporal envelope fluctuations and correlated changes of frequency in different frequency regions. The present study investigates how the auditory systemprocesses...

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Responsive Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept...

  4. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where ± sign respectively correspond to fermions and bosons. The number of particles produced at time after crossing tj [4] is given by nj+1 k. = |βj+1 k. |2. (27). We will use expression (25) to calculate the CWKB envelope while calculating the occupation number using expression (66), where χ is obtained through Runge–.

  5. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  6. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  7. Measurement Error, Education Production and Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, John

    2006-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis has become a popular tool for evaluating the efficiency of decision making units. The nonparametric approach has been widely applied to educational production. The approach is, however, deterministic and leads to biased estimates of performance in the presence of measurement error. Numerous simulation studies confirm the…

  8. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  9. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  10. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that ... 2 I Chowdhury1. Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, India; IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India ...

  11. Fault diagnosis in gear using wavelet envelope power spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental data set is used to compare the diagnostic capability of the fast Fourier transform power spectrum to the wavelet envelope power spectrum as respectively computed using Laplace and Morlet wavelet functions. The gear testing apparatus was used for experimental studies to obtain the vibration signal from ...

  12. Purification and characterization of cell-envelope proteinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride;. ACE, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. Poolman, 1998). Cell-envelope proteinase (CEP) play an important role in the lactobacillus proteolytic system. CEPs are the critical enzyme in the system (Kunji et al., 1996), since it is the only enzyme that can initiate the breakdown of.

  13. Interoperability through standardization: Electronic mail, and X Window systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1993-01-01

    Since the introduction of computing machines, there has been continual advances in computer and communication technologies and approaching limits. The user interface has evolved from a row of switches, character based interface using teletype terminals and then video terminals, to present day graphical user interface. It is expected that next significant advances will come in the availability of services, such as electronic mail and directory services, as the standards for applications are developed and in the 'easy to use' interfaces, such as Graphical User Interface for example Window and X Window, which are being standardized. Various proprietary electronic mail (email) systems are in use within organizations at each center of NASA. Each system provides email services to users within an organization, however the support for email services across organizations and across centers exists at centers to a varying degree and is often easy to use. A recent NASA email initiative is intended 'to provide a simple way to send email across organizational boundaries without disruption of installed base.' The initiative calls for integration of existing organizational email systems through gateways connected by a message switch, supporting X.400 and SMTP protocols, to create a NASA wide email system and for implementation of NASA wide email directory services based on OSI standard X.500. A brief overview of MSFC efforts as a part of this initiative are described. Window based graphical user interfaces make computers easy to use. X window protocol has been developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984/1985 to provide uniform window based interface in a distributed computing environment with heterogenous computers. It has since become a standard supported by a number of major manufacturers. Z Windows systems, terminals and workstations, and X Window applications are becoming available. However impact of its use in the Local Area Network environment on the network

  14. Evaluation of an 8-week mailed healthy-weight intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, J; Paradis, G; Meshefedjian, G; Kishchuk, N

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a low-intensity, healthy-weight intervention among adult volunteers in a low-income, inner-city neighborhood. The intervention, which comprised 18 pamphlets mailed to participants' homes over 8 weeks, focused on increasing awareness of healthy weight ranges, increasing self-acceptance and satisfaction with weight, and improving eating habits, while downplaying dieting and weight loss. Subjects were recruited from households randomly selected from residential telephone subscriber lists. The 188 volunteers (23.0% of 816 persons contacted) were randomly assigned to intervention or control status. Psychosocial and behavioral measures were administered by telephone 1 week before and 2 weeks after the intervention. After exposure to the pamphlets, intervention subjects were more likely than controls to know how to control their weight. They were more satisfied with their weight and less likely to report they were too heavy. They reported less high-fat/junk food consumption, more improvements in their eating habits, and more frequent exercise. This inexpensive, low-intensity intervention was effective in supporting change processes among volunteers who wanted to learn about weight control, to improve eating habits, and to improve health.

