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Sample records for internal gelation process

  1. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  2. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Aluminum Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Pye, S. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01

    A simple test-tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide microspheres by the internal gelation process. Broth formulations of aluminum, hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous aluminum oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60-90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations in order to equate the test-tube gelation times with actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broths.

  3. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Cerium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Chi, Anthony [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    A simple test tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous cerium oxide microspheres via the internal gelation process.1 Broth formulations of cerium ammonium nitrate [(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous cerium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60 to 90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations to be able to equate the test-tube gelation times to actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broth formulations.

  4. Development of a sol-gel process by internal gelation for production of U O2 microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poramatikul, N.

    1986-01-01

    Preparation of U O 2 -microspheres by sol-gel processes were studied. The internal gelation process was selected to produce the microspheres by using the capillary nozzle of various sizes, exerting pressure on syringe both by weight and N 2 -gas pressure for the drop formation. The conditions for increasing the rate of formation and sizes of microspheres were also studied together with washing, drying and sintering of the microspheres. The optimum condition for microspheres formation were as follows: broth concentration 1.25 mole U/liter, free-forming by capillary of 0.45-0.9 mm. diameter, purging with 0.2-0.9 l/min N 2 -gas, column diameter of 2.5 cm. and 200 cm. height filled with trichloroethylene mixed with 0.02% Span 80 and heat to 68-70 degree C gave the microspheres of 300-1000 micro m diameter which collected at the bottom of the column. After washing drying and sintering in Ar-4% H 2 at 1200 degree C the carbon content of the product were reduced from 10% to 0.1% and the ratio of O to U were 2.0-2.05, the maximum density were 80% Theoretical Density

  5. UO2 microspheres obtainment through the internal gelation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterba, M.E.; Gomez Constenla, A.

    1987-01-01

    UO 2 microspheres obtainment process through the internal gelation method which allows the spheres' obtainment of uniform size is detailed herein, varying the same among 0.3 and 1.7 mm of diameter. The sintered density reaches 10.78 g/cm 3 , permitting the fuels fabrication dispersed and vibro-compacted fuels. The trichloroethylene use implementation as gelation agent is described, thus reducing the number of stages in the microspheres fabrication. At the same time, the uranium sun composition has been modified so as to be compatible with the use solvent. (Author)

  6. Internal gelation at PSI. The past and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, Manuel A.; Ingold, Franz

    2009-01-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute used to be very active in fuel fabrication R and D using the internal gelation process, which is a promising production method for spherical nuclear fuel. Such fuel kernels can be directly packed in a cylindrical cladding (a sphere-pac pin), or they can be coated in the TRISO concept. The internal gelation offers several advantages, as it is aqueous up to the forming of the sphere. Consequently, the process is almost dustless, with lower risk of incorporation. The production does not require mechanical and maintenance intensive equipment, as for example presses and grinding machines necessary for pellet type fuel. Especially for low decontaminated fuel coming from aqueous reprocessing, this offers a great advantage, because the production line can easily be handled remotely in a hot cell. In the past, many different fuel matrices were produced and tested at PSI (carbide, nitride and oxide fuels). The paper summarizes the past activities, and some important findings. Furthermore, future perspectives of this concept are shown. These are especially seen in context of Generation IV nuclear systems such as the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR), the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), and the gas cooled fast reactor (GFR). The paper describes the former production line, which was a classical internal gelation process. Some advantages and disadvantages of this system will be illustrated which lead to a new project at PSI. A silicon oil-free system will be developed over the next years. The oil as a heat carrier is replaced by a cavity, where microwaves act on falling drops and lead to the desired gelation before the spheres drop into a washing solution. The idea of a microwave gelation has already been tested at several laboratories in the past. The paper gives an overview of these activities. Finally the concept of the new production at PSI is introduced. (author)

  7. Manufacturing of zirconia microspheres doped with erbia, yttria and ceria by internal gelation process as a part of a cermet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemitsu, K.; Arima, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Torikai, S.; Pouchon, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an inert matrix candidate for the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactor (LWR). The thermal conductivity of cubic zirconia is however lower than the conductivities of UO 2 and MOX. Special designs are therefore necessary to avoid high peaking temperatures close to the melting point in the zirconia pellet. Cermet would be a favorable design to improve the thermal conductivity. The suggested cermet fuel consists of fine plutonium doped stabilized zirconia particles dispersed in a metallic inert matrix. Manufacturing tests on cubic zirconia microspheres were carried out by using the internal gelation process developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Gelation was conducted successfully and the sintered spheres had a homogeneous single cubic structure. The lattice parameter of the cubic zirconia was estimated as a function of the Er, Y and Ce atomic fraction using a simplified semi-quantitative formula. On the experimental side, it is necessary to further investigate the ideal fabrication conditions, because some gel spheres were opaque and fragile and most of the sintered spheres were cracked, nicked and porous

  8. Control of Urania Crystallite Size by HMTA-Urea Reactions in the Internal Gelation Process for Preparing (U, Pu)O2Fuel Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-04-26

    In the development of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} kernels by the internal gelation process for the Direct Press Spheroidized process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a novel crystal growth step was discovered that made it possible to prepare calcined porous kernels that could be used as direct-press feed for Fast Breeder Reactor pellet fabrication. High-quality pellets were prepared that were near theoretical density and that (upon examination) revealed no evidence of sphere remnants. The controlled crystal growth step involved using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-urea stock solutions that were boiled for 60 min or less. Before this discovery, all the other crystal growth steps (when utilized) could reduce the tap density to only {approx}1.3 g/cm{sup 3}, which was not sufficiently low for use in ideal pellet pressing. The use of the boiled HMTA-urea solution allowed the tap density to be lowered to 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}, with the ideal density being about 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. This report describes the development of this technology and its scaleup.

  9. Chemical flowsheet conditions for preparing urania spheres by internal gelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Begovich, J.M.; Ryon, A.D.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Small, ceramic urania spheres can be prepared for use as nuclear fuel by internal chemical gelation of uranyl nitrate solution droplets. Decomposition of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) dissolved in the uranyl nitrate solution releases ammonia to precipitate hydrated UO 3 . Previously established flowsheet conditions have been improved and modified at ORNL and have been applied to prepare dense UO 2 spheres with average diameters of 1200, 300, and 30 μm. Acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solutions up to 3.4 M in uranium with NO 3 - /U mole ratios of 1.5 to 1.7 are prepared by dissolution of U 3 O 8 or UO 3 . Continuous mixing of metered, cooled ADUN containing urea and HMTA solutions provides a smooth, regulated flow of the temperature-sensitive feed solution. The gelation times for solution drops in organic liquids at 45 to 95 0 C depend on both the chemical reaction rates and the rates of heat transfer. The gel properties vary with temperature and other gelation variables. Gelation conditions were determined which allow easy washing, drying, firing, and sintering to produce dense UO 2 spheres of all three sizes. The 1200- and 300-μm UO 2 spheres were pepared by gelation in trichloroethylene at 50 to 65 0 C; 2-ethyl-l-hexanol was used as the gelation medium to prepare 30-μm UO 2 spheres. Washing and drying requirements were determined. The gel dried to 225 0 C contains about 95% UO 3 ; the remaining components are H 2 O, NH 3 - , which are volatilized during firing to UO 2

  10. A necessary and sufficient condition for gelation of a reversible Markov process of polymerization

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D

    2003-01-01

    A reversible Markov process as a chemical polymerization model which permits the coagulation and fragmentation reactions is considered. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of a gelation in the process. We show that a gelation transition may or may not occur, depending on the value of the fragmentation strength, and, in the case that gelation takes place, a critical value for the occurrence of the gelation and the mass of the gel can be determined by close forms.

  11. A comparative study of nitride purity and Am fabrication losses in PuN materials by the powder and internal gelation production routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Marcus, E-mail: marhed@chalmers.se; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-12-15

    Fabrication of plutonium containing fuels through the internal gelation method has mostly been studied in mixed metal systems such as U, Pu or Zr,Pu. In this work production of undiluted PuN has been performed by carbothermal reduction on both oxide powder and Pu microspheres produced by the internal gelation method. Nitride purities reached using the different methods have been studied together with final densities achieved during pellet fabrication as well as losses of ingrown Am during the different production steps. Formation of Pu microspheres was successfully performed using the internal gelation method, although extensive microsphere fracturing occurred during thermal treatment. Final densities of PuN pellets produced by cold pressing and sintering reached 70–80% of theoretical density. Am losses during the carbothermal reduction step was on average about 3.7%. After sintering about 11% of Am was lost in total through the entire production process if sintering in N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} atmosphere while about 50% of the Am in total was lost when using Ar as sintering atmosphere. - Highlights: • Internal gelation Pu based sols was performed. • Nitride formation by carbothermal reduction on Pu microspheres and powders was performed. • Pelletization and sintering of pellets was performed. • Am losses were measured throughout the production steps.

