WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal linear combination

  1. Numerical analysis of non-linear vibrations of a fractionally damped cylindrical shell under the conditions of combinational internal resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossikhin Yury A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.

  2. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  3. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  4. The International Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    List Benno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  5. The International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Benno

    2014-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e- linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.

  6. Internal correction of spectral interferences and mass bias for selenium metabolism studies using enriched stable isotopes in combination with multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Martínez-Sierra, Justo Giner; Gammelgaard, Bente; Alonso, J Ignacio García

    2012-03-01

    The analytical methodology for the in vivo study of selenium metabolism using two enriched selenium isotopes has been modified, allowing for the internal correction of spectral interferences and mass bias both for total selenium and speciation analysis. The method is based on the combination of an already described dual-isotope procedure with a new data treatment strategy based on multiple linear regression. A metabolic enriched isotope ((77)Se) is given orally to the test subject and a second isotope ((74)Se) is employed for quantification. In our approach, all possible polyatomic interferences occurring in the measurement of the isotope composition of selenium by collision cell quadrupole ICP-MS are taken into account and their relative contribution calculated by multiple linear regression after minimisation of the residuals. As a result, all spectral interferences and mass bias are corrected internally allowing the fast and independent quantification of natural abundance selenium ((nat)Se) and enriched (77)Se. In this sense, the calculation of the tracer/tracee ratio in each sample is straightforward. The method has been applied to study the time-related tissue incorporation of (77)Se in male Wistar rats while maintaining the (nat)Se steady-state conditions. Additionally, metabolically relevant information such as selenoprotein synthesis and selenium elimination in urine could be studied using the proposed methodology. In this case, serum proteins were separated by affinity chromatography while reverse phase was employed for urine metabolites. In both cases, (74)Se was used as a post-column isotope dilution spike. The application of multiple linear regression to the whole chromatogram allowed us to calculate the contribution of bromine hydride, selenium hydride, argon polyatomics and mass bias on the observed selenium isotope patterns. By minimising the square sum of residuals for the whole chromatogram, internal correction of spectral interferences and mass

  7. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  8. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  9. Towards the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The broad physics potential of e+e- linear colliders was recognized by the high energy physics community right after the end of LEP in 2000. In 2007, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) now under construction at CERN will obtain its first collisions. The LHC, colliding protons with protons at 14 TeV, will discover a standard model Higgs boson over the full potential mass range, and should be sensitive to new physics into the several TeV range. The program for the Linear Collider (LC) will be set in the context of the discoveries made at the LHC. All the proposals for a Linear Collider will extend the discoveries and provide a wealth of measurements that are essential for giving deeper understanding of their meaning, and pointing the way to further evolution of particle physics in the future. For the mexican groups is the right time to join such an effort

  10. The International Linear Collider Progress Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yamamoto, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) set up the Global Design Effort (GDE) for the design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) in 2005. Drawing on the resources of over 300 national laboratories, universities and institutes worldwide, the GDE produced a Reference Design Report in 2007, followed by a more detailed Technical Design Report (TDR) in 2013. Following this report, the GDE was disbanded. A compact core team, the Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC), replaced it. This is still under the auspices of ICFA and is directly overseen by the Linear Collider Board, which reports to ICFA. The LCC is charged with continuing the design effort on a much-reduced scale until the Project is approved for construction. An additional mandate of the LCC was to bring together all linear collider work, including the CERN-based Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under one structure in order to exploit synergies between the two studies.

  11. Physics Case for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra; Peskin, Michael E.

    2015-06-01

    We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.

  12. Physics Case for the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Keisuke; /KEK, Tsukuba; Grojean, Christophe; /DESY /ICREA, Barcelona; Peskin, Michael E.; Barklow, Tim; /SLAC; Gao, Yuanning; /Tsinghua U., Beijing, CHEP; Kanemura, Shinya; /Toyama U.; Kim, Hyungdo; /Seoul Natl U.; List, Jenny; /DESY; Nojiri, Mihoko; /KEK, Tsukuba; Perelstein, Maxim; /Cornell U., LEPP; Poeschl, Roman; /LAL, Orsay; Reuter, Juergen; /DESY; Simon, Frank; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Tanabe, Tomohiko; /Tokyo U., ICEPP; Yu, Jaehoon; /Texas U., Arlington; Wells, James D.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Murayama, Hitoshi; /UC, Berkeley /LBNL /Tokyo U., IPMU; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; /Tohoku U.

    2015-06-23

    We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.

  13. International linear collider simulations using BDSIM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BDSIM is a Geant4 [1] extension toolkit for the simulation of particle transport in accelerator beamlines. It is a code that combines accelerator-style particle tracking with traditional Geant-style tracking based on Runga–Kutta techniques. A more detailed description of the code can be found in [2]. In an e+e− linear collider ...

  14. Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Organizers of the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders

    2012-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the Seventh International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders. This school is a continuation of the series of schools which began six years ago.  The first school was held in 2006 in Sokendai, Japan, the second in 2007 in Erice, Italy, the third in 2008 in Oakbrook Hills, USA, the fourth in 2009 in Huairou, China, the fifth in 2010 in Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, and the sixth in 2011 in Pacific Grove, USA.   The school is organized by the International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE), the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Beam Dynamics Panel. The school this year will take place at the Radisson Blu Hotel, Indore, India from November 27 to December 8, 2012. It is hosted by the Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) and sponsored by a number of funding agencies and institutions around the world including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. National Science...

  15. Geometric Insight into Scalar Combination of Linear Equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 11. Geometric Insight into Scalar Combination of Linear Equations. Ranjit Konkar. Classroom Volume 14 Issue 11 November 2009 pp 1092-1097 ... Keywords. Linear algebra; linear dependence; linear combination; family of lines; family of planes.

  16. Linear combinations come alive in crossover designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Jonathan J

    2017-10-30

    Before learning anything about statistical inference in beginning service courses in biostatistics, students learn how to calculate the mean and variance of linear combinations of random variables. Practical precalculus examples of the importance of these exercises can be helpful for instructors, the target audience of this paper. We shall present applications to the "1-sample" and "2-sample" methods for randomized short-term 2-treatment crossover studies, where patients experience both treatments in random order with a "washout" between the active treatment periods. First, we show that the 2-sample method is preferred as it eliminates "conditional bias" when sample sizes by order differ and produces a smaller variance. We also demonstrate that it is usually advisable to use the differences in posttests (ignoring baseline and post washout values) rather than the differences between the changes in treatment from the start of the period to the end of the period ("delta of delta"). Although the intent is not to provide a definitive discussion of crossover designs, we provide a section and references to excellent alternative methods, where instructors can provide motivation to students to explore the topic in greater detail in future readings or courses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  18. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  19. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakawa, Junji [ed.

    1995-08-01

    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.).

  20. Sixth international workshop on linear colliders. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji

    1995-08-01

    The sixth international workshop on linear colliders (LC95) was held by KEK at Tsukuba Center for Institute. In the workshop 8 parallel working group were organized: WG1 (beam sources and injection linacs), WG2 (damping rings and bunch compressors), WG3 (a: RF sources and structures, b: superconducting cavities, c: two beam accelerators), WG4 (beam dynamics in main linacs), WG5 (final focus and integration regions), WG6 (beam instrumentation), WG7 (overall parameters and construction techniques), WG8 (gamma-gamma collider and miscellaneous). This issue compiles materials which were used in the workshop. (J.P.N.)

  1. Broader Impacts of the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, M.; Fermilab; Ruchti, R.; NSF, Wash., D.C.; Notre Dame U.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale scientific endeavors such as the International Linear Collider Project can have a lasting impact on education and outreach to our society. The ILC will provide a discovery platform for frontier physical science and it will also provide a discovery platform for broader impacts and social science. The importance of Broader Impacts of Science in general and the ILC in particular are described. Additionally, a synopsis of education and outreach activities carried out as an integral part of the Snowmass ILC Workshop is provided

  2. Governance of the International Linear Collider Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B.; /Oxford U.; Barish, B.; /Caltech; Delahaye, J.P.; /CERN; Dosselli, U.; /INFN, Padua; Elsen, E.; /DESY; Harrison, M.; /Brookhaven; Mnich, J.; /DESY; Paterson, J.M.; /SLAC; Richard, F.; /Orsay, LAL; Stapnes, S.; /CERN; Suzuki, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Wormser, G.; /Orsay, LAL; Yamada, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-05-31

    Governance models for the International Linear Collider Project are examined in the light of experience from similar international projects around the world. Recommendations for one path which could be followed to realize the ILC successfully are outlined. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a unique endeavour in particle physics; fully international from the outset, it has no 'host laboratory' to provide infrastructure and support. The realization of this project therefore presents unique challenges, in scientific, technical and political arenas. This document outlines the main questions that need to be answered if the ILC is to become a reality. It describes the methodology used to harness the wisdom displayed and lessons learned from current and previous large international projects. From this basis, it suggests both general principles and outlines a specific model to realize the ILC. It recognizes that there is no unique model for such a laboratory and that there are often several solutions to a particular problem. Nevertheless it proposes concrete solutions that the authors believe are currently the best choices in order to stimulate discussion and catalyze proposals as to how to bring the ILC project to fruition. The ILC Laboratory would be set up by international treaty and be governed by a strong Council to whom a Director General and an associated Directorate would report. Council would empower the Director General to give strong management to the project. It would take its decisions in a timely manner, giving appropriate weight to the financial contributions of the member states. The ILC Laboratory would be set up for a fixed term, capable of extension by agreement of all the partners. The construction of the machine would be based on a Work Breakdown Structure and value engineering and would have a common cash fund sufficiently large to allow the management flexibility to optimize the project's construction. Appropriate contingency

  3. Physics at international linear collider (ILC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with the initial center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV which is upgradable to about 1 TeV later on. Its goal is to study the physics at TeV scale with unprecedented high sensitivities. The main topics include precision measurements of the Higgs particle properties, studies of supersymmetric particles and the underlying theoretical structure if supersymmetry turns out to be realized in nature, probing alternative possibilities for the origin of mass, and the cosmological connections thereof. In many channels, Higgs and leptonic sector in particular, ILC is substantially more sensitive than LHC, and is complementary to LHC overall. In this short article, we will have a quick look at the capabilities of ILC. (author)

  4. International program on linear electric motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The International Program on Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was initiated for the purposes of commumication and coordination between various centers of expertise in LEM technology in Germany, Japan and Canada. Furthermore, it was intended to provide assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators and policy makers, and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. In the process, the program was able to provide closer contacts between researchers, to enhance and encourage collaborative research and development, and to facilitate joint ventures in advanced transportation technologies. Work done under the program is documented, and seminar materials presented by Canadian researchers in Italy, and by Italian researchers at Queen's University in Canada are presented. Five separate abstracts have been prepared for the main body of the report and the seminar materials.

  5. International linear collider reference design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  6. International linear collider reference design report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R and D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade

  7. Proceedings of the 2005 International Linear Collider Workshop (LCWS05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, JoAnne; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Exploration of physics at the TeV scale holds the promise of addressing some of our most basic questions about the nature of matter, space, time, and energy. Discoveries of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking mechanism, Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions of space, Dark Matter particles, and new forces of nature are all possible. We have been waiting and planning for this exploration for over 20 years. In 2007 the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will begin its operation and will break into this new energy frontier. A new era of understanding will emerge as the LHC data maps out the Terascale. With the LHC discoveries, new compelling questions will arise. Responding to these questions will call for a new tool with greater sensitivity--the International Linear Collider. Historically, the most striking progress in the exploration of new energy frontiers has been made from combining results from hadron and electron-positron colliders. The precision measurements possible at the ILC will reveal the underlying theory which gave rise to the particles discovered at the LHC and will open the window to even higher energies. The world High Energy Physics community has reached an accord that an e+e- linear collider operating at 0.5-1.0 TeV would provide both unique and essential scientific opportunities; the community has endorsed with highest priority the construction of such a machine. A major milestone toward this goal was reached in August 2004 when the International Committee on Future Accelerators approved a recommendation for the technology of the future International Linear Collider. A global research and design effort is now underway to construct a global design report for the ILC. This endeavor is directed by Barry Barrish of the California Institute of Technology. The offer, made by Jonathan Dorfan on the behalf of ICFA, and acceptance of this directorship took place during the opening plenary session of this workshop. The 2005 International Linear Collider Workshop was held

  8. International linear collider. A technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Ned [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Aderhold, Sebastian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Adolphsen, Chris [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R and D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  9. Linear combination of forecasts with numerical adjustment via MINIMAX non-linear programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Marlon Corrêa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a linear combination of forecasts obtained from three forecasting methods (namely, ARIMA, Exponential Smoothing and Artificial Neural Networks whose adaptive weights are determined via a multi-objective non-linear programming problem, which seeks to minimize, simultaneously, the statistics: MAE, MAPE and MSE. The results achieved by the proposed combination are compared with the traditional approach of linear combinations of forecasts, where the optimum adaptive weights are determined only by minimizing the MSE; with the combination method by arithmetic mean; and with individual methods

  10. On spectral properties of linear combinations of idempotents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, H.-K.; Deng, Ch-Y.; Mbekhta, M.; Müller, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2007), s. 211-217 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear combinations of idempotents * closed range * complemented subspaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2007

  11. A Design of Mechanical Frequency Converter Linear and Non-linear Spring Combination for Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K; Badel, A; Formosa, F

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the improvement of energy harvesting from wideband vibration with random change by using a combination of linear and nonlinear spring system is investigated. The system consists of curved beam spring for non-linear buckling, which supports the linear mass-spring resonator. Applying shock acceleration generates a snap through action to the buckling spring. From the FEM analysis, we showed that the snap through acceleration from the buckling action has no relationship with the applied shock amplitude and duration. We use this uniform acceleration as an impulse shock source for the linear resonator. It is easy to obtain the maximum shock response from the uniform snap through acceleration by using a shock response spectrum (SRS) analysis method. At first we investigated the relationship between the snap-through behaviour and an initial curved deflection. Then a time response result for non-linear springs with snap through and minimum force that makes a buckling behaviour were obtained by FEM analysis. By obtaining the optimum SRS frequency for linear resonator, we decided its resonant frequency with the MATLAB simulator

  12. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  13. International Conference on Trends and Perspectives in Linear Statistical Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Dietrich

    2018-01-01

    This volume features selected contributions on a variety of topics related to linear statistical inference. The peer-reviewed papers from the International Conference on Trends and Perspectives in Linear Statistical Inference (LinStat 2016) held in Istanbul, Turkey, 22-25 August 2016, cover topics in both theoretical and applied statistics, such as linear models, high-dimensional statistics, computational statistics, the design of experiments, and multivariate analysis. The book is intended for statisticians, Ph.D. students, and professionals who are interested in statistical inference. .

  14. New final doublets and power densities for the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we use current and proposed final doublet magnet technologies to reoptimise the interaction region of the international linear collider and reduce the power losses. The result is a set of three new final doublet layouts with improved beam transport properties. The effect of localised power deposition and ...

  15. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear ... It is widely believed that the most promising strategy for achieving a jet ... this level of performance for two main reasons. Firstly ... (i) Tracking: For the studies presented in this paper, the track pattern ... that particles propagating outward from the interaction region will cross ...

  16. The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad; Turkiyyah, George

    2014-01-01

    Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.

  17. The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2014-08-05

    Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.

  18. A large superconducting accelerator project. International linear collider (ILC). Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The international linear collider (ILC) is proposed as the next-energy-frontier particle accelerator anticipated to be realized through global cooperation. The ILC accelerator is composed of a pair of electron and positron linear accelerators to realize head-on collision with a center-of-mass energy of 500 (250+250) GeV. It is based on superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology, and the R and D and technical design have progressed in the technical design phase since 2007, and the technical design report (TDR) reached completion in 2012. This report reviews the ILC general design and technology. (author)

  19. The charged beam dumps for the international linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Broome, T; Densham, C; Vincke, H

    2006-01-01

    The baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider requires 2 beam dumps per interaction region, each rated to 18MW of beam power, together with additional beam dumps for tuning purposes and machine protection. The baseline design uses high pressure moving water dumps, first developed for the SLC and used in the TESLA design, although a gas based dump is also being considered. In this paper we discuss the progress made by the international community on both physics and engineering studies for the beam dumps.

  20. Report From the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC), formed in 1994, was reconvened in February 2001 by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) to assess the current technical status of all electron-positron linear collider designs at hand in the world: TESLA, JLC-C, JLC-X/NLC and CLIC. The ILC-TRC worked for exactly two years and submitted its report to ICFA in February 2003. This paper presents the motivation behind the study, the charge to the committee and its organization, a table of machine parameters for 500 GeV c.m. energy and later upgrades to higher energies, the methodology used to assess the designs, and a ranked list of R and D tasks still deemed necessary between now and the time any one of the projects is selected by the HEP community and begins construction. Possible future developments are briefly discussed

  1. International Linear Collider Physics and detectors: 2011 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Fuster, Juan [IFIC- Valencia (Spain); Hesla, Leah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Illenseer, Monika [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Royole-Degieux, Perrine [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Caen (France). Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL); Takahashi, Rika [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Warmbein, Barbara [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamada, Sakue [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Zhang, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP)

    2012-08-29

    The studies of physics and detectors for the International Linear Collider are an important parallel element to the effort for the ILC Technical Design Report. The studies comprise the physics opportunities, detector requirements, and detector development to achieve the challenging high performance demanded by the physics, as well as integration of detectors into the accelerator. The current phase of this effort began with a call for Letters of Intent (LOIs) in 2007 and will lead to the submission of Detailed Baseline Design (DBD) report together with the ILC Technical Design Report at the end of 2012. Here we summarise the current status of this process, review what it has accomplished and identify the work that still needs to be completed. This report, titled International Linear Collider Physics and Detectors: 2011 Status Report, does just this.

  2. Combined effect of external and internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy

  3. Linearized least-square imaging of internally scattered data

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Turkiyyah, George M.; Zuberi, M. A H; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provide subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. Hence, we apply a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. Application to synthetic data demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed inversion in imaging a reflector that is poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy. The least-square inversion of doublescattered data helped delineate that reflector with minimal acquisition fingerprint.

  4. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-06-16

    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  5. International linear collider project and role of accelerator rock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuto

    2008-01-01

    In the branch of physics called High Energy Physics, the scientists are studying the world of elementary particles. It is the research of what is taking place among these elementary particles in an ultra, ultra small scale of space and time. The knowledge we obtained there has tremendously deepened our understanding of the Nature. It is also expected to serves us as the founding stone of the sciences and technologies both at present and in the future. The High Energy Physicists around the world now have great expectations of the research programs at what is called a linear collider (LC). A linear collider is a new accelerator which provides us with a laboratory to investigate the particle interactions at energies of several hundred Giga-Electron-Volts (GeV) and beyond. The LC is currently being developed through an international collaboration where the scientists and engineers from all corners of the globe, including Asia, America and Europe, are congregated. It is called the International Linear Collider (ILC) collaboration. (author)

  6. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  7. The MARX Modulator Development Program for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyh, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC is working towards developing a full-scale ILC Marx ''Reference Design'' modulator prototype, with the goal of significantly reducing the size and cost of the ILC modulator while improving overall modulator efficiency and availability. The ILC Reference Design prototype will provide a proof-of-concept model to industry in advance of Phase II SBIR funding, and also allow operation of the new 10MW L-Band Klystron prototypes immediately upon their arrival at SLAC

  8. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee: Second Report, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Gregory

    2003-02-21

    As this report is being published, the international high energy physics (HEP) community finds itself confronting a set of fascinating discoveries and new questions regarding the nature of matter and its fundamental particles and forces. The observation of neutrino oscillations that indicates that neutrinos have mass, measurements of the accelerating expansion of the universe that may be due to dark energy, and evidence for a period of rapid inflation at the beginning of the Big Bang are stimulating the entire field. Looming on the horizon are the potential discoveries of a Higgs particle that may reveal the origin of mass and of a whole family of supersymmetric particles that may be part of the cosmic dark matter. For the HEP community to elucidate these mysteries, new accelerators are indispensable. At this time, after careful deliberations, all three regional organizations of the HEP community (ACFA in Asia, HEPAP in North America, and ECFA in Europe) have reached the common conclusion that the next accelerator should be an electron-positron linear collider with an initial center-of-mass energy of 500 Giga-electronvolts (GeV), later upgradable to higher energies, and that it should be built and operated in parallel with the Large Hadron Collider under construction at CERN. Hence, this second report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee (ILC-TRC) comes at a very timely moment. The report was requested by the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) in February 2001 to assess the current technical status of electron-positron linear collider designs in the various regions. Note that the ILC-TRC was not asked to concern itself with either cost studies or the ultimate selection process of a machine. This Executive Summary gives a short outline of the genesis of the report, the charge given to the committee, and its organization. It then presents a brief description of four electron-positron linear collider designs at hand. The

  9. 9th International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This school is a continuation of the series of schools that began nine years ago: Japan 2006, Italy 2007, United States 2008, China 2009, Switzerland 2010, United States 2011, India 2012 and Turkey 2013. Based on needs from the accelerator community, the Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) and ICFA Beam Dynamics Panel are organising the Ninth International Accelerator School for Linear Colliders. The school will present instruction in TeV-scale linear colliders including the ILC, CLIC and other advanced accelerators. An important change of this year’s school from previous LC schools is that it will also include the free electron laser (FEL), a natural extension for applications of the ILC/CLIC technology. The school is offered to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and junior researchers from around the world. We welcome applications from physicists who are considering changing to a career in accelerator physics and technology. This school adopts an in depth approach. A selective course on the FEL has b...

  10. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  11. Double vector meson production in the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, High and Medium Energy Group, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Moreira, B.D.; Navarra, F.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper we study double vector meson production in γγ interactions at high energies and estimate, using the color dipole picture, the main observables which can be probed at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The total γ(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}) + γ(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) → V{sub 1} + V{sub 2} cross sections for V{sub i} = ρ, J/ψ, and Υ are computed and the energy and virtuality dependencies are studied in detail. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analysis of this process is feasible at the ILC and it can be useful to constrain the QCD dynamics at high energies. (orig.)

  12. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This 1995 report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee is the first attempt to gather in one document the current status of all major e + e - linear collider projects in the world. The report is the result of a collaborative effort of scientists from many laboratories working together over a period of about one year. A short description of the organization, origins and history of the report is given below. To get an idea of the organization, the reader should first refer to the Table of Contents. Chapter 1 is an introduction and general overview of the respective 500 GeV c.m. energy machines. In contrast, Chapter 2, cutting across individual machine boundaries, gives a comparative description and discussion of all the major machine sub-systems as well as particle physics experimentation, showing where these subjects stand today and what additional work needs to be done in the next few years to reach the point where complete design reports can be prepared. Chapter 3 describes the various paths to energy upgrades, and other experimental options (γγ, e - e - , etc.). Chapter 4 gives a short status report of the machine experiments and test facilities being built in the world. Chapter 5 outlines current and other possible areas of collaboration and finally., Chapter 6 summarizes our principal conclusions

  13. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather E; Nomerotski, Andrei; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E; Pöschl, Roman; Reuter, Jürgen; Riemann, Sabine; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Servant, Geraldine; Tait, Tim M P

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  14. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Burrows, Philip N.; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  15. The International Linear Collider - Volume 1: Executive Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; Paterson, James McEwan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  16. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fujii, Keisuke [National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tokai (Japan); Gao, Yuanning [Unlisted; Hoang, Andre [Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Logan, Heather E. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nomerotski, Andrei [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pöschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL); Reuter, Jürgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Savoy-Navarro, Aurore [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Servant, Geraldine [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tait, Tim P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  17. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  18. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  19. Characterization of the International Linear Collider damping ring optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, J.; Rubin, D. L.; Sagan, D.

    2014-10-01

    A method is presented for characterizing the emittance dilution and dynamic aperture for an arbitrary closed lattice that includes guide field magnet errors, multipole errors and misalignments. This method, developed and tested at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA), has been applied to the damping ring lattice for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The effectiveness of beam based emittance tuning is limited by beam position monitor (BPM) measurement errors, number of corrector magnets and their placement, and correction algorithm. The specifications for damping ring magnet alignment, multipole errors, number of BPMs, and precision in BPM measurements are shown to be consistent with the required emittances and dynamic aperture. The methodology is then used to determine the minimum number of position monitors that is required to achieve the emittance targets, and how that minimum depends on the location of the BPMs. Similarly, the maximum tolerable multipole errors are evaluated. Finally, the robustness of each BPM configuration with respect to random failures is explored.

  20. International linear collider physics and detectors. 2011 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E. [Oregon Univ., OR (United States); Fuster, Juan [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Hesla, Leah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center; Illenseer, Monika; Warmbein, Barbara [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Royole-Degieux, Perrine [CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Takahashi, Rika [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Sakue [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Sendai (Japan); Min, Zhang (eds.) [IHEP, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    The studies of physics and detectors for the International Linear Collider are an important parallel element to the effort for the ILC Technical Design Report. The studies comprise the physics opportunities, detector requirements, and detector development to achieve the challenging high performance demanded by the physics, as well as integration of detectors into the accelerator. The current phase of this effort began with a call for Letters of Intent (LOIs) in 2007 and will lead to the submission of Detailed Baseline Design (DBD) report together with the ILC Technical Design Report at the end of 2012. Here we summarise the current status of this process, review what it has accomplished and identify the work that still needs to be completed. This report, titled International Linear Collider Physics and Detectors: 2011 Status Report, does just this. This report begins with a discussion of the outstanding issues in physics that motivate the construction of the ILC. It describes the organisation of the LOI process, the validation of the LOIs by the International Detector Advisory Group, and the results of R and D carried out to support the detector designs. The details of the concept detectors have already been published in the LOIs, which were completed in 2009. This report will, in a complementary way, describe the status of the detector R and D for each individual detector component and the status of the physics simulation infrastructure that has been built for the detector design process. Much of this work is carried out in cooperation between the two detector concept groups. This report describes the five common task groups and two working groups that have organised these cooperative activities. Many members of the detector concept groups and the common task groups have contributed to this report. Many more people have carried out the actual work that is reviewed. The complete list of members of each detector concept group can be found from the author lists of

  1. International Linear Collider-A Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsen, Eckhard; /DESY; Harrison, Mike; /Brookhaven; Hesla, Leah; /Fermilab; Ross, Marc; /Fermilab; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; /Paris, IN2P3; Takahashi, Rika; /KEK, Tsukuba; Walker, Nicholas; /DESY; Warmbein, Barbara; /DESY; Yamamoto, Akira; /KEK, Tsukuba; Yokoya, Kaoru; /KEK, Tsukuba; Zhang, Min; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2011-11-04

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  2. Combined adapter for the upgraded cryomodule of the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Shirkov, G.; Sabirov, B.; Dobrushin, L.; Bryzgalin, A.; Pekar, E.; Illarionov, S.; Bedeschi, F.; Basti, A.; Fabbricatore, P.

    2015-01-01

    As part of work on the ILC Project, research was performed on the development of techniques to simplify and make reliable and cheaper the construction of the cryomodules that are core of the main linac. In the current ILC TDR design both the helium vessel surrounding the niobium RF cavities and the connected pipes which channel the exhaust helium gas are made of expensive titanium, one of the few metals that can be welded to niobium by the electron beam technique. In this paper we describe the construction and performance of transition elements, obtained by explosion welding, that can couple the niobium cavity with a stainless steel helium vessel, thus saving large amounts of titanium. A new design, including a minimal titanium intermediate layer, has been built. Preliminary tests yielded a very strong resistance of the bond to extreme temperature shocks from electron beam welding to exposure to cryogenic temperatures. The developed technology allows a trimetallic billet for manufacturing an adapter to be made such that the niobium-titanium bond is free of intermetallic compounds and the effect of the difference in the linear expansion coefficients of the ensemble components is eliminated.

  3. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  4. Proceedings of the international conference on maglev and linear drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on Maglev and linear drives. Topics covered include: Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle; Power supply system to drive HSST - Expo '86; and Thrust and levitation force characteristics of linear synchronous motors

  5. Physics overview: Introduction to international linear collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear collider; Higgs boson; unified theory; dark matter. PACS Nos 29.17. ... to confidence that gauge symmetry is a guiding principle of the law of elementary ... physics beyond the standard model, and each model offers different scenario for.

  6. The separation-combination method of linear structures in remote sensing image interpretation and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linqin

    1991-01-01

    The separation-combination method a new kind of analysis method of linear structures in remote sensing image interpretation is introduced taking northwestern Fujian as the example, its practical application is examined. The practice shows that application results not only reflect intensities of linear structures in overall directions at different locations, but also contribute to the zonation of linear structures and display their space distribution laws. Based on analyses of linear structures, it can provide more information concerning remote sensing on studies of regional mineralization laws and the guide to ore-finding combining with mineralization

  7. Study of SUSY particles properties at the future International Linear Collider with the International Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Letters of Intent (LoI) for experiments at the International Linear Collider (ILC) have been submitted. Among the three proposals is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept which is at the focus of these studies. From various subjects addressed in the LoI, a wide spectrum of studies of SUSY particle properties is presented here. Most of them are benchmark reactions for the ILC and can be used both in physics studies and in work on detector design and optimization, respectively. All studies were performed with a full detector simulation using GEANT4, which is a great improvement compared to the previous results with much less detailed, so called f ast , simulation (SIMDET). The importance of this improved simulation is reflected in the results. The presented analyzes have been chosen to be the most challenging for the detector to study its performance and guide the detector development. Additionally an important problem of unavoidable beam induced backgrounds at linear colliders is addressed and ways of reducing its impact on physics studies are shown for an example SUSY analysis. (author)

  8. Ultimate parameters of the photon collider at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be achieved by adding more wigglers to the DRs; the incremental cost is easily ... the above emittances, the limit on the effective horizontal β-function is about 5 mm [12 .... coupling in γγ collisions just above the γγ → hh threshold [19]. .... [21] V I Telnov, talk at the ECFA Workshop on Linear Colliders, Montpellier, France, 12–.

  9. Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C; Vretenar, M [eds.

    1996-11-15

    These proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (orig.).

  11. Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C; Vretenar, M [eds.

    1996-11-15

    These proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (orig.).

  12. Power losses in the international linear collider 20 mrad extraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, USA. ∗E-mail: ferrari@tsl.uu.se. Abstract. We have performed a detailed study of the power losses in the post-collision extraction line of a TeV e+e− collider with a crossing angle of 20 mrad at the interaction point. Five cases were considered: four luminosity configurations for ILC and ...

  13. Internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in zirconium and cobalt within the range of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarskij, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for internal friction and linear expansion coefficient at zirconium and cobalt in the temperature range from 440 K to the point of the phase transition of the first kind (1138 K for Zr and 706 for Co). Anomalous changes of the internal friction and linear expansion coefficient in the phase transition region are found. Theoretical considerations are given to explain the sharp decrease of the internal friction as temperature approaches the phase transition point

  14. Software for the international linear collider: Simulation and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Software plays an increasingly important role already in the early stages of a large project like the ILC. In international collaboration a data format for the ILC detector and physics studies has been developed. Building upon this software frameworks are made available which ease the event reconstruction and analysis.

  15. Cultural distance and international trade: a non-linear relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhuizen, M.B.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of culture on trade using measures of cultural distance based on various dimensions of national culture from Hofstede (Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, 1980; Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions

  16. Stabilizing inverse problems by internal data. II: non-local internal data and generic linearized uniqueness

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2015-05-10

    © 2015, Springer Basel. In the previous paper (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012), the authors introduced a simple procedure that allows one to detect whether and explain why internal information arising in several novel coupled physics (hybrid) imaging modalities could turn extremely unstable techniques, such as optical tomography or electrical impedance tomography, into stable, good-resolution procedures. It was shown that in all cases of interest, the Fréchet derivative of the forward mapping is a pseudo-differential operator with an explicitly computable principal symbol. If one can set up the imaging procedure in such a way that the symbol is elliptic, this would indicate that the problem was stabilized. In the cases when the symbol is not elliptic, the technique suggests how to change the procedure (e.g., by adding extra measurements) to achieve ellipticity. In this article, we consider the situation arising in acousto-optical tomography (also called ultrasound modulated optical tomography), where the internal data available involves the Green’s function, and thus depends globally on the unknown parameter(s) of the equation and its solution. It is shown that the technique of (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012) can be successfully adopted to this situation as well. A significant part of the article is devoted to results on generic uniqueness for the linearized problem in a variety of situations, including those arising in acousto-electric and quantitative photoacoustic tomography.

  17. International workshop on emittance preservation in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji; Oide, Katsunobu

    1993-09-01

    The extremely low emittances, which are the essential feature for any linear collider, are far beyond those of the present high-energy accelerators. Every part of the linear-collider accelerator complex is liable to blow up them to a fatal degree. Above all, the main linac is the most critical part, since it will have an unprecedented length, through which very highly populated bunches should be accelerated without a faint increase of emittances. A lot of efforts have been paid, mainly theoretically, to settle this problem at all institutes. Any convincing conclusions are not yet reached. Furthermore, there are six approaches of substantially different schemes (Tesla, DLC, JLC, NLC, VLEPP, CLIC), each requiring its own way to tackle the problem. In this workshop, many up-to-date R and D results were presented by each institute. Judging from what were discussed, we may well say that the R and D work has advanced to such a level that the different approaches are rather helping each other to reach more concrete results. (J.P.N.)

  18. International Linear Collider Steering Committee issues charge to Technology Recommendation Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Following its November 19 meeting in Paris, the International Linear Collider Steering Committee, a subcommittee of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, has published the charge http://www.fnal.gov/directorate/icfa/ITRP_Charge.pdf to the International Technology Recommendation Panel appointed by ICFA" (2 paragraphs).

  19. Nonlinearity measure and internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perev, Kamen [Systems and Control Department, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Cl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper considers the problem of internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design. The nonlinearity measure concept is used for quantifying the control system degree of nonlinearity. The linearizing effect of a modified internal model control structure is presented by comparing the nonlinearity measures of the open-loop and closed-loop systems. It is shown that the linearization properties are improved by increasing the control system local feedback gain. However, it is emphasized that at the same time the stability of the system deteriorates. The conflicting goals of stability and linearization are resolved by solving the design problem in different frequency ranges.

  20. International Linear Collider Project and civil engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives, activities and members of the Linear Collider Subcommittee of Japan Society of Civil Engineers (LC subcommittee) are described. The LC subcommittee consisted of five working groups such as the working group on planning and project and management, working group on geological survey, test, and environmental design, working group on structural and environmental design, working group on construction and maintenance and working group on information investigation of ILC. The policy of activities, work schedule, and report of each working group are described. Construction of ILC research facilities, standard cross section of tunnel, measurement results of long-term displacement of large underground cavities, the tunnel damages by earthquake in the south part of Hyogo prefecture in Japan, TBM method, collection of information are reported. (S.Y.)

  1. Report on the international workshop on next generation linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Many laboratories around the world have begun vigorous research programs on a next generation linear collider (NLC). However, it has been recognized that the research towards NLC is beyond the capabilities of any one laboratory presently. This workshop was organized to begin a series of workshops that address this problem. Specifically, the main goals of the workshop were to discuss research programs of the various laboratories around the world, to identify common areas of interest in the various NLC designs, and finally to advance these programs by collaboration. The particular topics discussed briefly in this paper are: parameters, rf power, structures, final focus, beam dynamics, damping rings, and instrumentation. 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-15

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  3. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-01

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  4. A micromegas-based TPC for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhattacharya, Purba; Colas, Paul; Attié, David; Ganjour, Serguei; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    One of the two detector concepts for the ILC is the International Large Detector (ILD). The central tracking at the ILD is foreseen to be accomplished by a TPC (the ILD-TPC). A TPC has the benefits of truly continuous 3-D tracking and robust pattern recognition. In the baseline design, the length and the diameter of the ILD-TPC are 4.6 m and 3.6 m respectively. It will work in a 3.5 T magnetic field. Micromegas is a promising candidate for the ILD-TPC. Like any other MPGD, track reconstruction at the LPTPC with Micromegas has challenges. The electric field inhomogeneity near the gap between the modules results in track distortion and affects the performance of the TPC. The causes and effects of this distortion have been thoroughly studied by numerical methods. The results match closely with experiment. Possible hardware modifications to mitigate distortion effect have been explored in simulation

  5. On Linear Combinations of Two Orthogonal Polynomial Sequences on the Unit Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a monic orthogonal polynomial sequence on the unit circle. We define recursively a new sequence of polynomials by the following linear combination: , , . In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions in order to make be an orthogonal polynomial sequence too. Moreover, we obtain an explicit representation for the Verblunsky coefficients and in terms of and . Finally, we show the relation between their corresponding Carathéodory functions and their associated linear functionals.