  15. Data Leakage Prevention: E-Mail Protection via Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamaljeet; Gupta, Ishu; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Protection of digital assets and intellectual property is becoming a challenge for most of the companies. Due to increasing availability of database services on internet, data may be insecure after passing through precarious networks. To protect intellectual property (IP) is a major concern for today's organizations, because a leakage that compromises IP means, sensitive information of a company is in the hands of biggest competitors. Electronic information processing and communication is replacing paper in many applications increasingly. Instead of paper, an email is being used for communication at workplace and from social media logins to bank accounts. Nowadays an email is becoming a mainstream business tool. An email can be misused to leave company’s sensitive data open to compromise. So, it may be of little surprise that attacks on emails are common. So, here we need an email protection system (EPS) that will protect information to leave organization via mail. In this paper, we developed an algorithm that will offer email protection via gateway during data transfer. This algorithm matches the patterns with the keywords stored in the database and then takes the actions accordingly to protect the data. This paper describes why email protection is important? How companies can protect their confidential information from being leaked by insiders.

  16. Online e-mail marketing systém

    OpenAIRE

    Šmigura, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na analýzu požadavků reklamní agentury na vytvoření systému pro online rozesílání e-mailových kampaní. Následné zhodnocení současného stavu se stává společně s výsledkem analýzy požadavků důležitým podkladem pro sestavení návrhu řešení a samotnou implementaci plně funkčního systému. The subject of this Bachelor’s thesis is focused on an analysis of promotional agency’s requirements concerned with producing a system for online sending of e-mail campaigns. The su...

  17. MAILROOM- A LOCAL AREA NETWORK ELECTRONIC MAIL PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mailroom program is a Local Area Network (LAN) electronic mail program. It allows LAN users to electronically exchange notes, letters, reminders, or any sort of communication via their computer. The Mailroom program links all LAN users into a communication circle where messages can be created, sent, copied, printed, downloaded, uploaded, and deleted through a series of menu-driven screens. Mailroom includes a feature which allows users to determine if a message they have sent has been read by the receiver. Each user must be separately installed and removed from Mailroom as they join or leave the network. Mailroom comes with a program that accomplishes this with minimum of effort on the part of the Network Administrator/Manager. There is also a program that allows the Network Administrator/Manager to install Mailroom on each user's workstation so that on execution of Mailroom the user's station may be identified and the configurations settings activated. It will create its own configuration and data/supporting files during the setup and installation process. The Mailroom program is written in Microsoft QuickBasic. It was developed to run on networked IBM XT/ATs or compatibles and requires that all participating workstations share a common drive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 71K. Mailroom was developed in 1988.

  18. MAIL1 is essential for development of the primary root but not of anchor roots

    OpenAIRE

    Ühlken, Christine; Hoth, Stefan; Weingartner, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    MAIN-LIKE1 (MAIL1) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein, which has a crucial function during root development. We have recently described loss of function mutants for MAIL1, in which the organization and function of the primary root meristem is lost soon after germination. Moreover cell differentiation is impaired resulting in primary root growth arrest soon after emergence. Here we show that mail1 mutants form several anchor roots from the hypocotyl to root junction. These anchor root...

  19. Health system tests CRM data base. Community Health Network uses direct mail to boost physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    A six-month pilot patient retention project for Community Health Network (CHN), Indianapolis, ran from July 2002 to January 2003. It was a direct mail campaign on behalf of some members of the group practices owned by CHN, designed to test the use of the system's CRM database. Patients of the physicians received personal, dynamically-generated cards reminding them to schedule appointments and tests. Each mailing cost $1.76, including production and mailing.

  20. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  1. Advantages of the mailing lists as source of personal and professional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Böhmerwald

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the characteristics and functionality of mailing lists, aiming at filling a gap in the literature of library and information science in Portuguese and disseminating their use among information professionals. It presents the commands for three list management software (Listserv, Listproc and Majordomo, compares and contrasts mailing lists, Usenet groups and chats, lists some Netiquette rules and presents several examples of Brazilian and foreign mailing lists in the area of library and information science.