  12. Investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Yoshimura, Tadahiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Hoshino, Yasushi; Munekata, Hideki; Shimizu, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    In feasibility studies on commercialized FBR cycle system, comprehensive system investigation and properties evaluation for candidate FBR cycle systems have been implemented through view point of safety, economics, environmental burden reduction, non-proliferation resistivity, etc. As part of these studies, an investigation of small scale sphere-pac fuel fabrication plant with external gelation process was conducted. Until last fiscal year, equipment layout in cells and overall layout design of the 200t-HM/y scale fuel fabrication plant were conducted as well as schematical design studies on main equipments in gelation and reagent recovery processes of the plant. System property data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of fuel fabrication plant was also acquired. In this fiscal year, the processes from vibropacking to fuel assemblies storage were added to the investigation range, and a conceptual design of whole fuel fabrication plant was studied as well as deepening the design study on main equipments. The conceptual design study was mainly conducted for small 50t-HM/y scale plant and a revising investigation was done for 200t-HM/y scale plant. Taking the planed comparative evaluation with pellet fuel fabrication system into account, design of equipments which should be equivalent with pellet system, especially in post-vibropacking processes, were standardized in each system. Based on these design studies, system properties data concerning economics and environmental burden reduction of the plant was also acquired. In comparison with existing design, the cell height was lowered on condition that plug type pneumatic system was adopted and fuel fabrication building was downsized by applying rationalized layout design of pellet system to post-vibropacking processes. Reduction of reagent usage at gelation process and rationalization of sintering and O/M controlling processes etc., are foremost tasks. (author)

  13. Fabrication of uranium-based ceramics using internal gelation for the conversion of trivalent actinides; Herstellung uranbasierter Keramiken mittel interner Gelierung zur Konversion trivalenter Actinoiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Alternative to today's direct final waste disposal strategy of long-lived radionuclides, for example the minor actinides neptunium, americium, curium and californium, is their selective separation from the radioactive wastestream with subsequent transmutation by neutron irradiation. Hereby it is possible to obtain nuclides with a lower risk-potential concerning their radiotoxicity. 1 neutron irradiation can be carried out either with neutron sources or in the next generation of nuclear reactors. Before the treatment, the minor actinides need to be converted in a suitable chemical and physical form. Internal gelation offers a route through which amorphous gel-spheres can be obtained directly from a metal-salt solution. Due to the presence of different types of metal ions as well as changing pH-values in a stock solution, a complex hydrolysis behaviour of these elements before and during gelation occurs. Therefore, investigations with uranium and neodymium as a minor actinide surrogate were carried out. As a result of suitable gelation-parameters, uraniumneodymium gel-spheres were successfully synthesised. The spheres also stayed intact during the subsequent thermal treatment. Based upon these findings, uranium-plutonium and uranium-americium gels were successfully created. For theses systems, the determined parameters for the uraniumneodymium gelation could also be applied. Additionally, investigations to reduce the acidity of uranium-based stock solutions for internal gelation were carried out. The necessary amount of urea and hexamethylenetetramine to induce gelation could hereby be decreased. This lead to a general increase of the gel quality and made it possible to carry out uranium-americium gelation in the first place. To investigate the stability of urea and hexamethylenetetramine, solutions of these chemicals were irradiated with different radiation doses. These chemicals showed a high stability against radiolysis in aqueous solutions.

  14. Production of BCG alginate-PLL microcapsules by emulsification/internal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquisabel, A; Hernández, R M; Igartua, M; Gascón, A R; Calvo, B; Pedraz, J L

    1997-01-01

    A biocompatible emulsification method for microencapsulation of live cells and enzymes within a calcium alginate matrix applied to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been developed. Small-diameter alginate beads (microcapsules) were formed via internal gelation of an alginate solution emulsified within vegetable oil. Five different oils (sesame, sweet almond, perhydrosqualene, camomile and jojoba) were used. The rheological analysis of the oils showed a Newtonian behaviour, with viscosities = 30.0, 37.7, 51.2, 59.3 and 67.1 mPa.s for perhydrosqualene, jojoba, camomile, sesame and sweet almond oil respectively. The particle size of the microcapsules obtained ranged from 30.3 microns for the microcapsules prepared with sweet almond oil to 57.0 microns for those made with perhydrosqualene. The mean particle diameter obtained was found to be dependent on the viscosity of the oil employed, according to the equation: phi (micron) = 76.6-0.628 eta (mPa.s) (r2 = 0.943). The encapsulated BCG was identified by the Difco TB stain set K, followed by observation under optical microscopy. Freeze-drying of the microcapsules was carried out to ensure their stability during storage. Two batches of microcapsules (those prepared with sesame and jojoba oil) and four types of cryoprotectors (glucose, trehalose, mannitol and sorbitol), at three concentration levels (5, 10 and 20% w/v) were studied. The parameters evaluated were particle size, physical appearance, reconstitution of lyophilizates and microscopical evaluation. For both batches of microcapsules the best results were obtained with trehalose 5%, showing particle sizes of 42.1 microns in the case of the microcapsules prepared with sesame oil, and of 45.3 microns for those prepared with jojoba.

  15. Nanospheres of alginate prepared through w/o emulsification and internal gelation with nanoparticles of CaCO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Gelled nanospheres of alginate are prepared through a single step technique involving emulsification and gelation. CaCO3 nanoparticles, together with glucono delta-lactone (GDL), are dispersed in an alginate solution, which is subsequently dispersed in an oil phase and followed by gelation of the

  16. Influent of Carbonization of Sol Solution at the External Gelation Process on the Quality of Uranium Oxide Kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir; Sukarsono

    2007-01-01

    The influent of carbonization of sol solution at the external gelation process on the quality of uranium oxide kernel was done. Variables observed are the influent of carbon, temperature and time of reduction process of U 3 O 8 kernel resulted from carbonization of sol solution. First of all, uranyl nitrate was reacted with 1 M NH 4 OH solution, producing the colloid of UO 3 . Then by mixing and heating up to the temperature of 60-80 °C, the colloid solution was reacted with PVA, mono sorbitol oleate and paraffin producing of uranium-PVA sol. Then sol solution was carbonized with carbon black of mol ratio of carbon to uranium =2.32-6.62, produce of carbide gel. Gel then washed, dried and calcined at 800 °C for 4 hours to produce of U 3 O 8 kernel containing carbon. Then the kernel was reduced by H 2 gas in the medium of N 2 gas at 500-800 °C, 50 mmHg pressure for 3 hours. The process was repeated at 700 °C, 50 mmHg pressure for 1-4 hours. The characterization of chemical properties of the gel grains and uranium oxide kernel using FTIR covering the analysis of absorption band of infra red spectrum of UO 3 , C-OH, NH 3 , C-C, C-H and OH functional group. The physical properties of uranium oxide covering specific surface area, void volume, mean diameter using surface area meter Nova-1000 and as N 2 gas an absorbent. And O/U ratio of uranium dioxide kernel by gravimetry method. The result of experiment showed that carbonization of sol solution at the external gelation process give influencing the quality of uranium oxide kernel. (author)

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Device Pressure Regulation System Orifice of Manufacturing Process Gel Uranium Column Gelation External

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triyono; Sutarni; Indra Suryawan

    2009-01-01

    The device pressure regulation orifice system of manufacturing process gel uranium on external column gelation has been made and characterized. The device consists : compressor 5.75-6.75 kg / cm 2 , air container tank, power supply 24 volts dc, solenoid valve 24 volts dc, pressure indicator 0-100 mbar, pressure indicator 0-250 mbar, mechanical valve and power electric 380 volts 50 Hz. The activity includes: installation device system and characterization with pressure variation orifice 5-75 mbar on the compressor 5.75-6.5 kg/cm 2 continuously for 1 minute. The method of installation i.e: wiring and piping to first component and support component (compressor and pressure air indicator, air container tank and pressure air indicator, solenoid valve, power supply 220 volts / 24 volts dc and orifice). After apparatus installed has been tested by the characterization without feed under air pressure varied to orifice of 5-75 mbar and device characterization with variation diameter orifice of 0.5-1 mm and orifice pressure of 5-75 mbar. The result in the characterization an every component good function, can be operation by input pressure range of 15-185 mbar orifice pressure range of 5-75 mbar. The characterization result device pressure regulation orifice system showed that: the system can be good operation of air pressure regulation orifice between 5-75 mbar with diameter orifice 0.5 mm to result gelation range of 10-25 piece / minute with variation air pressure input between 15-185 mbar of air pressure compressor 5.75-6.5 kg cm 2 . (author)

  18. The Effect of Various Acids to the Gelation Process to the Silica Gel Characteristic Using Organic Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, NA; Widiyastuti, W.; Sigit, D.; Ajiza, M.; Sujana, W.

    2018-01-01

    Bagasse ash is solid waste of cane sugar industry which contain of silica more than 51%. Some previous study of silica gel from bagasse ash have been conducted often and been applied. This study concerns about the effect of various acid used in the process of gelation to the characteristic of silica gel produced. Then, this silica gel will be used as adsorbent. As that, the silica gel must fulfill the requirements of adsorbent, as have good pores characteristics, fit in mesoporous size so that adsorbent diffusion process is not disturbed. A fitted pores size of silica gel can be prepared by managing acid concentration used. The effect of acid, organic acid (tartaric acid) and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid), is investigated in detail. The acid is added into sodium silicate solution in that the gel is formed, the pores structures can be investigated with BET, the crystal form is analyzed with XRD and the pore structure is analyzed visually with SEM. By managing the acid concentration added, it gets the effect of acid to the pore structure of silica gel. The bigger concentration is, the bigger the pore’s size of silica gel produced.