  6. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; McEwan Paterson, James; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    A review is given about the planned International Linear Collider. Especially described are the technical design, the accelerator layout and design, the R and D during the technical design phase, and the detectors. (HSI)

  7. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Brau, James E.; Foster, Brian; Fuster, Juan; Harrison, Mike; McEwan Paterson, James; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    A review is given about the planned International Linear Collider. Especially described are the technical design, the accelerator layout and design, the R and D during the technical design phase, and the detectors. (HSI)

  8. Time-Frequency Analysis of Non-Stationary Biological Signals with Sparse Linear Regression Based Fourier Linear Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to analyze biological signals because of their nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. This necessitates the usage of time-frequency decomposition methods for analyzing the subtle changes in these signals that are often connected to an underlying phenomena. This paper presents a new approach to analyze the time-varying characteristics of such signals by employing a simple truncated Fourier series model, namely the band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC. In contrast to the earlier designs, we first identified the sparsity imposed on the signal model in order to reformulate the model to a sparse linear regression model. The coefficients of the proposed model are then estimated by a convex optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed with benchmark test signals. An energy ratio metric is employed to quantify the spectral performance and results show that the proposed method Sparse-BMFLC has high mean energy (0.9976 ratio and outperforms existing methods such as short-time Fourier transfrom (STFT, continuous Wavelet transform (CWT and BMFLC Kalman Smoother. Furthermore, the proposed method provides an overall 6.22% in reconstruction error.

  9. Time-Frequency Analysis of Non-Stationary Biological Signals with Sparse Linear Regression Based Fourier Linear Combiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubo; Veluvolu, Kalyana C

    2017-06-14

    It is often difficult to analyze biological signals because of their nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. This necessitates the usage of time-frequency decomposition methods for analyzing the subtle changes in these signals that are often connected to an underlying phenomena. This paper presents a new approach to analyze the time-varying characteristics of such signals by employing a simple truncated Fourier series model, namely the band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC). In contrast to the earlier designs, we first identified the sparsity imposed on the signal model in order to reformulate the model to a sparse linear regression model. The coefficients of the proposed model are then estimated by a convex optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was analyzed with benchmark test signals. An energy ratio metric is employed to quantify the spectral performance and results show that the proposed method Sparse-BMFLC has high mean energy (0.9976) ratio and outperforms existing methods such as short-time Fourier transfrom (STFT), continuous Wavelet transform (CWT) and BMFLC Kalman Smoother. Furthermore, the proposed method provides an overall 6.22% in reconstruction error.

  10. Development of high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavities for international linear collider and energy recovery linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Furuta, Fumio; Saeki, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities were used for storage rings like TRISTAN at KEK, HERA at DESY and LEP-II at CERN in 1990-2000. This technology has been accepted as a common accelerator technology. In August 2004, ITPR recommended an electron/positron linear collider based on SRF technology for the future high energy physics. ICFA accepted the recommendation and named it ILC (International Linear Collider). SRF cavities have a very unique feature due to its very small surface resistance. Energy recovery is another very exciting application. Many laboratories are proposing ERL (Energy Recovery LINAC) as a next bright photon source. In these accelerators, production of SRF cavities with reliably high performance is the most important issue. In this paper the activities of ILC high gradient cavities will be introduced. ERL activity will be briefly presented. (author)

  11. Development of High Gradient Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities for International Linear Collider and Energy Recovery Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kenji; Furuta, Fumio; Saeki, Takayuki

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities were used for storage rings like TRISTAN at KEK, HERA at DESY and LEP-II at CERN in 1990-2000. This technology has been accepted as a common accelerator technology. In August 2004, ITPR recommended an electron/positron linear collider based on SRF technology for the future high energy physics. ICFA accepted the recommendation and named it ILC (International Linear Collider). SRF cavities have a very unique feature due to its very small surface resistance. Energy recovery is another very exciting application. Many laboratories are proposing ERL (Energy Recovery LINAC) as a next bright photon source. In these accelerators, production of SRF cavities with reliably high performance is the most important issue. In this paper the activities of ILC high gradient cavities will be introduced. ERL activity will be briefly presented.

  12. The international linear collider. Technical design report. Vol. 2. Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we have surveyed the range of physics topics that will be addressed by the ILC. Our primary emphasis has been on the study of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson. The discovery of a new boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments has vaulted the question of its properties of the top of the list of questions in high energy physics. We have argued that the ILC is perfectly matched to this problem. The ILC will be able to deliver a precise description of the properties of this new particle. The ability of the ILC to operate at several different energies plays an important role in its ability to study the Higgs boson. We have described three phases of the Higgs boson program. First, at √(s) = 250 GeV, one may expect the precision measurement of the Higgs mass and its major branching fractions and the search for invisible and exotic modes. Second, at √(s) = 500 GeV, we anticipate precision measurements of the Higgs coupling to the W boson and the higher statistics study of modes with small branching fractions. Finally, at √(s) = 1 TeV, for the measurement of the Higgs couplings to the top quark and the muon, and the Higgs self-coupling can be made. The suite of measurements at these three energies combines to provide a complete picture of the interactions of the Higgs particle and an incisive test of its role in the generation of mass for all elementary particles. We have also emphasized the ability of the ILC to carry out precision measurements of the properties of the W and Z bosons and the top quark, and of elementary e + e - → 2 fermion reactions. In addition, we have shown that the ILC has excellent capabilities to study new color-singlet particles that might be present in the mass range of a few hundred GeV. The nature of the Higgs boson and the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking remains a central and puzzling problem. The traditional approaches to this problem either involve strong coupling in the Higgs sector, building the Higgs boson as a

  13. International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies: A model for international collaboration to promote orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Miclau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, the International Combined Orthopaedic Research Societies (ICORS; http://i-cors.org was founded with inaugural member organisations from the previous Combined Orthopaedic Research Society, which had sponsored combined meetings for more than 2 decades. The ICORS is dedicated to the stimulation of orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research in fields such as biomedical engineering, biology, chemistry, and veterinary and human clinical research. The ICORS seeks to facilitate communication with member organisations to enhance international research collaborations and to promote the development of new international orthopaedic and musculoskeletal research organisations. Through new categories of membership, the ICORS represents the broadest coalition of orthopaedic research organisations globally.

  14. Orthogonality, Lommel integrals and cross product zeros of linear combinations of Bessel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, Christian H; Kurz, Felix T; Buschle, Lukas R; Kampf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cylindrical Bessel differential equation and the spherical Bessel differential equation in the interval [Formula: see text] with Neumann boundary conditions are considered. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of the Bessel function [Formula: see text] or linear combinations of the spherical Bessel functions [Formula: see text]. The orthogonality relations with analytical expressions for the normalization constant are given. Explicit expressions for the Lommel integrals in terms of Lommel functions are derived. The cross product zeros [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are considered in the complex plane for real as well as complex values of the index [Formula: see text] and approximations for the exceptional zero [Formula: see text] are obtained. A numerical scheme based on the discretization of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional Laplace operator with Neumann boundary conditions is presented. Explicit representations of the radial part of the Laplace operator in form of a tridiagonal matrix allow the simple computation of the cross product zeros.

  15. Adaptive rival penalized competitive learning and combined linear predictor model for financial forecast and investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Y M; Leung, W M; Xu, L

    1997-01-01

    We propose a prediction model called Rival Penalized Competitive Learning (RPCL) and Combined Linear Predictor method (CLP), which involves a set of local linear predictors such that a prediction is made by the combination of some activated predictors through a gating network (Xu et al., 1994). Furthermore, we present its improved variant named Adaptive RPCL-CLP that includes an adaptive learning mechanism as well as a data pre-and-post processing scheme. We compare them with some existing models by demonstrating their performance on two real-world financial time series--a China stock price and an exchange-rate series of US Dollar (USD) versus Deutschmark (DEM). Experiments have shown that Adaptive RPCL-CLP not only outperforms the other approaches with the smallest prediction error and training costs, but also brings in considerable high profits in the trading simulation of foreign exchange market.

  16. A penalized linear and nonlinear combined conjugate gradient method for the reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shang; Bai, Jing; Song, Xiaolei; Wang, Hongkai; Lau, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Conjugate gradient method is verified to be efficient for nonlinear optimization problems of large-dimension data. In this paper, a penalized linear and nonlinear combined conjugate gradient method for the reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is presented. The algorithm combines the linear conjugate gradient method and the nonlinear conjugate gradient method together based on a restart strategy, in order to take advantage of the two kinds of conjugate gradient methods and compensate for the disadvantages. A quadratic penalty method is adopted to gain a nonnegative constraint and reduce the illposedness of the problem. Simulation studies show that the presented algorithm is accurate, stable, and fast. It has a better performance than the conventional conjugate gradient-based reconstruction algorithms. It offers an effective approach to reconstruct fluorochrome information for FMT.

  17. Robust Management of Combined Heat and Power Systems via Linear Decision Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The heat and power outputs of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are jointly constrained. Hence, the optimal management of systems including CHP units is a multicommodity optimization problem. Problems of this type are stochastic, owing to the uncertainty inherent both in the demand for heat and...... linear decision rules to guarantee both tractability and a correct representation of the dynamic aspects of the problem. Numerical results from an illustrative example confirm the value of the proposed approach....

  18. Linear Stability Analysis of Flow in an Internally Heated Rectangular Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    The linear stability of flow in a vertical rectangular duct subject to homogeneous internal heating, constant-temperature no-slip walls and a driving pressure gradient is investigated numerically. A full Chebyshevbased Galerkin method is found to be more reliable than a collocation method, both including the elimination of the pressure and the stream wise velocity from the system of equations and making use of the full symmetry properties. A classification of the mean flow-obtained as a function of Grashof and Reynolds numbers and the geometrical aspect ratio in terms of its inflectional properties is proposed. It is found that the flow loses stability at all aspects rations for a combination of finite thermal buoyancy and pressure forces with opposed sings. In the square duct, the unstable region coincides with the range where additional inflection lines are observed the mean velocity profile. Unstable eigenfunctions are obtained for all basic symmetry modes and their structure can be described as slightly elongated pockets of cross-stream-vertical motion, training each other along the stream wise direction. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Event generation for next to leading order chargino production at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robens, T.

    2006-10-15

    At the International Linear Collider (ILC), parameters of supersymmetry (SUSY) can be determined with an experimental accuracy matching the precision of next-to-leading order (NLO) and higher-order theoretical predictions. Therefore, these contributions need to be included in the analysis of the parameters. We present a Monte-Carlo event generator for simulating chargino pair production at the ILC at next-to-leading order in the electroweak couplings. We consider two approaches of including photon radiation. A strict fixed-order approach allows for comparison and consistency checks with published semianalytic results in the literature. A version with soft- and hard-collinear resummation of photon radiation, which combines photon resummation with the inclusion of the NLO matrix element for the production process, avoids negative event weights, so the program can simulate physical (unweighted) event samples. Photons are explicitly generated throughout the range where they can be experimentally resolved. In addition, it includes further higher-order corrections unaccounted for by the fixed-order method. Inspecting the dependence on the cutoffs separating the soft and collinear regions, we evaluate the systematic errors due to soft and collinear approximations for NLO and higher-order contributions. In the resummation approach, the residual uncertainty can be brought down to the per-mil level, coinciding with the expected statistical uncertainty at the ILC. We closely investigate the two-photon phase space for the resummation method. We present results for cross sections and event generation for both approaches. (orig.)

  20. Baseline Configuration of the Cryogenic System for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Ganni, R; Klebaner, A; Parma, V; Peterson, T; Riddone, G; Rode, C; Rousset, B; Serio, L; Tavian, L; Theilacker, J; Vullierme, B; Van Weelderen, R; Weisend, J

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the main constraints and boundary conditions and describes the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) cryogenic system. The cryogenic layout, architecture and the cooling principle are presented. The paper addresses a plan for study and development required to demonstrate and improve the performance, to reduce cost and to attain the desired reliability.

  1. Improving biomedical information retrieval by linear combinations of different query expansion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Ahmed AbdoAziz Ahmed; Lin, Hongfei; Xu, Bo; Banbhrani, Santosh Kumar

    2016-07-25

    Biomedical literature retrieval is becoming increasingly complex, and there is a fundamental need for advanced information retrieval systems. Information Retrieval (IR) programs scour unstructured materials such as text documents in large reserves of data that are usually stored on computers. IR is related to the representation, storage, and organization of information items, as well as to access. In IR one of the main problems is to determine which documents are relevant and which are not to the user's needs. Under the current regime, users cannot precisely construct queries in an accurate way to retrieve particular pieces of data from large reserves of data. Basic information retrieval systems are producing low-quality search results. In our proposed system for this paper we present a new technique to refine Information Retrieval searches to better represent the user's information need in order to enhance the performance of information retrieval by using different query expansion techniques and apply a linear combinations between them, where the combinations was linearly between two expansion results at one time. Query expansions expand the search query, for example, by finding synonyms and reweighting original terms. They provide significantly more focused, particularized search results than do basic search queries. The retrieval performance is measured by some variants of MAP (Mean Average Precision) and according to our experimental results, the combination of best results of query expansion is enhanced the retrieved documents and outperforms our baseline by 21.06 %, even it outperforms a previous study by 7.12 %. We propose several query expansion techniques and their combinations (linearly) to make user queries more cognizable to search engines and to produce higher-quality search results.

  2. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

  3. Measuring the Higgs self-coupling at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerig, Claude Fabienne

    2016-10-01

    In this thesis, the experimental prospects of measuring the Standard Model (SM) Higgs self-coupling λ_S_M at the International Linear Collider (ILC) are investigated. The observation of double Higgs production is necessary to directly establish a non-zero Higgs self-coupling. Information on λ_S_M can be extracted from a measurement of the cross section for this process. At a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=500 GeV double Higgs-strahlung is the dominant Higgs-pair production process. This measurement is extremely challenging due to very small production cross sections and multi-jet final states which pose large challenges to detector technologies and event reconstruction techniques. A detailed full detector simulation of the International Large Detector is performed for a Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV. The analysis is based on ILC beam parameters according to the Technical Design Report and investigates several improvements compared to earlier studies. These include an isolated lepton selection strategy and the application of kinematic fits to final states with heavy-flavoured jets. Depending on the decay mode of the Z boson, relative improvements of up to 25% are obtained in the selection of ZHH (HH → bbbb) events. This results in a relative improvement of 10% in the measurement of σ_Z_H_H when combining all channels. For the SM scenario, an evidence of 3.5σ for the observation of double Higgs-strahlung and a measurement precision of 30% on σ_Z_H_H is reached with an integrated luminosity of L=2ab"-"1 and a beam polarisation of P(e"+e"-)=(0.3,-0.8). The result extrapolates to an achievable precision of 21% on σ_Z_H_H after the full ILC running scenario, which corresponds to a 5.9σ discovery for the observation of double Higgs-strahlung. Combined with the channel HH→bbWW, σ_Z_H_H can even be measured to a precision of 16%, which corresponds to a precision of 26% on λ_S_M. Additionally, the impact of γγ→low-p_T hadrons background is investigated

  4. A speed estimation unit for induction motors based on adaptive linear combiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marei, Mostafa I.; Shaaban, Mostafa F.; El-Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new induction motor speed estimation technique, which can estimate the rotor resistance as well, from the measured voltage and current signals. Moreover, the paper utilizes a novel adaptive linear combiner (ADALINE) structure for speed and rotor resistance estimations. This structure can deal with the multi-output systems and it is called MO-ADALINE. The model of the induction motor is arranged in a linear form, in the stationary reference frame, to cope with the proposed speed estimator. There are many advantages of the proposed unit such as wide speed range capability, immunity against harmonics of measured waveforms, and precise estimation of the speed and the rotor resistance at different dynamic changes. Different types of induction motor drive systems are used to evaluate the dynamic performance and to examine the accuracy of the proposed unit for speed and rotor resistance estimation.

  5. Non-linear operation of nanomechnical systems combining photothermal excitation and magneto-motive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Daniel R; Metzger, Constanze; Camerer, Stephan; Kotthaus, Joerg P

    2006-01-01

    We present a non-linear operation of a nanomechanical beam resonator by photothermal excitation at 4 K. The resonators dimensions are 10 μm in length, 200 nm in width, and 200 nm in height. The actuation mechanism is based on a pulsed diode laser focused onto the centre of the beam resonator. Thermally induced stress caused by the different thermal expansion coefficients of the bi-layer system periodically deflects the resonator. Magnetomotively detected amplitudes up to 150 nm are reached at the fundamental resonance mode at a frequency of 8.9 MHz. Furthermore, the third eigenmode of the resonator at a frequency 36 MHz is also excited. We conclude that the photothermal excitation at 4 K should be applicable up to the GHz regime, the operation in the non-linear regime can be used for performance enhancement of nanomechanical systems, and the combination of photothermal excitation and magneto-motive detection avoids undesired cross talk

  6. Predictive inference for best linear combination of biomarkers subject to limits of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen-Maturi, Tahani

    2017-08-15

    Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic tests is crucial in many application areas including medicine, machine learning and credit scoring. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is a useful tool to assess the ability of a diagnostic test to discriminate between two classes or groups. In practice, multiple diagnostic tests or biomarkers are combined to improve diagnostic accuracy. Often, biomarker measurements are undetectable either below or above the so-called limits of detection (LoD). In this paper, nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for best linear combination of two or more biomarkers subject to limits of detection is presented. NPI is a frequentist statistical method that is explicitly aimed at using few modelling assumptions, enabled through the use of lower and upper probabilities to quantify uncertainty. The NPI lower and upper bounds for the ROC curve subject to limits of detection are derived, where the objective function to maximize is the area under the ROC curve. In addition, the paper discusses the effect of restriction on the linear combination's coefficients on the analysis. Examples are provided to illustrate the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Thin Cloud Detection Method by Linear Combination Model of Cloud Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, S.

    2018-04-01

    The existing cloud detection methods in photogrammetry often extract the image features from remote sensing images directly, and then use them to classify images into cloud or other things. But when the cloud is thin and small, these methods will be inaccurate. In this paper, a linear combination model of cloud images is proposed, by using this model, the underlying surface information of remote sensing images can be removed. So the cloud detection result can become more accurate. Firstly, the automatic cloud detection program in this paper uses the linear combination model to split the cloud information and surface information in the transparent cloud images, then uses different image features to recognize the cloud parts. In consideration of the computational efficiency, AdaBoost Classifier was introduced to combine the different features to establish a cloud classifier. AdaBoost Classifier can select the most effective features from many normal features, so the calculation time is largely reduced. Finally, we selected a cloud detection method based on tree structure and a multiple feature detection method using SVM classifier to compare with the proposed method, the experimental data shows that the proposed cloud detection program in this paper has high accuracy and fast calculation speed.

  8. Arrhythmia recognition and classification using combined linear and nonlinear features of ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaj, Fatin A; Salim, Naomie; Harris, Arief R; Swee, Tan Tian; Ahmed, Taqwa

    2016-04-01

    Arrhythmia is a cardiac condition caused by abnormal electrical activity of the heart, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the non-invasive method used to detect arrhythmias or heart abnormalities. Due to the presence of noise, the non-stationary nature of the ECG signal (i.e. the changing morphology of the ECG signal with respect to time) and the irregularity of the heartbeat, physicians face difficulties in the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The computer-aided analysis of ECG results assists physicians to detect cardiovascular diseases. The development of many existing arrhythmia systems has depended on the findings from linear experiments on ECG data which achieve high performance on noise-free data. However, nonlinear experiments characterize the ECG signal more effectively sense, extract hidden information in the ECG signal, and achieve good performance under noisy conditions. This paper investigates the representation ability of linear and nonlinear features and proposes a combination of such features in order to improve the classification of ECG data. In this study, five types of beat classes of arrhythmia as recommended by the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation are analyzed: non-ectopic beats (N), supra-ventricular ectopic beats (S), ventricular ectopic beats (V), fusion beats (F) and unclassifiable and paced beats (U). The characterization ability of nonlinear features such as high order statistics and cumulants and nonlinear feature reduction methods such as independent component analysis are combined with linear features, namely, the principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients. The features are tested for their ability to differentiate different classes of data using different classifiers, namely, the support vector machine and neural network methods with tenfold cross-validation. Our proposed method is able to classify the N, S, V, F and U arrhythmia classes with high accuracy (98.91%) using a combined support

  9. Model-independent separation of poorly resolved hypperfine split spectra by a linear combination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, D.L.; Dengler, J.; Ritter, G.

    1988-01-01

    A model-independent evaluation of the components of poorly resolved Moessbauer spectra based on a linear combination method is possible if there is a parameter as a function of which the shape of the individual components do not but their intensities do change and the dependence of the intensities on this parameter is known. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on the example of low temperature magnetically split spectra of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 (Cu 0.9 Fe 0 .1 ) 3 O 7-y . (author)

  10. Integral linear momentum balance in combining flows for calculating the pressure drop coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for calculating the loss coefficient in combining flows in tee functions are obtained by an integral linear momentum balance. It is a practice, when solving this type of problem, to neglect the pressure difference in the upstream location as well as the wall-fluid interaction in the lateral branch of the junction. In this work it is demonstrated the influence of the above parameters on the loss coefficient based on experimental values and by apropriate algebraic manipulation of the loss coefficient values published by previous investigators. (Author) [pt

  11. On the preference of cold RF technology for the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamp, A.

    2005-07-01

    On August 20th 2004 the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) released its recommendation that the Linear Collider be based on Superconducting RF Technology. Following a request of the organizers of this conference we summarise in this article the arguments worked out and presented by the ITRP, which led to this recommendation. The main features of both RF-technologies, the favoured L-band RF system of the superconducting version of the Linear Collider and the X-band-technology anticipated for the normal-conducting alternative are briefly described. (orig.)

  12. International program on linear electric motors. CIGGT report No. 92-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-12-31

    The International Program for Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was begun in April 1989 to communicate and coordinate activities with centers of expertise in Germany, Canada, and Japan; to provide for the assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators, and policy makers; and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. This report documents the work done under the program, including standardizing linear induction motor (LIM) design characteristics; test procedures and measurement methods; rating; database for design data; criteria for evaluation of designs; computer programs for modelling performance; and a design study for an agreed application.

  13. Adaptive Linear and Normalized Combination of Radial Basis Function Networks for Function Approximation and Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel adaptive linear and normalized combination (ALNC method that can be used to combine the component radial basis function networks (RBFNs to implement better function approximation and regression tasks. The optimization of the fusion weights is obtained by solving a constrained quadratic programming problem. According to the instantaneous errors generated by the component RBFNs, the ALNC is able to perform the selective ensemble of multiple leaners by adaptively adjusting the fusion weights from one instance to another. The results of the experiments on eight synthetic function approximation and six benchmark regression data sets show that the ALNC method can effectively help the ensemble system achieve a higher accuracy (measured in terms of mean-squared error and the better fidelity (characterized by normalized correlation coefficient of approximation, in relation to the popular simple average, weighted average, and the Bagging methods.

  14. Combined slope ratio analysis and linear-subtraction: An extension of the Pearce ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, Sybrand A.

    1996-07-01

    A new technique, called combined slope ratio analysis, has been developed by extending the Pearce element ratio or conserved-denominator method (Pearce, 1968) to its logical conclusions. If two stoichiometric substances are mixed and certain chemical components are uniquely contained in either one of the two mixing substances, then by treating these unique components as conserved, the composition of the substance not containing the relevant component can be accurately calculated within the limits allowed by analytical and geological error. The calculated composition can then be subjected to rigorous statistical testing using the linear-subtraction method recently advanced by Woronow (1994). Application of combined slope ratio analysis to the rocks of the Uwekahuna Laccolith, Hawaii, USA, and the lavas of the 1959-summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, USA, yields results that are consistent with field observations.

  15. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular markers in cervical cancers patients. In order to evaluate the strength of our algorithms a simulation was added. In the case of no normality presented algorithms are feasible. For many variables computation time could be increased but acceptable.

  16. The assessment of changes in brain volume using combined linear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Steiner, I.; Melamed, E.; Cooper, G.

    1984-01-01

    All linear measurements employed for evaluation of brain atrophy, were performed on 148 computed tomograms of patients aged 28 to 84 without evidence of any nervous system disorder. These included size of lateral, third and fourth ventricles, width of the Sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and cortical sulci and size of the pre-pontine cistern. Various parameters indicated decrease in brain mass with age. Since the atrophic process is a diffuse phenomenon, integration of several measurements evaluating separate brain regions was made. The bicaudate ratio and the Sylvian fissure ratio (representing both central and cortical atrophy) were combined arithmetically, resulting in a correlation of 0.6390 with age (p<0.0005). With a computed canonical correlation analysis: a formula was obtained which combined measurements of the lateral and third ventricles, the Sylvian fissure and the pre-pontine cistern. This formula yealded a correlation of 0.67795 (p<0.0005). These linear measurements will enable simple and reliable assessment of reduction in brain volume during the normal aging process and in disorders accompanied by brain atrophy. (orig.)

  17. Internal crisis in a second-order non-linear non-autonomous electronic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrinides, S.G.; Deliolanis, N.C.; Miliou, A.N.; Laopoulos, Th.; Anagnostopoulos, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    The internal crisis of a second-order non-linear non-autonomous chaotic electronic circuit is studied. The phase portraits consist of two interacting sub-attractors, a chaotic and a periodic one. Maximal Lyapunov exponents were calculated, for both the periodic and the chaotic waveforms, in order to confirm their nature. Transitions between the chaotic and the periodic sub-attractors become more frequent by increasing the circuit driving frequency. The frequency distribution of the corresponding laminar lengths and their average values indicate that an internal crisis takes place in this circuit, manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the corresponding orbits

  18. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dengiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evaluation analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of yields has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable areas for agricultural uses. For that reasons, in order to determine land suitability classes of the study area, multi-criteria approach was used with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process by taking into consideration of some land and soil physico-chemical characteristic such as slope, texture, depth, derange, stoniness, erosion, pH, EC, CaCO3 and organic matter. These data and land mapping unites were taken from digital detailed soil map scaled as 1:5.000. In addition, in order to was produce land suitability map GIS was program used for the study area. This study was carried out at Mahmudiye, Karaamca, Yazılı, Çiçeközü, Orhaniye and Akbıyık villages in Yenişehir district of Bursa province. Total study area is 7059 ha. 6890 ha of total study area has been used as irrigated agriculture, dry farming agriculture, pasture while, 169 ha has been used for non-agricultural activities such as settlement, road water body etc. Average annual temperature and precipitation of the study area are 16.1oC and 1039.5 mm, respectively. Finally after determination of land suitability distribution classes for the study area, it was found that 15.0% of the study area has highly (S1 and moderately (S2 while, 85% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable coded as S3 and N. It was also determined some relation as compared results of linear combination technique with other hierarchy approaches such as Land Use Capability Classification and Suitability Class for Agricultural Use methods.

  19. Improving external beam radiotherapy by combination with internal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A; Koi, L; Zöphel, K; Sihver, W; Kotzerke, J; Baumann, M; Krause, M

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is dose dependent, but the dose that can be applied to solid tumour lesions is limited by the sensitivity of the surrounding tissue. The combination of EBRT with systemically applied radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising approach to increase efficacy of radiotherapy. Toxicities of both treatment modalities of this combination of internal and external radiotherapy (CIERT) are not additive, as different organs at risk are in target. However, advantages of both single treatments are combined, for example, precise high dose delivery to the bulk tumour via standard EBRT, which can be increased by addition of RIT, and potential targeting of micrometastases by RIT. Eventually, theragnostic radionuclide pairs can be used to predict uptake of the radiotherapeutic drug prior to and during therapy and find individual patients who may benefit from this treatment. This review aims to highlight the outcome of pre-clinical studies on CIERT and resultant questions for translation into the clinic. Few clinical data are available until now and reasons as well as challenges for clinical implementation are discussed.

  20. Multidisciplinary Inverse Reliability Analysis Based on Collaborative Optimization with Combination of Linear Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jia Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary reliability is an important part of the reliability-based multidisciplinary design optimization (RBMDO. However, it usually has a considerable amount of calculation. The purpose of this paper is to improve the computational efficiency of multidisciplinary inverse reliability analysis. A multidisciplinary inverse reliability analysis method based on collaborative optimization with combination of linear approximations (CLA-CO is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, the multidisciplinary reliability assessment problem is first transformed into a problem of most probable failure point (MPP search of inverse reliability, and then the process of searching for MPP of multidisciplinary inverse reliability is performed based on the framework of CLA-CO. This method improves the MPP searching process through two elements. One is treating the discipline analyses as the equality constraints in the subsystem optimization, and the other is using linear approximations corresponding to subsystem responses as the replacement of the consistency equality constraint in system optimization. With these two elements, the proposed method realizes the parallel analysis of each discipline, and it also has a higher computational efficiency. Additionally, there are no difficulties in applying the proposed method to problems with nonnormal distribution variables. One mathematical test problem and an electronic packaging problem are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  2. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  3. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  4. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.

    2012-11-13

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  5. Multiple linear combination (MLC) regression tests for common variants adapted to linkage disequilibrium structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yun Joo; Sun, Lei; Poirier, Julia G; Paterson, Andrew D; Bull, Shelley B

    2017-02-01

    By jointly analyzing multiple variants within a gene, instead of one at a time, gene-based multiple regression can improve power, robustness, and interpretation in genetic association analysis. We investigate multiple linear combination (MLC) test statistics for analysis of common variants under realistic trait models with linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on HapMap Asian haplotypes. MLC is a directional test that exploits LD structure in a gene to construct clusters of closely correlated variants recoded such that the majority of pairwise correlations are positive. It combines variant effects within the same cluster linearly, and aggregates cluster-specific effects in a quadratic sum of squares and cross-products, producing a test statistic with reduced degrees of freedom (df) equal to the number of clusters. By simulation studies of 1000 genes from across the genome, we demonstrate that MLC is a well-powered and robust choice among existing methods across a broad range of gene structures. Compared to minimum P-value, variance-component, and principal-component methods, the mean power of MLC is never much lower than that of other methods, and can be higher, particularly with multiple causal variants. Moreover, the variation in gene-specific MLC test size and power across 1000 genes is less than that of other methods, suggesting it is a complementary approach for discovery in genome-wide analysis. The cluster construction of the MLC test statistics helps reveal within-gene LD structure, allowing interpretation of clustered variants as haplotypic effects, while multiple regression helps to distinguish direct and indirect associations. © 2016 The Authors Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.; Narumi, Tetsu; Suh, Donguk; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  7. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  8. Prototype testing and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoping; Chang, Siqin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear electric generator (namely internal combustion linear generator integrated power system) is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy conversion from fuel to electricity. Unique features of the novel power system are presented and their effects on the continuous running are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. A single cylinder, gasoline and spark ignition prototype is fabricated with reference to the geometric and control parameters of an existing conventional four-stroke engine. Stable running of the prototype is realized, and a 2.2 kW average output power with the generating efficiency of 32% has been obtained up to now. The feasibility and performance of the proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous running prototype are analyzed in this paper for giving insight into the performance and dynamic behaviors of the novel power system. (author)

  9. Radiation safety study for conventional facility and siting pre project phase of International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Sasaki, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed high-energy collider consisting of two linear accelerators, two dumping rings, electron and positron sources, and a single colliding hall with two detectors. The total length and CMS energy of the ILC will be 31 km and 500 GeV, respectively (and 50 km and 1 TeV after future upgrade). The design of the ILC has entered the pre-project phase, which includes site-dependent design. Radiation safety design for the ILC is on-going as a part of conventional facility and siting activities of the pre-project phase. The thickness of a central wall of normal concrete is designed to be 3.5 m under a pessimistic assumption of beam loss. The beam loss scenario is under discussion. Experience and knowledge relating to shielding design and radiation control operational work at other laboratories are required. (authors)

  10. Proceedings of the 2. International Linear Collider Test-beam workshop - LCTW'09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Poeschl, R.; Takeshi, M.; Yu, J.; Hauptman, J.; Jeans, D.; Velthuis, J.; Repond, J.; Stanitzki, M.; Chefdeville, M.; Pauletta, G.; Hauptman, J.; Kulis, S.; Charpy, A.; Rivera, R.; Turchetti, M.; Vos, M.; Dehmelt, K.; Settles, R.; Decotigny, D.; Killenberg, M.; Haas, D.; Gaede, F.; Graf, N.; Wing, M.; Gaede, F.; Karstensen, S.; Meyners, N.; Hast, C.; Vrba, V.; Takeshita, T.; Kawagoe, K.; Linssen, L.; Ramberg, E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Videau, H.; Boudry, V.; Hauptman, J.; Lipton, R.; Nelson, T.

    2009-01-01

    At this workshop detector and simulation experts have described and discussed the necessary ILC (International Linear Collider) detector research and development program in view of its need for test beams. This workshop has provided an opportunity to evaluate the capabilities and shortcomings of existing facilities in the context of planned test beam activities. This document gathers together the slides of the presentations. The presentations have been classified into 4 topics: -) plans of sub-detectors - calorimetry, silicon and gaseous tracking, -) data acquisition, -) test beam facilities, and -) resources and infrastructure for future test beams

  11. Selection of the optimum magnet design for the International Linear Collider positron source helical undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of possible undulator designs for the International Linear Collider positron source has resulted in a superconducting bifilar wire design being selected. After a comprehensive paper study and fabrication of the two preeminent designs, the superconducting undulator was chosen instead of the permanent magnet alternative. This was because of its superior performance in terms of magnetic field strength and quality, operational flexibility, risk of radiation damage, ease in achieving the required vacuum, and cost. The superconducting undulator design will now be developed into a complete system design for the full 200 m long magnet that is required.

  12. An L-Band Polarized Electron PWT Photoinjector for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2005-01-01

    A multi-cell, standing-wave, L-band, p-mode, plane-wave-transformer (PWT) photoinjector with an integrated photocathode in a novel linac structure is proposed by DULY Research Inc. as a polarized electron source. The PWT photoinjector is capable of operation in ultra high vacuum and moderate field gradient. Expected performance of an L-band polarized electron PWT injector operating under the parameters for the International Linear Collider is presented. The projected normalized transverse rms emittance is an order of magnitude lower than that produced with a polarized electron dc gun followed by subharmonic bunchers.

  13. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  14. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  15. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  16. Study of a prototype electromagnetic calorimeter in the CALICE experiment under the Linear Collider International project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyamna, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is conducted within the framework of the International Linear Collider and the international collaboration so called CALICE. This work focuses on a study of a prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This prototype has been used in various test period at CERN, DESY and FNAL. The author presents two subjects of study: The first part is about the instrumentation for the resolution of the square event discovered during the taking data in 2006 at CERN. To explain the origin and solve the problem caused by crosstalk between peripherals pixels and the guard ring that surrounds the sensor, two studies were made: a simulation study using SILVACO software and a test bench to study several kinds of sensors. The second part of this thesis is a study on the identification of photons using estimators that are related to the parameters of the electromagnetic pattern of the shower. (author)

  17. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-01

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of ΔE b /E b =10 -4 . (orig.)

  18. Characterization of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Proposed International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Merideth; Wellesley Coll.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is part of a new generation of accelerators enabling physicists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental components of the universe. The proposed ILC will accelerate positrons and electrons towards each other with two facing linear colliders, each twenty kilometers long. Designing and planning for the future accelerator has been undertaken as a global collaboration, with groups working on several possible detectors to be used at the ILC. The following research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) pertained to the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy and spatial resolution of the calorimeter was tested by using computer simulations for proposed detectors. In order to optimize this accuracy, different designs of the electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated along with various methods to analyze the data from the simulated detector. A low-cost calorimeter design was found to provide energy resolution comparable to more expensive designs, and new clustering algorithms offered better spatial resolution. Energy distribution and shape characteristics of electromagnetic showers were also identified to differentiate various showers in the calorimeter. With further research, a well-designed detector will enable the ILC to observe new realms of physics

  19. Simultaneous and Sequential MS/MS Scan Combinations and Permutations in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T; Szalwinski, Lucas J; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Methods of performing precursor ion scans as well as neutral loss scans in a single linear quadrupole ion trap have recently been described. In this paper we report methodology for performing permutations of MS/MS scan modes, that is, ordered combinations of precursor, product, and neutral loss scans following a single ion injection event. Only particular permutations are allowed; the sequences demonstrated here are (1) multiple precursor ion scans, (2) precursor ion scans followed by a single neutral loss scan, (3) precursor ion scans followed by product ion scans, and (4) segmented neutral loss scans. (5) The common product ion scan can be performed earlier in these sequences, under certain conditions. Simultaneous scans can also be performed. These include multiple precursor ion scans, precursor ion scans with an accompanying neutral loss scan, and multiple neutral loss scans. We argue that the new capability to perform complex simultaneous and sequential MS n operations on single ion populations represents a significant step in increasing the selectivity of mass spectrometry.