  2. Cholesterol depletion of hepatoma cells impairs hepatitis B virus envelopment by altering the topology of the large envelope protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorobantu, C.M.; Macovei, A.; Lazar, C.; Dwek, R.A.; Zitzmann, N.; Branza-Nichita, N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that cholesterol depletion of the membrane envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) impairs viral infection of target cells. A potential function of this lipid in later steps of the viral life cycle remained controversial, with secretion of virions and subviral particles

  3. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between target and mailing characteristics in direct marketing, with an application to health care fund raising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J..R.; van der Scheer, H.R.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The major decision variables for the development of a direct mail campaign are the characteristics of the mailing and the characteristics of the tar ets receiving the mailing. Traditional direct mail research treats both aspects separately although a they are likely to interact. We present a new

  5. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  6. An Assessment of Envelope Measures in Mild Climate Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    strictly necessary for the achievement of deep energy savings in existing uninsulated homes in mild marine climates, provided that other energy end-uses were comprehensively reduced. We recommend that mild climate DERs pursue envelopes in compliance with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and pair these with high efficiency, off-the-shelf HVAC equipment. Enhanced building envelopes should be considered in cases where very low heating energy use (<1,000 kWh/year or <0.5 kWh/ft2-year) and enhanced thermal comfort (ASHRAE 55-2010) are required, as well as in those situations where substantial energy uses are added to the home, such as decorative lighting, cooling or smart home A/V and communication equipment.

  7. You've got mail! An examination of a statewide direct-mail marketing campaign to promote deceased organ donor registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R; Morgan, Susan E; Bosch, Dave

    2015-11-01

    This study extends previous direct-mail campaigns by evaluating the effectiveness of a marketing campaign promoting organ donation message strategies from the vantage point of organ donors, organ recipients, individuals on the waiting list, or a combination of these three frames. Illinois residents were randomly assigned to one of four organ donation brochures disseminated via U.S. postal mail. Registrations occurred via the Internet and U.S. postal mail. Individuals register at a greater rate following exposure to the combination framed message compared to organ donor, organ recipient, and waiting list narratives. The campaign revealed that individuals are more likely to register via U.S. postal mail than the Internet. Direct-mail marketing efforts were shown to be an effective approach to promote organ and tissue donation registrations. The results demonstrated a preference for the combination framed brochure. The results are discussed with an emphasis on the practical implications of utilizing direct-mail marketing efforts to promote organ donation among young adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cloning and characterization of functional subtype A HIV-1 envelope variants transmitted through breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Stephanie M J; Wu, Xueling; Nduati, Ruth; Nedellec, Rebecca; Mosier, Donald; John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Overbaugh, Julie

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies of HIV-1 variants transmitted from mother-to-infant have focused primarily on computational analyses of partial envelope gene sequences, rather than analyses of functional envelope variants. There are very few examples of well-characterized functional envelope clones from mother-infant pairs, especially from envelope variants representing the most prevalent subtypes worldwide. To address this, we amplified the envelope variants present in 4 mother-infant transmission pairs, all of whom were infected with subtype A and three of whom presumably transmitted HIV-1 during the breastfeeding period. Functional envelope clones were constructed, either encoding full-length envelope sequences from the mother and baby or by making chimeric envelope clones in a common backbone sequence. The infant envelope sequences were genetically homogeneous compared to the maternal viruses, and pseudoviruses bearing these envelopes all used CCR5 as a coreceptor. The infant viruses were generally resistant to neutralization by maternal antibodies present near the time of transmission. There were no notable differences in sensitivity of the mother and infant envelope variants to neutralization by heterologous plasma or monoclonal antibodies 2G12 and b12, or to inhibition by sCD4, PSC-RANTES or TAK779. This collection of viral envelopes, which can be used for making pseudotyped viruses, may be useful for examining the efficacy of interventions to block mother-infant transmission, including sera from vaccine candidates, purified antibodies under consideration for passive immunization and viral entry inhibitors.