  19. Influence of THFA on the surface area and porosity of U3O8 kernel of produced by external gelation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilowati, Sri Rinanti; Triyono; Nawangsih, Endang; Widiyati, Sri

    2013-01-01

    The research of the influence of THFA on the surface area and porosity of U 3 O 8 by kernel external gelation results has done. U 3 0 8 kernel made by external gelation process using uranyl nitrate solution with various concentration of THFA in sol solution. UN solution preparation by dissolving UO 3 powder into 7N HNO 3 at a temperature of 60 °C with a certain amount and volume, resulting in a solution of uranyl nitrate with high uranium concentrations but low acidity. Preparation of sol begins by dissolving 1.8 9 of polyvinyl alcohol in demineralized water at 70 °C, the volume varied tetrahydrofurfural alcohol, then added a solution of UN stirring constantly until homogeneous. Sol solution was then dripped in 7N ammonia in the medium gelation column. Gel ADU diaging in ammonia solution 7N for 30 minutes, then washed with ammonia 2.5% and n propanol. ADU gel diameter was measured using calipers. ADU silenced gel at room temperature 48 hours and then dried in an oven 100 °C at a rate of temperature rising 5°C/minutes. After drying, the gel ADU calcined at 600°C with an increase rate of 5°C/minutes for 2 hours. Kernel density U 3 O 8 then analyzed, surface area, mean pore radius and total pore volume. U 3 O 8 best kernel at 2.5% THFA concentration conditions, because it has a high density is 7.877 g/mL and extensive porosity and lower surface area is 5,180 % and 4,898 m 2 /g. (author)

  20. Positionally isomeric organic gelators: structure-gelation study, racemic versus enantiomeric gelators, and solvation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplar, Vesna; Frkanec, Leo; Sijaković Vujicić, Natasa; Zinić, Mladen

    2010-03-08

    Low molecular weight gelator molecules consisting of aliphatic acid, amino acid (phenylglycine), and omega-aminoaliphatic acid units have been designed. By varying the number of methylene units in the aliphatic and omega-aminoaliphatic acid chains, as defined by descriptors m and n, respectively, a series of positionally isomeric gelators having different positions of the peptidic hydrogen-bonding unit within the gelator molecule has been obtained. The gelation properties of the positional isomers have been determined in relation to a defined set of twenty solvents of different structure and polarity and analyzed in terms of gelator versatility (G(ver)) and effectiveness (G(eff)). The results of gelation tests have shown that simple synthetic optimizations of a "lead gelator molecule" by variation of m and n, end-group polarity (carboxylic acid versus sodium carboxylate), and stereochemistry (racemate versus optically pure form) allowed the identification of gelators with tremendously improved versatility (G(ver)) and effectiveness (G(eff)). Dramatic differences in G(eff) values of up to 70 times could be observed between pure racemate/enantiomer pairs of some gelators, which were manifested even in the gelation of very similar solvents such as isomeric xylenes. The combined results of spectroscopic ((1)H NMR, FTIR), electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction studies suggest similar organization of the positionally isomeric gelators at the molecular level, comprising parallel beta-sheet hydrogen-bonded primary assemblies that form inversed bilayers at a higher organizational level. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of selected enantiomer/racemate gelator pairs and their o- and p-xylene gels revealed the simultaneous presence of different polymorphs in the racemate gels. The increased gelation effectiveness of the racemate compared to that of the single enantiomer is most likely a consequence of its spontaneous resolution into enantiomeric

  1. A supramolecular gel electrolyte formed from amide based co-gelator for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with boosted electron kinetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Wang, Lu; Tao, Li; Ding, Yong; Yi, Jinxin; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-08-01

    A supramolecular gel electrolyte (Tgel > 100 °C) is formed from N,N‧-1,8-octanediylbis-dodecanamide and iodoacetamide as two-component co-gelator, and introduced into the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs). The different morphologies of microscopic network between two-component and single-component gel electrolytes have influence on the diffusion of redox couple in gel electrolytes and further affect the electron kinetic processes in QS-DSSCs. Compared with the single-component gel electrolyte, the two-component gel electrolyte has less compact gel network and weaker steric hindrance effect, which provides more effective charge transport channel for the diffusion of I3/I- redox couple. Meanwhile, the sbnd NH2 groups of iodoacetamide molecules interact with Li+ and I3-, which also accelerate the transport of I3-/I- and decrease in the I3- concentration in the TiO2/electrolyte interface. As a result, nearly a 12% improvement in short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and much higher open circuit potential (Voc) are found in the two-component gel electrolyte based QS-DSSC. Consequently, the QS-DSSC based on the supramolecular gel electrolyte obtains a 17% enhancement in the photoelectric conversion efficiency (7.32%) in comparison with the QS-DSSC based on the single-component gel electrolyte (6.24%). Furthermore, the degradations of these QS-DSSCs are negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter at 50 °C for 1000 h.

  2. Rational Design of Molecular Gelator - Solvent Systems Guided by Solubility Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yaqi

    Self-assembled architectures, such as molecular gels, have attracted wide interest among chemists, physicists and engineers during the past decade. However, the mechanism behind self-assembly remains largely unknown and no capability exists to predict a priori whether a small molecule will gelate a specific solvent or not. The process of self-assembly, in molecular gels, is intricate and must balance parameters influencing solubility and those contrasting forces that govern epitaxial growth into axially symmetric elongated aggregates. Although the gelator-gelator interactions are of paramount importance in understanding gelation, the solvent-gelator specific (i.e., H-bonding) and nonspecific (dipole-dipole, dipole-induced and instantaneous dipole induced forces) intermolecular interactions are equally important. Solvent properties mediate the self-assembly of molecular gelators into their self-assembled fibrillar networks. Herein, solubility parameters of solvents, ranging from partition coefficients (logP), to Henry's law constants (HLC), to solvatochromic ET(30) parameters, to Kamlet-Taft parameters (beta, alpha and pi), to Hansen solubility parameters (deltap, deltad, deltah), etc., are correlated with the gelation ability of numerous classes of molecular gelators. Advanced solvent clustering techniques have led to the development of a priori tools that can identify the solvents that will be gelled and not gelled by molecular gelators. These tools will greatly aid in the development of novel gelators without solely relying on serendipitous discoveries.

  3. To gel or not to gel: correlating molecular gelation with solvent parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y; Corradini, M G; Weiss, R G; Raghavan, S R; Rogers, M A

    2015-10-07

    Rational design of small molecular gelators is an elusive and herculean task, despite the rapidly growing body of literature devoted to such gels over the past decade. The process of self-assembly, in molecular gels, is intricate and must balance parameters influencing solubility and those contrasting forces that govern epitaxial growth into axially symmetric elongated aggregates. Although the gelator-gelator interactions are of paramount importance in understanding gelation, the solvent-gelator specific (i.e., H-bonding) and nonspecific (dipole-dipole, dipole-induced and instantaneous dipole induced forces) intermolecular interactions are equally important. Solvent properties mediate the self-assembly of molecular gelators into their self-assembled fibrillar networks. Herein, solubility parameters of solvents, ranging from partition coefficients (log P), to Henry's law constants (HLC), to solvatochromic parameters (ET(30)), and Kamlet-Taft parameters (β, α and π), and to Hansen solubility parameters (δp, δd, δh), are correlated with the gelation ability of numerous classes of molecular gelators. Advanced solvent clustering techniques have led to the development of a priori tools that can identify the solvents that will be gelled and not gelled by molecular gelators. These tools will greatly aid in the development of novel gelators without solely relying on serendipitous discoveries. These tools illustrate that the quest for the universal gelator should be left in the hands of Don Quixote and as researchers we must focus on identifying gelators capable of gelling classes of solvents as there is likely no one gelator capable of gelling all solvents.

  4. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  5. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin: Kinetics and rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is a marginally utilized co-processing product from sugar production from sugar beets. In this study, the kinetics of oxidative gelation of SBP, taking place via enzyme catalyzed cross-linking of ferulic acid moieties (FA), was studied using small angle oscillatory...... and at the elevated gelation rates (>100 Pa min−1) gels produced using laccase were stronger (higher G′) than HRP catalyzed gels at similar rates of gelation. Chemical analysis confirmed the formation of ferulic acid dehydrodimers (diFAs) by both enzymes supporting that the gelation was a result of oxidative cross...... activity dosage levels, the two enzymes produced different gelation kinetics and the resulting gels had different rheological properties: HRP (with addition of H2O2) catalyzed a fast rate of gelation compared to laccase (no H2O2 addition), but laccase catalysis produced stronger gels (higher G′). The main...

  6. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  7. Precipitation and ultimate pH effect on chemical and gelation properties of protein prepared by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process from pale, soft, exudative (PSE)-like chicken breast meat1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Xing, T; Chen, X; Han, M-Y; Li, X; Xu, X-L; Zhou, G-H

    2017-05-01

    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE)-like chicken breast is considered deteriorated raw material in the poultry meat industry that has inferior processing ability. The chemical and gelation properties of PSE-like chicken breast meat paste were studied. These pastes were prepared by the pH adjustment method and protein isolation using the isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process from PSE-like chicken meat. The ISP-isolated samples were solubilized at pH 11.0 and recovered at pH 5.5 and 6.2. The ultimate pH of the ISP-isolated protein and meat paste was adjusted to 6.2 and 7.0. The ultimate pH in this article referred to the final pH of the extracted protein and meat paste. Higher reactive sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity were found in the precipitation at pH 6.2 than at pH 5.5. However, various ultimate pH values showed no significant influence on the surface hydrophobicity. The hardness of gel, as measured by textural profile analysis, was improved using 6.2 as the precipitation pH compared with pH 5.5. The viscoelastic modulus (G΄) of gel pastes prior to the thermal gelation was higher with ISP treatment. However, lower G΄ was seen after thermal gelation compared with the control. Dynamic rheological measurement demonstrated a different gel-forming mechanism for protein precipitated at pH values of 5.5 and 6.2 compared with the meat paste. The cooking loss showed that the recovered protein failed to form a gel with good water-retention capacity unless the ultimate pH was adjusted to 7.0. Gels made from protein extracted by the ISP method had higher yellowness and lower redness values, probably due to protein denaturation. Precipitation at pH 6.2 formed a harder gel with lower water-retention ability than that at pH 5.5, and this result was possibly due to higher surface hydrophobicity and S-S bridge formation. Overall, network characteristics of ISP-treated protein gels were strongly dependent on precipitation pH and ultimate pH. © 2016

  8. Gelation Behaviors and Mechanism of Silk Fibroin According to the Addition of Nitrate Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Su Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin (SF is a typical fibrous protein that is secreted by silkworms and spiders. It has been used in a variety of areas, and especially for tissue-engineering scaffolds, due to its sound processability, mechanical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. With respect to gelation, the SF gelation time is long in aqueous solutions, so a novel approach is needed to shorten this time. The solubility of regenerated SF is sound in formic acid (FA, which is a carboxylic acid of the simplest structure. In this study, SF was dissolved in formic acid, and the addition of salts then induced a rapid gelation that accompanied a solution-color change. Based on the gelation behaviors of the SF solution according to different SF and salt concentrations, the gelation mechanism was investigated.