  20. EXPALS, Least Square Fit of Linear Combination of Exponential Decay Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas Gardner, C.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This program fits by least squares a function which is a linear combination of real exponential decay functions. The function is y(k) = summation over j of a(j) * exp(-lambda(j) * k). Values of the independent variable (k) and the dependent variable y(k) are specified as input data. Weights may be specified as input information or set by the program (w(k) = 1/y(k)). 2 - Method of solution: The Prony-Householder iteration method is used. For unequally-spaced data, a number of interpolation options are provided. This revision includes an option to call a differential correction subroutine REFINE to improve the approximation to unequally-spaced data when equal-interval interpolation is faulty. If convergence is achieved, the probable errors in the computed parameters are calculated also. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Generally, it is desirable to have at least 10n observations where n equals the number of terms and to input k+n significant figures if k significant figures are expected

  1. Multineuron spike train analysis with R-convolution linear combination kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Taro

    2018-06-01

    A spike train kernel provides an effective way of decoding information represented by a spike train. Some spike train kernels have been extended to multineuron spike trains, which are simultaneously recorded spike trains obtained from multiple neurons. However, most of these multineuron extensions were carried out in a kernel-specific manner. In this paper, a general framework is proposed for extending any single-neuron spike train kernel to multineuron spike trains, based on the R-convolution kernel. Special subclasses of the proposed R-convolution linear combination kernel are explored. These subclasses have a smaller number of parameters and make optimization tractable when the size of data is limited. The proposed kernel was evaluated using Gaussian process regression for multineuron spike trains recorded from an animal brain. It was compared with the sum kernel and the population Spikernel, which are existing ways of decoding multineuron spike trains using kernels. The results showed that the proposed approach performs better than these kernels and also other commonly used neural decoding methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection evaluated by linear mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Hyon-Woo; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Shin-Koo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection after cyclic loading. Three groups of external abutments (Ext group), an internal tapered one-piece-type abutment (Int-1 group), and an internal tapered two-piece-type abutment (Int-2 group) were prepared. Cyclic loading was applied to implant-abutment assemblies at 150 N with a frequency of 3 Hz. The amount of axial displacement, the Periotest values (PTVs), and the removal torque values(RTVs) were measured. Both a repeated measures analysis of variance and pattern analysis based on the linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface of the implant-abutment connection. The mean axial displacements after 1,000,000 cycles were 0.6 μm in the Ext group, 3.7 μm in the Int-1 group, and 9.0 μm in the Int-2 group. Pattern analysis revealed a breakpoint at 171 cycles. The Ext group showed no declining pattern, and the Int-1 group showed no declining pattern after the breakpoint (171 cycles). However, the Int-2 group experienced continuous axial displacement. After cyclic loading, the PTV decreased in the Int-2 group, and the RTV decreased in all groups. SEM imaging revealed surface wear in all groups. Axial displacement and surface wear occurred in all groups. The PTVs remained stable, but the RTVs decreased after cyclic loading. Based on linear mixed model analysis, the Ext and Int-1 groups' axial displacements plateaued after little cyclic loading. The Int-2 group's rate of axial displacement slowed after 100,000 cycles.

  3. Homogenization of linear viscoelastic three phase media: internal variable formulation versus full-field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, V.; Barbie, L.; Masson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media is here extended from two phase inclusion-matrix media to three phase inclusion-matrix media. Each phase obeying to a compressible Maxwellian behaviour, this analytic method leads to an equivalent elastic homogenization problem in the Laplace-Carson space. For some particular microstructures, such as the Hashin composite sphere assemblage, an exact solution is obtained. The inversion of the Laplace-Carson transforms of the overall stress-strain behaviour gives in such cases an internal variable formulation. As expected, the number of these internal variables and their evolution laws are modified to take into account the third phase. Moreover, evolution laws of averaged stresses and strains per phase can still be derived for three phase media. Results of this model are compared to full fields computations of representative volume elements using finite element method, for various concentrations and sizes of inclusion. Relaxation and creep test cases are performed in order to compare predictions of the effective response. The internal variable formulation is shown to yield accurate prediction in both cases. (authors)

  4. Feasibility of combining linear theory and impact theory methods for the analysis and design of high speed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, D.; Vondrasek, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic influence coefficients calculated using an existing linear theory program were used to modify the pressures calculated using impact theory. Application of the combined approach to several wing-alone configurations shows that the combined approach gives improved predictions of the local pressure and loadings over either linear theory alone or impact theory alone. The approach not only removes most of the short-comings of the individual methods, as applied in the Mach 4 to 8 range, but also provides the basis for an inverse design procedure applicable to high speed configurations.

  5. 10 CFR 835.203 - Combining internal and external equivalent doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining internal and external equivalent doses. 835.203 Section 835.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.203 Combining internal and external equivalent doses. (a) The total effective dose...

  6. The Art and Science of Planning for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    There is a consensus among the worldwide high energy physics community that a TeV scale linear electron positron collider is the highest priority long term goal for a new facility for the field. This new particle accelerator, together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will enable a comprehensive exploration of the TeV energy scale where many of the new phenomena we seek, like supersymmetry or possibly even extra dimensions could reveal themselves. The international community has chosen superconducting RF technology to be the basis of the ILC concept, and a global design effort has been created to guide the R&D and technical design toward construction. In this presentation, I will discuss the science motivation, the technology, recent progress and plans, and personally assess the prospects.

  7. Investigation into electron cloud effects in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crittenden, J. A.; Conway, J.; Dugan, G. F.; Palmer, M. A.; Rubin, D. L.; Shanks, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Boon, L.; Harkay, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Furman, M. A.; Guiducci, S.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.

    2014-03-01

    We report modeling results for electron cloud buildup and instability in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring. Updated optics, wiggler magnets, and vacuum chamber designs have recently been developed for the 5 GeV, 3.2-km racetrack layout. An analysis of the synchrotron radiation profile around the ring has been performed, including the effects of diffuse and specular photon scattering on the interior surfaces of the vacuum chamber. The results provide input to the cloud buildup simulations for the various magnetic field regions of the ring. The modeled cloud densities thus obtained are used in the instability threshold calculations. We conclude that the mitigation techniques employed in this model will suffice to allow operation of the damping ring at the design operational specifications

  8. Effect of antenna capacitance on the plasma characteristics of an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Hyeuk; Kim, Kyong Nam; Park, Jung Kyun; Yeom, Geun Young

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the antenna capacitance of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was varied using an internal linear antenna, on the electrical and plasma characteristics of the ICP source. The inductive coupling at a given rf current increased with decreasing antenna capacitance. This was caused by a decrease in the inner copper diameter of the antenna made from coaxial copper/quartz tubing, which resulted in a higher plasma density and lower plasma potential. By decreasing the diameter of the copper tube from 25 to 10 mm, the plasma density of a plasma source size of 2750x2350 mm 2 was increased from approximately 8x10 10 /cm 3 to 1.5x10 11 /cm 3 at 15 mTorr Ar and 9 kW of rf power

  9. Low-impedance internal linear inductive antenna for large-area flat panel display plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.N.; Jung, S.J.; Lee, Y.J.; Yeom, G.Y.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    An internal-type linear inductive antenna, that is, a double-comb-type antenna, was developed for a large-area plasma source having the size of 1020 mmx830 mm, and high density plasmas on the order of 2.3x10 11 cm -3 were obtained with 15 mTorr Ar at 5000 W of inductive power with good plasma stability. This is higher than that for the conventional serpentine-type antenna, possibly due to the low impedance, resulting in high efficiency of power transfer for the double-comb antenna type. In addition, due to the remarkable reduction of the antenna length, a plasma uniformity of less than 8% was obtained within the substrate area of 880 mmx660 mm at 5000 W without having a standing-wave effect

  10. Beam Delivery System Dogleg Design and Integration for the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, J

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed to investigate the option of moving the positron source to the end of the main linac as a part of the central integration in the International Linear Collider(ILC) project. The positron source incorporates an undulator at the end of the main linac and the photons generated in the undulator are transported to the target, located at a distance of around 400 m. The dogleg design has been optimised to provide the required transverse offset at the location of the target and to give minimum emittance growth at 500 GeV. The design of the dogleg, the layout changes and the tolerances on beam tuning as a result of locating this dogleg in the beginning of the beam delivery system (BDS) are presented.

  11. A vertex detector for the International Linear Collider based on CMOS sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Auguste [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: abesson@in2p3.fr; Claus, Gilles [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Colledani, Claude [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deptuch, Grzegorz [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Deveaux, Michael [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France) and GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dulinski, Wojciech [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Fourches, Nicolas [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Goffe, Mathieu [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Grandjean, Damien [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Guilloux, Fabrice [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Heini, Sebastien [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]|[GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pellicioli, Michel; Scopelliti, Emanuele; Shabetai, Alexandre; Szelezniak, Michal; Valin, Isabelle [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Winter, Marc [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: marc.winter@ires.in2p3.f

    2006-11-30

    The physics programme at the International Linear Collider (ILC) calls for a vertex detector (VD) providing unprecedented flavour tagging performances, especially for c-quarks and {tau} leptons. This requirement makes a very granular, thin and multi-layer VD installed very close to the interaction region mandatory. Additional constraints, mainly on read-out speed and radiation tolerance, originate from the beam background, which governs the occupancy and the radiation level the detector should be able to cope with. CMOS sensors are being developed to fulfil these requirements. This report addresses the ILC requirements (highly related to beamstrahlung), the main advantages and features of CMOS sensors, the demonstrated performances and the specific aspects of a VD based on this technology. The status of the main R and D directions (radiation tolerance, thinning procedure and read-out speed) are also presented.

  12. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-09-15

    Processes in Food Irradiation was held by the IAEA and FAO at the Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall in Colombo on 24-28 November 1980, and the present volume contains the proceedings. One of the most effective means demonstrated of increasing the efficacy of irradiation in the control of food spoilage is the combination of a low irradiation dose with a mild heat treatment. Promising results were reported for the shelf-life extension of mangoes and papayas, and the disinfestation of dried dates. Commercial application of the heat-irradiation treatment for some fruits is expected to follow soon. The Symposium covered other topics, such as the mechanisms of sensitization of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents, improvement of the microbiological quality of foods by combination processes, and the aspects of the wholesomeness and legislation of the food irradiation process. A key issue in the general discussion was the recommendation on the acceptability of food irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy. This important recommendation had been achieved at a recently convened Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods (27 October - 3 November 1980, Geneva). The breakthrough on the toxicological acceptability constitutes a firm basis for going ahead speedily with the development of practical applications of food irradiation, which should take its rightful place among other food preservation methods in helping to provide more and better food to a world in need. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of these proceedings will encourage further research and development of food irradiation to the benefit of mankind.

  13. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Processes in Food Irradiation was held by the IAEA and FAO at the Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall in Colombo on 24-28 November 1980, and the present volume contains the proceedings. One of the most effective means demonstrated of increasing the efficacy of irradiation in the control of food spoilage is the combination of a low irradiation dose with a mild heat treatment. Promising results were reported for the shelf-life extension of mangoes and papayas, and the disinfestation of dried dates. Commercial application of the heat-irradiation treatment for some fruits is expected to follow soon. The Symposium covered other topics, such as the mechanisms of sensitization of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents, improvement of the microbiological quality of foods by combination processes, and the aspects of the wholesomeness and legislation of the food irradiation process. A key issue in the general discussion was the recommendation on the acceptability of food irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy. This important recommendation had been achieved at a recently convened Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods (27 October — 3 November 1980, Geneva). The breakthrough on the toxicological acceptability constitutes a firm basis for going ahead speedily with the development of practical applications of food irradiation, which should take its rightful place among other food preservation methods in helping to provide more and better food to a world in need. The sponsoring organizations hope that the publication of these proceedings will encourage further research and development of food irradiation to the benefit of mankind

  14. Combined genetic algorithm and multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) optimizer: Application to multi-exponential fluorescence decay surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisz, Jacek J

    2006-12-07

    The optimization approach based on the genetic algorithm (GA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) method, is discussed. The GA-MLR optimizer is designed for the nonlinear least-squares problems in which the model functions are linear combinations of nonlinear functions. GA optimizes the nonlinear parameters, and the linear parameters are calculated from MLR. GA-MLR is an intuitive optimization approach and it exploits all advantages of the genetic algorithm technique. This optimization method results from an appropriate combination of two well-known optimization methods. The MLR method is embedded in the GA optimizer and linear and nonlinear model parameters are optimized in parallel. The MLR method is the only one strictly mathematical "tool" involved in GA-MLR. The GA-MLR approach simplifies and accelerates considerably the optimization process because the linear parameters are not the fitted ones. Its properties are exemplified by the analysis of the kinetic biexponential fluorescence decay surface corresponding to a two-excited-state interconversion process. A short discussion of the variable projection (VP) algorithm, designed for the same class of the optimization problems, is presented. VP is a very advanced mathematical formalism that involves the methods of nonlinear functionals, algebra of linear projectors, and the formalism of Fréchet derivatives and pseudo-inverses. Additional explanatory comments are added on the application of recently introduced the GA-NR optimizer to simultaneous recovery of linear and weakly nonlinear parameters occurring in the same optimization problem together with nonlinear parameters. The GA-NR optimizer combines the GA method with the NR method, in which the minimum-value condition for the quadratic approximation to chi(2), obtained from the Taylor series expansion of chi(2), is recovered by means of the Newton-Raphson algorithm. The application of the GA-NR optimizer to model functions which are multi-linear

  15. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-15

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of {delta}E{sub b}/E{sub b}=10{sup -4}. (orig.)

  16. Design optimization of the International Linear Collider Final Focus System with a long L*

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, Fabien

    This Master's Thesis work has been done in the Aerospace Engineering master's programme framework and carried out at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was conducted under the 500 GeV e-e+ International Linear Collider (ILC) study and focused on the design and performance optimization of the Final Focus System (FFS). The purpose of the final focus system of the future linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) is to demagnify the beam to the required transverse size at the interaction point (IP). The FFS is designed for a flat-beam in a compact way based on a local chromaticity correction which corrects both horizontal and vertical chromaticities simultaneously. An alternative FFS configuration based on the traditional scheme with two dedicated chromatic correction sections for horizontal and vertical chromaticities and a long L * option has been developed. A longer free space between the last quadrupole and the IP allows to place the last quadrupole on a stable ground, with fewer engineering ...

  17. Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapillonne, X; Brunner, S; Sauter, O; Villard, L [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fable, E; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Merz, F, E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} < 0.5, k{sub p}erpendicular being the characteristic perpendicular wavenumber and {rho}{sub i} the ion Larmor radius) and shorter wavelength ion temperature gradient modes (ITG, k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} > 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.

  18. Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Villard, L.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.

    2011-05-01

    Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k⊥ρi 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.

  19. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Brau, James E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Foster, Brian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fuster, Juan [Univ. of Valencia (Spain); Harrison, Mike [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paterson, James McEwan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Peskin, Michael [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanitzki, Marcel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Walker, Nicholas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  20. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator \\& in the Technical Design Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  1. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  2. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  3. Eigenstates of complex linear combinations of J1, J2, J3 for any representation of SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacry, H.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics)

    1977-05-01

    The states which minimalize the uncertainty relation ΔJ 1 ΔJ 2 >=1/2/ 3 >/ are eigenstates of complex linear combinations of J 1 and J 2 . This kind of states is shown to have a very simple geometrical interpretation in the constellation formalism. A detailed description is given in the present pap

  4. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  5. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab

    2011-11-14

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic

  6. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report. Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak

  7. On combining principal components with Fisher's linear discriminants for supervised learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Tsymbal, A.; Puuronen, S.

    2006-01-01

    "The curse of dimensionality" is pertinent to many learning algorithms, and it denotes the drastic increase of computational complexity and classification error in high dimensions. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA), parametric feature extraction (FE) based on Fisher’s linear

  8. INTRODUCTION TO A COMBINED MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION AND ARMA MODELING APPROACH FOR BEACH BACTERIA PREDICTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of the processes contributing to beach bacteria concentrations, many researchers rely on statistical modeling, among which multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling is most widely used. Despite its ease of use and interpretation, there may be time dependence...

  9. Combined development of international nuclear fusion test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Ambassadors of the four most important partners (Common Market, Japan, USA and USSR) in the IAEA sponsored INTOR project, met on the 15 and 16 March 1987 in Vienna under the auspices of the IAEA. A press release was issued acknowledging the considerable technical progress made in magnetic nuclear fusion research. Future design concepts, assistance in research and development work and other activities towards the provision of an international experimental thermonuclear reactor were discussed. (G.T.H.)

  10. WIMP search in the mono-photon channel at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermehl, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a planned electron-positron collider with √(s) tunable from 250 to 500 GeV, with a possible upgrade to 1 TeV. Besides precision measurements of the Higgs boson its physics goals comprise searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, e.g. searches for Dark Matter. This collider search assumes the production of WIMPs in pairs. They are not visible in the detector but the energy carried away can be observed via an additional (''tag'') particle. Photon emission from the initial state leads to the almost model independent signature: e{sup +}e{sup -} → χχγ. As this analysis tests couplings between WIMPs and leptons it is complementary to analogues searches at the LHC. A precise study is facilitated by the clean environment of lepton colliders with small systematics of electroweak backgrounds. While the conceptual feasibility and the sensitivity reach of the ILC have been shown in the past, this talk focusses on the consequences for the detector design. The requirements for the central detector as well as for the instrumentation of the forward region are discussed in the context of the ILD detector concept.

  11. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  12. Study of Higgs self couplings of a supersymmetric E6 model at the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, S. W.; Han, K. D.; Lee, J. I.; Oh, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    We study the Higgs self couplings of a supersymmetric E 6 model that has two Higgs doublets and two Higgs singlets. The lightest scalar Higgs boson in the model may be heavier than 112 GeV, at the one-loop level, where the negative results for the Higgs search at the LEP2 experiments are taken into account. The contributions from the top and scalar top quark loops are included in the radiative corrections to the one-loop mass of the lightest scalar Higgs boson in the effective potential approximation. The effect of the Higgs self couplings may be observed in the production of the lightest scalar Higgs bosons in e + e - collisions at the International Linear Collider (ILC) via the double Higgs-strahlung process. For the center of mass energy of 500 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 500 fb -1 and an efficiency of 20%, we expect that at least 5 events of the lightest scalar Higgs boson may be produced at the ILC via the double Higgs-strahlung process.

  13. Triple Z0-Boson Production in a Large Extra Dimensions Model at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ruo-Cheng; Li Xiao-Zhou; Ma Wen-Gan; Guo Lei; Zhang Ren-You

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects induced by the interactions of the Kaluza—Klein graviton with the standard model (SM) particles on the triple Z 0 -boson production process at the International Linear Collider in the framework of the large extra dimension (LED) model. We present the dependence of the integrated cross sections on the electron-positron colliding energy √s, and various kinematic distributions of final Z 0 bosons and their subsequential decay products in both the SM and the LED model. We also provide the relationship between the integrated cross section and the fundamental scale MS by taking the number of the extra dimensions (d) as 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The numerical results show that the LED effect can induce an observable relative discrepancy for the integrated cross section (δ LED ). We find that the relative discrepancy of the LED effect can even reach a few dozen percent in the high transverse momentum area or the central rapidity region of the final Z 0 -bosons and muons

  14. A Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for the International Linear Collider Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furse, D.

    2005-01-01

    The following paper contains details concerning the motivation for, implementation and performance of a Java-based fast Monte Carlo simulation for a detector designed to be used in the International Linear Collider. This simulation, presently included in the SLAC ILC group's org.lcsim package, reads in standard model or SUSY events in STDHEP file format, stochastically simulates the blurring in physics measurements caused by intrinsic detector error, and writes out an LCIO format file containing a set of final particles statistically similar to those that would have found by a full Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to the reconstructed particles themselves, descriptions of the calorimeter hit clusters and tracks that these particles would have produced are also included in the LCIO output. These output files can then be put through various analysis codes in order to characterize the effectiveness of a hypothetical detector at extracting relevant physical information about an event. Such a tool is extremely useful in preliminary detector research and development, as full simulations are extremely cumbersome and taxing on processor resources; a fast, efficient Monte Carlo can facilitate and even make possible detector physics studies that would be very impractical with the full simulation by sacrificing what is in many cases inappropriate attention to detail for valuable gains in time required for results

  15. R and D of MPGD-readout TPC for the International Linear Collider experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonamine, R

    2012-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is chosen for the central tracker of the ILD detector, one of two detector concepts planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Physics goals at the ILC will require a TPC with a position resolution of 100 μm and superior track separation, which are not achievable with a conventional Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) readout. A MPGD readout offers improved position resolution and track separation due to measuring the signal at the anode and minimization of E × B effect. For several years, the LC TPC collaboration has been developing a MPGD readout using various small TPC prototypes and the Large Prototype TPC that is operated in a test beam at DESY. The MPGD technologies being tested are GEM and Micromegas with resistive charge broadening, with both traditional pad and CMOS pixel readout. Readout modules with both GEM and Micromegas gas amplification have achieved a position resolution on the order of 100 μm at B = 1 T. In this paper we report on the recent R and D toward the ILD TPC.

  16. INTRANS. A computer code for the non-linear structural response analysis of reactor internals under transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The 'INTRANS' system is a general purpose computer code, designed to perform linear and non-linear structural stress and deflection analysis of impacting or non-impacting nuclear reactor internals components coupled with reactor vessel, shield building and external as well as internal gapped spring support system. This paper describes in general a unique computational procedure for evaluating the dynamic response of reactor internals, descretised as beam and lumped mass structural system and subjected to external transient loads such as seismic and LOCA time-history forces. The computational procedure is outlined in the INTRANS code, which computes component flexibilities of a discrete lumped mass planar model of reactor internals by idealising an assemblage of finite elements consisting of linear elastic beams with bending, torsional and shear stiffnesses interacted with external or internal linear as well as non-linear multi-gapped spring support system. The method of analysis is based on the displacement method and the code uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration technique as a basis for solution of dynamic equilibrium equations of motion for the system. During the computing process, the dynamic response of each lumped mass is calculated at specific instant of time using well-known step-by-step procedure. At any instant of time then, the transient dynamic motions of the system are held stationary and based on the predicted motions and internal forces of the previous instant. From which complete response at any time-step of interest may then be computed. Using this iterative process, the relationship between motions and internal forces is satisfied step by step throughout the time interval

  17. Measurement of quartic boson couplings at the international linear collider and study of novel particle flow algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstonosic, P.

    2008-02-01

    In the absence of the Standard Model Higgs boson the interaction among the gauge bosons becomes strong at high energies (∼1 TeV) and influences couplings between them. Trilinear and quartic gauge boson vertices are characterized by set of couplings that are expected to deviate from Standard Model at energies significantly lower then the energy scale of New Physics. Estimation of the precision with which we can measure quartic couplings at International Linear Collider (ILC) is one of two topics covered by this theses. There are several measurement scenarios for quartic couplings. One that we have chosen is weak boson scattering. Since taking of the real data is, unfortunately, still far in the future running options for the machine were also investigated with their impact on the results. Analysis was done in model independent way and precision limits were extracted. Interpretation of the results in terms of possible scenarios beyond Standard Model is then performed by combining accumulated knowledge about all signal processes. One of the key requirements for achieving the results of the measurement in the form that is presented is to reach the detector performance goals. This is possible only with ''Particle Flow'' reconstruction approach. Performance limit of such approach and various contribution to it is discussed in detail. Novel reconstruction algorithm for photon reconstruction is developed, and performance comparison of such concept with more traditional approaches is done. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of quartic boson couplings at the international linear collider and study of novel particle flow algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstonosic, P.

    2008-02-15

    In the absence of the Standard Model Higgs boson the interaction among the gauge bosons becomes strong at high energies ({approx}1 TeV) and influences couplings between them. Trilinear and quartic gauge boson vertices are characterized by set of couplings that are expected to deviate from Standard Model at energies significantly lower then the energy scale of New Physics. Estimation of the precision with which we can measure quartic couplings at International Linear Collider (ILC) is one of two topics covered by this theses. There are several measurement scenarios for quartic couplings. One that we have chosen is weak boson scattering. Since taking of the real data is, unfortunately, still far in the future running options for the machine were also investigated with their impact on the results. Analysis was done in model independent way and precision limits were extracted. Interpretation of the results in terms of possible scenarios beyond Standard Model is then performed by combining accumulated knowledge about all signal processes. One of the key requirements for achieving the results of the measurement in the form that is presented is to reach the detector performance goals. This is possible only with ''Particle Flow'' reconstruction approach. Performance limit of such approach and various contribution to it is discussed in detail. Novel reconstruction algorithm for photon reconstruction is developed, and performance comparison of such concept with more traditional approaches is done. (orig.)

  19. Testing the dual-route model of perceived gaze direction: Linear combination of eye and head cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Mareschal, Isabelle; Clifford, Colin W G

    2016-06-01

    We have recently proposed a dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction (Otsuka, Mareschal, Calder, & Clifford, 2014; Otsuka, Mareschal, & Clifford, 2015), which computes perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation. By parametrically manipulating eye orientation and head orientation, we tested the adequacy of a linear model to account for the effect of horizontal head orientation on perceived direction of gaze. Here, participants adjusted an on-screen pointer toward the perceived gaze direction in two image conditions: Normal condition and Wollaston condition. Images in the Normal condition included a change in the visible part of the eye along with the change in head orientation, while images in the Wollaston condition were manipulated to have identical eye regions across head orientations. Multiple regression analysis with explanatory variables of eye orientation and head orientation revealed that linear models account for most of the variance both in the Normal condition and in the Wollaston condition. Further, we found no evidence that the model with a nonlinear term explains significantly more variance. Thus, the current study supports the dual-route model that computes the perceived gaze direction as a linear combination of eye orientation and head orientation.

  20. Enhancement of loss detection capability using a combination of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother and controllable unit accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to loss detection is presented which combines the optimal loss detection capability of state estimation techniques with a controllable unit accounting approach. The state estimation theory makes use of a linear system model which is capable of modeling the interaction of various controllable unit areas within a given facility. An example is presented which illustrates the increase in loss detection probability which is realizable with state estimation techniques. Comparisons are made with a Shewhart Control Chart and the CUSUM statistic

  1. Combined Simulation of a Micro Permanent Magnetic Linear Contactless Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement (PLCD sensor is a new type of displacement sensor operating on the magnetic inductive principle. It has many excellent properties and has already been used for many applications. In this article a Micro-PLCD sensor which can be used for microelectromechanical system (MEMS measurements is designed and simulated with the CST EM STUDIO® software, including building a virtual model, magnetostatic calculations, low frequency calculations, steady current calculations and thermal calculations. The influence of some important parameters such as air gap dimension, working frequency, coil current and eddy currents etc. is studied in depth.

  2. Interim report on the Global Design Effort Global International Linear Collider (ILC) R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, M.

    2011-04-30

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  3. Spin transport at the international linear collider and its impact on the measurement of polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Moritz

    2013-12-15

    At the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), the longitudinal beam polarization needs to be determined with an unprecedented precision. For that purpose, the beam delivery systems (BDS) are equipped with two laser Compton polarimeters each, which are foreseen to achieve a systematic uncertainty of {<=} 0.25 %. The polarimeters are located 1.6 km upstream and 150 m downstream of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point (IP). The average luminosity-weighted longitudinal polarization P{sup lumi}{sub z}, which is the decisive quantity for the experiments, has to be determined from these measurements with the best possible precision. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the spin transport in the BDS is mandatory to estimate how precise the longitudinal polarization at the IP is known from the polarimeter measurements. The envisaged precision for the propagation of the measurement value is {<=} 0.1 %. This thesis scrutinizes the spin transport in view of the achievable precision. A detailed beamline simulation for the BDS has been developed, including the simulation of the beam-beam collisions at the IP. The following factors which might limit the achievable precision is investigated: a variation of the beam parameters, the beam alignment precision at the polarimeters and the IP, the bunch rotation at the IP, the detector magnets, the beam-beam collisions, the emission of synchrotron radiation and misalignments of the beamline elements. In absence of collisions, a precision of 0.085% on the propagation of the measured longitudinal polarization has been found achievable. This result however depends mainly on the presumed precisions for the parallel alignment of the beam at the polarimeters and for the alignment of polarization vector. In presence of collisions, the measurement at the downstream polarimeter depends strongly on the intensity of the collision and the size of the polarimeter laser spot. Therefore, a more detailed study of the laser-bunch interaction is

  4. Internal Physical Features of a Land Surface Model Employing a Tangent Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runhua; Cohn, Stephen E.; daSilva, Arlindo; Joiner, Joanna; Houser, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    The Earth's land surface, including its biomass, is an integral part of the Earth's weather and climate system. Land surface heterogeneity, such as the type and amount of vegetative covering., has a profound effect on local weather variability and therefore on regional variations of the global climate. Surface conditions affect local weather and climate through a number of mechanisms. First, they determine the re-distribution of the net radiative energy received at the surface, through the atmosphere, from the sun. A certain fraction of this energy increases the surface ground temperature, another warms the near-surface atmosphere, and the rest evaporates surface water, which in turn creates clouds and causes precipitation. Second, they determine how much rainfall and snowmelt can be stored in the soil and how much instead runs off into waterways. Finally, surface conditions influence the near-surface concentration and distribution of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The processes through which these mechanisms interact with the atmosphere can be modeled mathematically, to within some degree of uncertainty, on the basis of underlying physical principles. Such a land surface model provides predictive capability for surface variables including ground temperature, surface humidity, and soil moisture and temperature. This information is important for agriculture and industry, as well as for addressing fundamental scientific questions concerning global and local climate change. In this study we apply a methodology known as tangent linear modeling to help us understand more deeply, the behavior of the Mosaic land surface model, a model that has been developed over the past several years at NASA/GSFC. This methodology allows us to examine, directly and quantitatively, the dependence of prediction errors in land surface variables upon different vegetation conditions. The work also highlights the importance of accurate soil moisture information. Although surface

  5. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  6. Simulations of nanocrystals under pressure: Combining electronic enthalpy and linear-scaling density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsini, Niccolò R. C., E-mail: niccolo.corsini@imperial.ac.uk; Greco, Andrea; Haynes, Peter D. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hine, Nicholas D. M. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Molteni, Carla [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-28

    We present an implementation in a linear-scaling density-functional theory code of an electronic enthalpy method, which has been found to be natural and efficient for the ab initio calculation of finite systems under hydrostatic pressure. Based on a definition of the system volume as that enclosed within an electronic density isosurface [M. Cococcioni, F. Mauri, G. Ceder, and N. Marzari, Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 145501 (2005)], it supports both geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce an approach for calibrating the parameters defining the volume in the context of geometry optimizations and discuss their significance. Results in good agreement with simulations using explicit solvents are obtained, validating our approach. Size-dependent pressure-induced structural transformations and variations in the energy gap of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals are investigated, including one comparable in size to recent experiments. A detailed analysis of the polyamorphic transformations reveals three types of amorphous structures and their persistence on depressurization is assessed.

  7. Modeling the Non-Linear Response of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Using a Combined Damage/Plasticity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuecker, Clara; Davila, Carlos G.; Pettermann, Heinz E.

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with modeling the non-linear response of fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Recent experimental data suggests that the non-linearity is not only caused by matrix cracking but also by matrix plasticity due to shear stresses. To capture the effects of those two mechanisms, a model combining a plasticity formulation with continuum damage has been developed to simulate the non-linear response of laminates under plane stress states. The model is used to compare the predicted behavior of various laminate lay-ups to experimental data from the literature by looking at the degradation of axial modulus and Poisson s ratio of the laminates. The influence of residual curing stresses and in-situ effect on the predicted response is also investigated. It is shown that predictions of the combined damage/plasticity model, in general, correlate well with the experimental data. The test data shows that there are two different mechanisms that can have opposite effects on the degradation of the laminate Poisson s ratio which is captured correctly by the damage/plasticity model. Residual curing stresses are found to have a minor influence on the predicted response for the cases considered here. Some open questions remain regarding the prediction of damage onset.

  8. Linear feedback control, adaptive feedback control and their combination for chaos (lag) synchronization of LC chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya; Yu Pei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study chaos (lag) synchronization of a new LC chaotic system, which can exhibit not only a two-scroll attractor but also two double-scroll attractors for different parameter values, via three types of state feedback controls: (i) linear feedback control; (ii) adaptive feedback control; and (iii) a combination of linear feedback and adaptive feedback controls. As a consequence, ten families of new feedback control laws are designed to obtain global chaos lag synchronization for τ < 0 and global chaos synchronization for τ = 0 of the LC system. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these theoretical results. Each family of these obtained feedback control laws, including two linear (adaptive) functions or one linear function and one adaptive function, is added to two equations of the LC system. This is simpler than the known synchronization controllers, which apply controllers to all equations of the LC system. Moreover, based on the obtained results of the LC system, we also derive the control laws for chaos (lag) synchronization of another new type of chaotic system

  9. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy {radical}(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L{sub Peak}=2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d{radical}(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c{sup 2} to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of {sigma}{sub E}=0.0014 for electrons and {sigma

  10. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy √(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L Peak =2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy √(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy √(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d√(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c 2 to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of σ E =0.0014 for electrons and σ E = 0.0010 for positrons with a precision of a few percent. The total error

  11. Studies of field distortions in a time projection chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will allow to do precision measurements of Standard Model parameter and to search for new physics. The ILD detector concept, which is developed for the ILC, uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as central tracking device. The momentum resolution goal for the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t ) ≅ 10 -4 (GeV/c) -1 at a magnetic field of B=3.5 T. Field distortions of the magnetic or electric field inside the sensitive volume of the TPC distort the momentum measurements. Therefore, one needs to keep them under control and correct them with high precision. In this thesis the main sources of field distortions in the TPC are identified and their effects are determined. Furthermore, possibilities to reduce the identified field distortions are presented. One known source of distortions of the electric field are ions, produced by the gas amplification in the TPC anode, that drift into the sensitive volume of the TPC. In the first part of this work the creation of these ions in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), which are used for the gas amplification, is studied. It will be shown that the resulting field distortions are not acceptable at the ILD TPC. By tuning the parameters of the gas amplification at the anode the field distortion can be reduced, which is shown in measurements and simulations. In addition measurements using a modified GEM show that it is possible to further reduce the field distortions with such a GEM. In the second part of this work field distortions arising at boundaries between individual readout modules are investigated using simulation studies. It will be shown in simulations, which are verified by measurement results, that these field distortions significantly influence the readout module performance. Based on the simulation results the GEM based readout module developed at DESY is optimised and the field distortions are reduced. These performance improvements could also be verified in measurements. Finally, a laser

  12. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windl, Roman; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Huber, Christian; Vogler, Christoph; Weitensfelder, Herbert; Suess, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  13. Contactless and absolute linear displacement detection based upon 3D printed magnets combined with passive radio-frequency identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Windl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within this work a passive and wireless magnetic sensor, to monitor linear displacements, is proposed. We exploit recent advances in 3D printing and fabricate a polymer bonded magnet with a spatially linear magnetic field component corresponding to the length of the magnet. Regulating the magnetic compound fraction during printing allows specific shaping of the magnetic field distribution. A giant magnetoresistance magnetic field sensor is combined with a radio-frequency identification tag in order to passively monitor the exerted magnetic field of the printed magnet. Due to the tailored magnetic field, a displacement of the magnet with respect to the sensor can be detected within the sub-mm regime. The sensor design provides good flexibility by controlling the 3D printing process according to application needs. Absolute displacement detection using low cost components and providing passive operation, long term stability, and longevity renders the proposed sensor system ideal for structural health monitoring applications.

  14. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  15. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening — Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; Sobes, Vladimir; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T_j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T_0 to a higher temperature T — namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T_j). The choice of the L_2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T_j) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [T_m_i_n,T_m_a_x]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope "2"3"8U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of "2"3"8U total cross section over the temperature range [300 K,3000 K] with only 9 reference temperatures.

  16. A combined AHP-GP model to allocate internal auditing time to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytic hierarchy process, goal programming, internal audit, risk assessment. ..... Services area and are listed, together with their associated management ..... [2] Badri MA, 2001, A combined AHP-GP model for quality control systems, Interna-.

  17. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base

  18. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

  19. Visualization of Global Sensitivity Analysis Results Based on a Combination of Linearly Dependent and Independent Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A useful technique for the validation and verification of complex flight systems is Monte Carlo Filtering -- a global sensitivity analysis that tries to find the inputs and ranges that are most likely to lead to a subset of the outputs. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for complex integrated systems may require thousands of experiments and hundreds of controlled and measured variables. Tools for analyzing this space often have limitations caused by the numerical problems associated with high dimensionality and caused by the assumption of independence of all of the dimensions. To combat both of these limitations, we propose a technique that uses a combination of the original variables with the derived variables obtained during a principal component analysis.

  20. A Combined Shielding Design for a Neutron Generator and a Linear Accelerator at Soreq NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, L.