  9. Habitat classification modeling with incomplete data: Pushing the habitat envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, P.L.; Edwards, T.C.; Moisen, Gretchen G.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat classification models (HCMs) are invaluable tools for species conservation, land-use planning, reserve design, and metapopulation assessments, particularly at broad spatial scales. However, species occurrence data are often lacking and typically limited to presence points at broad scales. This lack of absence data precludes the use of many statistical techniques for HCMs. One option is to generate pseudo-absence points so that the many available statistical modeling tools can be used. Traditional techniques generate pseudoabsence points at random across broadly defined species ranges, often failing to include biological knowledge concerning the species-habitat relationship. We incorporated biological knowledge of the species-habitat relationship into pseudo-absence points by creating habitat envelopes that constrain the region from which points were randomly selected. We define a habitat envelope as an ecological representation of a species, or species feature's (e.g., nest) observed distribution (i.e., realized niche) based on a single attribute, or the spatial intersection of multiple attributes. We created HCMs for Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) nest habitat during the breeding season across Utah forests with extant nest presence points and ecologically based pseudo-absence points using logistic regression. Predictor variables were derived from 30-m USDA Landfire and 250-m Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) map products. These habitat-envelope-based models were then compared to null envelope models which use traditional practices for generating pseudo-absences. Models were assessed for fit and predictive capability using metrics such as kappa, thresholdindependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots, adjusted deviance (Dadj2), and cross-validation, and were also assessed for ecological relevance. For all cases, habitat envelope-based models outperformed null envelope models and were more ecologically relevant, suggesting

  10. Who Votes by Mail?: A Dynamic Model of the Individual-Level Consequences of Voting-by-Mail Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berinsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    Election administrators and public officials often consider changes in electoral laws, hoping that these changes will increase voter turnout and make the electorate more reflective of the voting-age population. The most recent of these innovations is voting-by-mail (VBM), a procedure by which ballots are sent to an address for every registered voter. Over the last 2 decades, VBM has spread across the United States, unaccompanied by much empirical evaluation of its impact on either voter turnout or the stratification of the electorate. In this study, we fill this gap in our knowledge by assessing the impact of VBM in one state, Oregon. We carry out this assessment at the individual level, using data over a range of elections. We argue that VBM does increase voter turnout in the long run, primarily by making it easier for current voters to continue to participate, rather than by mobilizing nonvoters into the electorate. These effects, however, are not uniform across all groups in the electorate. Although VBM in Oregon does not exert any influence on the partisan composition of the electorate, VBM increases, rather than diminishes, the resource stratification of the electorate. Contrary to the expectations of many reformers, VBM advantages the resource-rich by keeping them in the electorate, and VBM does little to change the behavior of the resource-poor. In short, VBM increases turnout, but it does so without making the electorate more descriptively representative of the voting-age population.

  11. 78 FR 19981 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...; Flight Envelope Protection: High Speed Limiting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... 11562). The document issued special conditions pertaining flight envelope protection: high speed...

  12. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  13. Carrier-envelope Phase Drift Detection of Picosecond Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A bandwidth-independent, linear and scalable method for carrier-envelope phase drift measurement demonstrated. Our experiments reveal that carrier-envelope phase drift of a picosecond pulse train can be directly obtained from the spectrally resolved interference pattern of a length-stabilized multiple-beam interferometer. The retrieved phase from the pattern correlates well with the strongly CEP-sensitive coupling signal between the frequency combs of the picosecond oscillator and an ultra-high finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer. Our results can lead to the generation of a robust CEP-stabilized seed pulse train for high resolution comb spectroscopy as well as to compact Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

  14. Efficiency in the Worst Production Situation Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA measures relative efficiency among the decision making units (DMU without considering noise in data. The least efficient DMU indicates that it is in the worst situation. In this paper, we measure efficiency of individual DMU whenever it losses the maximum output, and the efficiency of other DMUs is measured in the observed situation. This efficiency is the minimum efficiency of a DMU. The concept of stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA is a DEA method which considers the noise in data which is proposed in this study. Using bounded Pareto distribution, we estimate the DEA efficiency from efficiency interval. Small value of shape parameter can estimate the efficiency more accurately using the Pareto distribution. Rank correlations were estimated between observed efficiencies and minimum efficiency as well as between observed and estimated efficiency. The correlations are indicating the effectiveness of this SDEA model.