  9. Effect of Hydrophobic Modification Methods on the Gelation and Agregation of O-Methyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Inna; Karpassas, Mark; Gottlieb, Moshe

    2001-03-01

    Gelation of o-metylcellulose (MC) in aqueous solution is believed to be caused primarily by the hydrophobic interaction between molecules containing methoxyl substitution. Recently it has been shown that different aggregates such as micelles, vesicles, and 'pearl-necklaces' are formed during different stages of the gelation process. In this paper we examine the effect of distribution on the gelation and aggregation processes. Two types of molecules have been used: the first with block-like amphiphilic structure and the second with a more homogeneous distribution of substituted hydrophobic group. The systems were examined by means of Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Speckle pattern analysis and rheology. Large differences exist between the two types of systems indicating that gelation is more readily accomplished in the case of highly heterogeneous substituent distribution. It was also found that relaxation processes are very slow in these systems and structure evolves over periods extending to several days.

  10. IS OFFSHORING AN INTERNATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyze the applicability of transaction cost economics - TCE (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1975, 1979 through its characteristic make-or-buy expression, considering the offshoring pace and emerging economy firms. The make-or-buy decision must be flexible enough to explain offshoring characteristics and developed and emerging economy firms scenarios. As secondary objectives, and to show the trail to the main purpose, two research questions were identified and discussed during the paper: Is offshoring process an international movement only from developed countries to emerging economies? Is the main reason of offshoring the looking for low-cost work / activities? To achieve the proposed objectives, the structure of this paper begins with a reasonable or acceptable definition of offshoring. Some reasons (or “the reason” for the process are also another important starting point. The majority of articles referee the idea that low-cost is the main reason for offshoring, and if it is correct, transaction cost economics seems to be a good basis for our analysis purpose and integrative intention. Also some literature connections between offshoring and TCE are presented and, naturally TCE is presented in highlights for understanding these connections. Ending this section, some different arguments based on newer researches are presented by some authors presenting another perspective as the main reason. After this theoretical approach, a scenario analysis and some discussions are presented based on all possible interactions among firm from developed (DC and emerging economies (EE and examples of international corporations are presented to clarify and improve the understanding of our research questions and to build new contributions to international business theory.

  11. Intermediate Compound Preparation Using Modified External Gelation Method and Thermal Treatment Equipment Development for UCO Kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Yeon Ku; Yeo, Seoung Hwan; Kim, Young Min; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor) fuel technology is being actively developed in the US, China, Japan, and Korea for a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The concept of fuel of a VHTR is based on a sphere kernel of UO{sub 2} or UCO, with multiple coating layers to create a gas-tight particle. The fuel particle of a VHTR in the US is based on microspheres containing a UCO, mixture compound of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2} , coated particles with multi carbon layers and a SiC layer. This was first prepared through an internal gelation method at ORNL in the late 1970s. This study presents; (1) C-ADU gel particles were prepared using a modified sol-gel process. The particles fabricated with a KAERI-established gelation and AWD processes showed good sphericity and no cracks were found on the surfaces. (2) High temperature rotating furnace was designed and fabricated in our laboratory, and the maximum operation temperature was about 2000℃. The furnace was equipped with Mo crucible and graphite heating system, and now it is being operated. (3) Well-prepared C-ADU gel particles were converted into UCO compounds using high temperature rotating furnace, and the physical properties of the UCO kernels will be analyzed.

  12. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  13. Gelation and fodrin purification from rat brain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levilliers, N; Péron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1986-06-03

    Extracts from rat brain tissue have been shown to give rise to a gel which exhibits the following features. It is mainly enriched in actin and in a high-molecular-weight protein with polypeptide chains of 235 and 240 kDa, which we identified as fodrin. Tubulin is also a major component of the gel but it appears to be trapped non-specifically during the gelation process. Gelation is pH-, ionic strength- and Ca2+-concentration-dependent, and is optimal under the conditions which promote the interaction between polymerized actin and fodrin. In a similar way to that described for the purification of rat brain actin (Levilliers, N., Péron-Renner, M., Coffe, G. and Pudles, J. (1984) Biochimie 66, 531-537), we used the gelation system as a selective means of recovering fodrin from the mixture of a low-ionic-strength extract from whole rat brain and a high-ionic-strength extract of the particulate fraction. From this gel, fodrin was purified with a good yield by a simple procedure involving gel dissociation in 0.5 M KCl and depolymerization in 0.7 M KI, Bio-Gel A-15m chromatography, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation.

  14. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  15. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable proteins are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properties of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  16. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable protiens are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properteis of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  17. Scalable ionic gelation synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery in static mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Kim, Sanggu; Tan, Reginald B H

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) by ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP) as crossslinker in static mixers. The proposed static mixing technique showed good control over the ionic gelation process and 152-376 nm CS NPs were achieved in a continuous and scalable mode. Increasing the flow rates of CS:TPP solution streams, decreasing the CS concentration or reducing the CS:TPP solution volume ratio led to the smaller particles. Sylicylic acid (SA) was used as a model drug and successfully loaded into the CS NPs during the fabrication process. Our work demonstrates that ionic gelation-static mixing is a robust platform for continuous and large scale production of CS NPs for drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Study of the Influence of Urea and Hexa Methylene Tetramine (HMTA) Additive on the Total Gelation Process of Uranium on the Chemical Characteristic of the Poly (Uranate-Vinyl Alcohol) Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The study of the influence of urea and Hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) additive on the total gelation process of uranium on the chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel was done. First of all the 1M uranyl nitrate solution was heated at 70 °C, then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M urea additive was studied. Urea was added to the hot solution, and stirred for 10 minutes, producing the colloid particles of UO 3 . The mixing and heating up for 20 minutes, the colloid of UO 3 solution reacted by mixed of THF-PVA 1:1 solution. The solution was cooled at 32°C for 2 hours, and then variation the 1,2,3,4 and 5M HMTA additive was studied. HMTA was added into solution at 32°C and was stirred to form the homogenous sol solution. For the poly (urinate-vinyl) gel formation, the sol solution was dropped to the medium solution of 5M NH 5 OH at ambient condition. Gel formatted was microsphere then soaked, washed by NH 4 OH and hot water to release the chemical matters which were unreacted, was dried at 60°C and then dried at 150°C for 4 hours. The chemical characteristic of gel was made, covering the analyzed of colour, shape and diameter microsphere using optical microscope. Next, the analysis of molecular composition of the gel, using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopic (FTIR), was made. The analytical were the qualitative analysis of the absorption band of infra red spectrum on O-U-O-U-O bond, U-O bond and NH 3 , C-OH, C-H and OH functional group at 300-4000 wave numbers. The result of the research showed that the addition of urea and HMTA additive influences on chemical characteristic of the poly (uranate-vinyl alcohol) gel. The optimum condition was at 2-3 M urea and 2- M HMTA concentration. The analyze of absorption band of infra red spectrum showed that the molecular composition of poly (vinyl alcohol) gel was the uranium trioxide, ammonia, water and polyvinyl alcohol molecular contain with the molecular formulas of [2UO 3 .2 NH 3 .H 2 O

  19. Performance test of a vertically-directed electric-field cavity resonator made for the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Atsushi.

    1996-06-01

    A cavity resonator with vertically-directed electric field was produced and attached to 'the rapid gelation apparatus with microwave heating' previously reported. Using the rapid gelation apparatus, drops of a simulated solution and of U-containing solutions for internal gelation were heated. The results indicated that the heating required for gelation of the U-containing solutions was possible. However, the electric field strength in the cavity resonator at that time was comparable to that causing the discharge due to the gaseous ammonia released from the heated drops. As a result, gel microspheres were not obtained in a stable state. The discussion suggests that the stable gelation would be realized by improving the cavity resonator shape and/or by modifying the power supply accompanied with using a power stabilizer. (author)

  20. RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Danescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the need of harmonization of the financial reporting frameworks has become more acute, mostly because the capital markets are not restricted anymore by country borders and capital movement has outlined the phenomenon of globalization and internationalism. A significant step in harmonizing the financial reporting was done in the process of normalization through different sets of rules and principles, recognized and applied in many states are the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. The process of international recognition of these standards continues along with conceptual development which is based on epistemological research on specific markets, industries, economies open to international capital flows. In this context it becomes of interest to identify and understand generally accepted and applied accounting elements which carry forward the accounting harmonization process along with factors and circumstances that create diversity in nationally applied financial reporting frameworks.

  1. The Metal Effect on Self-Assembling of Oxalamide Gelators Explored by Mass Spectrometry and DFT Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabić, Dario; Brkljačić, Lidija; Tandarić, Tana; Žinić, Mladen; Vianello, Robert; Frkanec, Leo; Kobetić, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Gels formed by self-assembly of small organic molecules are of wide interest as dynamic soft materials with numerous possible applications, especially in terms of nanotechnology for functional and responsive biomaterials, biosensors, and nanowires. Four bis-oxalamides were chosen to show if electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) could be used as a prediction of a good gelator and also to shed light on the gelation processes. By inspecting the gelation of several solvent, we showed that bis(amino acid)oxalamide 1 proved to be the most efficient, also being able of forming the largest observable assemblies in the gas phase. The formation of singly charged assemblies holding from one up to six monomer units is the outcome of the strong intermolecular H-bonds, particularly among terminal carboxyl groups. The variation of solvents from polar aprotic towards polar protic did not have any significant effects on the size of the assemblies. The addition of a salt such as NaOAc or Mg(OAc)2, depending on the concentration, altered the assembling. Computational analysis at the DFT level aided in the interpretation of the observed trends and revealed that individual gelator molecules spontaneously assemble to higher aggregates, but the presence of the Na+ cation disrupts any gelator organization since it becomes significantly more favorable for gelator molecules to bind Na+ cations up to the 3:1 ratio than to self-assemble, being fully in line with experimental observations reported here. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Internal quality assurance reviews: challenges and processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the processes followed and challenges encountered by the Department of Public Relations Management and Communication is utilised, whilst conducting an internal quality evaluation on the National Diploma: Public Relations Management. The article recommends a number of strategies that may be followed to smooth ...