    2014-01-01

    A new radiography facility is designed at Soreq NRC. The facility will hold a neutron generator that produces 1.73·109 n/s with an energy of 14 MeV and a linear accelerator that accelerates electrons to an energy of 9 MeV. The two radiation sources will be installed in 2 separate laboratories that will be built in an existing building. Each laboratory will have its own machine and control room. The dose rates around the sources were calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code(1,2). The annual doses were calculated in several regions around the generator and the accelerator laboratories in accordance with the occupancy in each area. The calculated annual doses were compared with the dose limits specified in the Safety at Work Regulations(3) and the IAEC Standard for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. The shielding was designed to comply with the following dose constraints: 0.3 mSv/y for members of the public and 2 mSv/y for radiation workers. Each radiation source is planned to produce radiation for a maximum of 500 hours per year. The dose rate in the direct beam of the accelerator is 30 Gy/min at 1 m from the source and it will be surrounded by a collimator with an opening of 30N-tilde horizontally and 2 mm vertically, 3 m from the radiation source. The leakage radiation dose will not be greater than 1.5 mGy/min (0.005% of the direct beam, according to the manufacturer). The leakage radiation will be produced isotropically. The neutron generator will be surrounded by a shielding made of a 10 cm iron cylinder (density 7.87 g/cm3), surrounded by 50 cm of borated polyethylene (atomic percent: H (13.8%), C (82.2%), B (4%), density: 0.92 g/cm3) and 5 cm of lead (density 11.35 g/cm3). The neutron generator shielding was not designed or required in the present shielding design but was considered in the shielding calculations

  1. A Combined MPI-CUDA Parallel Solution of Linear and Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Colmenares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs.

  2. Combining support vector machines with linear quadratic regulator adaptation for the online design of an automotive active suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J-S; Liu, M-T

    2008-01-01

    As a powerful machine-learning approach to pattern recognition problems, the support vector machine (SVM) is known to easily allow generalization. More importantly, it works very well in a high-dimensional feature space. This paper presents a nonlinear active suspension controller which achieves a high level performance by compensating for actuator dynamics. We use a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to ensure optimal control of nonlinear systems. An LQR is used to solve the problem of state feedback and an SVM is used to address the question of the estimation and examination of the state. These two are then combined and designed in a way that outputs feedback control. The real-time simulation demonstrates that an active suspension using the combined SVM-LQR controller provides passengers with a much more comfortable ride and better road handling

  3. Combining Internal and External Evaluation: A Case for School-Based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    1994-01-01

    School-based evaluation, the focus of this article, is conceived of as neither a synonym for internal evaluation nor an antonym for external evaluation, but as a combination that is examined through a review of recent research. A school-based evaluation in Israel illustrates combining these approaches in a complementary way. (SLD)

  4. A New Approach with Combined Stereotactic Trans-multiarc Beams for Radiosurgery Based on the Linear Accelerator : Photon Knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : To get an acute steepness of dose gradients at outside the target volume in intracranial lesion and a less limitation of beam selection avoiding the high dose at normal brain tissue, this Photon Knife Radiosurgery System was developed in order to provide the three-dimensional dose distribution through the reconstruction of CT scan and the combined stereotactic tranmultiarc beam mode based on linear accelerator photon beam. Methods and Materials : This stereotactic radiosurgery, Photon Knife based on linear accelerator photon beam was provided the non-coplanar multiarc and trans-multiarc irradiations. The stereotactic trans-multiarc beam mode can be obtained from the patient position in decubitus. This study has provided the 3-dimensional isodose curve and anatomical structures with the surface rendering technique. Results : In this study, it shows that the dose distributions of stereotactic beam mode are significantly depended on the selected couch and gantry angle in same collimator size. Practical dose distribution of combined stereotactic trans-multiarc beam has shown a more small rim thickness than that of the non-coplanar multiarc beam mode in axial, sagittal and coronal plane in our study. 3-Dimensional dose line displayed with surface rendering of irregular target shape is helpful to determine the target dose and to predict the prognosis in follow-up radiosurgery. Conclusion : 3-Dimensional dose line displayed with surface rendering of irregular target shape is essential in stereotactic radiosurgery. This combined stereotactic trans-multiarc beam has shown a less limitation of the selection couch and gantry beam angles for the target surrounding critical organs. It has shown that the dose distribution of combined trans-multiarc beam greatly depended on the couch and gantry angles. In our experiments. the absorbed dose has been decreased to 27 % /mm in maximum at the interval of 50% to 80% of isodose line

  5. Simulation studies for a high resolution time projection chamber at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muennich, A.

    2007-03-26

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be the next large accelerator. The ILC will be able to perform high precision measurements only possible at the clean environment of electron positron collisions. In order to reach this high accuracy, the requirements for the detector performance are challenging. Several detector concepts are currently under study. The understanding of the detector and its performance will be crucial to extract the desired physics results from the data. To optimise the detector design, simulation studies are needed. Simulation packages like GEANT4 allow to model the detector geometry and simulate the energy deposit in the different materials. However, the detector response taking into account the transportation of the produced charge to the readout devices and the effects ofthe readout electronics cannot be described in detail. These processes in the detector will change the measured position of the energy deposit relative to the point of origin. The determination of this detector response is the task of detailed simulation studies, which have to be carried out for each subdetector. A high resolution Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with gas amplification based on micro pattern gas detectors, is one of the options for the main tracking system at the ILC. In the present thesis a detailed simulation tool to study the performance of a TPC was developed. Its goal is to find the optimal settings to reach an excellent momentum and spatial resolution. After an introduction to the present status of particle physics and the ILC project with special focus on the TPC as central tracker, the simulation framework is presented. The basic simulation methods and implemented processes are introduced. Within this stand-alone simulation framework each electron produced by primary ionisation is transferred through the gas volume and amplified using Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). The output format of the simulation is identical to the raw data from a

  6. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Creative Tasks on Electrocardiogram: Using Linear and Nonlinear Features in Combination with Classification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Zakeri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interest in the subject of creativity and its impacts on human life is growing extensively. However, only a few surveys pay attention to the relation between creativity and physiological changes. This paper presents a novel approach to distinguish between creativity states from electrocardiogram signals. Nineteen linear and nonlinear features of the cardiac signal were extracted to detect creativity states. Method: ECG signals of 52 participants were recorded while doing three tasks of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT/ figural B. To remove artifacts, notch filter 50 Hz and Chebyshev II were applied. According to TTCT scores, participants were categorized into the high and low creativity groups: Participants with scores higher than 70 were assigned into the high creativity group and those with scores less than 30 were considered as low creativity group. Some linear and nonlinear features were extracted from the ECGs. Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS were used to classify the groups.Results: Applying the Wilcoxon test, significant differences were observed between rest and each three tasks of creativity. However, better discrimination was performed between rest and the first task. In addition, there were no statistical differences between the second and third task of the test. The results indicated that the SVM effectively detects all the three tasks from the rest, particularly the task 1 and reached the maximum accuracy of 99.63% in the linear analysis. In addition, the high creative group was separated from the low creative group with the accuracy of 98.41%.Conclusion: the combination of SVM classifier with linear features can be useful to show the relation between creativity and physiological changes.

  8. Enhancement of white light OLED efficiency by combining both internal and external light extraction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, I.-Ling; Ku, Chun-Neng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ding-Zheng

    2012-09-01

    We proposed an internal nanostructure with a high reflective index planarization layer to solve the optical loss due to the reflective index mismatch between ITO and glass substrate. In our experiments, we found the electrical property of OLED device was significantly influenced by the internal nanostructures without planarization layer. Moreover, the internal extraction structure (IES) is not necessarily beneficial for light extraction. Therefore, we proposed a new substrate combine both internal and external extraction structure (EES) to extract trapping light. We successfully developed a high refractive index (N 1.7) planarization material with flat surface (RMS roughness < 2 nm), and improved about 70% device efficiency compared to traditional glass substrate.

  9. Proceedings of the international workshop on next-generation linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, M.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains papers on the next-generation of linear colliders. The particular areas of discussion are: parameters; beam dynamics and wakefields; damping rings and sources; rf power sources; accelerator structures; instrumentation; final focus; and review of beam-beam interaction

  10. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center selects Verity Ultraseek for public and internal Web Sites

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Verity Inc., a provider of enterprise software has announced the latest version of its powerful, downloadable Verity(R) Ultraseek(R) enterprise search engine is being used by the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, a research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Stanford University (1/2 page).

  11. Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Next-Generation Linear Colliders. Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Asher, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: Electron and positron sources and injectors; damping rings, bunch compressors and pre-accelerators; RF sources and structures for normal and superconducting linacs; beam dynamics of the main accelerator; instrumentation for linear colliders; final focus and interaction regions; and overall parameters and construction techniques

  12. Proceedings of the international workshop on next-generation linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, M. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    This report contains papers on the next-generation of linear colliders. The particular areas of discussion are: parameters; beam dynamics and wakefields; damping rings and sources; rf power sources; accelerator structures; instrumentation; final focus; and review of beam-beam interaction.

  13. Origin and Structure of Nearshore Internal Tides and Waves: Data Analysis and Linear Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendershott, Myrl

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the data set obtained during the 1996-97 summer and autumn deployments of ADCP and T-logger internal wave antennas of Mission Beach, CA, was the principle activity during the reporting period...

  14. Analyzing the scalar top coannihilation region at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carena, M.; Freitas, A.; Milstene, C.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Nowak, H.

    2005-01-01

    The minimal supersymmetric standard model opens the possibility of electroweak baryogenesis provided that the light scalar top quark (stop) is lighter than the top quark. In addition, the lightest neutralino is an ideal candidate to explain the existence of dark matter. For a light stop with mass close to the lightest neutralino, the stop-neutralino coannihilation mechanism becomes efficient, thus rendering the predicted dark matter density compatible with observations. Such a stop may however remain elusive at hadron colliders. Here it is shown that a future linear collider provides a unique opportunity to detect and study the light stop. The production of stops with small stop-neutralino mass differences is studied in a detailed experimental analysis with a realistic detector simulation including a CCD vertex detector for flavor tagging. Furthermore, the linear collider, by precision measurements of superpartner masses and mixing angles, also allows to determine the dark matter relic density with an accuracy comparable to recent astrophysical observations

  15. Proceedings of the 18. international linear accelerator conference (Linac96). V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    These Proceedings cover the whole field of linear accelerators, from its original and continuing role in particle physics research to the wide range of applications found today in many other disciplines and technologies. The contributions were deliberately spread among the different conference sessions in order to maintain a broad interest. The topics covered include: the design, construction and control of linear accelerators and the associated technology; dedicated test facilities, injection, wakefields, bunching, halo, dynamics, radio-frequency (RF), electron and ion accelerators, (laser) ion sources; active alignment, beam steering and spot size; simulation, monitoring and diagnostics; a description of the performance and current status of many machines, including proposed ones such as CLIC, the NLC and TESLA; applications to medical diagnosis and radiotherapy; use in the treatment and sterilisation of materials (including food) and in the reprocessing of radioactive waste; use as potential suppliers of energy. (author)

  16. On the internal stability of non-linear dynamic inversion: application to flight control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alam, M.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 12 (2017), s. 1849-1861 ISSN 1751-8644 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04682S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : flight control * non-linear dynamic inversion * stability Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/TR/celikovsky-0476150.pdf

  17. Final Report for the UNIVERSITY-BASED DETECTOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E [Univ. of Oregon

    2013-04-22

    The U.S Linear Collider Detector R&D program, supported by the DOE and NSF umbrella grants to the University of Oregon, made significant advances on many critical aspects of the ILC detector program. Progress advanced on vertex detector sensor development, silicon and TPC tracking, calorimetry on candidate technologies, and muon detection, as well as on beamline measurements of luminosity, energy, and polarization.

  18. An evaluation of the performance of an integrated solar combined cycle plant provided with air-linear parabolic collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, Mario; Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio; Summaria, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of an innovative solar system integrated in a combined cycle plant is presented, in which the heat transfer fluid flowing in linear parabolic collectors is the same oxidant air that is introduced into the combustion chamber of the plant. This peculiarity allows a great simplification of the plant. There is a 22% saving of fossil fuel results in design conditions and 15.5% on an annual basis, when the plant works at nominal volumetric flow rate in the daily hours. The net average year efficiency is 60.9% against the value of 51.4% of a reference combined cycle plant without solar integration. Moreover, an economic evaluation of the plant is carried out, which shows that the extra-cost of the solar part is recovered in about 5 years. - Highlights: • A model to calculate an innovative ISCCS (Integrated solar Combined Cycle Systems) solar plant is presented. • The plant uses air as heat transfer fluid as well as oxidant in the combustor. • The plant presents a very high thermodynamic efficiency. • The plant is very simple in comparison with existing ISCCS

  19. Linear combination fitting data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the weighted percentage of arsenic speciation for untreated and treated soil samples with amendments designed to immobilize arsenic in soils. This...

  20. Regularized iterative integration combined with non-linear diffusion filtering for phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Karin; Koehler, Thomas; Chabior, Michael; Allner, Sebastian; Marschner, Mathias; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter

    2014-12-29

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography has a high potential to become clinically implemented because of its complementarity to conventional absorption-contrast.In this study, we investigate noise-reducing but resolution-preserving analytical reconstruction methods to improve differential phase-contrast imaging. We apply the non-linear Perona-Malik filter on phase-contrast data prior or post filtered backprojected reconstruction. Secondly, the Hilbert kernel is replaced by regularized iterative integration followed by ramp filtered backprojection as used for absorption-contrast imaging. Combining the Perona-Malik filter with this integration algorithm allows to successfully reveal relevant sample features, quantitatively confirmed by significantly increased structural similarity indices and contrast-to-noise ratios. With this concept, phase-contrast imaging can be performed at considerably lower dose.

  1. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  2. Solution of the linearly anisotropic neutron transport problem in a infinite cylinder combining the decomposition and HTSN methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio A.; Bodmann, Bardo; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions for neutron transport in cylindrical geometry is available for isotropic problems, but to the best of our knowledge for anisotropic problems are not available, yet. In this work, an analytical solution for the neutron transport equation in an infinite cylinder assuming anisotropic scattering is reported. Here we specialize the solution, without loss of generality, for the linearly anisotropic problem using the combined decomposition and HTS N methods. The key feature of this method consists in the application of the decomposition method to the anisotropic problem by virtue of the fact that the inverse of the operator associated to isotropic problem is well know and determined by the HTS N approach. So far, following the idea of the decomposition method, we apply this operator to the integral term, assuming that the angular flux appearing in the integrand is considered to be equal to the HTS N solution interpolated by polynomial considering only even powers. This leads to the first approximation for an anisotropic solution. Proceeding further, we replace this solution for the angular flux in the integral and apply again the inverse operator for the isotropic problem in the integral term and obtain a new approximation for the angular flux. This iterative procedure yields a closed form solution for the angular flux. This methodology can be generalized, in a straightforward manner, for transport problems with any degree of anisotropy. For the sake of illustration, we report numerical simulations for linearly anisotropic transport problems. (author)

  3. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  4. Internal null controllability of a linear Schrödinger-KdV system on a bounded interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araruna, Fágner D.; Cerpa, Eduardo; Mercado, Alberto; Santos, Maurício C.

    2016-01-01

    The control of a linear dispersive system coupling a Schrödinger and a linear Korteweg-de Vries equation is studied in this paper. The system can be viewed as three coupled real-valued equations by taking real and imaginary parts in the Schrödinger equation. The internal null controllability is proven by using either one complex-valued control on the Schrödinger equation or two real-valued controls, one on each equation. Notice that the single Schrödinger equation is not known to be controllable with a real-valued control. The standard duality method is used to reduce the controllability property to an observability inequality, which is obtained by means of a Carleman estimates approach.

  5. Combining vibrational linear-by-part dynamics and kinetic-based decoupling of the dynamics for multiple elastoplastic smooth impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjau, Ana, E-mail: ana.barjau@upc.edu; Batlle, Joaquim A., E-mail: agullo.batlle@upc.edu; Font-Llagunes, Josep M., E-mail: josep.m.font@upc.edu [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering Research Centre (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    This article proposes a linear-by-part approach for elastoplastic 3D multiple-point smooth impacts in multibody systems with perfect constraints. The model is an extension of a previous version, restricted to the perfectly elastic case, able to account for the high sensitivity to initial conditions and for redundancy without assuming any particular collision sequence (Barjau et al., Multibody Syst. Dyn. 31:497–517, 2014). Energy losses associated with compression and expansion in percussive analysis is a matter as complex as the physical phenomena involved, at the nanoscale level, for different materials. Simplified models can be developed for specific purposes, which can retain the most relevant trends of internal damping and at the same time be suitable for a particular analytical approach of impact mechanics. In the context of this article, energy dissipation due to material deformation is introduced through a linear-by-part elastoplastic model consisting on two elementary sets of springs and dry-friction dampers. The first set accounts for inelastic behavior (energy loss without permanent indentation), whereas the second one introduces plasticity (that is, permanent indentation). In inelastic and plastic collisions, instantaneous unilateral constraints may appear, thus reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. The calculation of the corresponding normal contact force at the constrained points is then necessary in order to detect whether the constraint holds or disappears (either because a new compression or an expansion phase starts, or because contact is lost). Different simulated application examples are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  6. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  7. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  8. Live Imaging of Cellular Internalization of Single Colloidal Particle by Combined Label-Free and Fluorescence Total Internal Reflection Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Gerard D; Vllasaliu, Driton; Falcone, Franco H; Somekh, Michael G; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2015-11-02

    In this work we utilize the combination of label-free total internal reflection microscopy and total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRM/TIRF) microscopy to achieve a simultaneous, live imaging of single, label-free colloidal particle endocytosis by individual cells. The TIRM arm of the microscope enables label free imaging of the colloid and cell membrane features, while the TIRF arm images the dynamics of fluorescent-labeled clathrin (protein involved in endocytosis via clathrin pathway), expressed in transfected 3T3 fibroblasts cells. Using a model polymeric colloid and cells with a fluorescently tagged clathrin endocytosis pathway, we demonstrate that wide field TIRM/TIRF coimaging enables live visualization of the process of colloidal particle interaction with the labeled cell structure, which is valuable for discerning the membrane events and route of colloid internalization by the cell. We further show that 500 nm in diameter model polystyrene colloid associates with clathrin, prior to and during its cellular internalization. This association is not apparent with larger, 1 μm in diameter colloids, indicating an upper particle size limit for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  9. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  10. A combined thermodynamic cycle used for waste heat recovery of internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Maogang; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeng, Ke; Gao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a steady-state experiment, energy balance and exergy analysis of exhaust gas in order to improve the recovery of the waste heat of an internal combustion engine (ICE). Considering the different characteristics of the waste heat of exhaust gas, cooling water, and lubricant, a combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat recovery of ICE is proposed. This combined thermodynamic cycle consists of two cycles: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), for recovering the waste heat of lubricant and high-temperature exhaust gas, and the Kalina cycle, for recovering the waste heat of low-temperature cooling water. Based on Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS), the thermodynamic parameters in the high-temperature ORC were calculated and determined via an in-house computer program. Suitable working fluids used in high-temperature ORC are proposed and the performance of this combined thermodynamic cycle is analyzed. Compared with the traditional cycle configuration, more waste heat can be recovered by the combined cycle introduced in this paper. -- Highlights: ► We study the energy balance of fuel in internal combustion engine. ► Heat recovery effect of exhaust gas is good when ICE is at a high-load condition. ► We propose a new combined thermodynamic cycle for waste heat of ICE. ► The combined cycle has a higher recovery efficiency than previous configurations.

  11. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with selective release of lateral soft tissue for severe hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hiroyuki; Suda, Yasunori; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Niki, Yasuo

    2018-03-21

    Minimally invasive techniques for hallux valgus have been widely used to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of distal linear metatarsal osteotomy (DLMO), which is one of the minimally invasive techniques, for severe hallux valgus. 95 patients (141 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent DLMOs. Lateral soft tissue release (LSTR) was performed at the same time for the cases selected by an original manual test. The satisfaction level, the Japanese Society of Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) hallux scale score, and weight-bearing radiographs of the foot were assessed preoperatively and after more than 24 months. In addition, the clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared among three groups divided by the kind of LSTR: no LSTR; manual correction; and open release through skin incision. Although the first metatarsal bone was significantly shortened, dorsiflexed, and elevated on postoperative radiographs, the rate of satisfaction was 87.2% (123/141), and the mean JSSF hallux scale score improved significantly from 60.4 (44-73) to 90.4 (65-100). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles also improved significantly from 45.5° (40.0-60.0°) to 10.3° (-28.0-40.9°) and from 19.9° (14.0-28.7°) to 8.3° (-1.6-18.5°), respectively. Delayed union (18 feet), metatarsalgia (16 feet), recurrence (22 feet), and hallux varus (22 feet) were observed, and they were more obvious in DLMO combined with open release through a skin incision. DLMO combined selectively with LSTR is an effective procedure for correcting severe hallux valgus. However, the indication for open release with DLMO should be considered carefully. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  13. Variable-Weighted Linear Combination Model for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: Case Study in the Shennongjia Forestry District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility map plays an essential role in urban and rural planning. The main purpose of this study is to establish a variable-weighted linear combination model (VWLC and assess its potential for landslide susceptibility mapping. Firstly, different objective methods are employed for data processing rather than the frequently-used subjective judgments: K-means clustering is used for classification; binarization is introduced to determine buffer length thresholds for locational elements (road, river, and fault; landslide area density is adopted as the contribution index; and a correlation analysis is conducted for suitable factor selection. Secondly, considering the dimension changes of the preference matrix varying with the different locations of the mapping cells, the variable weights of each optimal factor are determined based on the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP. On this basis, the VWLC model is established and applied to regional landslide susceptibility mapping for the Shennongjia Forestry District, China, where shallow landslides frequently occur. The obtained map is then compared with a map using the traditional WLC, and the results of the comparison show that VWLC is more reasonable, with a higher accuracy, and can be used anywhere that has the same or similar geological and topographical conditions.

  14. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  15. Distribución de las transformaciones lineales de los residuos mínimos cuadrados studentizados internamente = Distribution of linear transformations of internally studentized least squares residuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Pynnönem

    2012-03-01

    that the resulting ratio, U/S, has a distribution that is free of from the nuisance unknown scale parameter. External Studentization refers to a ratio in which the nominator and denominator are independent, while internal Studentization refers to a ratio in which these are dependent. The advantage of the internal Studentization is that typically one can use a single common scale estimator, while in the external Studentization every single residual is scaled by different scale estimator to gain the independence. With normal regression errors the joint distribution of an arbitrary (linearly independent subset of internally Studentized residuals is well documented. However, in some applications a linear combination of internally Studentized residuals may be useful. The boundedness of them is well documented, but the distribution seems not be derived in the literature. This paper contributes to the existing literature by deriving the joint distribution of an arbitrary linear transformation of internally Studentized residuals from ordinary least squares regression with spherical error distribution. All major versions of commonly utilized internally Studentized regression residuals in literature are obtained as special cases of the linear transformation

  16. Track distortion in a micromegas based large prototype of a Time Projection Chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bhattacharya, P.; Attie, D.; Colas, P.; Ganjour, S.; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    The principal particle tracker at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is planned to be a large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) where different Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGDs) candidate as the gaseous amplifier. A Micromegas (MM) based TPC can meet the ILC requirement of continuous and precise pattern recognition. Seven MM modules, working as the end-plate of a Large Prototype TPC (LPTPC) installed at DESY, have been tested with a 5 GeV electron beam. Due to the grounded peripheral frame of the MM modules, at low drift, the electric field lines near the detector edge remain no longer parallel to the TPC axis. This causes signal loss along the boundaries of the MM modules as well as distortion in the reconstructed track. In presence of magnetic field, the distorted electric field introduces ExB effect

  17. Non-linear model reduction and control of molten carbonate fuel cell systems with internal reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Min

    2007-10-12

    resulting reduced order model is of considerably lower order than the detailed model and requires much less computation time. It is used for the development of a model based control strategy in Chapter 5. The purpose of control is to guarantee a fast and safe dynamic response of the fuel cell system during load changes; an optimal steady state electric efficiency is also desired. Taking both considerations a control strategy with three main loops is designed. The first loop is composed of a master controller that imposed a load change and sets fuel gas, the steam to carbon ratio, air number and cathode gas recycle ratio to their corresponding conditions for optimal steady state electric efficiency. The other two loops are feedback PID controllers that for given temperature limits (maximum temperature and maximum temperature difference) respond by changing the air ratio and steam to carbon ratio around the default sets by the master controller. It turns out that for load changes, the PID controllers can successfully take the maximum temperatures as well as the spatial temperature differences to their desired set-points. In cases, where the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference cannot be measured directly, the proposed control scheme has to be combined with a state estimator. A suitable state estimator is developed based on the reduced-order model and the control strategy with the observer shows reasonable results. (orig.)

  18. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P  .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P  0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  19. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhixiong; Zhang Kefeng; Liu Lanqi; Li Cong; Chen Xiaofei; Liu Dongsheng; Liu Zhenglin; Zou Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. (paper)

  20. Beyond the International Linear Collider Driven by FEL with Energy Recovery at 5-10TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R

    2005-01-01

    The international linear collider (ILC) at the extreme high energy frontier provides the best hope for the scientist to probe the finenst structure of matter and its origin and perhaps even the origin of the Universe. The technology that employs is based on superconducting RF technology. This technology may usher in a new era for the development of superconducting accelerator technology. On the other hand, the gradient that is allowed in such an accelerator is limited. If one wishes something beyond this after one learns the physics at such high energies(~0.5TeV) and utilizing such technology, one may need a new way to employ the supeconducting technology in providing high gradient compact accelerators. Inspired by a former work of 5-TeV colliders based on solid-state tera-watt lasers [1], we explore 5-10 TeV linear colliders driven by free-electron lasers equipped with energy-recovery system. A preliminary design study suggests that a 5-10 TeV collider with the luminosity of 10(34) can be realized by multi-s...

  1. A Highly Granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter and Top Quark Production at the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Rouëné, J

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with two aspects of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which is a project of a linear electron-positron collider of up to at least 500 GeV center of mass energy. The first aspect is the development of a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) for one of the detectors of the ILC. The concept of this detector is driven by the ILC beam specifications and by the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). This requires highly granular calorimeter and very compact one with integrated electronics. To prove the capability of the SiW- ECAL a technological prototype has been built and tested in test beam at DESY. The results are presented here, and show, after the calibration procedure a signal over noise ratio of 10, even in the power pulsing mode. The second aspect is the study of one of the important physics channels of the ILC, the top anti-top quark pairs production. The main goal of this study is to determine the precision that we can expect at the ILC on the top coupling with the W bos...

  2. Current status of International Linear Collider Project in Technical Design stage and activities of Japan Society of Civil Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In order to invite the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) established the Linear Collider Subcommittee of JSCE (LC subcommittee) in April, 2006. Abstracts of the activities and objects of LC subcommittee are stated. The LC subcommittee consists of five working groups. Each working group investigated the previous reports of 2006 and 2007 and reported some important notices. The working group on planning and project and management reported the site conditions of Japan, tunnels and facilities. The working group on geological survey, test and environmental design stated the earthquake, fault, ground water, water quality, long-term displacement and survey methods. The working group on structural and environmental design described the tunnel design in fault and fracture zone, hollow, beam tunnel and service tunnel. The working group on construction and maintenance reported some examples of troubles in granite zone, survey for steering, shaft and inclined shaft. The working group on information investigation of ILC described analysis of reference materials, construction of LHC, beam tunnel and some points under consideration. (S.Y.)

  3. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.I: Accelerator R&D in the Technical Design Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Hélène Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  4. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Considering a rational maintenance rule of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential to determine how a detected flaw is detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes to be considered for carbon steel piping, and can be analyzed by the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have been provided as flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors such like the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants or the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section XI. The present correction factors were conventionally determined taken conservatism and simplicity into account, however, the effect of internal pressure which would be an important factor under an actual plant condition was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, 'LBB. ENGC' for ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected combined loading was newly developed to have a better prediction with more realistic manner. This method is explicitly incorporated the contribution of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of the scheme compatible with an arbitrary combined loading history. In this paper, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. A correction factor based on the new J-estimation scheme was compared with the present correction factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of internal pressure. (author)

  5. UQlust: combining profile hashing with linear-time ranking for efficient clustering and analysis of big macromolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Rafal; Meller, Jarek

    2016-12-28

    Advances in computing have enabled current protein and RNA structure prediction and molecular simulation methods to dramatically increase their sampling of conformational spaces. The quickly growing number of experimentally resolved structures, and databases such as the Protein Data Bank, also implies large scale structural similarity analyses to retrieve and classify macromolecular data. Consequently, the computational cost of structure comparison and clustering for large sets of macromolecular structures has become a bottleneck that necessitates further algorithmic improvements and development of efficient software solutions. uQlust is a versatile and easy-to-use tool for ultrafast ranking and clustering of macromolecular structures. uQlust makes use of structural profiles of proteins and nucleic acids, while combining a linear-time algorithm for implicit comparison of all pairs of models with profile hashing to enable efficient clustering of large data sets with a low memory footprint. In addition to ranking and clustering of large sets of models of the same protein or RNA molecule, uQlust can also be used in conjunction with fragment-based profiles in order to cluster structures of arbitrary length. For example, hierarchical clustering of the entire PDB using profile hashing can be performed on a typical laptop, thus opening an avenue for structural explorations previously limited to dedicated resources. The uQlust package is freely available under the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/uQlust . uQlust represents a drastic reduction in the computational complexity and memory requirements with respect to existing clustering and model quality assessment methods for macromolecular structure analysis, while yielding results on par with traditional approaches for both proteins and RNAs.

  6. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared microspectroscopic imaging using a large-radius germanium internal reflection element and a linear array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brian M; Havrilla, George J

    2006-11-01

    The number of techniques and instruments available for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic imaging has grown significantly over the past few years. Attenuated total internal reflectance (ATR) FT-IR microspectroscopy reduces sample preparation time and has simplified the analysis of many difficult samples. FT-IR imaging has become a powerful analytical tool using either a focal plane array or a linear array detector, especially when coupled with a chemometric analysis package. The field of view of the ATR-IR microspectroscopic imaging area can be greatly increased from 300 x 300 microm to 2500 x 2500 microm using a larger internal reflection element of 12.5 mm radius instead of the typical 1.5 mm radius. This gives an area increase of 70x before aberrant effects become too great. Parameters evaluated include the change in penetration depth as a function of beam displacement, measurements of the active area, magnification factor, and change in spatial resolution over the imaging area. Drawbacks such as large file size will also be discussed. This technique has been successfully applied to the FT-IR imaging of polydimethylsiloxane foam cross-sections, latent human fingerprints, and a model inorganic mixture, which demonstrates the usefulness of the method for pharmaceuticals.

  7. A linear combination of pharmacophore hypotheses as a new tool in search of new active compounds--an application for 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Warszycki

    Full Text Available This study explores a new approach to pharmacophore screening involving the use of an optimized linear combination of models instead of a single hypothesis. The implementation and evaluation of the developed methodology are performed for a complete known chemical space of 5-HT1AR ligands (3616 active compounds with K i < 100 nM acquired from the ChEMBL database. Clusters generated from three different methods were the basis for the individual pharmacophore hypotheses, which were assembled into optimal combinations to maximize the different coefficients, namely, MCC, accuracy and recall, to measure the screening performance. Various factors that influence filtering efficiency, including clustering methods, the composition of test sets (random, the most diverse and cluster population-dependent and hit mode (the compound must fit at least one or two models from a final combination were investigated. This method outmatched both single hypothesis and random linear combination approaches.

  8. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Testing Linear Combinations of Group Means under Variance Heterogeneity with Applications to Meta and Moderation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

    2015-01-01

    The general formulation of a linear combination of population means permits a wide range of research questions to be tested within the context of ANOVA. However, it has been stressed in many research areas that the homogeneous variances assumption is frequently violated. To accommodate the heterogeneity of variance structure, the…

  9. [Treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng-wang; Shi, Zhan-ying; Hu, Ju-zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the clinical effects of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures. From January 2008 to June 2014, 17 children of distal femur fractures were treated by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, aged from 6 to 13 years old with an average of 10.2 years, ranged in the course of disease from 1 h to 2 d. Preoperative diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray films in all children. There were 11 patients with supracondylar fracture , and 6 patients with intercondylar comminuted fracture. According to AO/ASIF classification, 9 fractures were type A1, 5 cases were type A2,and 3 cases were type C1. The intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative radiological examination, lower limbs length and motion of knee joints were observed. Knee joint function was assessed by KSS score. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months with an average of 24.4 months. No nerve or blood vessel injury was found. One case complicated with the external fixation loosening, 2 cases with the infection of pin hole and 3 cases with the leg length discrepancy. Knee joint mobility and length measurement (compared with the contralateral), the average limited inflexion was 10 degrees (0 degrees to 20 degrees), the average limited straight was 4 degrees (0 degrees to 10), the average varus or valgus angle was 3 degrees (0 degrees to 5 degrees). KSS of the injured side was (96.4 +/- 5.0) points at final follow-up, 16 cases got excellent results and 1 good. All fractures obtained healing and no epiphyseal closed early was found. External fixator combined with limited internal fixation has advantages of simple operation, reliable fixation, early functional exercise in treating pediatric distal femurs fractures.

  10. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Considering a rule for the rationalization of maintenance of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential for determining how a detected flaw will be detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes that must be considered for carbon steel piping and can be analyzed by elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have provided various flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors, such as the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants and the section XI of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. The present Z-factors were conventionally determined, taking conservativity and simplicity into account; however, the effect of internal pressure, which is an important factor under actual plant conditions, was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, LBB.ENGC for the ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected to combined loading was developed for more accurate prediction under more realistic conditions. This method explicitly incorporates the contributions of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of a scheme that is compatible with an arbitrary combined-loading history. In this study, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. The Z-factor obtained in this study was compared with the presently used Z-factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of the internal pressure. (author)

  11. limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Jin Ho; Lee, Kuk Hee; Chung, Ha Joo; Kim, Ju Hee; Han, Jae Jun; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) during inservice conditions produces local wall-thinning in the feeder pipes of CANDU. The Wall-thinning in the feeder pipes is main degradation mechanisms affecting the integrity of piping systems. This paper discusses the integrity assessment of wall-thinned feeder pipes using limit load analysis. Based on finite element limit analyses, this paper compare limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure with proposed limit loads. The limit loads are determined from limit analyses based on rectangular wall-thinning and elastic-perfectly-plastic materials using the large geometry change.

  12. International experience in addressing combined exposures: Increasing the efficiency of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    More efficient methodology for assessing the impact of combined exposures to multiple chemicals has been considered in a project of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Recommendations regarding terminology and the status of development of the framework, its content, review and application are described. Evolving experience in its application is illustrated by example (polybrominated diphenyls) with special emphasis on the critical content of problem formulation, the role of predictive tools in grouping of chemicals for consideration and the importance of explicit delineation of relative uncertainty and sensitivity for tiered assessment. Priorities in increasing the efficiency of risk assessment not only for combined exposures, but more generally based on experience acquired in developing the framework and its application in case studies are identified and recommendations included

  13. Implications of the 750 GeV γγ Resonance as a Case Study for the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Keisuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Inst. de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gao, Yuanning [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Center for High Energy Physics; Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kim, Hyungdo [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Nojiri, Mihoko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Poschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL). Centre Scientifique d' Orsay; Reuter, Jurgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Simon, Frank [Max Planck Inst. for Physics (MPP), Munich (Germany); Tanabe, Tomohiko [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wells, James D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Falkowski, Adam [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. of Theoretical Physics (LPT); Matsumoto, Shigeki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Moroi, Takeo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Richard, Francois [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL). Centre Scientifique d' Orsay; Tian, Junping [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP); Vos, Marcel [Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia (Spain) and Univ. of Valencia (Spain). Inst. for Corpuscular Physics (IFIC); Yokoya, Hiroshi [Korean Inst. for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of ). Quantum Universe Center; Murayama, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2016-07-14

    If the γγ resonance at 750 GeV suggested by 2015 LHC data turns out to be a real effect, what are the implications for the physics case and upgrade path of the International Linear Collider? Whether or not the resonance is confirmed, this question provides an interesting case study testing the robustness of the ILC physics case. In this note, we address this question with two points: (1) Almost all models proposed for the new 750 GeV particle require additional new particles with electroweak couplings. The key elements of the 500 GeV ILC physics program - precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark, and 4-fermion interactions - will powerfully discriminate among these models. This information will be important in conjunction with new LHC data, or alone, if the new particles accompanying the 750 GeV resonance are beyond the mass reach of the LHC. (2) Over a longer term, the energy upgrade of the ILC to 1 TeV already discussed in the ILC TDR will enable experiments in γγ and e+e- collisions to directly produce and study the 750 GeV particle from these unique initial states.