  15. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  16. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  17. SOFIA/HAWC+ Polarization in the Envelope of IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Hoang, Thiem; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Vaillancourt, John; Sankrit, Ravi; Lazarian, Alex; HAWC+ Instrument Team

    2018-01-01

    Polarization is a potentially powerful, but underutilized, tool for understanding interstellar, circumstellar environments. To accurately interpret dust-induced polarization, in terms of magnetic fields and other environmental parameters, a quantitative understanding of the alignment of the dust grains is, however, required. Significant progress has been made recently in clarifying the physics of grain alignment, such that we now know that radiative processes is the main driver. One remaining open issue is the role of grain mineralogy on the alignment, specifically whether carbonaceous grains can be aligned. We have acquired SOFIA/HAWC+ polarimetry of the carbon rich envelope of the AGB star IRC+10216 to probe this issue. Strong, systematic far-infrared polarization is seen in the envelope. We will discuss these data, their interpretation and their implication on the physics of grain alignment and interstellar, and circumstellar, polarimetry.

  18. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  19. Virulence properties of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eShevchuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe LPS biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen-host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, special emphasis is laid on iron acquisition, detoxification, key elicitors of the immune response and the diverse functions of outer membrane vesicles. The critical analysis of the literature reveals that the dynamics and phenotypic plasticity of the Legionella cell surface during the different metabolic stages requires more attention in the future.

  20. Enveloped Lives: Practicing Health and Care in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praspaliauskiene, Rima

    2016-12-01

    This article analyzes informal medical payments that the majority of Lithuanians give or feel compelled to give to doctors before or after treatment. It focuses on how patients and their caretakers encounter, practice, and enact informal payments in health care and how these payments create a reality of health care that is not limited to an economic rationality. Within such a frame, rather than being considered a gift or bribe, it conceptualizes these little white envelopes as a practice of health and care. The article shows how an envelope of money given to a doctor transcends the material patient-doctor transaction and emerges as a productive force for coping with illness, medical encounters, and misfortunes. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. Extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus. Entry, egress, and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Vanderplasschen, A

    1998-01-01

    Vaccinia virus is a large and complex virus that produces two types of infectious virus particles, termed intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). EEV contains an extra lipid envelope and ten associated proteins that are absent from IMV. Although EEV represents less than 1% of infectious progeny it is very important biologically. First, it mediates virus dissemination and second, it is the virus against which protective immune responses are directed. This article reviews the genes known to encode EEV proteins and their functions, describes recent data showing that the cellular receptors for IMV and EEV are different, and demonstrates that EEV, in contrast to IMV, is resistant to neutralisation by antibody.

  2. The Use of Categorical Variables in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Richard C. Morey

    1986-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis has now been extensively applied in a range of empirical settings to identify relative inefficiencies, and provide targets for improvements. It accomplishes this by developing peer groups for each unit being operated. The use of categorical variables is an important extension which can improve the peer group construction process and incorporate "on-off" characteristics, e.g., presence of drive-in window or not in a banking network. It relaxes the stringent need for f...

  3. Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a formal statistical basis for the efficiency evaluation techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA estimators of the best practice monotone increasing and concave production function are shown to be also maximum likelihood estimators if the deviation of actual output from the efficient output is regarded as a stochastic variable with a monotone decreasing probability density function. While the best practice frontier estimator is biased below the theoretical front...

  4. A Comparison of PSD Enveloping Methods for Nonstationary Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to derive a power spectral density (PSD) envelope for nonstationary acceleration time histories, including launch vehicle data, so that components can be designed and tested accordingly. This paper presents the results of the three methods for an actual flight accelerometer record. Guidelines are given for the application of each method to nonstationary data. The method can be extended to other scenarios, including transportation vibration.