  3. Streamlining the Bankability Process using International Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, George [Sunset Technology, Mount Airy, MD; Ramu, Govind [SunPower, San Jose, California; Heinz, Matthias [TUV Rheinland, Cologne, Germany; Chen, Yingnan [CGC (China General Certification Center), Beijing; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark, Union Hall, VA; Lokanath, Sumanth [First Solar, Tempe, Arizona; Daniels, Eric [Suncycle USA, Frederick MD; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE, Zurich, Switzerland; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS, Trumbull, CT

    2017-09-27

    NREL has supported the international efforts to create a streamlined process for documenting bankability and/or completion of each step of a PV project plan. IECRE was created for this purpose in 2014. This poster describes the goals, current status of this effort, and how individuals and companies can become involved.

  4. International Conference on Image Processing and Communications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book contains papers accepted for IP&C 2015, the International Conference on Image Processing and Communications, held at UTP University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz, Poland, September 9-11, 2015. This conference was the eighth edition in the IP&C series of annual conferences. This book and the conference have the aim to bring together researchers and scientists in the broad fields of image processing and communications, addressing recent advances in theory, methodology and applications. The book will be of interest to a large group of researchers, engineers and practitioners in image processing and communications.

  5. Processes of international collaboration in management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina; Mäkelä, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating...... collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams...

  6. Ultrasound- and Temperature-Induced Gelation of Gluconosemicarbazide Gelator in DMSO and Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothukunta Himabindu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed amphiphilic supramolecular gelators carrying glucose moiety that could gel a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water upon heating as well as ultrasound treatment. When the suspension of gluconosemicarbazide was subjected to ultrasound treatment, gelation took place at much lower concentrations compared to thermal treatment, and the gels transformed into a solution state at higher temperatures compared to temperature-induced gels. The morphology was found to be influenced by the nature of the stimulus and presence of salts such as KCl, NaCl, CaCl2 and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate at a concentration of 0.05 M. The gel exhibited impressive tolerance to these additives, revealing the stability and strength of the gels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the presence of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rheological studies supported better mechanical strength of ultrasound-induced (UI gels over thermally-induced (TI gels.

  7. AAALAC International Standards and Accreditation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettayacamin, Montip; Retnam, Leslie

    2017-07-01

    AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes humane treatment of animals in science through a voluntary international accreditation program. AAALAC International accreditation is recognized around the world as a symbol of high quality animal care and use for research, teaching and testing, as well as promoting animal welfare. Animals owned by the institution that are used for research, teaching and testing are included as part of an accredited program. More than 990 animal care and use institutions in 42 countries around the world (more than 170 programs in 13 countries in the Pacific Rim region) have earned AAALAC International accreditation. The AAALAC International Council on Accreditation evaluates overall performance and all aspects of an animal care and use program, involving an in-depth, multilayered, confidential peer-review process. The evaluators (site visitors) consider compliance with applicable local animal legislation of the host country, institutional policies, and employ a customized approach for evaluating overall program performance using a series of primary standards that include the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals , the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching , or the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Purposes, Council of Europe (ETS 123), and supplemental Reference Resources, as applicable.

  8. Laboratory-scale production of adu gels by external gelation for an intermediate HTGR nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Simbolon; SR Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    The The aim of this research is to produce thousands of microsphere ADU (Ammonium Diuranate) gels by using external gelation for an intermediate HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) nuclear fuel in laboratory-scale. Microsphere ADU gels were based on sol-solution which was made from a homogeneous mixture of ADUN (Acid Deficient Uranyl Nitrate) which was containing uranyl ion in high concentration, a water soluble organic compound PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) and THFA (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol). The simple unified home made laboratory experimental machine was developed to replace test tube experiment method which was once used due to a tiny amount of microsphere ADU gels produced. It consists of four main parts: tank filled sol-solution connecting to peristaltic pump and vibrating nozzle, preliminary gelation and gelation column. The machine has successfully converted 150 mL sol-solution into thousands of drops which produced 120 - 130 drops in each minute in steady state in ammonia gas free sector. Preliminary gelation reaction was carried out in ammonia gas sector where drops react with ammonia gas in a bat an eye followed by gelation reaction in column containing ammonia solution 7 M. In ageing process, ADU gels were collected and submerged into a vessel containing ammonia solution which was shaken for 1 hour in a shaker device. Isopropyl alcohol (90 %) solution was used to wash ADU gels and a digital camera was used to measured spherical form of ADU gels. Diameters in spherical spheroid form were found between 1.8 mm until 2.2 mm. The spherical purity of ADU gels were 10 % - 20 % others were oblate, prolate spheroid and microsphere which have hugetiny of dimples on the surface. (author)

  9. 2016 International Conference on Software Process Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Mirna; Rocha, Álvaro; Feliu, Tomas; Peña, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a selection of papers from the 2016 International Conference on Software Process Improvement (CIMPS’16), held between the 12th and 14th of October 2016 in Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, México. The CIMPS’16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences and concerns in the different aspects of software engineering with a focus on, but not limited to, software processes, security in information and communication technology, and big data. The main topics covered include: organizational models, standards and methodologies, knowledge management, software systems, applications and tools, information and communication technologies and processes in non-software domains (mining, automotive, aerospace, business, health care, manufacturing, etc.) with a clear focus on software process challenges.

  10. Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossoughi, S.; Buller, C.S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that, in a typical gelled polymer process, a polymer reacts with a metal ion to yield a 3D crosslinked system. The success of the process depends on monitoring a large number of variables, including the concentrations of the metal ions, polymer, and reducing agent. Controlling these variables in field-scale tests is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Devising a process with fewer variables is therefore desirable. The in-situ gelation process in this paper uses a newly discovered biopolymer produced by Cellulomonas flavigena Strain KU. The bacteria produce the biopolymer when cultured in a simple salts medium containing any one of the variety of hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, or such inexpensive substrates as starch or molasses as the carbon and energy sources for growth. The polymer produced remains associated with the producer bacteria, causing them to aggregate and to settle out from the growth medium. The polymer is extracted from the bacteria easily by suspension in dilute alkali. Upon neutralization of such extracts, the polymer precipitates as a hydrogel. The gelation process is reversible, and the hydrogels are stable at high temperatures. A linear coreflood was performed to reveal the feasibility of using the microbial polymer for the in-situ gelation process. The core initially was waterflooded and then flushed with acid. The subsequent injection of an alkaline solution of the polymer resulted in in-situ formation of hydrogels.

  11. THE INTERNAL AUDIT AS COGNITIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term AUDIT generally comes from the Latin word "audire" to listen and to inform others, from today's Anglo-Saxon countries, this term has the meaning of a revision of the accounting information and of those of a different nature, realized by an independent professional, in view of expressing an opinion regarding the regularity and honesty of the audited information (1 §tefan Craciun, Audit financiar §i audit intern, The Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, page 22. In a general register, an audit has the purpose to grant an entity added value by a systematic and methodic approach, evaluating the risk management processes, the control processes and the governing processes, all of which are materialized within an objective and professional report.

  12. International Political Processes of Integration of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the study of the international dimension of education is usually reduced to a comparative analysis of the characteristics of education in different countries. The situation began to change at the end of 20th – beginning of 21st centuries due to the rapid development of globalisation processes (the formation of a transparency of national borders and integration (deepening the cooperation between countries based on intergovernmental agreements. It had an impact on education, which was intensively internationalised (to acquire a wide international dimension. Despite the possible setbacks the process of internationalisation of education, the general vector of development is that this process will increase. The purpose of this article is to analyse what new challenges and opportunities are opened due to internationalisation of education (Russian education in particular. Materials and Methods: the study is based on the principles according to which education, on the one hand, depends on the transformation of the global political organisation of the world, on another hand – it is contributing to this transformation. Materials for the study are based on international agreements, which in particular are adopted in the framework of the Bologna process, and the results of scientific works of Russian and foreign scholars. Descriptive and comparative metho ds of analysis are widely used. Results: the analysis of the processes of internationalisation of education in the world has shown that, along with its traditional directions and aspects. It was noted that university begins to play a special role in the current world. It is shown that the specificity of education in Russia, which took shape due to a large terri¬tory and historical traditions, should be taken into account when forming a strategy for the development of the internationalisation of education in the country. Discussion and Conclusions: the specificity of Russia creates a risk

  13. Preparation of ThO2 sols having colloid-size distributions suitable for gelation into microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1984-01-01

    Production conditions of ThO 2 sols suitable for gelling into crackfree microspheres in an external gelation process were studied. The sols were prepared under pH control and colloid size distributions of the resulting sols were determined. The gelation was carried out by using hexone as a drop formation medium and ammonia as a gelling agent. The crackfree gelation was achieved by the use of ThO 2 sols produced under favorable pH, which were large in colloid size and high in colloid fraction. ''Preneutralization'' preceding the pH control is also important for the good sols. Analyzing the colloid fraction, colloid size and crystallite size of sol, it was found that, under the favorable pH, colloid nuclei generating at early stages grow in the form of single-crystals with their number kept constant and, after cooling, they exist as polycrystalline colloids. The mechanism of cracking is also discussed. (author)

  14. Gelation and Retrogradation Mechanism of Wheat Amylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tamaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow behavior, dynamic viscoelasticity, and optical rotation of aqueous solutions of wheat amylose were measured using a rheogoniometer and a polarimeter. The amylose solutions, at 25 °C, showed shear-thinning behavior at a concentration of 1.2%, but plastic behavior at 1.4 and 1.6%, the yield values of which were estimated to be 0.6 and 1.0 Pa, respectively. The viscosity of the wheat amylose increased a little with increase in temperature up to 10 or 20 °C at 1.2% or 1.4 and 1.6%, which was estimated to be a transition temperature. The elastic modulus increased with increase in concentration, and increased with increasing temperature up to 20, 25 and 30 °C, which was estimated to be a transition temperature, respectively, then decreased gradually but stayed at a large value even at high temperature (80 °C. A very low elastic modulus of the wheat amylose was observed upon addition of urea (4.0 M and in alkaline solution (0.05 M NaOH even at low temperature. The optical rotation of wheat amylose solution increased a little with decreasing temperature down to 25 °C, then increased rapidly with further decrease in the temperature. The mode of gelation mechanism of amylose molecules, which was previously proposed, was confirmed and a retrogradation mechanism of wheat amylose was proposed.