  14. Implications of the 750 GeV γγ resonance as a case study for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Grojean, Christophe; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelon; Peskin, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    If the γγ resonance at 750 GeV suggested by 2015 LHC data turns out to be a real effect, what are the implications for the physics case and upgrade path of the International Linear Collider? Whether or not the resonance is confirmed, this question provides an interesting case study testing the robustness of the ILC physics case. In this note, we address this question with two points: (1) Almost all models proposed for the new 750 GeV particle require additional new particles with electroweak couplings. The key elements of the 500 GeV ILC physics program - precision measurements of the Higgs boson, the top quark, and 4-fermion interactions - will powerfully discriminate among these models. This information will be important in conjunction with new LHC data, or alone, if the new particles accompanying the 750 GeV resonance are beyond the mass reach of the LHC. (2) Over a longer term, the energy upgrade of the ILC to 1 TeV already discussed in the ILC TDR will enable experiments in γγ and e"+e"- collisions to directly produce and study the 750 GeV particle from these unique initial states.

  15. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  16. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  17. A Test of a Linear Programming Model as an Optimal Solution to the Problem of Combining Methods of Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The Study reported here tested an application of the Linear Programming Model at the Reading Clinic of Drew University. Results, while not conclusive, indicate that this approach yields greater gains in speed scores than a traditional approach for this population. (Author)

  18. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  19. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  20. PREFACE: 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    The 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida, USA, during the week of 19-24 April 2015. The meeting drew some 75 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the energization of particles from the perspectives of theory, modelling and simulations, and observations. The theme of the meeting was "Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond." Energetic particles are ubiquitous to plasma environments, whether collisionless such as the supersonic solar wind, the magnetospheres of planets, the exospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets, the heliospheric-local interstellar boundary regions, interstellar space and supernova remnant shocks, and stellar wind boundaries. Energetic particles are found too in more collisional regions such as in the solar corona, dense regions of the interstellar medium, accretion flows around stellar objects, to name a few. Particle acceleration occurs wherever plasma boundaries, magnetic and electric fields, and turbulence are present. The meeting addressed the linear and nonlinear physical processes underlying the variety of particle acceleration mechanisms, the role of particle acceleration in shaping different environments, and acceleration processes common to different regions. Both theory and observations were addressed with a view to encouraging crossdisciplinary fertilization of ideas, concepts, and techniques. The meeting addressed all aspects of particle acceleration in regions ranging from the Sun to the interplanetary medium to magnetospheres, exospheres, and comets, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and beyond to supernova remnant shocks, galactic jets, stellar winds, accretion flows, and more. The format of the meeting included 25-minute presentations punctuated by two 40-minute talks, one by Len Fisk that provided an historical overview of particle acceleration in the

  1. Hadrons in a highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter - Top quark production at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doublet, P.

    2011-10-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e + e - collider with a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV or more, aimed at precision measurements, e.g. of a light Higgs boson that could be discovered soon at the Large Hadron Collider. Its detectors foresee the use of fine grained calorimeters to achieve the desired accuracy. This thesis presents the study of the response to hadrons of a highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW ECAL), and the study of top quark pair production at the ILC. The SiW ECAL prototype developed by the CALICE collaboration was tested with beams of charged particles at FNAL in May and July 2008. After selecting single negatively charged pions entering the ECAL, its fine granularity is used to introduce a classification among four types of events, used to describe hadronic interactions. Motivated by extra-dimensional models which may explain the A FB b LEP anomaly by modifying the couplings of third generation quarks to the Z boson, the semileptonic decay of the top quark is studied with a full simulation of the proposed ILD detector for the ILC at center-of-mass energy of √(s)=500 GeV and integrated luminosity L=500 fb -1 . Detector performances permit to reach efficiencies larger than 70% in finding those events with a purity larger than 95%. This translates into a relative accuracy of about 1% on both the left-right asymmetry of top production A LR 0,t and the top forward-backward asymmetry A FB t with electrons polarized at 80% and no polarization of the positrons. The relative uncertainties in the left and right couplings of the top quark to the Z boson could be as good as 0.9% and 1.5%. (author)

  2. The effect of the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna for large area magnetized inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Shulika, Olga.; Kim, K. N.; Yeom, G. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2004-09-01

    As the technology of plasma processing progresses, there is a continuing demand for higher plasma density, uniformity over large areas and greater control over plasma parameters to optimize the processes of etching, deposition and surface treatment. Traditionally, the external planar ICP sources with low pressure high density plasma have limited scale-up capabilities due to its high impedance accompanied by the large antenna size. Also due to the cost and thickness of their dielectric material in order to generate uniform plasma. In this study the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna system (1,020mm¡¿830mm¡¿437mm) with permanent magnet arrays are investigated to improve both the plasma density and the uniformity of LAPS (Large Area Plasma Source) for FPD processing. Generally plasma discharges are enhanced because the inductance of the novel antenna (termed as the double comb antenna) is lower than that of the serpentine-type antenna and also the magnetic confinement of electron increases the power absorption efficiency. The uniformity is improved by reducing the standing wave effect. The total length of antenna is comparable to the driving rf wavelength to cause the plasma nonuniformity. To describe the discharge phenomenon we have developed a magnetized two-dimensional fluid simulation. This work was supported by National Research Laboratory (NRL) Program of the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. [References] 1. J.K.Lee, Lin Meng, Y.K.Shin, H,J,Lee and T.H.Chung, ¡°Modeling and Simulation of a Large-Area Plasma Source¡±, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.36(1997) pp. 5714-5723 2. S.E.Park, B.U.Cho, Y.J.Lee*, and G.Y.Yeom*, and J.K.Lee, ¡°The Characteristics of Large Area Processing Plasmas¡±, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol.31 ,No.4(2003) pp. 628-637

  3. Beyond the Traditional Linear View of International Managerial Careers: A New Model of the Senior Female Career in an International Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Margaret; Walsh, James S.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 50 female senior managers who made international career moves found that senior experience before international assignments was more necessary for female than male managers. The glass ceiling in the home country resulted in fewer women in international management, and those with international assignments faced many gender-related…

  4. Combined Exposures: An update from the International comission on biological effects of noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Leroux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN Team 8 deals with the effects of combined "agents" in the urban and work place settings. Results presented at the ICBEN conference indicate that some pesticides, more specifically the organophosphates, and a wider range of industrial chemicals are harmful to the auditory system at concentrations often found in occupational settings. Effects of occupational noise on hearing are exacerbated by toluene and possibly by carbon monoxide. Several of the chemicals studied found to be potentially toxic not only to hair cells in the cochlea but also to the auditory nerve. In urban environments, team 8 focuses on additive and synergetic effects of ambient stressors. It was argued that noise policies need to pay attention to grey areas with intermediate noise levels. Noteworthy is also stronger reactions to vibrations experienced in the evening and during the night. An innovative event-based model for sound perception was presented.

  5. The Combined Internal and Principal Parametric Resonances on Continuum Stator System of Asynchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baizhou Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing requirement of quiet electrical machines in the civil and defense industry, it is very significant and necessary to predict the vibration and noise characteristics of stator and rotor in the early conceptual phase. Therefore, the combined internal and principal parametric resonances of a stator system excited by radial electromagnetic force are presented in this paper. The stator structure is modeled as a continuum double-shell system which is loaded by a varying distributed electromagnetic load. The nonlinear dynamic equations are derived and solved by the method of multiple scales. The influences of mechanical and electromagnetic parameters on resonance characteristics are illustrated by the frequency-response curves. Furthermore, the Runge-Kutta method is adopted to numerically analyze steady-state response for the further understanding of the resonance characteristics with different parameters.

  6. Combining total internal reflection sum frequency spectroscopy spectral imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, Edward S; Sterling, Sarah M; Gunewardene, Mudalige S; Hess, Samuel T; Neivandt, David J; Mason, Michael D

    2015-01-27

    Understanding surface and interfacial lateral organization in material and biological systems is critical in nearly every field of science. The continued development of tools and techniques viable for elucidation of interfacial and surface information is therefore necessary to address new questions and further current investigations. Sum frequency spectroscopy (SFS) is a label-free, nonlinear optical technique with inherent surface specificity that can yield critical organizational information on interfacial species. Unfortunately, SFS provides no spatial information on a surface; small scale heterogeneities that may exist are averaged over the large areas typically probed. Over the past decade, this has begun to be addressed with the advent of SFS microscopy. Here we detail the construction and function of a total internal reflection (TIR) SFS spectral and confocal fluorescence imaging microscope directly amenable to surface investigations. This instrument combines, for the first time, sample scanning TIR-SFS imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  7. EAST kinetic equilibrium reconstruction combining with Polarimeter-Interferometer internal measurement constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, H.; Liu, H. Q.; Li, K.; Zou, Z. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wu, M. Q.; Li, G. Q.; Zeng, L.; Zang, Q.; Lv, B.; Jie, Y. X.; EAST Team

    2017-12-01

    Plasma equilibrium reconstruction plays an important role in the tokamak plasma research. With a high temporal and spatial resolution, the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system on EAST has provided effective measurements for 102s H-mode operation. Based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POINT system, the equilibrium reconstruction with a more accurate core current profile constraint has been demonstrated successfully on EAST. Combining other experimental diagnostics and external magnetic fields measurement, the kinetic equilibrium has also been reconstructed on EAST. Take the pressure and edge current information from kinetic EFIT into the equilibrium reconstruction with Faraday rotation constraint, the new equilibrium reconstruction not only provides a more accurate internal current profile but also contains edge current and pressure information. One time slice result using new kinetic equilibrium reconstruction with POINT data constraints is demonstrated in this paper and the result shows there is a reversed shear of q profile and the pressure profile is also contained. The new improved equilibrium reconstruction is greatly helpful to the future theoretical analysis.

  8. Business combinations under common control in International Financial Reporting Standards – is authoritative accounting guidance needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Janowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Business combinations under common control in International Financial Reporting Standards – is authoritative accounting guidance needed? The purpose of the article is to answer the question if a separate standard (IFRS is needed for business combinations under common control (BCUCC, which are not governed by any IFRS as the moment. In such cases, the approach resulting from IAS 8 should apply to them, which allows the use of national regulations to account for BCUCC. The authoress shortly described the theoretical issues related to the subject and presented the results of empirical research that verified the practical aspects of the problem. The research methodology involves a literature and legal act analysis, content analysis of financial statements, as well as deductive and inductive reasoning. On the basis of the gathered data the authoress concluded that even the existence of necessary regulations in national GAAPs does not guarantee that all the requirements related to the qualitative characteristics of the reported information are met and, as such, the main objectives for which IFRS were developed may not be met. As such, the authoritative guidance proves necessary. Very little research on the subject was published, thus, this paper may provide some additional guidance as to what issues related to BCUCC should receive particular attention.

  9. Comparison of strategies for combining dynamic linear models with artificial neural networks for detecting diarrhea in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Børge; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    The drinking behavior of healthy pigs is known to follow predictable diurnal patterns, and these patterns are further known to change in relation to undesired events such as diarrhea. We therefore expect that automatic monitoring of slaughter pig drinking behavior, combined with machine learning...

  10. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  11. Explaining Organizational Export Performance by Single and Combined International Business Competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birru, Worku Tuffa; Runhaar, Piety; Zaalberg, Ruud; Lans, Thomas; Mulder, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study explores relationships between export performance and international business competencies (international orientation, export market orientation and international entrepreneurial orientation), and interactions between the competencies. Data from on-site structured interviews with 159

  12. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  13. Non-linear multivariate and multiscale monitoring and signal denoising strategy using Kernel Principal Component Analysis combined with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvokelj, Matej; Zupan, Samo; Prebil, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    The article presents a novel non-linear multivariate and multiscale statistical process monitoring and signal denoising method which combines the strengths of the Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) non-linear multivariate monitoring approach with the benefits of Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to handle multiscale system dynamics. The proposed method which enables us to cope with complex even severe non-linear systems with a wide dynamic range was named the EEMD-based multiscale KPCA (EEMD-MSKPCA). The method is quite general in nature and could be used in different areas for various tasks even without any really deep understanding of the nature of the system under consideration. Its efficiency was first demonstrated by an illustrative example, after which the applicability for the task of bearing fault detection, diagnosis and signal denosing was tested on simulated as well as actual vibration and acoustic emission (AE) signals measured on purpose-built large-size low-speed bearing test stand. The positive results obtained indicate that the proposed EEMD-MSKPCA method provides a promising tool for tackling non-linear multiscale data which present a convolved picture of many events occupying different regions in the time-frequency plane.

  14. Efficient Narrowband Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on a Combination of Uniform Linear/Shirvani-Akbari Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shirvani Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform linear array (ULA geometry does not perform well for direction of arrival (DOA estimation at directions close to the array endfires. Shirvani and Akbari solved this problem by displacing two elements from both ends of the ULA to the top and/or bottom of the array axis. Shirvani-Akbari array (SAA presents a considerable improvement in the DOA estimation of narrowband sources arriving at endfire directions in terms of DOA estimation accuracy and angular resolution. In this paper, all new proposed SAA configurations are modelled and also examined, numerically. In this paper, two well-known DOA estimation algorithms, multiple signal classification (MUSIC and minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR, are used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed arrays using total root mean square error (RMSE criterion. In addition, two new scenarios are proposed which divide angular search to two parts, directions close to array endfires as well as middle angles. For middle angles, which belong to (−70∘≤≤70∘, ULA is considered, and for endfire angles, the angles which belong to (−90∘≤≤−70∘ and (70∘≤≤90∘, SAA is considered. Simulation results of new proposed scenarios for DOA estimation of narrowband signals show the better performance with lower computational load.

  15. Electronic Control on Linear versus Branched Alkylation of 2-/3-Aroylbenzofurans with Acrylates: Combined DFT and Synthetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kolluru; Dangat, Yuvraj; Kommagalla, Yadagiri; Vanka, Kumar; Ramana, Chepuri V

    2017-06-01

    Investigations on the factors that govern unusual branched alkylation of 2-aroylbenzofurans with acrylates by Ru-catalyzed carbonyl-directed C-H activation has been carried out by calculating the kinetics associated with the two key steps-the coordination of the acrylate with the intermediate ruthenacycle and the subsequent migratory insertion reaction-studied with the help of DFT calculations. Eight possible orientations for each mode of alkylation have been considered for the calculations. From these calculations, it has been understood that there is a synergistic operation of the steric and electronic effects favoring the branched alkylation. Further DFT investigations on the alkylation of the isomeric 3-aroylbenzofurans indicated a preference for the linear alkylation and this has been verified experimentally. Overall, the observed/calculated complementary selectivity in the alkylation of 2-/3-aroylbenzofurans with acrylates reveals that the substrate-dependent charge distribution of the Ru-C bond in the intermediate ruthenacycle is an important determining factor and thus the current work opens up a new domain of substrate design for controlling regioselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. CSSI-PRO: a method for secondary structure type editing, assignment and estimation in proteins using linear combination of backbone chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Monalisa; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of secondary structure in polypeptides is important for studying their structure, folding and dynamics. In NMR spectroscopy, such information is generally obtained after sequence specific resonance assignments are completed. We present here a new methodology for assignment of secondary structure type to spin systems in proteins directly from NMR spectra, without prior knowledge of resonance assignments. The methodology, named Combination of Shifts for Secondary Structure Identification in Proteins (CSSI-PRO), involves detection of specific linear combination of backbone 1 H α and 13 C' chemical shifts in a two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment based on G-matrix Fourier transform (GFT) NMR spectroscopy. Such linear combinations of shifts facilitate editing of residues belonging to α-helical/β-strand regions into distinct spectral regions nearly independent of the amino acid type, thereby allowing the estimation of overall secondary structure content of the protein. Comparison of the predicted secondary structure content with those estimated based on their respective 3D structures and/or the method of Chemical Shift Index for 237 proteins gives a correlation of more than 90% and an overall rmsd of 7.0%, which is comparable to other biophysical techniques used for structural characterization of proteins. Taken together, this methodology has a wide range of applications in NMR spectroscopy such as rapid protein structure determination, monitoring conformational changes in protein-folding/ligand-binding studies and automated resonance assignment

  17. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children’s morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood. PMID:25355319

  18. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood.

  19. Linear Representation of Emotions in Whole Persons by Combining Facial and Bodily Expressions in the Extrastriate Body Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Xu, Junhai; Cao, Linjing; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Baolin

    2018-01-01

    Our human brain can rapidly and effortlessly perceive a person’s emotional state by integrating the isolated emotional faces and bodies into a whole. Behavioral studies have suggested that the human brain encodes whole persons in a holistic rather than part-based manner. Neuroimaging studies have also shown that body-selective areas prefer whole persons to the sum of their parts. The body-selective areas played a crucial role in representing the relationships between emotions expressed by different parts. However, it remains unclear in which regions the perception of whole persons is represented by a combination of faces and bodies, and to what extent the combination can be influenced by the whole person’s emotions. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected when participants performed an emotion distinction task. Multi-voxel pattern analysis was conducted to examine how the whole person-evoked responses were associated with the face- and body-evoked responses in several specific brain areas. We found that in the extrastriate body area (EBA), the whole person patterns were most closely correlated with weighted sums of face and body patterns, using different weights for happy expressions but equal weights for angry and fearful ones. These results were unique for the EBA. Our findings tentatively support the idea that the whole person patterns are represented in a part-based manner in the EBA, and modulated by emotions. These data will further our understanding of the neural mechanism underlying perceiving emotional persons. PMID:29375348

  20. Combined fixation, intern and external, in proximal complex fractures of the tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Laverde, Jaime; Lozano Ortiz, Victor Hugo; Rojas Duque, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Between August of 1997 and December of 2001, they were treated in the orthopedics department and traumatology of the Hospital Clinica San Rafael, 16 patients with proximal complex fractures of the tibia, using internal fixation with plate in the lateral column and an unilateral external fixer, for the medial column. It carries out a clinical and radiological pursuit with average of 27 months (minimum 4.5, maximum 40 months). In 15 patients (93,7%) it was obtained a primary consolidation and 1 case (6,2%) it presented retard in the consolidation being necessary the placement of bony implants. in 2 cases (12,5%) there was superficial infection, one in the itinerary of the nails and another in area of superficial necrosis in soft fabrics in a closed fracture. single 1 case (6,2) it presented deep infection, which, it improve with bony curettage and antibiotics. In the final radiographic evaluation, 2 cases (12,5%) they presented depression of the lateral plate; according to the functional scale of Rasmussen excellent results were obtained (27 to 30 points) in 11 cases (68,7%) and good (20 to 26 points) in 5 cases (31,2%). The radiographic results and functional global they suggest that the combination of a technique less invasive in this area criticizes, it represents a good alternative for the treatment of the proximal complex fractures of the tibia

  1. Characterization of Dispersion Strengthened Copper Alloy Prepared by Internal Oxidation Combined with Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziqian; Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhou; Zhu, Mengnan; Yang, Ziqi

    2017-11-01

    Cu-3.6 vol.% Al2O3 dispersion strengthened alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of internal oxidation Cu-Al powders. The lattice parameter of Cu matrix decreased with milling time for powders milled in argon, while the abnormal increase of lattice parameter occurred in the air resulting from mechanochemical reactions. With a quantitative analysis, the combined method makes residual aluminum oxidized completely within 10-20 h while mechanical alloying method alone needs longer than 40 h. Lamellar structure formed and the thickness of lamellar structure decreased with milling time. The size of Al2O3 particles decreased from 46 to 22 nm after 40 h milling. After reduction, core-shell structure was found in MAed powders milled in the air. The compacted alloy produced by MAed powders milled in the argon had an average hardness and electrical conductivity of 172.2 HV and 82.1% IACS while the unmilled alloy's were 119.8 HV and 74.1% IACS due to the Al2O3 particles refinement and residual aluminum in situ oxidization.

  2. An Empiric Linear Formula between the Internal Tetrahedron Symmetric Stretch Frequency and the Al Content in the Framework of KL Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nong Yue HE; Chun YANG; Jian Xin TANG; Peng Feng XIAO; Hong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    KL molecular sieves with different framework compositions were secondarily synthesized by substituting Si for Al with a solution of (NH4)2SiF6. The internal tetrahedron symmetric stretch frequency, at ν770 cm-1, is linear with the molar fraction of Al (XAl= Al/(Si+Al)) in the framework of KL samples: XAl = -7.309×10-3 (υ770-760) + 0.3242.

  3. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trzaska

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role.

  4. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled parallel crystallization of lithium disilicate and diopside using a combination of internal and surface nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rampf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-19th century, Dr. Donald Stookey identified the importance and usability of nucleating agents and mechanisms for the development of glass-ceramic materials. Today, a number of various internal and surface mechanisms as well as combinations thereof have been established in the production of glass-ceramic materials. In order to create new innovative material properties the present study focuses on the precipitation of CaMgSiO6 as a minor phase in Li2Si2O5 based glass-ceramics. In the base glass of the SiO2-Li2O-P2O5-Al2O3-K2O-MgO-CaO system P2O5 serves as nucleating agent for the internal precipitation of Li2Si2O5 crystals while a mechanical activation of the glass surface by means of ball milling is necessary to nucleate the minor CaMgSi2O6 crystal phase. For a successful precipitation of CaMgSi2O6 a minimum ratio of MgO and CaO in the range between 1.4 mol% and 2.9 mol% in the base glasses was determined. The nucleation and crystallization of both crystal phases takes place during sintering a powder compact. Dependent on the quality of the sintering process the dense Li2Si2O5-CaMgSi2O6 glass-ceramics show a mean biaxial strength of up to 392 ± 98 MPa. The microstructure of the glass-ceramics is formed by large (5-10 µm bar like CaMgSi2O6 crystals randomly embedded in a matrix of small (≤ 0.5 µm plate like Li2Si2O5 crystals arranged in an interlocking manner. While there is no significant influence of the minor CaMgSi2O6 phase on the strength of the material, the translucency of the material decreases upon precipitation of the minor phase.

  6. Single-Bunch Instability Driven by the Electron Cloud Effect in the Positron Damping Ring of the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Ghalam, Ali; Harkay, Katherine; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Collective instabilities caused by the formation of an electron cloud (EC) are a potential limitation to the performances of the damping rings for a future linear collider. In this paper, we present recent simulation results for the electron cloud build-up in damping rings of different circumferences and discuss the single-bunch instabilities driven by the electron cloud

  7. Accuracy of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of 2-hydroxyglutarate using linear combination and J-difference editing at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ulf; Kickingereder, Philipp; Helluy, Xavier; Fischer, Manuel; Bendszus, Martin; Heiland, Sabine

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy is attractive since it is related to tumor metabolism. Here, we compare the detection accuracy of 2HG in a controlled phantom setting via widely used localized spectroscopy sequences quantified by linear combination of metabolite signals vs. a more complex approach applying a J-difference editing technique at 9.4T. Different phantoms, comprised out of a concentration series of 2HG and overlapping brain metabolites, were measured with an optimized point-resolved-spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and an in-house developed J-difference editing sequence. The acquired spectra were post-processed with LCModel and a simulated metabolite set (PRESS) or with a quantification formula for J-difference editing. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation of real 2HG values with those measured with the PRESS method (adjusted R-squared: 0.700, pJ-difference editing method (adjusted R-squared: 0.908, pJ-difference editing method however had a significantly higher explanatory value over the regression model with the PRESS method (pJ-difference editing 2HG was discernible down to 1mM, whereas with the PRESS method 2HG values were not discernable below 2mM and with higher systematic errors, particularly in phantoms with high concentrations of N-acetyl-asparate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu). In summary, quantification of 2HG with linear combination of metabolite signals shows high systematic errors particularly at low 2HG concentration and high concentration of confounding metabolites such as NAA and Glu. In contrast, J-difference editing offers a more accurate quantification even at low 2HG concentrations, which outweighs the downsides of longer measurement time and more complex postprocessing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Accuracy of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quantification of 2-hydroxyglutarate using linear combination and J-difference editing at 9.4 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Ulf; Fischer, Manuel; Heiland, Sabine [Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Experimental Radiology; Kickingereder, Philipp; Bendszus, Martin [Univ. of Heidelberg Medical Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Helluy, Xavier [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biopsychology

    2017-07-01

    Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy is attractive since it is related to tumor metabolism. Here, we compare the detection accuracy of 2HG in a controlled phantom setting via widely used localized spectroscopy sequences quantified by linear combination of metabolite signals vs. a more complex approach applying a J-difference editing technique at 9.4 T. Different phantoms, comprised out of a concentration series of 2HG and overlapping brain metabolites, were measured with an optimized point-resolved-spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) and an in-house developed J-difference editing sequence. The acquired spectra were post-processed with LCModel and a simulated metabolite set (PRESS) or with a quantification formula for J-difference editing. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation of real 2HG values with those measured with the PRESS method (adjusted R-squared: 0.700, p < 0.001) as well as with those measured with the J-difference editing method (adjusted R-squared: 0.908, p < 0.001). The regression model with the J-difference editing method however had a significantly higher explanatory value over the regression model with the PRESS method (p < 0.0001). Moreover, with J-difference editing 2HG was discernible down to 1 mM, whereas with the PRESS method 2HG values were not discernable below 2 mM and with higher systematic errors, particularly in phantoms with high concentrations of N-acetyl-asparate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu). In summary, quantification of 2HG with linear combination of metabolite signals shows high systematic errors particularly at low 2HG concentration and high concentration of confounding metabolites such as NAA and Glu. In contrast, J-difference editing offers a more accurate quantification even at low 2HG concentrations, which outweighs the downsides of longer measurement time and more complex postprocessing.

  9. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together.

  10. A computational methodology for a micro launcher engine test bench using a combined linear static and dynamic in frequency response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces, displacements and stress function of frequency, under a combined linear static (101 Solution - Linear Static and dynamic load in frequency response (108 Solution - Frequency Response, Direct Method, applied to a micro launcher engine test bench, using NASTRAN 400 Solution - Implicit Nonlinear. NASTRAN/PATRAN software is used. Practically in PATRAN the preprocessor has to define a linear or nonlinear static load at step 1 and a dynamic in frequency response load (time dependent at step 2. In Analyze the following options are chosen: for Solution Type Implicit Nonlinear Solution (SOL 400 is selected, for Subcases Static Load and Transient Dynamic is chosen and for Subcase Select the two cases static and dynamic will be selected. NASTRAN solver will overlap results from static analysis with the dynamic analysis. The running time will be reduced three times if using Krylov solver. NASTRAN SYSTEM (387 = -1 instruction is used in order to activate Krylov option. Also, in Analysis the OP2 Output Format shall be selected, meaning that in bdf NASTRAN input file the PARAM POST 1 instruction shall be written. The structural damping can be defined in two different ways: either at the material card or using the PARAM, G, 0.05 instruction (in this example a damping coefficient by 5% was used. The SDAMPING instruction in pair with TABDMP1 work only for dynamic in frequency response, modal method, or in direct method with viscoelastic material, not for dynamic in frequency response, direct method (DFREQ, with linear elastic material. The Direct method – DFREQ used in this example is more accurate. A set in translation of boundary conditions was used and defined at the base of the test bench.

  11. Radical resection for low rectal carcinoma combined with infusion pump chemotherapy via internal iliac artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo YANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects and practicability of radical resection for low rectal carcinoma with infusion pump chemotherapy via internal iliac artery,and explore the correlation factors influencing the therapeutic effects.Methods Data of 316 patients with low rectal carcinoma,admitted from Oct.1997 to Mar.2008,were retrospectively analyzed and assigned into 2 groups according to the treatment: Patients received infusion pump chemotherapy via internal iliac artery to target area combined with intravenous systemic chemotherapy were assigned into group A(n=249,and those receiving systemic chemotherapy alone following radical resection were assigned to group B(n=67.The timing of pump chemotherapy to target area in group A was set at day 12 after recovery of digestive function,with regimen of 5-FU at 0.5g per dose plus hydroxycamptothecin at 10-15mg per dose,twice a week,four times as a treatment course for a total of 6 courses,and it was followed by intravenously systemic chemotherapy with a regimen of FOLFIRI or FOLFOX.In group B,at day 12 right after recovery of digestive function,the intravenous sytemic chemotherapy was started with the same regimen as in group A.The local recurrence rate,metastasis rate and survival rate after 1,3 and 5 years in the two groups were respectively observed and compared,and the correlation between the clinicopathological features and the 5 year local recurrence rates and survival rates was analyzed in patients of group A.Results In group A,the local recurrence rate at year 1,3 and 5 was 0,1.68%(4/238 and 3.79%(8/211,respectively,the metastasis rate was 0.80%(2/249,4.62%(11/238 and 10.90%(23/211,respectively,and the survival rate was 100%,77.73%(185/238 and 72.04%(152/211,respectively.In group B,the local recurrence rate at year 1,3 and 5 was 0,9.52%(6/63 and 16.36%(9/55,respectively,the metastasis rate was 1.49%(1/67,15.87%(10/63 and 27.27%(15/55,respectively,and the survival rate was 100

  12. The Contribution of International Large-Scale Assessments to Educational Research: Combining Individual and Institutional Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietholt, Rolf; Scherer, Ronny

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aims to discuss how data from international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) can be utilized and combined, even with other existing data sources, in order to monitor educational outcomes and study the effectiveness of educational systems. We consider different purposes of linking data, namely, extending outcomes measures,…

  13. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region. PMID:29249950

  14. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region.

  15. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Localizing internal friction along the reaction coordinate of protein folding by combining ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Wensley, Beth G.; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Hoffmann, Armin; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Lipman, Everett A.; Clarke, Jane; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Theory, simulations and experimental results have suggested an important role of internal friction in the kinetics of protein folding. Recent experiments on spectrin domains provided the first evidence for a pronounced contribution of internal friction in proteins that fold on the millisecond timescale. However, it has remained unclear how this contribution is distributed along the reaction and what influence it has on the folding dynamics. Here we use a combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, microfluidic mixing and denaturant- and viscosity-dependent protein-folding kinetics to probe internal friction in the unfolded state and at the early and late transition states of slow- and fast-folding spectrin domains. We find that the internal friction affecting the folding rates of spectrin domains is highly localized to the early transition state, suggesting an important role of rather specific interactions in the rate-limiting conformational changes. PMID:23149740

  17. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-05

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r(2)=0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L(-1) for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n=6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid phase microextraction of diclofenac using molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in hollow fiber combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    A simple solid phase microextraction method based on molecularly imprinted polymer sorbent in the hollow fiber (MIP-HF-SPME) combined with fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometer has been applied for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in environmental and biological samples. The effects of different parameters such as pH, times of extraction, type and volume of the organic solvent, stirring rate and donor phase volume on the extraction efficiency of the diclofenac were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear (r2 = 0.998) in the range of 3.0-85.0 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.7 μg L-1 for preconcentration of 25.0 mL of the sample and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) less than 5%. This method was applied successfully for the extraction and determination of diclofenac in different matrices (water, urine and plasma) and accuracy was examined through the recovery experiments.

  19. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  20. Estimating Dbh of Trees Employing Multiple Linear Regression of the best Lidar-Derived Parameter Combination Automated in Python in a Natural Broadleaf Forest in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, C. A. G.; Carcellar, B. G., III; Paringit, E. C.; Argamosa, R. J. L.; Faelga, R. A. G.; Posilero, M. A. V.; Zaragosa, G. P.; Dimayacyac, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Diameter-at-Breast-Height Estimation is a prerequisite in various allometric equations estimating important forestry indices like stem volume, basal area, biomass and carbon stock. LiDAR Technology has a means of directly obtaining different forest parameters, except DBH, from the behavior and characteristics of point cloud unique in different forest classes. Extensive tree inventory was done on a two-hectare established sample plot in Mt. Makiling, Laguna for a natural growth forest. Coordinates, height, and canopy cover were measured and types of species were identified to compare to LiDAR derivatives. Multiple linear regression was used to get LiDAR-derived DBH by integrating field-derived DBH and 27 LiDAR-derived parameters at 20m, 10m, and 5m grid resolutions. To know the best combination of parameters in DBH Estimation, all possible combinations of parameters were generated and automated using python scripts and additional regression related libraries such as Numpy, Scipy, and Scikit learn were used. The combination that yields the highest r-squared or coefficient of determination and lowest AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion) and BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) was determined to be the best equation. The equation is at its best using 11 parameters at 10mgrid size and at of 0.604 r-squared, 154.04 AIC and 175.08 BIC. Combination of parameters may differ among forest classes for further studies. Additional statistical tests can be supplemented to help determine the correlation among parameters such as Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Coefficient and the Barlett's Test for Spherecity (BTS).

  1. Boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines and their two-step combinations with multiple linear regression or partial least squares to predict blood-brain barrier passage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Zhang, M H; Petitet, F; Dubus, E; Ijjaali, I; Coomans, D; Vander Heyden, Y

    2008-02-18

    The use of some unconventional non-linear modeling techniques, i.e. classification and regression trees and multivariate adaptive regression splines-based methods, was explored to model the blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage of drugs and drug-like molecules. The data set contains BBB passage values for 299 structural and pharmacological diverse drugs, originating from a structured knowledge-based database. Models were built using boosted regression trees (BRT) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), as well as their respective combinations with stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression in two-step approaches. The best models were obtained using combinations of MARS with either stepwise MLR or PLS. It could be concluded that the use of combinations of a linear with a non-linear modeling technique results in some improved properties compared to the individual linear and non-linear models and that, when the use of such a combination is appropriate, combinations using MARS as non-linear technique should be preferred over those with BRT, due to some serious drawbacks of the BRT approaches.

  2. Multiaxial ratcheting behavior of zirconium alloy tubes under combined cyclic axial load and internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.; Zhang, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, D.K. [Environmental Corrosion Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, D.H. [Hunan Taohuajiang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Yiyang, 413000 (China); Chen, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zhe.zhang@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a series of uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted at room temperature on zirconium alloy tubes. The experimental results showed that for uniaxial symmetrical cyclic test, the axial ratcheting strain ɛ{sub x} did not accumulate obviously in initial stage, but gradually increased up to 1% with increasing stress amplitude σ{sub xa}. For multiaxial ratcheting tests, the zirconium alloy tube was highly sensitive to both the axial stress amplitude σ{sub xa} and the internal pressure p{sub i}. The hoop ratcheting strain ɛ{sub θ} increased continuously with the increase of axial stress amplitude, whereas the evolution of axial ratcheting strain ɛ{sub x} was related to the axial stress amplitude. The internal pressure restricted the ratcheting accumulation in the axial direction, but promoted the hoop ratcheting strain on the contrary. The prior loading history greatly restrained the ratcheting behavior of subsequent cycling with a small internal pressure. - Highlights: •Uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting behavior of the zirconium alloy tubes are investigated at room temperature. •The ratcheting depends greatly on the stress amplitude or internal pressure. •The interaction between the axial and hoop ratcheting mechanisms is greatly dependent on the internal pressure level. •The ratcheting is influenced significantly by the loading history of internal pressure.

  3. Multiaxial ratcheting behavior of zirconium alloy tubes under combined cyclic axial load and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Zhang, X.; Xu, D.K.; Li, D.H.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a series of uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting tests were conducted at room temperature on zirconium alloy tubes. The experimental results showed that for uniaxial symmetrical cyclic test, the axial ratcheting strain ɛ x did not accumulate obviously in initial stage, but gradually increased up to 1% with increasing stress amplitude σ xa . For multiaxial ratcheting tests, the zirconium alloy tube was highly sensitive to both the axial stress amplitude σ xa and the internal pressure p i . The hoop ratcheting strain ɛ θ increased continuously with the increase of axial stress amplitude, whereas the evolution of axial ratcheting strain ɛ x was related to the axial stress amplitude. The internal pressure restricted the ratcheting accumulation in the axial direction, but promoted the hoop ratcheting strain on the contrary. The prior loading history greatly restrained the ratcheting behavior of subsequent cycling with a small internal pressure. - Highlights: •Uniaxial and multiaxial ratcheting behavior of the zirconium alloy tubes are investigated at room temperature. •The ratcheting depends greatly on the stress amplitude or internal pressure. •The interaction between the axial and hoop ratcheting mechanisms is greatly dependent on the internal pressure level. •The ratcheting is influenced significantly by the loading history of internal pressure.

  4. Combined IR imaging-neural network method for the estimation of internal temperature in cooked chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Juan G.; Tao, Yang; Xin, Hongwei

    2000-11-01

    A noninvasive method for the estimation of internal temperature in chicken meat immediately following cooking is proposed. The external temperature from IR images was correlated with measured internal temperature through a multilayer neural network. To provide inputs for the network, time series experiments were conducted to obtain simultaneous observations of internal and external temperatures immediately after cooking during the cooling process. An IR camera working at the spectral band of 3.4 to 5.0 micrometers registered external temperature distributions without the interference of close-to-oven environment, while conventional thermocouples registered internal temperatures. For an internal temperature at a given time, simultaneous and lagged external temperature observations were used as the input of the neural network. Based on practical and statistical considerations, a criterion is established to reduce the nodes in the neural network input. The combined method was able to estimate internal temperature for times between 0 and 540 s within a standard error of +/- 1.01 degree(s)C, and within an error of +/- 1.07 degree(s)C for short times after cooking (3 min), with two thermograms at times t and t+30s. The method has great potential for monitoring of doneness of chicken meat in conveyor belt type cooking and can be used as a platform for similar studies in other food products.