  5. Overexpression of Ebola virus envelope GP1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongcheng; Misasi, John; Sullivan, Nancy; Sun, Peter D

    2017-07-01

    Ebola virus uses its envelope GP1 and GP2 for viral attachment and entry into host cells. Due to technical difficulty expressing full-length envelope, many structural and functional studies of Ebola envelope protein have been carried out primarily using GP1 lacking its mucin-like domain. As a result, the viral invasion mechanisms involving the mucin-like domain are not fully understood. To elucidate the role of the mucin-like domain of GP1 in Ebola-host attachment and infection and to facilitate vaccine development, we constructed a GP1 expression vector containing the entire attachment region (1-496). Cysteine 53 of GP1, which forms a disulfide bond with GP2, was mutated to serine to avoid potential disulfide bond mispairing. Stable expression clones using codon optimized open reading frame were developed in human 293-H cells with yields reaching ∼25 mg of GP1 protein per liter of spent medium. Purified GP1 was functional and bound to Ebola attachment receptors, DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. The over-expression and easy purification characteristic of this system has implications in Ebola research and vaccine development. To further understand the differential expression yields between the codon optimized and native GP1, we analyzed the presence of RNA structural motifs in the first 100 nucleotides of translational initiation AUG site. RNA structural prediction showed the codon optimization removed two potential RNA pseudoknot structures. This methodology is also applicable to the expression of other difficult virus envelope proteins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Allison mixture and the two-envelope problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kang Hao; Saakian, David B.; Zadourian, Rubina

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the Allison mixture, a variant of the Parrondo's games where random mixing of two random sequences creates autocorrelation. We have obtained the autocorrelation function and mutual entropy of two elements. Our analysis shows that the mutual information is nonzero even if two distributions have identical average values. We have also considered the two-envelope problem and solved for its exact probability distribution.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  9. Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2018-02-01

    BTO's Emerging Technologies program held a two-day workshop on “Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities” on May 31 and June 1, 2017 at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. A broad range of about 100 experts from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government participated, contributing their ideas, insights, and perspectives. Their feedback is intended to help inform and augment BTO’s research and development activities.

  10. A deformation (strain) envelope for cyclic disturbed sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in triaxial testing procedures revealed new properties governing disturbed sand stiffness. This paper summarizes the new observations into an original, proof of concept. The novel concept interpolates effective stress within a strain (deformation) envelope. Coulomb stress limits...... - the fitting is remarkably good even during tests of extreme complexity. The novelty has substantial interdisciplinary potential: offshore anchors and foundations, earthquakes and industrial processes - wherever dynamic loads and disturbed sand are encountered. It opens the door to a new branch of numerical...

  11. Case Study of Envelope Sealing in Existing Multiunit Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Conlin, Francis [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report describes envelope air sealing that was included in the retrofit of a 244 unit low-rise multifamily housing complex in Durham, N.C. On average, total leakage was reduced by nearly half, from 19.7 ACH50 to 9.4 ACH50. Important air leakage locations identified included plumbing and electrical penetrations, dropped ceilings/soffits, windows, ducts and wall-to-floor intersections. Specifications and a pictorial guide were developed for contractors performing the work.

  12. An IT Manager's View on E-Mail and Internet Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mayur S.; Hart, Jeff; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    E-mail is mandatory tool of communications any business to survive in the 21st century. It is imperative that Information technology (IT) managers monitor and make sure that the e-mail systems are used properly. In order to organize a systematic process for proper use of email an administrator must have an input into the development of appropriate…

  13. Direct Mail Marketing for Cooperative Education. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGookey, Kathy

    Seven guidelines for enhancing direct mail marketing are as follows: target the most promising audience; frame the right message for the audience; state the benefits of making a positive response; send the message at an appropriate time; tell the reader what response is desired; plan follow-up mailings or other contact; and measure results.…

  14. Trends in Direct Mail Marketing--A Survey of Private Four-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 727 principal admission officers at private, 4-year undergraduate liberal arts colleges in U.S. concerning direct mail marketing. Found that 87 percent of respondents reported currently using direct mail marketing, suggesting that it represents a fundamental building block for vast majority of inquiry and applicant pools. Concludes that,…

  15. Mitigating E-Mail Requests in Teenagers' First and Second Language Academic Cyber-Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón Soler, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The study analyses teenagers' e-mail requests during academic cyber-consultation, exploring how the performance of request modifiers is influenced by participants' perceptions of the degree of imposition of the speech act and social distance with the recipient. A total of 295 e-mail requests, 145 produced by British English speakers (BES) and 150…