  15. Internal Heterogeneous Processes in Aluminum Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the aluminum particle combustion mechanism which has been expanded by inclusion of gas dissolution processes and ensuing internal phase transformations. This mechanism is proposed based on recent normal and microgravity experiments with particles formed and ignited in a pulsed micro-arc. Recent experimental findings on the three stages observed in Al particle combustion in air and shows the burning particle radiation, trajectory (streak), smoke cloud shapes, and quenched particle interiors are summarized. During stage I, the radiation trace is smooth and the particle flame is spherically symmetric. The temperature measured using a three-color pyrometer is close to 3000 K. Because it exceeds the aluminum boiling point (2730 K), this temperature most likely characterizes the vapor phase flame zone rather than the aluminum surface. The dissolved oxygen content within particles quenched during stage I was below the detection sensitivity (about 1 atomic %) for Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS). After an increase in the radiation intensity (and simultaneous decrease in the measured color temperature from about 3000 to 2800 K) indicative of the transition to stage II combustion, the internal compositions of the quenched particles change. Both oxygen-rich (approx. 10 atomic %) and oxygen-lean (combustion behavior and the evolution of its internal composition, the change from the spherically symmetric to asymmetric flame shape occurring upon the transition from stage I to stage II combustion could not be understood based only on the fact that dissolved oxygen is detected in the particles. The connection between the two phenomena appeared even less significant because in earlier aluminum combustion studies carried in O2/Ar mixtures, flame asymmetry was not observed as opposed to experiments in air or O2/CO mixtures. It has been proposed that the presence of other gases, i.e., hydrogen, or nitrogen causes the change in the combustion regime.

  16. Nozzleless Fabrication of Oil-Core Biopolymeric Microcapsules by the Interfacial Gelation of Pickering Emulsion Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jun-Yee; Tey, Beng-Ti; Tan, Chin-Ping; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-05

    Ionotropic gelation has been an attractive method for the fabrication of biopolymeric oil-core microcapsules due to its safe and mild processing conditions. However, the mandatory use of a nozzle system to form the microcapsules restricts the process scalability and the production of small microcapsules (microcapsules through ionotropic gelation at the interface of an O/W Pickering emulsion. This approach involves the self-assembly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles at the interface of O/W emulsion droplets followed by the addition of a polyanionic biopolymer into the aqueous phase. Subsequently, CaCO3 nanoparticles are dissolved by pH reduction, thus liberating Ca(2+) ions to cross-link the surrounding polyanionic biopolymer to form a shell that encapsulates the oil droplet. We demonstrate the versatility of this method by fabricating microcapsules from different types of polyanionic biopolymers (i.e., alginate, pectin, and gellan gum) and water-immiscible liquid cores (i.e., palm olein, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and toluene). In addition, small microcapsules with a mean size smaller than 100 μm can be produced by selecting the appropriate conventional emulsification methods available to prepare the Pickering emulsion. The simplicity and versatility of this method allows biopolymeric microcapsules to be fabricated with ease by ionotropic gelation for numerous applications.

  17. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) as a tool for studying the ultrastructure during bead formation by ionotropic gelation of calcium pectinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Cheewatanakornkool, Kamonrak; Burapapadh, Kanokporn; Sae-Ngow, Witoon

    2008-03-20

    Understanding the gel ultrastructure is of great importance for process and product development having great effects on the product characteristics. The samples containing high amount of water could not be directly observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) without removing of water. However, cryo-SEM can be used to study the ultrastructure of hydrated samples. In this study, ultrastructural information of internal structure was obtained by imaging the cryo-fractured beads in a cryo-SEM. This technique was found to be excellent for studying the detailed morphology of structural development and showed better images than normal SEM procedures using freeze-drying for sample preparation. Also, the studies illustrated a morphological change, e.g. from net-like structure to membranous structure caused by syneresis, accompanied by a significant increase in mechanical properties, when the beads are formed by ionotropic gelation. The gelation time of 20 min was found to be the minimum for a complete bead formation, based on the mechanical and SEM data. The results demonstrate the advantageous of cryo-SEM for examining the ultrastructure during bead formation of calcium pectinate.

  18. Permit processes for nuclear power. International lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaahlin, Emil; Nilsson, Isabelle; Pettersson, Maria; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    permitting process in the country as well as important planned (or recently introduced) changes in the relevant legislation. The analysis also presents the role of the regulating authorities as well as other key actors in the process, and outlines the different steps of the permitting processes, including the relationships between the different permits. We also address the responsibility for the radioactive waste and dismantling, and how these issues come into the licensing process. Important differences and similarities across the various countries are highlighted, with special emphasis on parallels to the Swedish legislation. The report then analyzes a number of important legal and political issues of a principal nature in the permitting of nuclear power plants. We compare how the different countries differ on these grounds, and also emphasize some overall lessons and practical experiences of nuclear power development internationally. Three broad issues are discussed. The first of these concerns the notion of nuclear power as a highly political issue, and we analyze the role of the public opinion, the extent to which the regulatory process is independent of policy decisions, as well as the allocation of political power between the national and local levels in the respective countries. Not the least the last issue has been in focus in some of the countries that have reformed their permitting process, and there exist significant inter-country differences. The second issue concerns how a number of countries - most notably the USA and Great Britain - have attempted to streamline their plant permitting processes for new nuclear power. These reforms are characterized by, for instance, a combined construction and operation license, the selection (and exclusion) of geographical locations for new installations, as well as attempts to achieve standardizations of nuclear reactor designs. We pay particular attention to the issues of reactor design standardization, including the scope

  19. Organic Gelators as Growth Control Agents for Stable and Reproducible Hybrid Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Masi, Sofia

    2017-03-03

    Low-molecular-weight organic gelators are widely used to influence the solidification of polymers, with applications ranging from packaging items, food containers to organic electronic devices, including organic photovoltaics. Here, this concept is extended to hybrid halide perovskite-based materials. In situ time-resolved grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements performed during spin coating reveal that organic gelators beneficially influence the nucleation and growth of the perovskite precursor phase. This can be exploited for the fabrication of planar n-i-p heterojunction devices with MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+) that display a performance that not only is enhanced by ≈25% compared to solar cells where the active layer is produced without the use of a gelator but that also features a higher stability to moisture and a reduced hysteresis. Most importantly, the presented approach is straightforward and simple, and it provides a general method to render the film formation of hybrid perovskites more reliable and robust, analogous to the control that is afforded by these additives in the processing of commodity “plastics.”

  20. Periodic grating-like patterns induced by self assembly of gelator fibres in nematic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarao, Pratibha; Topnani, Neha Bhagwani; N, Prutha

    2018-03-15

    Periodic orientation patterns occurring in nematic gels revealed by optical and scanning electron microscopy are found to be formed by spontaneous self assembly of fibrous aggregates of a low-molecular weight organogelator in an aligned thermotropic liquid crystal (LC). The self organization into the periodic structure is also reflected in a calorimetric study which shows the occurrence of three thermoreversible states viz. isotropic liquid, nematic and nematic gel. The segregation and self assembly of the fibrous aggregates leading to the pattern formation is attributed to the highly polar LC and the hydrogen bonding between gelator molecules as shown by x-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. This study aims to investigate in detail the effect of the chemical nature and alignment of an anisotropic solvent on the morphology of the gelator fibres and the resulting gelation process. The periodic organization of the LC rich and fibre rich regions can also provide a technique of obtaining templates for positioning nanoparticle arrays in an LC matrix which can lead to novel devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Washing of Uranium Gel Resulted from Gelation Using Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurwijayadi; Bangun-Wasito; Sukarsono; Endang-Nawangsih

    2000-01-01

    Washing of uranium gel resulted from gelation using ammonia underconcentration of 1, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 % has been carried out. The sol wasprepared by reacting uranyl nitrate, urea and HMTA at 5 o C. The resulted solwas dropped into a column containing paraffin oil at temperature of 95 o C.The resulted gel color was orange. It was simmered in a 2.5 % ammoniasolution for 24 hours. After that, the gel was washed in an ammonia solutionunder a concentration variation. The best washing process occurred at ammoniaconcentration of 2.5 % with most absorbed ion nitrate, i.e. 292.2 ppm. Theresulted true density using N 2 was about 8.3 - 8.6 g/ml, specific surfacearea using multi point BET was about 1.5 - 3.1 m 2 /g, average pore radius was22.27 -41.22 A and total pore volume was 3.55 x 10 -3 cc/g. (author)

  2. A dynamic balanced scorecard for identification internal process factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic balanced score card (BSC to investigate the strategic internal process management factors. The proposed dynamic BSC emphasizes on internal processes aspect, and using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy, determinants the internal processes, process management and improvement and all important factors are ranked. The current study first introduces dynamic BSC and examines effective factors on the process. The proposed model focuses on internal processes perspective of BSC and determines importance degree of each factor is used using VIKOR decision-making techniques.