  5. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Modern low-energy buildings are often associated with efficient shading devices, as an inevitable component to reduce the peak heat gain in the building and to improve visual comfort. Internal shading devices may have inferior performance compared to external shading, but these are still the most...... used in practice due to lower cost, simplicity and better acceptance between architects and users. The interplay between glazing systems and internal shading devices has been studied and in everyday practice this interplay is described by the solar shading coefficient and the total g......-value of the system (window + roller blind). Solar shading coefficient in such practice is assumed to be independent of the window properties and solar incidence angle. This paper is aimed to illustrate the deviation between the actual and assumed performance of the window system with internal roller blind. This task...

  6. Data acquisition for the CALICE engineering prototype of the analog hadronic calorimeter for the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irles, Adrian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The engineering prototype of the Analogue Hadronic Calorimeter, developed by the CALICE collaboration for future linear colliders, consists in a set of high granularity layers of scintillator tiles readout by a silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) and is housed in steel cassettes which can be interleaved with different absorber plates. The readout is done with a dedicated front-end SiPM readout system: the SPIROC ASIC. The current data acquisition (DAQ) framework used for the engineering prototype of the AHCAL is fruit of several years of improvement and exhaustive testing in the laboratory and in different test beams and has been designed to be scalable to the full detector size (∝8.10{sup 6} channels) making use of a new Link Data Aggregator. Current efforts in the DAQ development aims to gain in flexibility to include other subsystems in common test beams. The solution that is presented here is based on the use of the EUDAQ software which is a DAQ framework designed to be modular and portable and that has strong suppport from the ILC community.

  7. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  8. Internal urethrotomy combined with antegrade flexible cystoscopy for management of obliterative urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Jali; Kaviani, Ali; Vazirnia, Ali Reza

    2008-01-01

    We studied the safety and efficacy of flexible cystoscopy-guided internal urethrotomy in the management of obliterative urethral strictures. Forty-three flexible cystoscopy-guided internal urethrotomies were performed between 1999 and 2005. The indication for the procedure was nearly blinded bulbar or membranous urethral strictures not longer than 1 cm that would not allow passage of guide wire. Candidates were those who refused or were unable to undergo urtheroplasty. By monitoring any impression of the urethrotome on the monitor through the flexible cystoscope, we were able to do under-vision urethrotomy. All of the patients were started clean intermittent catheterization afterwards which was tapered over the following 6 months. Follow-up continued for 24 months after the last internal urethrotomy. Seventeen patients were younger than 65 years with a history of failed posterior urethroplasty, and 26 were older than 65 with poor cardiopulmonary conditions who had bulbar urethral stricture following straddle or iatrogenic injuries. Urethral stricture stabilized in 16 patients (37.2%) with a single session of urethrotomy and in 17 (39.5%) with 2 urethrotomies. Overall, urethral stricture stabilized in 76.7% of patients with 1 or 2 internal urethrotomies within 24 months of follow-up. No severe complication was reported. Flexible cystoscopy-guided internal urethrotomy is a simple, safe, and under-vision procedure in obliterative urethral strictures shorter than 1 cm. It can be an ideal option for patients who do not accept posterior urethroplasty or are in a poor cardiopulmonary condition that precludes general anesthesia.

  9. Electronic structure of thin films by the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals method: Ni(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    We present the self-consistent numerical-basis-set linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) discrete variational method for treating the electronic structure of thin films. As in the case of bulk solids, this method provides for thin films accurate solutions of the one-particle local density equations with a non-muffin-tin potential. Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements are evaluated accurately by means of a three-dimensional numerical Diophantine integration scheme. Application of this method is made to the self-consistent solution of one-, three-, and five-layer Ni(001) unsupported films. The LCAO Bloch basis set consists of valence orbitals (3d, 4s, and 4p states for transition metals) orthogonalized to the frozen-core wave functions. The self-consistent potential is obtained iteratively within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model with the atomic configurations treated as adjustable parameters. Thus the crystal Coulomb potential is constructed as a superposition of overlapping spherically symmetric atomic potentials and, correspondingly, the local density Kohn-Sham (α = 2/3) potential is determined from a superposition of atomic charge densities. At each iteration in the self-consistency procedure, the crystal charge density is evaluated using a sampling of 15 independent k points in (1/8)th of the irreducible two-dimensional Brillouin zone. The total density of states (DOS) and projected local DOS (by layer plane) are calculated using an analytic linear energy triangle method (presented as an Appendix) generalized from the tetrahedron scheme for bulk systems. Distinct differences are obtained between the surface and central plane local DOS. The central plane DOS is found to converge rapidly to the DOS of bulk paramagnetic Ni obtained by Wang and Callaway. Only a very small surplus charge (0.03 electron/atom) is found on the surface planes, in agreement with jellium model calculations

  10. 5th International Workshop on Combinations of Intelligent Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, Vasile; Prentzas, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Complex problems usually cannot be solved by individual methods or techniques and require the synergism of more than one of them to be solved. This book presents a number of current efforts that use combinations of methods or techniques to solve complex problems in the areas of sentiment analysis, search in GIS, graph-based social networking, intelligent e-learning systems, data mining and recommendation systems. Most of them are connected with specific applications, whereas the rest are combinations based on principles. Most of the chapters are extended versions of the corresponding papers presented in CIMA-15 Workshop, which took place in conjunction with IEEE ICTAI-15, in November 2015. The rest are invited papers that responded to special call for papers for the book. The book is addressed to researchers and practitioners from academia or industry, who are interested in using combined methods in solving complex problems in the above areas.

  11. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  12. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Study of the neutralino sector and analysis of the muon response of a highly granular hadron calorimeter at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ascenzo, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis concern the physics potential and the detector R and D program of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an e + e - collider with a centre of mass energy extendible up to 1 TeV. The first part of the thesis presents the study of the neutralino system in the SPS1a SUSY scenario. The process e + e - →μ L μ L →μχ 1 0 μχ 1 0 is proposed for the analysis of the χ 1 0 . From the kinematic edges of the energy distribution of the muons in the final state the mass of the χ 1 0 (97.71 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 1.09%. The mass of the μ L (189.87 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.21%. The cross section of this process (54.32 fb) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 2.47% at 68% C.L. The χ 2 0 is investigated in the process e + e - →χ 2 0 χ 1 0 →μ R μ→χ 1 0 μμχ 1 0 . The mass of the χ 2 0 (183.89 GeV) is estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.75% from the detection of the kinematic edge of the di-muon invariant mass. The cross section of the process (4.2 fb) can be determined within the confidence band (3.75, 5.57) fb, at 95% C.L. The second part of the thesis reports the analysis of the experimental data collected in the test beam of the prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) build by the CALICE collaboration. The aim of the analysis is to measure the response of the hadronic calorimeter to muons with momentum ranging between 6 GeV and 120 GeV and incidence angle up to 28.3 ±0.1 . The energy and angular dependence of the muon response are found in agreement with the Monte Carlo. The effects of the higher order electromagnetic interaction of muons in the detector are studied; the high granularity of the hadronic calorimeter allows to identify and measure the δ-rays produced by a 120 GeV muon. A correlation function between the energy deposited in the scintillator and in the

  14. Study of the neutralino sector and analysis of the muon response of a highly granular hadron calorimeter at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ascenzo, Nicola

    2009-01-15

    The studies presented in this thesis concern the physics potential and the detector R and D program of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a centre of mass energy extendible up to 1 TeV. The first part of the thesis presents the study of the neutralino system in the SPS1a SUSY scenario. The process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sub L}{mu}{sub L}{yields}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} is proposed for the analysis of the {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}. From the kinematic edges of the energy distribution of the muons in the final state the mass of the {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0} (97.71 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 1.09%. The mass of the {mu}{sub L} (189.87 GeV) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.21%. The cross section of this process (54.32 fb) can be estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 2.47% at 68% C.L. The {chi}{sub 2}{sup 0} is investigated in the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{chi}{sub 2}{sup 0}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{yields}{mu}{sub R}{mu}{yields}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}{mu}{mu}{chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}. The mass of the {chi}{sub 2}{sup 0} (183.89 GeV) is estimated with a relative statistical uncertainty of 0.75% from the detection of the kinematic edge of the di-muon invariant mass. The cross section of the process (4.2 fb) can be determined within the confidence band (3.75, 5.57) fb, at 95% C.L. The second part of the thesis reports the analysis of the experimental data collected in the test beam of the prototype of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) build by the CALICE collaboration. The aim of the analysis is to measure the response of the hadronic calorimeter to muons with momentum ranging between 6 GeV and 120 GeV and incidence angle up to 28.3 {+-}0.1 . The energy and angular dependence of the muon response are found in agreement with the Monte Carlo. The effects of the higher order electromagnetic interaction of muons in the detector are

  15. Simulation of nonlinear benchmarks and sheet metal forming processes using linear and quadratic solid–shell elements combined with advanced anisotropic behavior models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of prismatic and hexahedral solid‒shell (SHB elements with their linear and quadratic versions is presented in this paper to model thin 3D structures. Based on reduced integration and special treatments to eliminate locking effects and to control spurious zero-energy modes, the SHB solid‒shell elements are capable of modeling most thin 3D structural problems with only a single element layer, while describing accurately the various through-thickness phenomena. In this paper, the SHB elements are combined with fully 3D behavior models, including orthotropic elastic behavior for composite materials and anisotropic plastic behavior for metallic materials, which allows describing the strain/stress state in the thickness direction, in contrast to traditional shell elements. All SHB elements are implemented into ABAQUS using both standard/quasi-static and explicit/dynamic solvers. Several benchmark tests have been conducted, in order to first assess the performance of the SHB elements in quasi-static and dynamic analyses. Then, deep drawing of a hemispherical cup is performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the SHB elements in handling various types of nonlinearities (large displacements and rotations, anisotropic plasticity, and contact. Compared to classical ABAQUS solid and shell elements, the results given by the SHB elements show good agreement with the reference solutions.

  16. Application of a general self-consistency scheme in the linear combination of atomic orbitals formalism to the electronic and structural properties of Si and W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.; Vanderbilt, D.; Louie, S.G.; Materials and Molecular Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720)

    1986-01-01

    We present a general self-consistency procedure formulated in momentum space for electronic structure and total-energy calculations of crystalline solids. It is shown that both the charge density and the change in the Hamiltonian matrix elements in each iteration can be calculated in a straight-forward fashion once a set of overlap matrices is computed. The present formulation has the merit of bringing the self-consistency problem for different basis sets to the same footing. The scheme is used to extend a first-principles pseudopotential linear combination of Gaussian orbitals method to full point-by-point self-consistency, without refitting of potentials. It is shown that the set of overlap matrices can be calculated very efficiently if we exploit the translational and space-group symmetries of the system under consideration. This scheme has been applied to study the structural and electronic properties of Si and W, prototypical systems of very different bonding properties. The results agree well with experiment and other calculations. The fully self-consistent results are compared with those obtained by a variational procedure [J. R. Chelikowsky and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 29, 3470 (1984)]. We find that the structural properties for bulk Si and W (both systems have no interatomic charge transfer) can be treated accurately by the variational procedure. However, full self-consistency is needed for an accurate description of the band energies

  17. Common spatial pattern combined with kernel linear discriminate and generalized radial basis function for motor imagery-based brain computer interface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatmanesh, Amin; Jamaloo, Fatemeh; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Kilpeläinen, Asko

    2018-04-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) can be a challenge for developing of robotic, prosthesis and human-controlled systems. This work focuses on the implementation of a common spatial pattern (CSP) base algorithm to detect event related desynchronization patterns. Utilizing famous previous work in this area, features are extracted by filter bank with common spatial pattern (FBCSP) method, and then weighted by a sensitive learning vector quantization (SLVQ) algorithm. In the current work, application of the radial basis function (RBF) as a mapping kernel of linear discriminant analysis (KLDA) method on the weighted features, allows the transfer of data into a higher dimension for more discriminated data scattering by RBF kernel. Afterwards, support vector machine (SVM) with generalized radial basis function (GRBF) kernel is employed to improve the efficiency and robustness of the classification. Averagely, 89.60% accuracy and 74.19% robustness are achieved. BCI Competition III, Iva data set is used to evaluate the algorithm for detecting right hand and foot imagery movement patterns. Results show that combination of KLDA with SVM-GRBF classifier makes 8.9% and 14.19% improvements in accuracy and robustness, respectively. For all the subjects, it is concluded that mapping the CSP features into a higher dimension by RBF and utilization GRBF as a kernel of SVM, improve the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

  18. Indoor radio channel modeling and mitigation of fading effects using linear and circular polarized antennas in combination for smart home system at 868 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, S.; Welpot, M.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    The markets for smart home products and services are expected to grow over the next years, driven by the increasing demands of homeowners considering energy monitoring, management, environmental controls and security. Many of these new systems will be installed in existing homes and offices and therefore using radio based systems for cost reduction. A drawback of radio based systems in indoor environments are fading effects which lead to a high variance of the received signal strength and thereby to a difficult predictability of the encountered path loss of the various communication links. For that reason it is necessary to derive a statistical path loss model which can be used to plan a reliable and cost effective radio network. This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign, which was performed in six buildings to deduce realistic radio channel models for a high variety of indoor radio propagation scenarios in the short range devices (SRD) band at 868 MHz. Furthermore, a potential concept to reduce the variance of the received signal strength using a circular polarized (CP) patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna in an one-to-one communication link is presented.

  19. A new method to describe two-phase solvent extraction based on net transport potential derived as linear combinations of forward and reverse constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    With the view to avoiding the difficulties encountered in estimating thermodynamic activities of the multiple chemical species in two-phase liquid system, a set of forward, reverse, net and total transport potentials are defined to represent the chemical state of a transferring solute during transient using bulk concentrations. The net transport potential corresponds to that in the conventional two-film model of diffusion-controlled processes. The overall driving forces of mass transport are redefined as the derivatives of the relevant transport potentials differentiated with respect to a state variable newly defined in terms of the bulk concentrations of the solute contained in both phases. Net and total quantities, i.e. transport potentials, overall driving forces and the molar fluxes are obtained as linear combinations of those for forward and reverse directions. The topical features presented by these quantities and their mutual relations are discussed in detail. The experimental new overall transport coefficient for U(VI) varied in accord with the changes in the theoretical net transport potential and overall driving force. The present method permits describing the extractive mass transport consistently both to forward and reverse directions of transport. (author)

  20. Combined effect of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that chronic intake of 0.21 kBq/g 210 Po per day by laboratory animals after three months of experiment results in increase of autoantibody concentration to hepatic tissue and circulating immune complexes (CIC). Combined effect of radionuclide with ethanol or tobacco smokes didn't result in increase of autoantibody and CIC concentration independent of 210 Po concentration in experiments. During combined single chronic effect of radionuclide, ethanol and tobacco smokes considerable increase of autoantibody titers, particularly to hepatic tissue, as compared to mice, which intake of these components was separate, was detected. The results rermit to suppose on additive action of 210 Po, alcohol and tobacco smokes in case of their chronic effect on the boDy of laboratory animals

  1. A combined AHP-GP model to allocate internal auditing time to projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Kruger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal allocation of internal auditing time among competing projects is a multi-criteria problem that includes both qualitative and quantitative factors. This paper discusses an integrated approach where the analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to deal with qualitative risk assessments and a goal programming (GP model to distribute available hours in such a way that risk is minimised. Additional considerations, such as maximum and minimum allowable project hours, risk reducing factors and risk levels, are also taken into account. Following a description of the models and framework, a brief case study is presented in which the framework was empirically evaluated.

  2. One-visit endodontic retreatment of combined external/internal root resorption using a calcium-enriched mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Combined external and internal root resorption (ERR/IRR) is a rare endodontic disease that leads to alteration of the root canal anatomy. This report describes the management of an endodontically failed molar that was severely affected by ERR/IRR. Radiographic examination demonstrated inadequate obturation of the root canals associated with ERR/IRR and a large periradicular lesion. During nonsurgical endodontic retreatment, the root canals were subjected to conventional chemomechanical debridement. In the same session, the entire distal root canal was obturated using a calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and the mesial canals were obturated with gutta-percha/sealer. The clinical findings and follow-up radiographs indicated favorable treatment outcomes after 12 months. One-visit application of CEM cement could be a successful approach for the management of combined ERR/IRR.

  3. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasebikan, B.A.; Akisanya, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  5. [Long-term outcome of vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular holes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaori; Hori, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the long-term outcome of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on visual function during vitrectomy for idiopathic macular holes using scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) microperimetry. Prospective uncontrolled study. We studied 31 eyes (29 patients) with idiopathic macular holes. All patients underwent vitrectomy with ILM peeling. The SLO microperimetry was performed preoperatively, and once a year for 3 years postoperatively to detect scotomas in and around the macular holes, and both within and in close vicinity to the areas of ILM peeling. Closure of macular holes after one surgery was confirmed in all cases except for 2 with second surgery. The visual acuity by logarithmic minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) averaged 0.71 +/- 0.36 before surgery, 0.23 +/- 0.31 one year, 0.14 +/- 0.27 two years and 0.12 +/- 0.26 three years after surgery. There was significant improvement up to 2 years after the surgery. All scotomas detected before surgery in the holes, and 77.4% of those detected around the holes decreased gradually. No scotomas were detected in or around the area of ILM peeling either before or after surgery. ILM peeling in vitrectomy for idiopathic macular holes successfully improved visual acuity and did not influence retinal sensitivity in and around the area of ILM peeling. The scotomas detected in and around the holes before surgery gradually reduced or disappeared.

  6. Combining Environmental and Spatial Discount Rates for Valuation of Assets According to International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaunzeme Justine Sophia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of discount rate in finance and accounting is founded on the concept of time value of money. Discounted cash flow model is widely used for asset valuation under the International Financial Reporting Standards (in abbreviation, IFRS. The discount rate applied in valuation models normally is the best rate of return that investors would earn alternative investments. With emergence of ecological economics as a separate branch of economics, the concept of ecological (or in other words, environmental discount rate has been elaborated. Muller (2013 in his paper ‘The Discounting Confusion: an Ecological Economics Perspective’, argues that traditional discounting can undermine long-term sustainability of the economy. In his work, Frank G. Muller considered adjusting the traditional discount rate in order to arrive at an environmental discount rate, which would help to ensure the sustainability of the economy. Hannon (2001 and Perrings (2001 in their paper ‘An Introduction to Spatial Discounting’ consider another variation of the discount rate - spatial discount rate. Spatial discount rate represents the rate at which the diffusion of environmental effects of economic activities is discounted over space. By February 2016, neither the application of environmental nor spatial discount rates under IFRS has been considered. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the implications that environmental and spatial discounting would have for the application of discounted cash flow model according to IFRS. The research methods applied are methods of economic analysis and synthesis.

  7. Combining clinical microsystems and an experiential quality improvement curriculum to improve residency education in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tess, Anjala V; Yang, Julius J; Smith, C Christopher; Fawcett, Caitlin M; Bates, Carol K; Reynolds, Eileen E

    2009-03-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's internal medicine residency program was admitted to the new Education Innovation Project accreditation pathway of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to begin in July 2006. The authors restructured the inpatient medical service to create clinical microsystems in which residents practice throughout residency. Program leadership then mandated an active curriculum in quality improvement based in those microsystems. To provide the experience to every graduating resident, a core faculty in patient safety was trained in the basics of quality improvement. The authors hypothesized that such changes would increase the number of residents participating in quality improvement projects, improve house officer engagement in quality improvement work, enhance the culture of safety the residents perceive in their training environment, improve work flow on the general medicine ward rotations, and improve the overall educational experience for the residents on ward rotations.The authors describe the first 18 months of the intervention (July 2006 to January 2008). The authors assessed attitudes and the educational experience with surveys and evaluation forms. After the intervention, the authors documented residents' participation in projects that overlapped with hospital priorities. More residents reported roles in designing and implementing quality improvement changes. Residents also noted greater satisfaction with the quality of care they deliver. Fewer residents agreed or strongly agreed that the new admitting system interfered with communication. Ongoing residency program assessment showed an improved perception of workload, and educational ratings of rotations improved. The changes required few resources and can be transported to other settings.

  8. Combining interdisciplinary and International Medical Graduate perspectives to teach clinical and ethical communication using multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Flynn, Eleanor; Delany, Clare

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, international medical graduates (IMGs) play a crucial role in addressing workforce shortages in healthcare. Their ability to deliver safe and effective healthcare in an unfamiliar cultural setting is intrinsically tied to effective communication. Hospital-based medical clinical educators, who play an important role in providing communication training to IMGs, would benefit from practical resources and an understanding of the relevant pedagogies to address these issues in their teaching. This paper examines the nature of an interdisciplinary collaboration to develop multimedia resources for teaching clinical and ethical communication to IMGs. We describe the processes and dynamics of the collaboration, and outline the methodologies from applied linguistics, medical education, and health ethics that we drew upon. The multimedia consist of three video clips of challenging communication scenarios as well as experienced IMGs talking about communication and ethics. The multimedia are supported by teaching guidelines that address relevant disciplinary concerns of the three areas of collaboration. In the paper's discussion we point out the pre-conditions that facilitated the interdisciplinary collaboration. We propose that such collaborative approaches between the disciplines and participants can provide new perspectives to address the multifaceted challenges of clinical teaching and practice.

  9. Heat Transfer Computations of Internal Duct Flows With Combined Hydraulic and Thermal Developing Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Towne, C. E.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Poinsatte, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the Navier-Stokes computations of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. A transition duct from an axisymmetric cross section to a non-axisymmetric cross section, is usually used to connect the turbine exit to the nozzle. As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the transition duct is subjected to the high temperature at the gas turbine exit. The transition duct flow has combined development of hydraulic and thermal entry length. The design of the transition duct required accurate surface heat transfer coefficients. The Navier-Stokes computational method could be used to predict the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. The Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical computational code was used in this study. The code was first studied for the computations of the turbulent developing flow properties within a circular duct and a square duct. The code was then used to compute the turbulent flow properties of a transition duct flow. The computational results of the surface pressure, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer coefficient were described and compared with their values obtained from theoretical analyses or experiments. The comparison showed that the Navier-Stokes computation could predict approximately the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow.

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  11. Evaluation of the quality consistency of powdered poppy capsule extractive by an averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method in combination with antioxidant activities and two compounds analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Sun, Guoxiang; Hou, Zhifei; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A novel averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method was proposed and successfully applied to monitor the quality consistency of alkaloids in powdered poppy capsule extractive. Averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method provided accurate qualitative and quantitative similarities for chromatographic fingerprints of Chinese herbal medicines. The stability and operability of the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method were verified by the parameter r. The average linear qualitative similarity SL (improved based on conventional qualitative "Similarity") was used as a qualitative criterion in the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method, and the average linear quantitative similarity PL was introduced as a quantitative one. PL was able to identify the difference in the content of all the chemical components. In addition, PL was found to be highly correlated to the contents of two alkaloid compounds (morphine and codeine). A simple flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of antioxidant capacity in Chinese Herbal Medicines, which was based on the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical by antioxidants. The fingerprint-efficacy relationship linking chromatographic fingerprints and antioxidant activities was investigated utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures method, which provided important pharmacodynamic information for Chinese herbal medicines quality control. In summary, quantitative fingerprinting based on averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method can be applied for monitoring the quality consistency of Chinese herbal medicines, and the constructed orthogonal projection to latent structures model is particularly suitable for investigating the fingerprint-efficacy relationship. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this article is two-fold: to review the current international status of various design approaches to the next generation of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders, and on the occasion of his 80th birthday, to celebrate Richard B. Neal`s many contributions to the field of linear accelerators. As it turns out, combining these two tasks is a rather natural enterprise because of Neal`s long professional involvement and insight into many of the problems and options which the international e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider community is currently studying to achieve a practical design for a future machine.

  13. Alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is two-fold: to review the current international status of various design approaches to the next generation of e + e - linear colliders, and on the occasion of his 80th birthday, to celebrate Richard B. Neal's many contributions to the field of linear accelerators. As it turns out, combining these two tasks is a rather natural enterprise because of Neal's long professional involvement and insight into many of the problems and options which the international e + e - linear collider community is currently studying to achieve a practical design for a future machine

  14. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del; Garcia Nieto, P.J.; Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed

  15. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Coz Diaz, J.J.; Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I. [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Garcia Nieto, P.J. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed. (author)

  16. Non-linear thermal optimization and design improvement of a new internal light concrete multi-holed brick walls by FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coz Diaz, J.J. del [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: juanjo@constru.uniovi.es; Garcia Nieto, P.J. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Suarez Sierra, J.L.; Penuelas Sanchez, I. [Edificio Departamental Viesques, No. 7-33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this work was carried out the optimization and numerical study by the finite element method of internal hollow bricks walls in order to determine the best candidate brick from the thermal point of view. With respect to the energy saving for housing and industrial structures, there is also a great interest in light building materials with good physical and thermal behaviors, which fulfills all thermal requirements of the new CTE Spanish rule. The conduction, convection and radiation phenomena are taking into account in this study for six different types of bricks varying the material conductivity obtained from five experimental tests. Mathematically, the non-linearity is due to the radiation boundary condition inside the inner recesses of the bricks. Optimization of the walls is carried out from the finite element analysis of the new hollow brick geometries by means of the average mass overall thermal efficiency and the equivalent thermal conductivity. Based on the previous thermal analysis and the optimization procedure described in this paper, the best candidate was chosen and then a full 1.22 x 0.23 x 1.05 m wall made of these bricks was simulated for fifteen different compositions. The main variables influencing the thermal conductivity of these walls are illustrated for different concrete and mortar properties and the temperature distribution is shown for some typical configurations. Finally, in order to select the appropriate wall satisfying the CTE requirements, detailed instructions are given and conclusions of this work are exposed.

  17. Measurement of the positron polarization at an helical undulator based positron source for the international linear collider ILC. The E-166 experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Laihem

    2008-06-05

    A helical undulator based polarized positron source is forseen at a future International Linear Collider (ILC). The E-166 experiment has tested this scheme using a one meter long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator installed in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam passing through this undulator generated circularly polarized photons with energies up to about 8 MeV. The generated photons of several MeV with circular polarization are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at 5 different energies of the positrons. In addition electron polarization has been determined for one energy point. For a comparison of the measured asymmetries with the expectations detailed simulations were necessary. This required upgrading GEANT4 to include the dominant polarization dependent interactions of electrons, positrons and photons in matter. The measured polarization of the positrons agrees with the expectations and is for the energy point with the highest polarization at 6MeV about 80%. (orig.)

  18. Design of an 18 MW vortex flow water beam dump for 500 GeV electrons/positrons of an international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, Polepalle; Rai, Pravin; Tiwari, Vikas; Kulkarni, Kiran; Amann, John; Arnold, Raymond G.; Walz, Dieter; Seryi, Andrei; Davenne, Tristan; Caretta, Ottone; Densham, Chris; Appleby, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Beam dumps are essential components of any accelerator system. They are usually located at the end of the beam delivery systems and are designed to safely absorb and dissipate the particle energy. In the second stage of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the electron and positron beams are accelerated to 500 GeV each (1 TeV total). Each bunch will have 2×10 10 electrons/positrons, and 2820 bunches form one beam bunch train with time duration of 0.95 ms and 4 Hz frequency. The average beam power will be 18 MW with a peak power of 4.5 GW. The FLUKA code was used to determine the power deposited by the beam at all critical locations. This data forms the input into the thermal hydraulic analysis CFD code for detailed flow and thermal evaluation. Both 2D and 3D flow analyses were carried out at all the critical regions to arrive at optimum geometry and flow parameters of the beam dump. The generation and propagation of pressure waves due to rapid deposition of heat has also been analyzed.

  19. A database to evaluate stress intensity factors of elbows with throughwall flaws under combined internal pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has replaced the traditional design basis event of Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. The use of LBB concept requires postulation of largest credible cracks at highly stressed locations and demonstration of its stability under the maximum credible loading conditions. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of piping connections by computing Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in literature. However, the same type of solutions for elbows and tees are limited in open literature. In the present work, a database is generated to evaluate SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. Different parameters to characterise a cracked elbow are pipe factor (h), pipe bore radius to thickness ratio (r/t) and crack length. Another parameter (σ) is used to consider the relative magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and remote bending moment. The database has been used to derive closed form expressions to evaluate SIF for elbow with cracks in terms of the aforementioned parameters. (author). 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Combined residency training in emergency medicine and internal medicine: an update on career outcomes and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Chad S; Stallings, Leonard A; Gonzalez, Andrew A; Templeman, Todd A

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to provide an update on the career outcomes and experiences of graduates of combined emergency medicine-internal medicine (EM-IM) residency programs. The graduates of the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) and American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM)-accredited EM-IM residencies from 1998 to 2008 were contacted and asked to complete a survey concerning demographics, board certification, fellowships completed, practice setting, academic affiliation, and perceptions about EM-IM training and careers. There were 127 respondents of a possible 163 total graduates for a response rate of 78%. Seventy graduates (55%) practice EM only, 47 graduates (37%) practice both EM and IM, and nine graduates (7%) practice IM or an IM subspecialty only. Thirty-one graduates (24%) pursued formal fellowship training in either EM or IM. Graduates spend the majority of their time practicing clinical EM in an urban (72%) and academic (60%) environment. Eighty-seven graduates (69%) spend at least 10% of their time in an academic setting. Most graduates (64%) believe it practical to practice both EM and IM. A total of 112 graduates (88%) would complete EM-IM training again. Dual training in EM-IM affords a great deal of career opportunities, particularly in academics and clinical practice, in a number of environments. Graduates hold their training in high esteem and would do it again if given the opportunity.

  1. A national survey of residents in combined Internal Medicine and Dermatology residency programs: educational experience and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Wanat, Karolyn; Crotty, Bradley H; Rosenbach, Misha

    2015-10-16

    In response to a perceived erosion of medical dermatology, combined internal medicine and dermatology programs (med/derm) programs have been developed that aim to train dermatologists who take care of medically complex patients. Despite the investment in these programs, there is currently no data with regards to the potential impact of these trainees on the dermatology workforce. To determine the experiences, motivations, and future plans of residents in combined med/derm residency programs. We surveyed residents at all United States institutions with both categorical and combined training programs in spring of 2012. Respondents used visual analog scales to rate clinical interests, self-assessed competency, career plans, and challenges. The primary study outcomes were comfort in taking care of patients with complex disease, future practice plans, and experience during residency. Twenty-eight of 31 med/derm residents (87.5%) and 28 of 91 (31%) categorical residents responded (overall response rate 46%). No significant differences were seen in self-assessed dermatology competency, or comfort in performing inpatient consultations, cosmetic procedures, or prescribing systemic agents. A trend toward less comfort in general dermatology was seen among med/derm residents. Med/derm residents were more likely to indicate career preferences for performing inpatient consultation and taking care of medically complex patients. Categorical residents rated their programs and experiences more highly. Med/derm residents have stronger interests in serving medically complex patients. Categorical residents are more likely to have a positive experience during residency. Future work will be needed to ascertain career choices among graduates once data are available.

  2. A randomised prospective study of two different combined internal and external fixation techniques for distal tibia shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liao-Jun; Yu, Xian-Bin; Dai, Cheng-Qian; Hu, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Hua

    2014-12-01

    External fixation combined with limited open reduction and internal fixation (EF + LORIF) is a well-accepted and effective method for distal tibia shaft fractures, but it was also related to complications. The objective of this study was to compare external fixation combined with closed reduction and internal fixation (EF + CRIF) with EF + LORIF in the treatment of distal tibia shaft fractures, and explore the benefits and defects of these two techniques. Fifty-six patients were randomised to operative stabilisation either by an external fixator combined with two closed titanium elastic nails or by external fixation combined with limited open reduction and internal fixation. Pre-operative variables included the patients’ age, sex, the affected side, cause of injury, Tscherne classification of soft tissue injury, fracture pattern, and time from injury to surgery. Peri-operative variables were the operating time and the radiation time. Postoperative variables were wound problems and other complications, union time, time of recovery to work, the functional American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery (AOFAS) score. There was no significant difference in the mean operating time (72.6 ± 11.5 vs. 78.5 ± 16.4 min, P = 0.125), the time to union (21.2 ± 11.0 vs. 22.5 ± 12.3 weeks, P = 0.678), the time of recovery to work (25.0 ± 14.5 vs. 26.4 ± 13.6 weeks, P = 0.711), pin track infection (3/28 vs. 4/28, P = 1.000), delayed union (2/28 vs. 3/28, P = 1.000), pain (38.3 ± 1.6 vs. 38.7 ± 1.5, P = 0.339), function (44.4 ± 6.0 vs. 45.0 ± 5.5, P = 0.698), and total AOFAS scores (91.5 ± 7.4 vs. 93.4 ± 6.8, P = 0.322) between the two groups. However, the mean radiation time was longer in the EF + CRIF group than in the EF + LORIF group (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1 min, P alignment was obtained in 50 patients (22 in EF + CRIF vs. 28 in EF + LORIF, P = 0.023). Two cases with EF + CRIF had a 6 degrees of recurvatum deformity and four had 6–9 degrees of valgus deformity

  3. The multi-layered ring under parabolic distribution of radial stresses combined with uniform internal and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos F. Markides

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recently introduced solution for the stress- and displacement-fields, developed in a multi-layered circular ring, composed of a finite number of linearly elastic concentric layers, subjected to a parabolic distribution of ra-dial stresses, is here extended to encompass a more general loading scheme, closer to actual conditions. The loading scheme includes, besides the para¬-bolic radial stresses, a combination of uniform pressures acting along the outer- and inner- most boundaries of the layered ring. The analytic solution of the problem is achieved by adopting Savin’s pioneering approach for an infinite plate with a hole strengthened by rings. Taking advantage of the results provided by the ana¬lytic solution, a numerical model, simulating the configuration of a three-layered ring (quite commonly encountered in practic¬al applications is validated. The numerical model is then used for a parametric analysis enlightening some crucial aspects of the overall response of the ring.

  4. Finite-dimensional linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gockenbach, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Some Problems Posed on Vector SpacesLinear equationsBest approximationDiagonalizationSummaryFields and Vector SpacesFields Vector spaces Subspaces Linear combinations and spanning sets Linear independence Basis and dimension Properties of bases Polynomial interpolation and the Lagrange basis Continuous piecewise polynomial functionsLinear OperatorsLinear operatorsMore properties of linear operatorsIsomorphic vector spaces Linear operator equations Existence and uniqueness of solutions The fundamental theorem; inverse operatorsGaussian elimination Newton's method Linear ordinary differential eq

  5. Combining the CORS and BiCORSTAB Iterative Methods with MLFMA and SAI Preconditioning for Solving Large Linear Systems in Electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Pi, Wei-Chao; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    We report on experiments with a novel family of Krylov subspace methods for solving dense, complex, non-Hermitian systems of linear equations arising from the Galerkin discretization of surface integral equation models in Electromagnetics. By some experiments on realistic radar-cross-section

  6. Fatigue damage estimation in non-linear systems using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    For non-linear systems the estimation of fatigue damage under stochastic loadings can be rather time-consuming. Usually Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied, but the coefficient-of-variation (COV) can be large if only a small set of simulations can be done due to otherwise excessive CPU time...