  16. Location Is Everything: The Use and Marketing of Reference E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    Reference e-mail continues to be a vital reference service. This article studies the trends in reference e-mail use over an eight year period. Usage statistics are analyzed particularly in light of the marketing of the service via changes in the location of the service on the official university libraries' Web pages. Included are recommendations…

  17. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Marketing Mail Made Easy”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Marketing Mail Made Easy'' AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental... ``Marketing Mail Made Easy'' experimental product on or around February 27, 2011. The Postal Service has filed...

  18. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,326] Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering...

  19. 36 CFR 1258.10 - What is NARA's mail order policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is NARA's mail order policy? 1258.10 Section 1258.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.10 What is NARA's mail order policy? (a) There is a...

  20. Personalized Mailed Feedback for College Drinking Prevention: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fabiano, Patricia M.; Stark, Christopher B.; Geisner, Irene M.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Feeney, Maggie; Neighbors, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a mailed feedback and tips intervention as a universal prevention strategy for college drinking. Participants (N = 1,488) were randomly assigned to feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Results indicated that the mailed feedback intervention had a preventive effect on drinking…

  1. Extending the Borders of Community and Learning with Electronic Mail Discussion Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungbluth, Stephen C.; Bertino, Sissy

    A qualitative study determined the impact electronic mail (e-mail) discussion lists can have on a college classroom. The theoretical concepts explored are "community" and "roles." Community is defined by the boundaries it possesses, the dialogue exchanged, and the people interacting in the community. Roles may be defined by the interactions among…

  2. 78 FR 69553 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes... prices and mailing standards for certain competitive products. DATES: Effective: January 26, 2014. FOR.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This final rule describes new prices and product features for competitive products...

  3. 31 CFR 515.542 - Mail and telecommunications-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mail and telecommunications-related... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.542 Mail and telecommunications-related..., incident to the provision of telecommunications services between the United States and Cuba, the provision...

  4. 78 FR 24132 - New Mailing Standards for Live Animals and Special Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 New Mailing Standards for Live Animals and Special Handling AGENCY... require special handling service for shipments containing certain types of live animals, to limit the mail classes available for use when shipping certain types of live animals, and to expand the mailability of...

  5. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine utilization patterns of an Adolescent Medicine Clinic e-mail service. An e-mail service was offered to 6134 patients presenting for care to a military Adolescent Medicine Clinic in San Antonio, Texas over a 6-month period. Families had to complete an authorization form acknowledging ...

  6. Effects of a Mail and Telephone Intervention on Breast Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Powers, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a mail and telephone intervention to improve breast health behaviors while maintaining quality of life. Women recruited from the general public were randomized to a stepped-intensity intervention consisting of mailings, telephone calls, and counseling (if requested or appropriate given a woman's genetic risk for breast cancer)…

  7. Con Artists Attack Colleges with Fake Help-Desk E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    An e-mail scam has hit tens of thousands of users at dozens of colleges over the past few weeks, leaving network administrators scrambling to respond before campus computer accounts are taken over by spammers. Students, professors, and staff members at the affected colleges received e-mail messages that purported to come from the colleges' help…

  8. 75 FR 32143 - Submission of Electronic Documentation With Comailed and Copalletized Mailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... In accordance with DMM 705.22.0, Full-Service Automation Option, electronic documentation is... mailing job is updated by the consolidator through the original container data. The origin facility will... applicable provisions of that preparation option must also be met. Any combination of automation mailings and...

  9. Mailing lists are preferred to newsgroups as teaching tools for undergraduate biology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, J M; Silverthorn, D U

    2000-06-01

    Effective communication between instructors and students is a challenge regardless of the instructor-to-student ratio. Instructors of large classes, in particular, have resorted to various forms of Internet communication, such as mailing lists and newsgroups, to supplement class time and office hours. Mailing lists are closed discussions among subscribers who receive and send messages via an electronic mail program (e.g., Eudora). Newsgroups are public discussions to which anyone can gain access and respond via a newsreader program (e.g., Nuntius). Newsgroup messages are posted to a bulletin board that the subscriber must visit to read. Mailing lists and newsgroups share many advantages (convenience, greater anonymity, and speed of communication) and disadvantages (computer access required, impersonal nature, junk mail, and lack of graphics in older programs). However, surveys of both faculty and students in biology indicate that mailing lists are generally favored over newsgroups. Reasons given for mailing list popularity included greater familiarity with the E-mail format and ease of access.