  3. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1996-01-01

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H 2 O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO 3 (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels heated

  4. Do sulfhydryl groups affect aggregation and gelation properties of ovalbumin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, K.; Teeffelen, A.M.M. van; Vries, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of sulfhydryl groups on ovalbumin aggregation and gelation. Ovalbumin was chemically modified to add sulfhydryl groups in various degrees. The rate of aggregation was not affected by the introduction of sulfhydryl groups, and disulfide bond formation

  5. Comparison of the sickling and gelation properties of acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of acidic metabolites of A. vera and C. cajan extracts on the sickling and gelation times of human HbSS erythrocytes were investigated to obtain a better understanding of the anti-sickling compounds contained in them for use in the management of sickle cell disease. The results obtained showed that the acidic ...

  6. Use of different additives to improve low quality surimi gelation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Cando

    2014-06-01

    In conclusion, in general, the physicochemical and viscoelastic properties of gels were improved by the addition of both ingredients, giving stronger gels even at very low level of salt. These results indicate that both ingredients, which do not add calories to the final gels, can be used as a good alternative for the better gelation of the low quality surimis.

  7. Conductive Screen Printing Inks by Gelation of Graphene Dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arapov, K.; Rubingh, E.; Abbel, R.J.; Laven, J.; With, G. de; Friedrich, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the gelation of highly concentrated graphene/polymer dispersions triggered by mild heating. The gel formation is only dependent on the concentration of graphene with 3.25 mg mL-1 as the minimum value for graphene network formation. The graphene gel is then utilized for the

  8. Delivery and Establishing Slow Release Carbon Source to the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Colloidal Silica Suspension Injection and Subsequent Gelation - Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, B.; Yang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Delivery of nutrient to and establish a slow release carbon source in the vadose zone and capillary fringe zone is essential for setting up of a long-lasting bioremediation of contaminations in those zones. Conventional solution-based injection and infiltration approaches are facing challenges to achieve the delivery and remedial goals. Aqueous silica suspensions undergo a delayed gelation process under favorite geochemical conditions. The delay in gelation provides a time window for the injection of the suspension into the subsurface; and the gelation of the amendment-silica suspension enables the amendment-laden gel to stay in the target zone and slowly release the constituents for contaminant remediation. This approach can potentially be applied to deliver bio-nutrients to the vadose zone and capillary fringe zone for enhanced bioremediation and achieve remedial goals. This research was conducted to demonstrate delayed gelation of colloidal silica suspensions when carbon sources were added and to prove the gelation occurs in sediments under vadose conditions. Sodium lactate, vegetable oil, ethanol, and molasses were tested as the examples of carbon source (or nutrient) amendments. The rheological properties of the silica suspensions during the gelation were characterized. The influence of silica, salinity, nutrient concentrations, and the type of nutrients was studied. The kinetics of nutrient release from silica-nutrient gel was quantified using molasses as the example, and the influence of suspension gelation time was evaluated. The injection behavior of the suspensions was investigated by monitoring their viscosity changes and the injection pressures when the suspensions were delivered into sediment columns.

  9. The process of International Expansion of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A firm may enter into the foreign market by different modes. Firm could operate in the foreign country by physical appearance in the host country such as establishing factories and joint venture. In contrast, some mode could be expands in the foreign country while operate from home country such as exporting. Exporting mode is very common to expand internationally. It required low investment relative to other modes such as joint venture and establishing factories in the foreign country. By app...

  10. The internal process of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Denise

    2008-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a complementary healing modality used by health care providers to reduce anxiety, accelerate relaxation, decrease pain, and enhance immunity. Research studies report outcomes of TT treatments, but few describe the specific process. This qualitative research study was conducted to describe the nature of the core process of TT in adults and full term infants as practiced by five professional nurses, each treating one adult and one infant. Analysis of data obtained from interviews and focused participant observations was conducted. Findings provide empirical data to depict an overall process divided into three phases: (a) preparation, (b) treatment, and (c) termination, that adheres to the standard process as described by Krieger. It expands on the description of each phase, including two new subcomponents, orienting and disengagement, not previously seen in the literature. Lastly, the study describes the modification of the TT process with infants compared to adults.

  11. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  12. Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qilian; Pi, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    The Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. The conference covered such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, signal processing for communications. This book is a collection of contributions coming out of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held September 2013 in Tianjin, China.

  13. On the underestimated impact of the gelation temperature on macro- and mesoporosity in monolithic silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinusch, Rafael; Ellinghaus, Rüdiger; Hormann, Kristof; Tallarek, Ulrich; Smarsly, Bernd M

    2017-06-07

    The preparation of monolithic SiO 2 with bimodal porosity using a special sol-gel procedure ("Nakanishi process") generally shows a pronounced sensitivity towards several physico-chemical parameters of the initial solution (concentrations, precursors, pH, temperature, etc.). Thus, temporal and spatial variations of these parameters during the sol-gel reactions can affect the final meso- and macropore space with respect to the pore size distributions and homogeneity. In this study we thoroughly examine the sol-gel reaction in terms of the impact of temperature accuracy and homogeneity during the gelation and their effect on meso- and macropore space. The in-depth characterization of the macroporosity in monolithic SiO 2 rods, prepared by utilizing a highly homogeneous and accurate temperature profile, shows that a decrease of only 1.5 °C during the reaction doubles the mean size of the macropores in the analyzed temperature ranges (22.0-28.0 °C and 33.5-36.5 °C). Rheological measurements of the gelation points and the viscosity of the starting solutions prove that a higher reaction rate is the main reason for this marked temperature-sensitivity. Furthermore, the mesoporosity is affected to a surprising extent by the applied small temperature differences during the gelation reaction. This phenomenon is shown to be mainly caused by the temperature-dependent differences in macropore and skeleton dimensions and an inhomogeneous distribution of mesopore sizes within the skeleton. In essence, our study reveals that the impact of temperature on the formation of meso- and macroscale dimensions during the sol-gel process has been underestimated so far. The impact of a poor temperature homogeneity during monolith synthesis is exemplarily demonstrated by the application of monolithic silica capillary columns in HPLC.

  14. 8 CFR 287.10 - Expedited internal review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction regarding criminal violations of law. [68 FR 35281, June 13, 2003] ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited internal review process. 287.10... OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.10 Expedited internal review process. (a) Violations of standards for...

  15. Biological activity and mechanical stability of sol-gel-based biofilters using the freeze-gelation technique for immobilization of Rhodococcus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, Angela; Mkandawire, Martin; Soltmann, Ulrich; Pompe, Wolfgang; Böttcher, Horst

    2012-02-01

    Biofilters with long lifetime and high storage stability are very important for bioremediation processes to ensure the readiness at the occurrence of sudden contaminations. By using the freeze-gelation technique, living cells can be immobilized within a mechanically and chemically stable ceramic-like matrix. Due to a freeze-drying step, the embedded microorganisms are converted into a preserved form. In that way, they can be stored under dry conditions, which comply better with storage, transport, and handling requirements. Thus, in contrast to other immobilization techniques, there is no need for storage in liquid or under humid atmosphere. The biological activity, mechanical strength, and the structure of the biologically active ceramic-like composites (biocers) produced by freeze gelation have been investigated by using the phenol-degrading bacteria Rhodococcus ruber as model organism. Samples of freeze-gelation biocers have been investigated after defined storage periods, demonstrating nearly unchanged mechanical strength of the immobilization matrix as well as good storage stability of the activity of the immobilized cells over several months of storage at 4 °C. Repeated-batch tests demonstrated further that the freeze-gelation biocers can be repeatedly used over a period of more than 12 months without losing its bioactivity. Thus, these results show that freeze-gelation biocers have high potential of being scaled up from laboratory test systems to applications in real environment because of their long bioactivity as well as mechanical stability.

  16. Summary of the International Conference on Software and System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; O'Connor, Rory V.; Perry, Dewayne E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Conference on Software and Systems Process (ICSSP), continuing the success of Software Process Workshop (SPW), the Software Process Modeling and Simulation Workshop (ProSim) and the International Conference on Software Process (ICSP) conference series, has become the established...... premier event in the field of software and systems engineering processes. It provides a leading forum for the exchange of research outcomes and industrial best-practices in process development from software and systems disciplines. ICSSP 2016 was held in Austin, Texas, from 14-15 May 2016, co......-located with the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). The theme of mICSSP 2016 was studying "Process(es) in Action" by recognizing that the AS-Planned and AS-Practiced processes can be quite different in many ways including their ows, their complexity and the evolving needs of stakeholders...

  17. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  18. LABORATORY-SCALE PRODUCTION OF ADU GELS BY EXTERNAL GELATION FOR AN INTERMEDIATE HTGR NUCLEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Simbolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available LABORATORY-SCALE PRODUCTION OF ADU GELS BY EXTERNAL GELATION FOR AN INTERMEDIATE HTGR NUCLEAR. The The aim of this research is to produce thousands of microsphere ADU (Ammonium Diuranate gels by using external gelation for an intermediate HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor nuclear fuel in laboratory-scale. Microsphere ADU gels were based on sol-solution which was made from a homogeneous mixture of ADUN (Acid Deficient Uranyl Nitrate which was containing uranyl ion in high concentration, a water soluble organic compound PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol and THFA (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol. The simple unified home made laboratory experimental machine was developed to replace test tube experiment method which was once used due to a tiny amount of microsphere ADU gels produced. It consists of four main parts: tank filled sol-solution connecting to peristaltic pump and vibrating nozzle, preliminary gelation and gelation column. The machine has successfully converted 150 mL sol-solution into thousands of drops which produced 120 - 130 drops in each minute in steady state in ammonia gas free sector. Preliminary gelation reaction was carried out in ammonia gas sector where drops react with ammonia gas in a bat an eye followed by gelation reaction in column containing ammonia solution 7 M. In ageing process, ADU gels were collected and submerged into a vessel containing ammonia solution which was shaken for 1 hour in a shaker device. Isopropyl alcohol (90% solution was used to wash ADU gels and a digital camera was used to measured spherical form of ADU gels. Diameters in spherical spheroid form were found between 1.8 mm until 2.2 mm. The spherical purity of ADU gels were 10% - 20% others were oblate, prolate spheroid and microsphere which have hugetiny of dimples on the surface.   PRODUKSI GEL ADU SKALA LABORATORIUM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN GELASI EKSTERNAL UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR ANTARA HTGR. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat ribuan gel bulat ADU (Ammonium

  19. Gelation of self-assembed bile acid-PEG conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandman, Satu; Le Devedec, Frantz; Zhu, X. X.