  7. On the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable. II. Some cases of special interest (Poynting-Thomson, Jeffreys, Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Hooke and Newton media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Turrisi, E.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable was considered and the expressions for the velocity and attenuation of the waves were obtained. In the present paper we investigate the

  8. Induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shulin; Fu, Jingshu; Xie, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation in the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects. A retrospective analyses for 67 cases of tibialosteomyelitis defects were admitted to our department between September 2012 to February 2015, which were treated with induced membrane technique. At the first stage, implanted with a PMMA cement spacer in the defects after radical debridement and fixed with reconstructive locked plate. Bone grafting and exchanged the plate with intramedullary nail at the second stage. In current study, all patients were followed up for 18-35 months. Sixty-six patients achieved bone union with the average radiographic and clinical healing times of 5.55±2.19 and 7.45±1.69months, respectively. Seven patients required a second debridement before grafting, while four patients experienced a recurrence of infection or a relapse following second stage treatment. Twelve patients experienced either knee or ankle dysfunctions and 2 patients faced delayed wound healing. Donor site complications includes pain and infection were found in 7 and 3 patients, respectively with delayed stress fracture in 1 patient only. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects, seems a reliable method. The use of reconstructive locked plate as a temporary internal fixation at the first stage and exchanged with intramedullary nail at the second stage, potentially achieves good clinical efficacy. Care should be taken to restore the joint function especially in distal tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel method to establish a rat ED model using internal iliac artery ligation combined with hyperlipidemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate a novel method, namely using bilateral internal iliac artery ligation combined with a high-fat diet (BCH, for establishing a rat model of erectile dysfunction (ED that, compared to classical approaches, more closely mimics the chronic pathophysiology of human ED after acute ischemic insult. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty 4-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly placed into five groups (n = 8 per group: normal control (NC, bilateral internal iliac artery ligation (BIIAL, high-fat diet (HFD, BCH, and mock surgery (MS. All rats were induced for 12 weeks. Copulatory behavior, intracavernosal pressure (ICP, ICP/mean arterial pressure, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, serum lipid levels, and endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemical staining of the cavernous smooth muscle and endothelium were assessed. Data were analyzed by SAS 8.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the HFD and BCH groups than the NC and MS groups. High density lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the HFD and BCH groups than the NC and MS groups. The ICP values and mount and intromission numbers were significantly lower in the BIIAL, HFD, and BCH groups than in the NC and MS groups. ICP was significantly lower in the BCH group than in the BIIAL and HFD groups. Cavernous smooth muscle and endothelial damage increased in the HFD and BCH groups. Cavernous smooth muscle to collagen ratio, nNOS and eNOS staining decreased significantly in the BIIAL, HFD, and BCH groups compared to the NC and MS groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel BCH model mimics the chronic pathophysiology of ED in humans and avoids the drawbacks of traditional ED models.

  10. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  11. Effect of the perfluorodecalin residue on macular subretinal treated by internal limiting membrane peeling combined with 38G casing needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bo Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of the treatment to the perfluorodecalin residue on macular subretinal by internal limiting membrane(ILMpeeling combined with 38G casing needle.METHODS: Twenty-nine cases(29 eyesof retinal reattachment and with perfluorodecalin residual on the macular subretinal, selected in Xiamen Eye Center from January 2008 to October 2013, were divided into group A(14 cases, 14 eyesand group B(15 cases, 15 eyesrandomly. In group A, after removal of silicone oil, perfluorodecalin liquids at the macular subretinal directly were aspirated by 38G casing needle. In group B, after removal of silicone oil, ILM was dyed and peeled completely to the range of 4PD approximately. Then the perfluorodecalin liquids at the macular subretinal were aspirated by 38G casing needle. All cases of both groups were filled with filtered air. After 1wk, the case with macular hole found by OCT was exchanged by air-fluid and filled with 16% C3F8. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAof two groups of patients was observed after 4, 8, 24wk. OCT was reviewed to observe whether there were perfluorodecalin residue on the macular subretinal, formation of macular hole and macular morphological changes, retinal detachment.RESULTS: BCVA was improved in both groups after 4, 8, 24wk. And the value of BCVA improvedin group B was better than that in group A(PCONCLUSION: ILM peeling combined with 38G casing needle can aspirate completely the perfluorodecalin residual on macular. There were not caused macular hole and retinal detachment. This method is an safe, effective and minimally invasive surgical technique to protect the macular function.

  12. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  13. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  14. A combined stretching-tilting mechanism produces negative, zero and positive linear thermal expansion in a semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Prem; Das, Raj Kumar; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J

    2014-06-21

    A novel semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF has been synthesized and characterized by variable temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material displays an unusual combination of thermal expansion (TE) i.e. negative, zero and positive, which is an extremely rare finding, especially for metal-organic frameworks as a result of a combined stretching-tilting mechanism.

  15. Combined percutaneous and transarterial devascularisation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with protection of internal carotid artery: A modification of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Ljubisa; Mahmoud, Ehab; Nyberg, Christoffer; Ekberg, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Juvenile nasal angiofibroma (JNA) is a hypervascularised, benign, but locally aggressive tumour that grows in the posterior, upper part of the nasal cavity and invades surrounding anatomical structures. The treatment of choice is surgical removal, but complete resection of the tumour can be hampered because of profuse perioperative bleeding. Preoperative embolisation of the tumour has been proposed as an effective method for prevention of perioperative bleeding, thereby shortening of the time of the operation. In this report of five cases, we describe successful preoperative devascularisation of the tumour by applying a modified method of direct intratumoural injection of the liquid embolic agent Onyx combined with protection of the internal carotid artery. The control of bleeding during the embolisation and occlusion of the maxillary or sphenopalatine artery was achieved by using a bi-luminal balloon catheter. Such use of the dual-lumen catheter in treatment of JNA has not been reported so far in the medical literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Construction scheduled delay risk assessment by using combined AHP-RII methodology for an international NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossen, Mufazal Muhammed; Kang, Sun Koo; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay risk assessment methodology is developed and the construction delay risk is assessed for turnkey international NPP projects. Three levels of delay factors were selected through literature review and discussions with nuclear industry experts. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the basis of an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Relative Importance Index (RII) methods and the schedule delay risk is assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by severity and frequency of occurrence of delay factors. This study assigns four main delay factors to the first level: main contractor, utility, regulatory authority, and financial and country factor. The second and the third levels are designed with 12 sub-factors and 32 sub-sub-factors, respectively. This study finds the top five most important sub-sub-factors, which are as follows: policy changes, political instability and public intervention; uncompromising regulatory criteria and licensing documents conflicting with existing regulations; robust design document review procedures; redesign due to errors in design and design changes; and worldwide shortage of qualified and experienced nuclear specific equipment manufacturers. The proposed combined AHP-RII methodology is capable of assessing delay risk effectively and efficiently. Decision makers can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delays of NPPs

  17. Construction scheduled delay risk assessment by using combined AHP-RII methodology for an international NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Mufazal Muhammed; Kang, Sun Koo; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay risk assessment methodology is developed and the construction delay risk is assessed for turnkey international NPP projects. Three levels of delay factors were selected through literature review and discussions with nuclear industry experts. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the basis of an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Relative Importance Index (RII) methods and the schedule delay risk is assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by severity and frequency of occurrence of delay factors. This study assigns four main delay factors to the first level: main contractor, utility, regulatory authority, and financial and country factor. The second and the third levels are designed with 12 sub-factors and 32 sub-sub-factors, respectively. This study finds the top five most important sub-sub-factors, which are as follows: policy changes, political instability and public intervention; uncompromising regulatory criteria and licensing documents conflicting with existing regulations; robust design document review procedures; redesign due to errors in design and design changes; and worldwide shortage of qualified and experienced nuclear specific equipment manufacturers. The proposed combined AHP-RII methodology is capable of assessing delay risk effectively and efficiently. Decision makers can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delays of NPPs.

  18. Increased Retinal Thinning after Combination of Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling and Silicone Oil Endotamponade in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroki; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Kei; Ito, Yasuki; Iwase, Takeshi; Ueno, Shinji; Nonobe, Norie; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kataoka, Keiko; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the change in retinal thickness after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and/or silicone oil (SO) endotamponade in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The actual amount and ratio of changes in the retinal thickness were calculated. Compared to control eyes in the ILM peeling (-)/SO (-) group, the central, superior inner, and temporal inner retina in the ILM peeling (+)/SO (-) group, the central and superior inner retina in the ILM peeling (-)/SO (+) group, and the central, inferior inner, temporal inner, and nasal inner retina in the ILM peeling (+)/SO (+) group showed a significant reduction of the retinal thickness. The central, superior inner, and temporal inner retina in the ILM peeling (+)/SO (-) group, the central and superior inner retina in the ILM peeling (-)/SO (+) group, and the central, superior inner, inferior inner, and temporal inner retina in the ILM peeling (+)/SO (+) group showed a significantly increased reduction rate of the retinal thickness compared to the control group. Macular retinal thinning in PDR was observed after ILM peeling and SO endotamponade, and it was increased by the combination of these 2 factors. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation for Pilon fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shaobo; Zhang, Yibao; Wang, Shenghong; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Jing-Lin; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical efficacy and complications of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of Pilon fracture. Methods: We searched databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine disc for the studies comparing clinical efficacy and complications of LIFEF and ORIF in the treatment of Pilon fracture. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by the ...

  1. [Comparison of film-screen combinations with contrast detail diagram and interactive image analysis. 2: Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive image analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, G; Eichbaum, G; Hagemann, G

    1997-09-01

    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum pre-filter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 microns2. Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated.

  2. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  3. Internal respiratory surrogate in multislice 4D CT using a combination of Fourier transform and anatomical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Cheukkai; Suh, Yelin; Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam; Pan, Tinsu; Das, Prajnan; Crane, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel algorithm to create a robust internal respiratory signal (IRS) for retrospective sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm combines information from the Fourier transform of the CT images and from internal anatomical features to form the IRS. The algorithm first extracts potential respiratory signals from low-frequency components in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features in the image space. A clustering algorithm then constructs groups of potential respiratory signals with similar temporal oscillation patterns. The clustered group with the largest number of similar signals is chosen to form the final IRS. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the IRS was computed and compared with the external respiratory signal from the real-time position management (RPM) system on 80 patients. Results: In 72 (90%) of the 4D CT data sets tested, the IRS computed by the authors’ proposed algorithm matched with the RPM signal based on their normalized cross correlation. For these data sets with matching respiratory signals, the average difference between the end inspiration times (Δt ins ) in the IRS and RPM signal was 0.11 s, and only 2.1% of Δt ins were more than 0.5 s apart. In the eight (10%) 4D CT data sets in which the IRS and the RPM signal did not match, the average Δt ins was 0.73 s in the nonmatching couch positions, and 35.4% of them had a Δt ins greater than 0.5 s. At couch positions in which IRS did not match the RPM signal, a correlation-based metric indicated poorer matching of neighboring couch positions in the RPM-sorted images. This implied that, when IRS did not match the RPM signal, the images sorted using the IRS showed fewer artifacts than the clinical images sorted using the RPM signal. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed algorithm can generate robust IRSs that can be used for retrospective sorting of 4D CT data

  4. Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneli, M H; Wiesner, L; Tinguely, C; Davids, L M; Spengane, Z; Smith, P; van Wyk, J C; Jardine, A; Khumalo, N P

    2016-03-01

    The topical steroids betamethasone (BM) and clobetasol propionate (CP) are illegal in cosmetics. Hydroquinone (HQ) and mercury (Hg) are either illegal or allowed only in limited concentrations (2% and 1 ppm, respectively). To investigate active ingredients and countries of origin of popular skin-lightening products available in Cape Town, South Africa. In total, 29 products were examined; of these, 22 products were purchased from informal vendors, and 2 products (out of a total of 29) were purchased over the counter. HQ, Hg(2+) and steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Of the 29 products, 22 (75.9%), all imported and bought from informal vendors, contained illegal or banned ingredients: 13 (44.8%) contained steroids (9 CP, 4 BM), 12 (41.4%) contained Hg (30-2300 ppm), and 11 (37.9%) contained HQ. Sequentially, the products originated from Italy (27.3%, n = 6), India (22.7%, n = 5), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (22.7%, n = 5), Cote d'Ivoire (9.1%, n = 2), USA (9.1%, n = 2), UK (4.5%, n = 1) and France (4.5%, n = 1). Two products, one from India and one from the DRC, contained all four ingredients (HQ, Hg, BM, CP). Of the 12 products containing Hg, 10 also contained HQ and/or a steroid, yet none listed Hg as an ingredient. A significant proportion of the steroid-containing products (76.9%) also contained at least one other skin-lightening agent. Not all internationally available products were tested, which is a limitation of the study. In spite of a European Union ban on skin lighteners, a third of the products tested were from Europe. Combinations of Hg and ultrapotent steroids were prominent. International law enforcement and random testing is needed to encourage industry compliance and help protect consumers. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Internal respiratory surrogate in multislice 4D CT using a combination of Fourier transform and anatomical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Cheukkai; Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam, E-mail: abeddar@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Das, Prajnan; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel algorithm to create a robust internal respiratory signal (IRS) for retrospective sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm combines information from the Fourier transform of the CT images and from internal anatomical features to form the IRS. The algorithm first extracts potential respiratory signals from low-frequency components in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features in the image space. A clustering algorithm then constructs groups of potential respiratory signals with similar temporal oscillation patterns. The clustered group with the largest number of similar signals is chosen to form the final IRS. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the IRS was computed and compared with the external respiratory signal from the real-time position management (RPM) system on 80 patients. Results: In 72 (90%) of the 4D CT data sets tested, the IRS computed by the authors’ proposed algorithm matched with the RPM signal based on their normalized cross correlation. For these data sets with matching respiratory signals, the average difference between the end inspiration times (Δt{sub ins}) in the IRS and RPM signal was 0.11 s, and only 2.1% of Δt{sub ins} were more than 0.5 s apart. In the eight (10%) 4D CT data sets in which the IRS and the RPM signal did not match, the average Δt{sub ins} was 0.73 s in the nonmatching couch positions, and 35.4% of them had a Δt{sub ins} greater than 0.5 s. At couch positions in which IRS did not match the RPM signal, a correlation-based metric indicated poorer matching of neighboring couch positions in the RPM-sorted images. This implied that, when IRS did not match the RPM signal, the images sorted using the IRS showed fewer artifacts than the clinical images sorted using the RPM signal. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed algorithm can generate robust IRSs that can be used for retrospective

  6. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  7. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  8. Linear self-assembly and grafting of gold nanorods into arrayed micrometer-long nanowires on a silicon wafer via a combined top-down/bottom-up approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestini, Elena; Andrei, Codrin; Zerulla, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopically long wire-like arrangements of gold nanoparticles were obtained by controlled evaporation and partial coalescence of an aqueous colloidal solution of capped CTAB-Au nanorods onto a functionalised 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) silicon substrate, using a removable, silicon wafer with a hydrophobic surface that serves as a "handrail" for the initial nanorods' linear self-assembly. The wire-like structures display a quasi-continuous pattern by thermal annealing of the gold nanorods when the solvent (i.e. water) is evaporated at temperatures rising from 20°C to 140°C. Formation of both single and self-replicating parallel 1D-superstructures consisting of two or even three wires is observed and explained under such conditions.

  9. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  12. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  13. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  14. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  15. Nanomaterials application for heavy metals recovery from polluted water: The combination of nano zero-valent iron and carbon nanotubes. Competitive adsorption non-linear modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Giorgio; Mpouras, Thanasis; Dermatas, Dimitris; Verdone, Nicola; Polydera, Angeliki; Di Palma, Luca

    2018-06-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the removal efficiency and the possible competitive interactions among metal ions. Adsorption was found to be the main removal mechanism, except for Cr(VI) treatment by nZVI, where reduction was the predominant mechanism. The removal efficiency was estimated in decreasing order as CNTs-nZVI > nZVI > CNTs > CNTs-nZVI* independently upon the tested heavy metal. In the case of competitive adsorption, Cr(VI) exhibited the highest affinity for every adsorbent. The preferable Cr(VI) removal was also observed using binary systems of the tested metals by means of the CNTs-nZVI nanocomposite. Single species adsorption was better described by the non-linear Sips model, whilst competitive adsorption followed the modified Langmuir model. The CNTs-nZVI nanocomposite was tested for its reusability, and showed high adsorption efficiency (the q max values decreased less than 50% with respect to the first use) even after three cycles of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear' to celebrate 50 years of the scientific career of Professor Bogdan Mielnik (Mielnik50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón, N.; Fernández, D.; Kielanowski, P.

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear', took place in Mexico City on 22-24 October 2014. It was held with the aim of celebrating the first fifty years of scientific career of Bogdan Mielnik, an outstanding scientist whose professional trajectory spans over Poland and Mexico and who is currently Professor Emeritus in the Physics Department of Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav) in Mexico. Bogdan Mielnik was born on May 6th, 1936 in Warsaw, Poland. He studied elementary and high school until 1953. In the autumn of 1953 he started the studies in the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Warsaw, and at the end of 1957 he did his master work under the direction of Professor Jerzy Plebański. In 1962 he was invited to the newly opened Research Center of IPN (Cinvestav), in Mexico, as an assistant and PhD student of Jerzy Plebański. On October 22nd, 1964, he submitted to Cinvestav his PhD Thesis entitled ''Analytic functions of the displacement operator'', marking the offcial beginning of his scientific career. It is worth mentioning that Bogdan Mielnik is the first PhD graduate of the Physics Department of Cinvestav, so with this Conference our Department was also celebrating an important date on its calendar. A more detailed information can be found in the website http://www.fis.cinvestav.mx/mielnik50/. It was our great pleasure to see that many collaborators and former students of Bogdan Mielnik attended this Conference. The articles collected in this volume are the written contributions of the majority of talks presented at the conference. They have been organized according to the research subjects that Bogdan Mielnik has been involved in. Thus, the articles of JG Hirsch, L Hughston, G Morales-Luna, O Rosas-Ortiz and G Torres-Vega deal with Fundamental Problems in Quantum Mechanics. On the other hand, the papers by F Delgado, H Hernández-Coronado, G Herrera

  17. LINEAR COLLIDERS: 1992 workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settles, Ron; Coignet, Guy

    1992-01-01

    As work on designs for future electron-positron linear colliders pushes ahead at major Laboratories throughout the world in a major international collaboration framework, the LC92 workshop held in Garmisch Partenkirchen this summer, attended by 200 machine and particle physicists, provided a timely focus

  18. Combining Vision with Voice: A Learning and Implementation Structure Promoting Teachers' Internalization of Practices Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Kaplan, Haya; Feinberg, Ofra; Tal, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We propose that self-determination theory's conceptualization of internalization may help school reformers overcome the recurrent problem of "the predictable failure of educational reform" (Sarason, 1993). Accordingly, we present a detailed learning and implementation structure to promote teachers' internalization and application of ideas and…

  19. Simulation of bending stress variation in long buried thick-walled pipes under the earth’s movement using combined linear dynamics and beam theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salau Tajudeen A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported a simulation approach to the understanding of the interactions between a buried pipe and the soil system by computing the bending stress variation of harmonically-excited buried pipes. The established principles of linear dynamics theory and simple beam theory were utilised in the analysis of the problem of buried pipe bending stress accumulation and its dynamics. With regards to the parameters that influence the bending stress variations, the most important are the isolation factor, uniform external load, and the corresponding limiting conditions. The simulated mathematical expressions, containing static and dynamic parameters of the buried pipe and earth, were coded in Fortran programming language and applied in the simulation experiment. The results obtained showed that harmonically-excited buried thick-walled pipe became stable and effective when the ratio of the natural frequency of vibration to the forced frequency is greater than 2.0, whenever the damped factor is used as the control parameter for the maximum bending stress. The mirror image of the stress variation produces variation in the location of the maximum bending stress in quantitative terms. The acceptable pipe materials for the simulated cases must have yield strength in bending greater than or equal to 13.95 MPa. The results obtained in this work fill a gap in the literature and will be useful to pipeline engineers and designers, as well as to environmental scientists in initialising and controlling environmental issues and policy formulation concerning the influence of buried pipe on the soil and water in the environment.

  20. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  1. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  3. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  4. Construction schedule delay risk assessment by using combined AHP-RII methodology for an international NPP project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Mufazzal Hossen

    2015-04-01

    The proposed combined AHP-RII methodology is capable of assessing delay risk effectively and efficiently. Decision makers can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected construction delays of NPPs.

  5. [An attempt to combine humanitarianism and pacifism. The Red Cross and the Dutch movement for international peace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2001-01-01

    Both the International and the Dutch Red Cross were heavily damaged by World War II. The Red Cross movement especially was blamed for its lack of care for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. To restore its reputation all kinds of initiatives were taken. Amongst these was an attempt of the Dutch Red Cross to cooperate with several pacifist movements in the Dutch Movement for International Peace and Security. It seemed a good and sensible initiative, especially in 1945, but although it was supported by international Red Cross resolutions, it failed. The DRC grew immensely in numbers in the years after 1945. With the cold war coming up the peace movement lost most of its popularity and therefore lost its attraction for the Red Cross as a partner. As in the rest of its mutual history, the attempt to humanise war did not mix with the wish to abolish it.

  6. [Internal fixation with one-hole microplate for the treatment of collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined with fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Xun; Sun, De-Tao; Chen, Xu-Hui; Li, Jun; Cui, Yan; Hu, Ji-Chao; Shu, Zheng-Hua; He, Jian; Ding, Chao-Qi; Chen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    To study clinical effects of one-hole microplate internal fixation for the treatment of collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined with fracture. Twenty-two patients (16 males, 6 females) with collateral ligament injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb combined fracture were treated with one-hole microplate internal fixation. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 53 years old with a mean age of 28.5 years old. The duration from injury to surgery ranged from 2 hours to 2 months, and the mean time was 6 days. All the patients had collateral ligament injuries combined with fracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. Thirteen patients had injuries in the right hand and 9 patients had injuries in the left hand. There were 18 cases of closed wound and 4 cases of open wound. Eighteen patients had fresh injuries ( 2 weeks). Sixteen patients had injuries in the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb combined with fracture, 6 patients had radial collateral ligament injuries of the thumb combined with fracture, 4 cases of which were complicated with injuries of abductor pollicis brevis and the end of the flexor pollicis brevis tender. The size of the avulsed fragment was about 3.0 mm x 4.0 mm to 6.0 mm x 7.0 mm. The incisions of 22 patients healed by first intention. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 5 years old,with an average of 2.5 years old. The thumb function was evaluated by Saetta and other evaluation criteria, and 20 patients got an excellent result and 2 good. The application of one-hole microplate internal fixation in treating collateral ligament injuries with fracture of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb is an effective method.

  7. MONITORING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE - TOWARDS A STATISTICAL-DATA BASE COMBINING DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEKENS, F

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent

  8. Use of combined method, accelerometer and international physical activity questionnaire, to determinate occurence of physical inactivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Evaluate and compare the proportion of PI and associated factors by IPAQ questionnaire, triaxial accelerometry and the combination of both. Adults aged ( 18 years were enrolled (n = 250. Methods We considered PI as < 600 MET-min/wk in the IPAQ total score, < 150 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in 7 days accelerometry, and the combination of both criteria. Clinical assessment, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test, bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic dynamometry, postural balance, and six-minute walk test were also performed. For participants practicing aquatic, martial arts or cycling, only the IPAQ criterion was considered. Results Proportions of PI were significantly different among methods (IPAQ, 10%; accelerometry, 20%; combination, 25%. After multivariate logistic regressions, PI was determined by age, sex, educational level, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, lean body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and postural balance. Conclusion Thus, the combined method for determining PI and associated factors in adults showed great validity, indicating that questionnaires and accelerometers are complementary and should be utilized in combination in epidemiological studies.

  9. Forecast combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Aiolfi, Marco; Capistrán, Carlos; Timmermann, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinations of subjective survey forecasts and model-based forecasts from linear and non-linear univariate specifications as well as multivariate factor-augmented models. Empirical results suggest that a simple equal-weighted average of survey forecasts outperform the best model-based forecasts for a majority of macroeconomic variables and forecast horizons. Additional improvements can in some cases be gained by using a simple equal-weighted average of survey and model-based fore...

  10. Consensus recommendations on sulfonylurea and sulfonylurea combinations in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus – International Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, sulfonylureas (SUs have been important drugs in the antidiabetic therapeutic armamentarium. They have been used as monotherapy as well as combination therapy. Focus on newer drugs and concerns about the risk of severe hypoglycemia and weight gain with some SUs have led to discussion on their safety and utility. It has to be borne in mind that the adverse events associated with SUs should not be ascribed to the whole class, as many modern SUs, such as glimepiride and gliclazide modified release, are associated with better safety profiles. Furthermore, individualization of treatment, using SUs in combination with other drugs, backed with careful monitoring and patient education, ensures maximum benefits with minimal side effects. The current guidelines, developed by experts from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, promote the safe and smart use of SUs in combination with other glucose-lowering drugs.

  11. The effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of combining analytic and holistic rating scales for assessing communication skills in an internal medicine resident OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vijay John; Harley, Dwight

    2017-07-01

    Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents. Communication stations were scored with an analytic scale (empathy, non-verbal skills, verbal skills, and coherence subscales) and a holistic scale. Authors analyzed reliability of individual and combined scales using generalizability theory and evaluated each scale's sensitivity to level of training. For analytic, holistic, and combined scales, 12, 12, and 11 stations respectively yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-1,2 cohort, and 16, 16, and 14 stations yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-4 cohort. PGY-4 residents scored higher on the combined scale, the analytic rating scale, and the non-verbal and coherence subscales. A combined analytic-holistic rating scale increased score reliability and was sensitive to level of training. Given increased validity evidence, OSCE developers should consider combining analytic and holistic scales when assessing communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on a Multi-Stage Gasifier and Internal Combustion Engines of Various Power Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is concerned with an integrated system of internal combustion engine and mini combined heat and power plant (ICE-CHP). The system is based on multi-stage wood biomass gasification. The use of producer gas in the system affects negatively the internal combustion engine performance and, therefore, reduces the efficiency of the ICE-CHP plant. A mathematical model of an internal combustion engine running on low-calorie producer gas was developed using an overview of Russian and foreign manufacturers of reciprocating units, that was made in the research. A thermal calculation was done for four-stroke gas engines of different rated power outputs (30, 100 and 250 kW), running on producer gas (CO2 - 10.2, CO - 45.8, N2 - 38.8%). Thermal calculation demonstrates that the engine exhaust gas temperature reaches 500 - 600°C at the rated power level and with the lower engine power, the temperature gets higher. For example, for an internal combustion engine power of 1000 kW the temperature of exhaust gases equals 400°C. A comparison of the efficiency of engine operation on natural gas and producer gas shows that with the use of producer gas the power output declines from 300 to 250 kWe. The reduction in the effective efficiency in this case makes up 2%. The measures are proposed to upgrade the internal combustion engine to enable it to run on low-calorie producer gas.

  13. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A.; Shiga, I.; Kanzaki, H. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  14. A new radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Akira; Shiga, Itsuo; Kanzaki, Hitoshi

    1982-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors. (author)

  15. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A; Shiga, I; Kanzaki, H [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  16. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  17. The linear programming bound for binary linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.

  18. Combined invariants to linear filtering and rotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Zitová, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (1999), s. 1123-1136 ISSN 0218-0014 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/96/1694; GA ČR GA106/97/0827 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 1999 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/990162. pdf

  19. Householder transformations and optimal linear combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Smiley, W., III

    1974-01-01

    Several theorems related to the Householder transformation and separability criteria are proven. Orthogonal transformations, topology, divergence, mathematical matrices, and group theory are discussed.

  20. Ultrasonic imaging of lumbar discs combined with vibration pain provocation compared with discography in the diagnosis of internal anular fissures of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Vanharanta, H

    1996-03-01

    The diagnostic information achieved by a combination of ultrasonographic imaging of discs and local bony vibration of lumbar vertebrae was compared to that obtained by discographic imaging and pain provocation. The purpose of this study was to find a noninvasive method for spine diagnostics to replace expensive and invasive methods such as discography. Internal anular fissures of the lumbar discs have been shown to be a source of back pain. Intradiscal changes associated with disc degeneration can be imaged by ultrasonography. The bony vibration test of spinal processes has shown to correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular ruptures. Discographic examination of the spine is the only widely accepted diagnostic method that combines pathoanatomic changes and patients' pain. Patients with back pain in this study were examined by means of ultrasonography, bony vibration stimulation, and discography. The three lowest lumbar discs were examined. In the cases of intradiscal ultrasound findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.75 compared to the discographic pain provocation test. In cases of total anular ruptures seen in ultrasound examination, the sensitivity and the specificity of the vibration pain provocation test were much lower, being 0.50 and 0.50, respectively. The combination of the two noninvasive methods provides a useful screening test for the evaluation of low back pain. The combination test can accurately depict painful disc degeneration with internal disc rupture and the use of discography can be limited to the cases suggesting total anular rupture in ultrasound examination.

  1. Combining external and internal mixing representation of atmospheric aerosol for optical properties calculations: focus on absorption properties over Europe and North America using AERONET observations and AQMEII simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The calculation of optical properties from knowledge of the composition and abundance of atmospheric aerosol implies a certain number of assumptions. First and if not known or explicitly simulated, a size distribution must be assigned to each aerosol component (e.g. sulfate-like inorganic ions, organic and back carbon, soil dust, sea salt). Second, physical-chemical properties such as the shape, density, complex refractive index, and hygroscopic factors must be associated to each aerosol species. Third, a representation of how the aerosol species combine together must be made: among those, the most popular are the assumptions of external mixing, in which each particle is assumed to be formed of a single compound and the optical properties may be calculated separately for each species, or of internal core-shell arrangement, in which each particle consists of a water-insoluble core coated with a water-soluble shell and that requires more elaborate calculations for optical properties. Previous work found that the assumption on the mixing state (external or core-shell internal) is the one that introduces the highest uncertainty, quantified in about 30% uncertainty on the calculation of monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). The external mixing assumption is generally more reasonable for freshly emitted aerosol, while the internal mixing case is associated with aged aerosol that had the time to form the coating around the core. Both approximations are thus regarded as valid, but in general a combination of the two mixing states may be expected in a given air mass. In this work, we test a simple empirical parameterization of the fraction of internally mixed particles (F_in) in a generic air mass. The F_in fraction is calculated in two alternative ways, one exploiting the NOz to NOx ratio (proxy of the photochemical aging), and the other using the relative abundance of black carbon with respect to other aerosol components (proxy of

  2. Linear methods in band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh

    1975-01-01

    of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker, linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals, and cellular methods; the secular matrix is linear in energy, the overlap integrals factorize as potential parameters and structure constants, the latter are canonical in the sense that they neither depend on the energy nor the cell volume...

  3. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  4. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  5. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  6. Can a combination of average of normals and "real time" External Quality Assurance replace Internal Quality Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, Tony; Graham, Peter

    2018-03-28

    Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assurance are separate but related processes that have developed independently in laboratory medicine over many years. They have different sample frequencies, statistical interpretations and immediacy. Both processes have evolved absorbing new understandings of the concept of laboratory error, sample material matrix and assay capability. However, we do not believe at the coalface that either process has led to much improvement in patient outcomes recently. It is the increasing reliability and automation of analytical platforms along with improved stability of reagents that has reduced systematic and random error, which in turn has minimised the risk of running less frequent IQC. We suggest that it is time to rethink the role of both these processes and unite them into a single approach using an Average of Normals model supported by more frequent External Quality Assurance samples. This new paradigm may lead to less confusion for laboratory staff and quicker responses to and identification of out of control situations.

  7. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  8. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  9. Fuel cell systems and high-integrated combinations of internal combustion engines and generators for hybrid drives; Brennstoffzellensysteme und hoch integrierte Verbrennungsmotor/Generator-Kombinationen fueHybridantriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P.; Graef, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugkonzepte

    2005-07-01

    So called fuel cell hybrid vehicles can be regarded in general as electrical driven vehicles, equipped with a fuel cell as current source, which is connected in parallel with an electrical energy storage. This power train configuration gives very high flexibility realizing the package, because the primary energy converter is not directly connected with the torque converter for propulsion. The studies 'Hy-Wire' and 'Sequel' of GM are adopting this approach as well as the modular vehicle concept of DLR Institute of Vehicle Concepts. The overall efficiency of the above described power train concept depends strongly on the efficiency of the current source. The efficiency potential of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) systems has been successfully demonstrated by several car manufacturers. However, some technical issues are still to be solved, e.g. operation at low temperatures and power densities of the complete system. There is also no satisfying solution for the on-board storage of hydrogen. A current source based on a free piston linear generator is an alternative to the PEFC system. The free piston linear generator can be realized in several configurations. The approach of DLR, which is explained in this paper, enables the stroke to be adjusted according to the actual load. This especially improves internal efficiency significantly in partial loading conditions and also reduces heat losses. On the base of detailed simulation, underlined by first experimental studies, efficiencies above 35% in a broad operation range are estimated. (orig.)

  10. Ischemic stroke in combined cerebrovascular abnormalities - aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery and arteriovenous malformation temporo occipital in the right hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, T.; Naydenov, K.; Manchev, I.; Manchev, L.

    2016-01-01

    A case of combined vascular abnormalities is presented- an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and arterio-venous malformation temporooccipitally on the right, clinically presented by an ischemic brain stroke in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. Treatment included - hypo-tensive drugs, antiplatelet (antiaggregants) agents and vasodilators, which lead to significant improvement of the general and focal neurological symptoms. Neurosurgical intervention is been discussed, in order to remove the vascular malformation and to prevent future vascular events. Key words: Aneurysm. Arteriovenous Malformation. Ischemic Stroke

  11. Combining Phage and Yeast Cell Surface Antibody Display to Identify Novel Cell Type-Selective Internalizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Using phage antibody display, large libraries can be generated and screened to identify monoclonal antibodies with affinity for target antigens. However, while library size and diversity is an advantage of the phage display method, there is limited ability to quantitatively enrich for specific binding properties such as affinity. One way of overcoming this limitation is to combine the scale of phage display selections with the flexibility and quantitativeness of FACS-based yeast surface display selections. In this chapter we describe protocols for generating yeast surface antibody display libraries using phage antibody display selection outputs as starting material and FACS-based enrichment of target antigen-binding clones from these libraries. These methods should be widely applicable for the identification of monoclonal antibodies with specific binding properties.

  12. Osteosynthesis of ununited femoral neck fracture by internal fixation combined with iliac crest bone chips and muscle pedicle bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Baksi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ununited femoral neck fracture is seen commonly in developing countries due to delayed presentation or failure of primary internal fixation. Such fractures, commonly present with partial or total absorption of femoral neck, osteonecrosis of femoral head in 8-30% cases with upward migration of trochanter posing problem for osteosynthesis, especially in younger individuals. Several techniques for treatment of such conditions are described like osteotomies or nonvascularied cortical or cancellous bone grafting provided varying degrees of success in terms of fracture union but unsatisfactory long term results occurred due to varying incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of femoral head. Moreover, in presence of AVN of femoral head neither free fibular graft nor cancellous bone graft is satisfactory. The vascularied bone grafting by deep circumflex iliac artery based on iliac crest bone grafting, free vascularied fibular grafting and muscle pedicle periosteal grafting showed high incidence of success rate. Osteosynthesis is the preferred treatment of choice in ununited femoral neck fracture in younger individuals. Materials and Methods: Of the 293 patients operated during the period from June 1977 to June 2009, 42 were lost to followup. Seven patients with gluteus medius muscle pedicle bone grafting (MPBG were excluded. Thus, out of 244 patients, 208 (85.3% untreated nonunion and 36 (14.7% following failure of primary internal fixation were available for studies. Time interval between the date of injury and operation in untreated nonunion cases was mean 6.5 months and in failed internal fixation cases was mean 11.2 months. Ages of the patients varied from 16 to 55 years. Seventy patients had partial and 174 had subtotal absorption of the femoral neck. Evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN femoral head was found histologically in 135 (54.3% and radiologically in 48 (19.7% patients. The patients were operated by open reduction of fracture

  13. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  14. [Clinical effect modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening in treating mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Qiang; Wu, Qun-Feng; Dong, Wei-Qin; Yu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiong-Feng

    2018-03-25

    To explore clinical effect of modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach. From July 2015 to June 2016, 26 patients with mild-moderate hallux valgus treated with modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening through internal signal approach, including 2 males and 24 females aged from 45 to 65 years old with an average of(54.6±4.8) years old;the courses of diseases ranged from 1 to 5 months with an average of (7.5±3.3) months. Hallux valgus angle(HVA), inter metatarsal angle(IMA) were measured at 12 months after operation, and AOFAS score was applied to evaluate clinical effect before and after operation. All incisions were healed at stage I. No incision occurred infection, metatarsal necrosis and recurrence of hallux valgus deformity. Two patients occurred skin numbness caused by musculocutaneous nerve injury. Twenty-six patients were followed up from 6 to 12 months with an average of(9.12±2.06) months. HVA, IMA were(30.01±3.71)°, (14.00±1.50)° before operation and(9.41±4.16)°, (7.00±0.60)° after operation, which had significant difference. There was statistical significance in AOFAS score before operation 54.77±9.59 and after operation 92.73±5.47, and 19 cases obtained excellent results and 7 moderate. Modified Chevron osteotomy combined with full thread headless pressure screw fixation and lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus has advantages of excellent exposure, simple operation, stable fixation, rapid recovery. Akin osteotomy with internal capsulorrhaphy were used with lateral loosening and could recover soft tissue balance between lateral and internal, and could receive satisfied clinical effects. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  15. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  16. Studying the effects of combining internal and external heat recovery on techno-economic performances of gas–steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapellucci, Roberto; Giordano, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of gas-cycle regeneration on steam–gas power plants are investigated. • Power plant performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operative parameters. • The power plant operational flexibility is assessed through an off-design analysis. • Gas-cycle regeneration improves energy and economic performance parameters. • Power increase due to regenerator by-pass depends on steam section design. - Abstract: Thermodynamic regeneration is regarded as a conventional technique to enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, by means of an internal recovery of waste heat from exhaust gases. In combined cycle power plants (CCGTs), only external heat recovery is usually applied, in order to achieve the highest steam cycle power. Combining internal and external recovery, while decreasing the power plant rated capacity, has the potential to boost the efficiency of CCGTs. This paper aims to examine the effects of thermodynamic regeneration on steam–gas power plants from the energy and economic point of view. First, a dual pressure combined cycle based on a regenerative gas turbine is designed using GateCycle software and effects on energy and economic performances are evaluated varying gas turbine operating parameters. Then, an off-design simulation of different CCGT configurations is carried out, in order to evaluate the power increase achieved by-passing the regenerator and its effects on efficiency and cost of electricity. The study has shown that the improvement of energy and economic performances of regenerative CCGTs is more and more pronounced with the increase of turbine inlet temperature (TIT). Additionally, regeneration enhances the power plant operational flexibility, allowing to obtain a 30% power increase with respect to the design value, if the regenerator is fully by-passed and the bottoming steam cycle is designed to manage the increased flue gas temperature.