  10. Perceptions and use of e-mail among Universiti Utara Malaysia staff: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shafinah Farvin Packeer; Ku-Mahamud, Ku Ruhana; Ramli, Razamin; Abdullah, Kamarudin

    2017-10-01

    The use of e-mail has become common either for work purposes or personal usage. Despite its usefulness, complain about the overwhelming messages received which cause the users to have problem in managing those messages. Similar situation occurred among Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) staff. Thus, a pilot study was conducted to investigate its staff's perception and use of e-mail in order to improve the e-mail service provided to them. This paper discusses the findings from the pilot study, which involves 41 UUM staff. Self-administered questionnaires were used to gather the data, while descriptive statistical analysis was used for data analysis. The findings of the study reveal that UUM staff appreciate the e-mail service. However they faced problems like limited storage size and overwhelming e-mails. They think that UUM e-mail is being abused by the repeating advertisements and news sent to them. The output of this study can be used as a guideline by the UUM management in revising its e-mail policy to serve better quality of e-mail service.

  11. 41 CFR 102-192.170 - What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... § 2901(2) and (4) (C) define the processing of mail by Federal agencies as part of records management. In... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are GSA's responsibilities in mail management? 102-192.170 Section 102-192.170 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  12. 77 FR 31190 - Revised Service Standards for Market-Dominant Mail Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... revising the service standards for market-dominant mail products, as part of its Network Rationalization... Rationalization. The basic logic of Network Rationalization is that falling mail volumes and the resultant excess... associated with Network Rationalization, in accordance with 39 U.S.C. 3661(b).\\2\\ On December 15, 2011, the...

  13. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  14. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  15. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  16. 5 CFR 2429.22 - Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 2429.22 Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional time after service by mail or commercial delivery. 2429.22 Section 2429.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY...

  17. 78 FR 23137 - Implementation of Full-Service Intelligent Mail Requirements for Automation Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... Currently, a large number of mailers are using these two options and reaping numerous benefits and value... mailers who currently benefit from automation discounts but are not presenting full-service mailings... the Facility Access and Shipment Tracking system (FAST [supreg]) if mail is accepted at an origin...

  18. Thermal performance envelopes for MHTGRs - Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal performance envelopes are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point to account for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion. This is accomplished by coordinating these requirements with the various system and component designers in the early stages of the design, applying the principles of total quality management. The design is challenged by the more complex requirements associated with a range of operating conditions, but in return, high probability of delivering reliable performance throughout the plant life is ensured

  19. Methodologies for Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Roemer, Michael; Ge, Jianhua; Crassidis, Agamemnon; Prasad, J. V. R.; Belcastro, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the latest development of several techniques for adaptive flight envelope estimation and protection system for aircraft under damage upset conditions. Through the integration of advanced fault detection algorithms, real-time system identification of the damage/faulted aircraft and flight envelop estimation, real-time decision support can be executed autonomously for improving damage tolerance and flight recoverability. Particularly, a bank of adaptive nonlinear fault detection and isolation estimators were developed for flight control actuator faults; a real-time system identification method was developed for assessing the dynamics and performance limitation of impaired aircraft; online learning neural networks were used to approximate selected aircraft dynamics which were then inverted to estimate command margins. As off-line training of network weights is not required, the method has the advantage of adapting to varying flight conditions and different vehicle configurations. The key benefit of the envelope estimation and protection system is that it allows the aircraft to fly close to its limit boundary by constantly updating the controller command limits during flight. The developed techniques were demonstrated on NASA s Generic Transport Model (GTM) simulation environments with simulated actuator faults. Simulation results and remarks on future work are presented.

  20. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.