  17. Quantification of endogenous metabolites by the postcolumn infused-internal standard method combined with matrix normalization factor in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Liao, Wei-Chih; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-02

    Quantification of endogenous metabolites has enabled the discovery of biomarkers for diagnosis and provided for an understanding of disease etiology. The standard addition and stable isotope labeled-internal standard (SIL-IS) methods are currently the most widely used approaches to quantifying endogenous metabolites, but both have some limitations for clinical measurement. In this study, we developed a new approach for endogenous metabolite quantification by the postcolumn infused-internal standard (PCI-IS) method combined with the matrix normalization factor (MNF) method. MNF was used to correct the difference in MEs between standard solution and biofluids, and PCI-IS additionally tailored the correction of the MEs for individual samples. Androstenedione and testosterone were selected as test articles to verify this new approach to quantifying metabolites in plasma. The repeatability (n=4 runs) and intermediate precision (n=3 days) in terms of the peak area of androstenedione and testosterone at all tested concentrations were all less than 11% relative standard deviation (RSD). The accuracy test revealed that the recoveries were between 95.72% and 113.46%. The concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone in fifty plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers were quantified by the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method, and the quantification results were compared with the results of the SIL-IS method. The Pearson correlation test showed that the correlation coefficient was 0.98 for both androstenedione and testosterone. We demonstrated that the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method is an effective and accurate method for quantifying endogenous metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of an Internal Model Control strategy for single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters and its performance analysis with a non-linear local load and weak grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Eric N; Coelho, Ernane A A; Carvalho, Henrique T M; Freitas, Luiz C G; Júnior, João B V; Freitas, Luiz C

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a controller based on Internal Model Control (IMC) applied to a grid-connected single-phase PWM inverter. The mathematical modeling of the inverter and the LCL output filter, used to project the 1-DOF IMC controller, is presented and the decoupling of grid voltage by a Feedforward strategy is analyzed. A Proportional - Resonant Controller (P+Res) was used for the control of the same plant in the running of experimental results, thus moving towards the discussion of differences regarding IMC and P+Res performances, which arrived at the evaluation of the proposed control strategy. The results are presented for typical conditions, for weak-grid and for non-linear local load, in order to verify the behavior of the controller against such situations. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (pmastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the 100 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving. This study adds to the evidence that the prevention of intra mammary

  20. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  1. Comparative study on fast classification of brick samples by combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis using stand-off and table-top laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vítková, Gabriela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); CEPLANT, R and D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modifications, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A14, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pořízka, Pavel [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Všianský, Dalibor [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Čelko, Ladislav [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on historical aspect, during archeological excavation or restoration works of buildings or different structures built from bricks it is important to determine, preferably in-situ and in real-time, the locality of bricks origin. Fast classification of bricks on the base of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra is possible using multivariate statistical methods. Combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was applied in this case. LIBS was used to classify altogether the 29 brick samples from 7 different localities. Realizing comparative study using two different LIBS setups — stand-off and table-top it is shown that stand-off LIBS has a big potential for archeological in-field measurements. - Highlights: • Comparison of two potentially field-deployable LIBS setups is introduced. • The aim is classification of LIBS spectra of brick samples into several localities. • LDA filled with PCA scores is proposed as an effective classification method. • An influence of brick firing temperature on LIBS spectra is discovered and examined.

  2. Experimental investigation of the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine concentration using long time echo point resolved spectroscopy sequence with an external standard and linear combination of model spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Shen Zhiwei; Xiao Yeyu; Zheng Wenbin; Wu Renhua; Li Hui; Xiao Zhuanwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine (Cr) concentration using long time echo (TE) point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence performed with an extemal standard and postprocessed with the linear combination of model spectra ( LCModel). Methods: Ten swine (3.1 ± 0.6 kg) and an external standard phantom containing detectable compounds of known concentration were investigated in this study by using 1.5 T GE Signa scanner and a standard head coil. The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) data were acquired from the two ROIs (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) placed in swine brain and external standard solution using PRESS sequence with TE 135 ms, TR 1500 ms, and 128 scan averages. The in vivo quantification of Cr was accomplished by LCModel. After 1 H-MRS examination, each animal was sacrificed immediately. In vitro Cr concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: In the 1 H-MRS group, the Cr concentration was (9.37±0.14)mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the Cr concentration was (8.91± 0.13)mmol/kg. Good agreement was obtained between these two methods (t=9.038, P=0.491). Conclusion: The long echo time PRESS sequence performed with an external standard and processed with LCModel is proven to be an accurate technique to detect the in vivo brain Cr concentration. (authors)

  3. Miniature linear cooler development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  4. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  5. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2018-01-01

    examine the effectiveness of different combinations of knowledge sources for achieving innovative performance. We suggest that combinations involving integrative search strategies – combining internal and external knowledge – are the most likely to generate product and process innovation. In this context......, we present the idea that cognitively distant knowledge sources are helpful for innovation only when used in conjunction with knowledge sources that are closer to the focal firm. We also find important differences between product and process innovation, with the former associated with broader searches......Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, we...

  6. Non linear microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  7. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  8. Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population. METHODS: Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007-2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore...... a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous and sedentary intensity level were derived from the IPAQ...... and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman´s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed. RESULTS: PAEE from the two methods was significantly positively correlated (0.28 and 0.49 for women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE...

  9. The International Linear Collider Progress Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The ILC technical design is now being adapted to the preferred candidate site. Changes in layout are being managed by a rigorous change-control procedure. Series production of cavities for the European XFEL has shown that cavities can be mass-produced in industry with a performance well above XFEL requirements and close to that needed for the ILC. A number of technical developments are under way with a view to further reducing the ILC cost. This work must continue through the preparatory stage for ILC construction once resources become available. A summary of the design updates and of the further preparatory work needed is summarized in tabular form in the Appendix.

  10. Combination of icotinib, surgery, and internal-radiotherapy of a patient with lung cancer severely metastasized to the vertebrae bones with EGFR mutation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Li; Qin, Hai-Feng; Gao, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese female was referred to us regarding EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and metastasis to left scapula and vertebrae bones which caused pathological fracture at T8 and T10 thoracic vertebrae. An aggressive combined therapy with icotinib, vertebrae operation, and radioactive particle implantation and immunotherapy was proposed to prevent paraplegia, relieve pain, and control the overall and local tumor lesions. No postoperative symptoms were seen after surgery, and the pain was significantly relieved. Icotinib merited a 31-month partial response with grade 1 diarrhea as its drug-related adverse event. High dose of icotinib was administered after pelvis lesion progression for 3 months with good tolerance. Combination therapy of icotinib, surgery, and internal radiation for metastases of the vertebrae bones from non-small cell lung cancer seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor, vertebrae operation can be an encouraging option for patients with EFGR positive mutation and good prognosis indicator.

  11. Combination of icotinib, surgery, and internal-radiotherapy of a patient with lung cancer severely metastasized to the vertebrae bones with EGFR mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu LL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Li-Li Qu, Hai-Feng Qin, Hong-Jun Gao, Xiao-Qing Liu Department of Lung Cancer, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A 48-year-old Chinese female was referred to us regarding EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and metastasis to left scapula and vertebrae bones which caused pathological fracture at T8 and T10 thoracic vertebrae. An aggressive combined therapy with icotinib, vertebrae operation, and radioactive particle implantation and immunotherapy was proposed to prevent paraplegia, relieve pain, and control the overall and local tumor lesions. No postoperative symptoms were seen after surgery, and the pain was significantly relieved. Icotinib merited a 31-month partial response with grade 1 diarrhea as its drug-related adverse event. High dose of icotinib was administered after pelvis lesion progression for 3 months with good tolerance. Combination therapy of icotinib, surgery, and internal radiation for metastases of the vertebrae bones from non-small cell lung cancer seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor, vertebrae operation can be an encouraging option for patients with EFGR positive mutation and good prognosis indicator. Keywords: lung cancer, spinal metastasis, pathological fracture, spinal canal stenosis, icotinib

  12. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  13. Decommissioning nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities at the Mining and Chemical Combine: International cooperation in assessment of impact on the environment and population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Zhidkov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the Yenisei River has substantially reduced after shutdown of direct cycle reactors at the Mining and Chemical Combine; currently exposure dose rate above water surface and radionuclide concentration in sewage water flows do not exceed the levels set by existing sanitary rules. The results of other protection measures connected with decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-dangerous facilities and environment restoration activity are considered in the paper. Recently, the workers of the Mining and Chemical Combine, together with specialists from other Russian institutions and with international participation, made significant progress in investigation and monitoring of the radiological impact, primarily in the Yenisei River floodplain and around the 'Severnyi' radwaste disposal site. The inventory of man-made radionuclides in flood-plain deposits of the Yenisei River was assessed and long-term radionuclide transport into the Kara Sea forecasted. New local information on radionuclide pathways to man and environment was the basis for the development of an original dosimetric model. The models of radionuclide migration in the underground liquid radwaste disposal sites have been created and associated human doses predicted. A GIS project has been developed for Yenisei River floodplain contamination. Future work will include development of M and CC ecological geoinformation cadastre and assessments of the impact of radionuclide exposure on the environment, agriculture, fishing, and water quality, as well as identification of necessary rehabilitation measures. (author)

  14. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  15. Two-stage open reduction and internal fixation versus limited internal fixation combined with external fixation: a meta-analysis of postoperative complications in patients with severe Pilon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xueliang; Chen, Hui; Rui, Yunfeng; Niu, Yang; Li, He

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Two-stage open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) are two widely used methods to treat Pilon injury. However, which method is superior to the other remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively compare two-stage ORIF and LIFEF and clarify which method is better with respect to postoperative complications in the treatment of tibial Pilon fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between two-stage ORIF and LIFEF. Eight studies involving 360 fractures in 359 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Results The two-stage ORIF group had a significantly lower risk of superficial infection, nonunion, and bone healing problems than the LIFEF group. However, no significant differences in deep infection, delayed union, malunion, arthritis symptoms, or chronic osteomyelitis were found between the two groups. Conclusion Two-stage ORIF was associated with a lower risk of postoperative complications with respect to superficial infection, nonunion, and bone healing problems than LIFEF for tibial Pilon fractures. Level of evidence 2.

  16. Combination of solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for separation/preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of uranium prior to its fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Shakerian, Farid; Shiralian Esfahani, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Pass the sample through the basic alumina column ⇒ elute retained uranium along with the cations ⇒ convert the uranium to its anionic benzoate complex ⇒ extract its ion pair with malachite green into small volume of chloroform by DLLME ⇒ measure its absorption at 621 nm using fiber optic-linear array detection spectrophotometry. -- Highlights: • By combination of SPE and DDLME a high preconcentration factor of 2500 was obtained. • Development of SPE-DDLME-Spectrophotometric method for det. of trace amounts of uranium. • Ultra trace amount of uranium in water samples was det. by the proposed method. • The detection limit of the proposed method is comparable to the most sensitive method. • The proposed method is a free interference spectrophotometric method for uranium det. -- Abstract: A simple and sensitive method for the separation and preconcentration of the ultra trace amounts of uranium and its determination by spectrophotometry was developed. The method is based on the combination of solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Thus, by passing the sample through the basic alumina column, the uranyl ion and some cations are separated from the sample matrix. The retained uranyl ion along with the cations are eluted with 5 mL of nitric acid (2 mol L −1 ) and after neutralization of the eluent, the extracted uranyl ion is converted to its anionic benzoate complex and is separated from other cations by extraction of its ion pair with malachite green into small volume of chloroform using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. The amount of uranium is then determined by the absorption measurement of the extracted ion pair at 621 nm using flow injection spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, with 500 mL of the sample, a preconcentration factor of 1980, a detection limit of 40 ng L −1 , and a relative standard deviation of 4.1% (n = 6) at 400 ng L −1 were obtained. The method was

  17. Uso combinado de sistemas de informações geográficas para transportes e programação linear inteira mista em problemas de localização de instalações Combining geographic information systems for transportation and mixed integer linear programming in location-allocation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Santana Mapa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar a qualidade das soluções para o problema de localização-alocação de instalações geradas por um SIG-T (Sistema de Informação Geográfica para Transportes, obtidas após a utilização combinada das rotinas Localização de Facilidades e Problema do Transporte, quando comparadas com as soluções ótimas obtidas a partir de modelo matemático exato baseado em Programação Linear Inteira Mista (PLIM, desenvolvido externamente ao SIG. Os modelos foram aplicados a três simulações: a primeira propõe a abertura de fábricas e alocação de clientes no Estado de São Paulo; a segunda envolve um atacadista e um estudo de localização de centros de distribuição e alocação dos clientes varejistas; a terceira localiza creches em um contexto urbano, alocando a demanda. Os resultados mostraram que, quando se considera a capacidade das instalações, o modelo otimizante PLIM chegou a apresentar, em um dos cenários simulados, resultados até 37% melhores do que o SIG, além de propor locais diferentes para abertura de novas instalações. Quando não se considera a capacidade, o modelo SIG se mostrou tão eficiente quanto o modelo exato PLIM, chegando exatamente às mesmas soluções.This study aims to evaluate the quality of the solutions for facility location-allocation problems generated by a GIS-T (Geographic Information System for Transportation software. These solutions were obtained from combining the Facility Location and Transportation Problem routines, when compared with the optimal solutions, which were obtained using the exact mathematical model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP developed externally to the GIS. The models were applied to three simulations: the first one proposes set up businesses and customers' allocation in the state of São Paulo; the second involves a wholesaler and an investigation of distribution center location and retailers' allocation; and the third one

  18. Linear colliders for photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The enthusiasm of the first international workshop on photonphoton colliders and associated physics, held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 28 March - 1 April, could have set a ball rolling. According to proponents of this physics, the particle physics one can study with a high energy linear collider is special and complements that of a hadron supercollider

  19. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko's lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L; Harper, J I

    2008-07-01

    The aetiology of morphoea (or localized scleroderma) remains unknown. It has previously been suggested that lesions of linear morphoea may follow Blaschko's lines and thus reflect an embryological development. However, the distribution of linear morphoea has never been accurately evaluated. We aimed to identify common patterns of clinical presentation in children with linear morphoea and to establish whether linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. A retrospective chart review of 65 children with linear morphoea was performed. According to clinical photographs the skin lesions of these patients were plotted on to standardized head and body charts. With the aid of Adobe Illustrator a final figure was produced including an overlay of all individual lesions which was used for comparison with the published lines of Blaschko. Thirty-four (53%) patients had the en coup de sabre subtype, 27 (41%) presented with linear morphoea on the trunk and/or limbs and four (6%) children had a combination of the two. In 55 (85%) children the skin lesions were confined to one side of the body, showing no preference for either left or right side. On comparing the overlays of all body and head lesions with the original lines of Blaschko there was an excellent correlation. Our data indicate that linear morphoea follows the lines of Blaschko. We hypothesize that in patients with linear morphoea susceptible cells are present in a mosaic state and that exposure to some trigger factor may result in the development of this condition.

  20. CERN balances linear collider studies

    CERN Multimedia

    ILC Newsline

    2011-01-01

    The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.   The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...

  1. [One-stage operation for pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury by internal fixation associated with vacuum sealing drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan; Wang, Yue; Yuan, Jiabin; Tang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Bing; Tan, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the methods and effectiveness of one-stage operation for pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury by internal fixation associated with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD). Between June 2008 and October 2012, 15 cases of pelvis and acetabular fractures combined with Morel-Lavallée injury were treated. There were 5 males and 10 females, aged from 18 to 67 years (mean, 36.8 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 11 cases and crashing injury of heavy object in 4 cases. The time from injury to hospitalization was 3 hours to 9 days (mean, 5.4 days). Morel-Lavallée injury located in the above posterior superior iliac spine in 4 cases, greater trochanter in 7 cases, and anterior proximal thigh in 4 cases. In 10 cases complicated by pelvic fracture, there were 1 case of anteroposterior compression type, 3 cases of lateral compression type, 5 cases of vertical shear type, and 1 case of compound injury type; in 5 cases complicated by acetabular fracture, there were 1 case of transverse fracture, 1 case of posterior wall and posterior column fracture, 1 case of transverse acetabulum plus posterior wall fracture, and 2 cases of both columns fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation were used to treat pelvic and acetabular fractures, and VSD to treat Morel-Lavallée injury. When the drainage volume was less than 20 mL/d, interrupted wound suture or free skin grafting was performed. The hospitalization time was 16-31 days (mean, 20.8 days). Thirteen cases were followed up 4-16 months (mean, 7.8 months). The healing time of Morel-Lavallée injury was 16-36 days after operation (mean, 21.3 days). All the wounds had primary healing, and no infection occurred. The X-ray films showed that all fractures healed, with a mean healing time of 13.6 weeks (range, 11-18 weeks). At 6.5 months after operation, according to Majeed function scoring system in 8 cases of pelvic fracture, the results were excellent in 5 cases, good in 2 cases

  2. Clinical efficacy and safety of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation for Pilon fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Bo; Zhang, Yi-Bao; Wang, Sheng-Hong; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Jing-Lin; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and complications of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of Pilon fracture. We searched databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine disc for the studies comparing clinical efficacy and complications of LIFEF and ORIF in the treatment of Pilon fracture. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by the rate of nonunion, malunion/delayed union and the excellent/good rate assessed by Mazur ankle score. The complications including infections and arthritis symptoms after surgery were also investigated. Nine trials including 498 pilon fractures of 494 patients were identified. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in nonunion rate (RR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.66 to 3.86, p = 0.30), and the excellent/good rate (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.04, p = 0.28) between LIFEF group and ORIF group. For assessment of infections, there were significant differences in the rate of deep infection (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.34 to 3.55, p = 0.002), and the rate of arthritis (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.53, p = 0.02) between LIFEF group and ORIF group. LIFEF has similar effect as ORIF in the treatment of pilon fractures, however, LIFEF group has significantly higher risk of complications than ORIF group does. So LIFEF is not recommended in the treatment of pilon fracture. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of an internal teat sealant in combination with cloxacillin dry cow therapy for the prevention of clinical and subclinical mastitis in seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, D J; Malmo, J; Deighton, M

    2010-10-01

    Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600 mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6 g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600 mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a

  4. Non-linear dynamic response of reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemori, T.; Sotomura, K.; Yamada, M.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program was developed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior of structures. This program is outlined and the problems of non-linear response of structures are discussed. Since the mode superposition method is only valid in an elastic analysis, the direct integration method was adopted here. As the sample model, an actual reactor containment (reactor building) of PWR plant was adopted. This building consists of three components, that is, a concrete internal structure, a steel containment vessel and a concrete outer shield wall. These components are resting on a rigid foundation mat. Therefore they were modeled with a lumped mass model respectively and coupled on the foundation. The following assumptions were employed to establish the properties of dynamic model: rocking and swaying springs of soil can be obtained from an elastic half-space solution, and the hysteretic characteristic of springs is bi-linear; springs connecting each mass are dealt with shear beams so that both bending and shear deflections can be included (Hysteretic characteristics of springs are linear, bi-linear and tri-linear for the internal structure, the containment vessel and the outer shield wall, respectively); generally, each damping coefficient is given for each mode in modal superposition (However, a damping matrix must be made directly in a non-linear response). Therefore the damping matrix of the model was made by combining the damping matrices [C] of each component obtained by Caughy's method and a damping value of the rocking and swaying by the half-space solution. On the basis of above conditions, the non-linear response of the structure was obtained and the difference between elastic and elasto-plastic analysis is presented

  5. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  6. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  7. Effect of Ovality in Inlet Pigtail Pipe Bends Under Combined Internal Pressure and In-Plane Bending for Ni-Fe-Cr B407 Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswami P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an attempt to depict the effect of ovality in the inlet pigtail pipe bend of a reformer under combined internal pressure and in-plane bending. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiments have been used. An incoloy Ni-Fe-Cr B407 alloy material was considered for study and assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic in behavior. The design of pipe bend is based on ASME B31.3 standard and during manufacturing process, it is challenging to avoid thickening on the inner radius and thinning on the outer radius of pipe bend. This geometrical shape imperfection is known as ovality and its effect needs investigation which is considered for the study. The finite element analysis (ANSYS-workbench results showed that ovality affects the load carrying capacity of the pipe bend and it was varying with bend factor (h. By data fitting of finite element results, an empirical formula for the limit load of inlet pigtail pipe bend with ovality has been proposed, which is validated by experiments.

  8. Validation of an Internet-based long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish adults using combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Brage, Søren; Grønbæk, Morten; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2014-03-01

    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys, but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population. Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007-2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous, and sedentary intensity levels were derived from the IPAQ and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed. PAEE from the 2 methods was significantly positively correlated (0.29 and 0.49; P = 0.02 and P women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE by IPAQ (56.2 vs 45.3 kJ/kg/day, IPAQ: Acc+HR, P women (40.8 vs 44.4 kJ/kg/day). Bland-Altman plots showed that the IPAQ overestimated PAEE, moderate, and vigorous activity without systematic error. Reliability of the IPAQ was moderate to high for all domains and intensities (total PAEE intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.58). This Danish Internet-based version of the long IPAQ had modest validity and reliability when assessing PAEE at population level.

  9. Linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjutju, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)

  10. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  11. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  12. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture; La realizacion de grupos de discuion en un proceso combinado de evaluacion interna de cultura de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  13. Real-time 3D internal marker tracking during arc radiotherapy by the use of combined MV-kV imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Wiersma, R D; Mao, W; Luxton, G; Xing, L

    2008-01-01

    To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, it is desirable to have real-time knowledge of the tumor position throughout the beam delivery process. A promising technique to realize the real-time image guided scheme in external beam radiation therapy is through the combined use of MV and onboard kV beam imaging. The success of this MV-kV triangulation approach for fixed-gantry radiation therapy has been demonstrated. With the increasing acceptance of modern arc radiotherapy in the clinics, a timely and clinically important question is whether the image guidance strategy can be extended to arc therapy to provide the urgently needed real-time tumor motion information. While conceptually feasible, there are a number of theoretical and practical issues specific to the arc delivery that need to be resolved before clinical implementation. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust procedure of system calibration for combined MV and kV imaging for internal marker tracking during arc delivery and to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the technique. A commercially available LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used for the study. A custom built phantom with multiple ball bearings was used to calibrate the stereoscopic MV-kV imaging system to provide the transformation parameters from imaging pixels to 3D world coordinates. The accuracy of the fiducial tracking system was examined using a 4D motion phantom capable of moving in accordance with a pre-programmed trajectory. Overall, spatial accuracy of MV-kV fiducial tracking during the arc delivery process for normal adult breathing amplitude and period was found to be better than 1 mm. For fast motion, the results depended on the imaging frame rates. The RMS error ranged from ∼0.5 mm for the normal adult breathing pattern to ∼1.5 mm for more extreme cases with a low imaging frame rate of 3.4 Hz. In general, highly accurate real

  14. Real-time 3D internal marker tracking during arc radiotherapy by the use of combined MV-kV imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Wiersma, R D; Mao, W; Luxton, G; Xing, L

    2008-12-21

    To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, it is desirable to have real-time knowledge of the tumor position throughout the beam delivery process. A promising technique to realize the real-time image guided scheme in external beam radiation therapy is through the combined use of MV and onboard kV beam imaging. The success of this MV-kV triangulation approach for fixed-gantry radiation therapy has been demonstrated. With the increasing acceptance of modern arc radiotherapy in the clinics, a timely and clinically important question is whether the image guidance strategy can be extended to arc therapy to provide the urgently needed real-time tumor motion information. While conceptually feasible, there are a number of theoretical and practical issues specific to the arc delivery that need to be resolved before clinical implementation. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust procedure of system calibration for combined MV and kV imaging for internal marker tracking during arc delivery and to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the technique. A commercially available LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used for the study. A custom built phantom with multiple ball bearings was used to calibrate the stereoscopic MV-kV imaging system to provide the transformation parameters from imaging pixels to 3D world coordinates. The accuracy of the fiducial tracking system was examined using a 4D motion phantom capable of moving in accordance with a pre-programmed trajectory. Overall, spatial accuracy of MV-kV fiducial tracking during the arc delivery process for normal adult breathing amplitude and period was found to be better than 1 mm. For fast motion, the results depended on the imaging frame rates. The RMS error ranged from approximately 0.5 mm for the normal adult breathing pattern to approximately 1.5 mm for more extreme cases with a low imaging frame rate of 3.4 Hz. In general

  15. Optimized slice-selective 1H NMR experiments combined with highly accurate quantitative 13C NMR using an internal reference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jézéquel, Tangi; Silvestre, Virginie; Dinis, Katy; Giraudeau, Patrick; Akoka, Serge

    2018-04-01

    Isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry (irm-13C NMR) provides the complete 13C intramolecular position-specific composition at natural abundance. It represents a powerful tool to track the (bio)chemical pathway which has led to the synthesis of targeted molecules, since it allows Position-specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA). Due to the very small composition range (which represents the range of variation of the isotopic composition of a given nuclei) of 13C natural abundance values (50‰), irm-13C NMR requires a 1‰ accuracy and thus highly quantitative analysis by 13C NMR. Until now, the conventional strategy to determine the position-specific abundance xi relies on the combination of irm-MS (isotopic ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry) and 13C quantitative NMR. However this approach presents a serious drawback since it relies on two different techniques and requires to measure separately the signal of all the carbons of the analyzed compound, which is not always possible. To circumvent this constraint, we recently proposed a new methodology to perform 13C isotopic analysis using an internal reference method and relying on NMR only. The method combines a highly quantitative 1H NMR pulse sequence (named DWET) with a 13C isotopic NMR measurement. However, the recently published DWET sequence is unsuited for samples with short T1, which forms a serious limitation for irm-13C NMR experiments where a relaxing agent is added. In this context, we suggest two variants of the DWET called Multi-WET and Profiled-WET, developed and optimized to reach the same accuracy of 1‰ with a better immunity towards T1 variations. Their performance is evaluated on the determination of the 13C isotopic profile of vanillin. Both pulse sequences show a 1‰ accuracy with an increased robustness to pulse miscalibrations compared to the initial DWET method. This constitutes a major advance in the context of irm-13C NMR since it is now possible to perform isotopic analysis with high

  16. Linear accelerator use in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, J.-C.

    Radiography of internal conformity is performed on weldments and thick castings using linear accelerators. The basic principles relating to linear accelerators are outlined and their advantages over Co 60 sources described. Linear accelerator operation related requirements are presented as well as the use of this apparatus as a method for volumetric inspection, during fabrication of French Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS). Finally the resources needed to use this technique as an inspection method is dealt with [fr

  17. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed

  18. Effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius

  19. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  20. Calculation of the masses of the ground-state baryons as a test of the hypothesis that the potential is a combination of a Coulomb and a linear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, C.S.; Tran, B.; Hall, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that the interquark potential in the baryon is the sum of a Coulomb and a linear potential is evalutated in terms of the model of Isgur and Karl as modified by Kalman, Hal and Misra. Six parameters are used to fit the eight ground-state baryon masses. The closeness of the predicted values to the experimental values verifies the hypothesis

  1. Proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 26, 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgström, J.; Luttik, B.

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and the 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013) which was held on 26th August, 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2013, the

  2. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  3. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  4. Polarized positrons and electrons at the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke, J.; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Dreiner, H.K.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization

  5. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z'-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  6. A broad G protein-coupled receptor internalization assay that combines SNAP-tag labeling, diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer, and a highly emissive terbium cryptate acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique eLEVOYE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR internalization has long been considered a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z’-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  7. COMPARISON OF LINEAR CONTROLLERS FOR A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2005-01-01

    on comparing different linear controllers, based on both simulation and experimental results, to determine what is obtainable when applying standard linear controllers to a hydraulic SISO servo system. The paper furthermore addresses how the performance may be improved by using internal pressure control......In many hydraulic control applications, classic linear controllers are still employed, although there exist a number of number of nonlinear control methods, which may be better suited for handling the intrensic non-linearities often found in hydraulic systems. The focus of this paper is therefore...... and model based information to include feedforward information. The control strategies considered are all based on measurement of piston position and pressure only....

  8. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  9. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  10. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  11. Influence of baseline variables on changes in International Prostate Symptom Score after combined therapy with dutasteride plus tamsulosin or either monotherapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms: 4-year results of the CombAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Barkin, Jack; Tubaro, Andrea; Emberton, Mark; Wilson, Timothy H; Brotherton, Betsy J; Castro, Ramiro

    2014-04-01

    To examine, using post hoc analysis, the influence of baseline variables on changes in international prostate symptom score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax ) and IPSS quality of life (QoL) in patients with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treated with either the α-blocker tamsulosin or the dual 5-alpha reductase inhibitor dutasteride, alone or in combination, as part of the 4-year Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) study. CombAT was a 4-year, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in 4844 men ≥50 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of BPH by medical history and physical examination, an IPSS ≥12 points, prostate volume (PV) ≥30 mL, total serum PSA level ≥1.5 ng/mL, and Qmax >5 mL/s and ≤15 mL/s with a minimum voided volume ≥125 mL. Eligible subjects were randomized to receive oral daily tamsulosin, 0.4 mg; dutasteride, 0.5 mg; or a combination of both. Baseline variable subgroups analysed were as follows: PV (30 to tamsulosin were performed from the general linear model with statistical significance defined as P ≤ 0.01. Combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater improvement from baseline IPSS at 48 months vs tamsulosin monotherapy across all baseline subgroups. The benefit of combination therapy over dutasteride was confined to groups with lower baseline PV (tamsulosin but not dutasteride monotherapy. Qmax improvement appeared to increase with PV and PSA level in combination therapy subjects. The proportion of subjects with an IPSS QoL ≤2 (at least mostly satisfied) at 48 months was significantly higher with combination therapy than with dutasteride for subgroups with PV 40-60 mL and PSA level tamsulosin for all PSA subgroups and PV subgroups ≥40 mL. CombAT data support the use of long-term combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin in patients considered at risk for progression of BPH, as determined

  12. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  13. Linear gate with prescaled window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J; Bissem, H H; Krause, H; Scobel, W [Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1978-07-15

    An electronic circuit is described that combines the features of a linear gate, a single channel analyzer and a prescaler. It allows selection of a pulse height region between two adjustable thresholds and scales the intensity of the spectrum within this window down by a factor 2sup(N) (0<=N<=9), whereas the complementary part of the spectrum is transmitted without being affected.

  14. German lab wins linear collider contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Particle physicists have chosen to base the proposed International Linear Collider on superconducting technology developed by an international collaboration centred on the DESY lab in Germany. The superconducting approach was chosen by an internatinal panel ahead of a rival technology developed at Stanford in the US and the KEK lab in Japan. The eagerly-awaited decision was announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Beijing today (½ page)

  15. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR Enhancement Comparison of Impulse-, Coding- and Novel Linear-Frequency-Chirp-Based Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR for Passive Optical Network (PON Monitoring Based on Unique Combinations of Wavelength Selective Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bentz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m.

  16. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  17. Comparison of screen-film combinations: results of a contrast detail study and interactive image quality analysis. Pt. 2. Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive (automatic) image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, G.; Eichbaum, G.; Hagemann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: (a) A combination of anticross-over film and UV-light emitting screens, (b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and (c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2x0.2x0.12 m 3 ) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminium prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: Display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a Pb0 photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512x512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 μm 2 . Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  18. Quantitative determination of multi markers in five varieties of Withania somnifera using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer combined with multivariate analysis: Application to pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Preeti; Kannujia, Rekha; Saxena, Ankita; Srivastava, Mukesh; Bahadur, Lal; Pal, Mahesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-10

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of six major bioactive compounds in five varieties of Withania somnifera in various plant parts (leaf, stem and root). The analysis was accomplished on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with linear gradient elution of water/formic acid (0.1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The proposed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r(2), 0.9989-0.9998), precision (RSD, 0.16-2.01%), stability (RSD, 1.04-1.62%) and recovery (RSD ≤2.45%), under optimum conditions. The method was also successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six marker compounds in twenty-six marketed formulations. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to discriminate these twenty-six batches based on characteristics of the bioactive compounds. The results indicated that this method is advance, rapid, sensitive and suitable to reveal the quality of Withania somnifera and also capable of performing quality evaluation of polyherbal formulations having similar markers/raw herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  20. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  1. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  2. Linear fixed-field multipass arcs for recirculating linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Morozov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA’s provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dogbone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of 2. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dogbone RLA.

  3. Temporary heat storage by using combined heat and power in supplementary lighted greenhouses Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Artificial Lighting in Horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.P.G.

    1997-01-01

    Because of better utilization possibilities of the produced heat, decentrally located combined heat and power installations achieve a higher energetic efficiency than producing heat and power separately. However, efficiency depends considerably on synchronism of heat and electricity demand. Using a

  4. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  5. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  6. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  7. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  8. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  9. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  10. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  11. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  12. Oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism: Expert opinion versus current practice: Combined results of a systematic review, expert panel opinion and an international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, F. A.; Schreiber, K.; Stach, K.; Ageno, W.; Middeldorp, S.; Eichinger, S.; Delluc, A.; Blondon, M.; Ay, C.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal management of oral contraception and menstrual bleeding during treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is largely unknown. We aimed to elicit expert opinion and compare that to current practice as assessed by a world-wide international web-based survey among physicians. 10

  13. Study of Si-N amorphous compounds combining XPS (X photoemission) and EELS (electron energy loss spectra) optical measurements. Internal levels photoemission. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guraya, M.M.; Acolani, H.; Zampieri, G.E.; Silva, J.H. Dias da; Cisneros, J.I.; Cantao, M.; Marques, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    A Si-N non-stoichiometric hydrogenated amorphous compounds study with different N- contents is presented. The shape and shifts of the photoemission peaks corresponding to the N - 1s and Si - 2p internal levels are analyzed. Based on the latter, the homogeneity of the samples and the Si - N bonds charge transfer is discussed. (Author) [es

  14. [Case-control study on effects of external fixation combined with limited internal fixation for the treatment of Pilon fractures of Rüedi-Allgower type III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Da-Peng; You, Wu-Lin; Ji, Le; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Dang, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Kun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effects of three surgical operations in the treatment of Pilon fracture of Rüedi-Allgower type III, and put forward the best therapeutic method. The clinical data of 33 patients with Pilon fracture who received surgical operations (plaster immobilization group, 10 cases; distal tibia anatomical plate group, 11 cases; external fixation with limited internal fixation group, 12 cases) from October 2009 to January 2012 were analyzed. There were 5 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 24 to 61 years in the plaster immobilization group. There were 7 males and 4 females, ranging in age from 21 to 64 years in the distal tibia anatomical plate group. There were 7 males and 5 females, ranging in age from 23 to 67 years in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group. The Ankle X-ray of Pilon fracture after operation, ankle score, early and late complications were collected. Bourne system was used to evaluate ankle joint function. After 8 months to 3 years follow-up, it was found that three kinds of treatment had significant differences in the outcomes and complications (P external fixation with limited internal fixation group got the best results. The number of anatomic reduction cases in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group (7 cases) and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (8 cases) was more than the plaster immobilization group (2 cases). According to the ankle score, 8 patients got an excellent result, 3 good and 1 poor in the limited internal fixation group ,which was better than those of distal tibia anatomical plate group (5 excellent, 4 good and 2 poor) and the plaster immobilization group (3 excellent, 4 good and 3 poor). The number of early and late complications in the external fixation with limited internal fixation group was more than those in the plaster immobilization group and the distal tibia anatomical plate group (Pexternal fixation with limited internal fixation in the treatment of Pilon fracture

  15. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  16. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  17. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  18. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  19. Computational linear and commutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...

  20. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...