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of macromolecules and low-molar-mass compounds into elongated self-assemblies such as wormlike micelles, fibers, or tubules increases the viscosity of the solutions and often leads to gelation due to network formation, even in organic solvents. Such one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for drug delivery vehicles, packing materials for separation, templates for metal nanowires, biocides, and photo- or biocatalysis. An interesting group of compounds capable of this type of self-organization are bile acids, which are endogeneous steroids known to form gels at high concentrations and appropriate pH conditions. Grafting poly(ethylene oxide) on bile acids via anionic polymerization brings along thermoresponsiveness represented by lower critical solution temperature (LCST), while self-assembling occurs below another threshold temperature leading to a gelation at high concentrations, as shown by rheological experiments. The latter transition is assigned to the nanotube formation of pegylated bile acids, visualized by electron microscopy.

  20. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  1. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  2. 3rd International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Qilian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of communications, signal processing, and systems. This book is a collection of contributions from the conference and covers such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, and signal processing for communications. The conference was held July 2014 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

  3. A Structured Debriefing Process for International Business Culture Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Peter; Palmer, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a nine-step structure for debriefing an international business culture simulation. Stresses the need to address three stages in the experiential learning cycle: reflection, processing, and transfer. Appendices include the specific simulation used and a debriefing note. (DB)

  4. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  5. Novel controlled ionic gelation strategy for chitosan nanoparticles preparation using TPP-β-CD inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anjali; Negi, Jeetendra Singh

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel controlled ionic gelation strategy for chitosan nanoparticle preparation to avoid particle aggregation tendency associated with conventional ionic gelation process. In this study inclusion complexation behaviour of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) with beta cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated. The TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and DSC techniques. The complexation behaviour was also investigated by molecular docking study. The results showed that the TPP molecule formed inclusion complex with β-CD. Further, TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was used to prepare chitosan nanoparticles. The chitosan nanoparticles based on TPP-β-CD inclusion complex had smaller size of 104.2nm±0.608, good PDI value of 0.346±0.016 and acceptable zeta potential of +27.33mV±0.416. The surface characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles were also observed with transmission electron microscopy. Results indicates that TPP-β-CD inclusion complex can be used for the formation of chitosan nanoparticles with smaller and more uniform particle size in comparison to conventional TPP based chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of storage and drying temperature on the gelation behavior and structural characteristics of sericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Nam; Park, Byung-Dae; Um, In Chul

    2015-11-01

    Owing to unique properties, including the wound healing effect, sericin gel and films have attracted significant attention in the biomedical and cosmetic fields. The structural characteristics and properties of sericin gels and films are especially important owing to their effect on the performance of sericin in biomedical and cosmetic applications. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the gelation behavior, gel disruption, and sol-gel transition of sericin was examined using rheometry. In addition, the effect of the drying temperature on the structural characteristics of the sericin film was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The strength of the sericin gel increased and the gelation process was prolonged with decreasing storage temperatures. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also revealed that the crystallinity and the thermal decomposition temperature of the sericin film increased with decreasing drying temperature. The sericin gels were disrupted at a storage time of 40min when they were stored at temperatures higher than 50°C, and the corresponding gel strength decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the thermo-reversible nature of gel-sol transition of sericin was confirmed by rheological and FTIR measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-destructive and in-situ determination of the degree of gelation of pvc pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, E.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Visser, Roy; Wolters, Mannes; Davidovski, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Various non-destructive methods, based on different physical principles, were investigated for their ability to differentiate between uPVC pipes having various levels of gelation. It was found that the micro-hardness method was not able to differentiate between uPVC samples of different levels of gelation. A possible explanation is that the affected volume under the indentation does not reach the centre of the pipe wall where differences in the level of gelation are most pronounced. The laser...

  8. Growth and gelation of inorganic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallala, Mohamed

    1992-01-01

    This research thesis reports a study during which gels, sols and precipitates are obtained by hydrolysis and condensation of titanium tetra-n-butoxide diluted in n-butanol. The condensation of the non-modified precursor always results in a precipitate. Small angle X-ray scattering shows that these precipitates are made of dense polymers with rough surfaces. Due to the condensation selective inhibition by protons or by organic complexes, polymers must grow in an anisotropic way. When these accumulations reach a macroscopic size, a gel is formed. The inner structure of these accumulations is continuously varying with the inhibition rate. For high inhibitions, the final state is a sol or a transparent gel with a fractal dimension equal to 2. For intermediate inhibition rates, the gel becomes turbid. Precipitation occurs when fractal dimension reaches 3. The author shows that the final state of the aggregation results from a difference of reactivity of monomers with respect to their environment. Depending on this reactivity, the reaction bath changes its regime during aggregation, and passes from a recombination of branch polymers to the precipitation of dense objects. This explains the role of some chemical modifiers in the control of aggregation processes, notably in the sol-gel process [fr

  9. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...... catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP was evaluated by small angle oscillatory measurements for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (EC 1.11.1.7) and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) catalysis, respectively. HRP catalyzed gelation rates, determined from the slopes of the increase of elastic modulus (G0) with time, were higher...

  10. Process of international kaizen transfer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sheds light on the international kaizen transfer process. Two research questions were explored: what are the major stages in the kaizen transfer process? And what are the activities, positive and negative factors influencing each stage? Case studies with 15 Japanese manufacturers in the

  11. The International Criminal Court and Peace Processes in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    justice, while also tracing how and why international decision-making processes interfered with the negotiations, narrated the conflicts and insisted on a narrow scope of justice. Building on this interpretive analysis, a comparative analysis of peace processes in Uganda, Kenya and Colombia explores a set...

  12. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  13. Using Reporting in the Internal Communication Process of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal communication can be regarded either as a subsistent process of the organization, or as a process helping to decode and more easily understand them. Organizations are based on the internal communication process, because without it, information, ideas could not be sent, the organization’s goals and values could not be built, and its organizational culture would simply not exist. The internal communication process is centered on sending ideas, information in the organization. This is directly proportional with the efficiency of the organization. Internal communication allows for the best decision to be taken, for information to be sent towards the interior of the company, towards the employees, but also has the purpose of strengthening the relations between persons. Internal communication has at its basis the verbal and non-verbal communication, but they have great disadvantages, because: verbal communication has losses of information, depends on the moment of transmission, but also on the receiver.Keywords: report, internal communication, neuro linguistic programming, company

  14. Preparation of curcumin nanoparticle by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Halid, Nur Hatidjah Awaliyah; Akib, Nur Illiyyin; Rahmanpiu, Mutmainnah, Nina

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound present in curcuma longa has a wide range of activities including anti-inflammatory properties. The potency of curcumin is limited by its poor oral bioavailability because of its poor solubility in aqueous. Various methods have been tried to solve the problem including its encapsulation into nanoparticle. The aim of this study is to develop curcumin nanoparticle by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique and to evaluate the stability of curcumin nanoparticles in gastrointestinal fluid. Curcumin nanoparticles were prepared by using reinforcement ionic gelation technique with different concentrations of chitosan, trypolyphosphate, natrium alginate and calcium chloride. Curcumin nanoparticles were then characterized including particle size and zeta potential by using particle size analyzer and morphology using a transmission electron microscope, entrapment efficiency using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and chemical structure analysis by Infra Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Furthermore, the stability of curcumin nanoparticles were evaluated on artificial gastric fluid and artificial intestinal fluids by measuring the amount of curcumin released in the medium at a time interval. The result revealed that curcumin nanoparticles can be prepared by reinforcement ionic gelation technique, the entrapment efficiency of curcumin nanoparticles were from 86.08 to 91.41%. The average of particle size was 272.9 nm and zeta potential was 12.05 mV. The morphology examination showed that the curcumin nanoparticles have spherical shape. The stability evaluation of curcumin nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticles were stable on artificial gastric fluid and artificial intestinal fluid. This result indicates that curcumin nanoparticles have the potential to be developed for oral delivery.

  15. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing. T....... This year the workshop is held in the National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition (NLPR), Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences....

  16. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing....... This year the workshop is held in the National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition (NLPR), Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences....

  17. Offshore Processes: International Perspectives on Australian Film and Television

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Australian cinema has never been solely national, neither in the contexts of its production nor in its themes and influences. It reflects the cultural and historical diversity of a continent that has been shaped by the sovereign presence of Indigenous people and more than two centuries of migration. Australian film and television is diverse and inherently international. The symposium “Offshore Processes: International Perspectives on Australian Film and Television” explored the transnational ...

  18. Capillary break-up, gelation and extensional rheology of hydrophobically modified cellulose ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Haward, Simon; Pessinet, Olivia; Soderlund, Asa; Threlfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic polysaccharide backbone are used extensively in the formulations for inks, water-borne paints, food, nasal sprays, cosmetics, insecticides, fertilizers and bio-assays to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. The presence of hydrophobic stickers influences the linear and nonlinear rheology of cellulose ether solutions. In this talk, we systematically contrast the difference in the shear and extensional rheology of a cellulose ether: ethy-hydroxyethyl-cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically-modified analog (HMEHEC) using microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 10^6 inverse seconds, cross-slot flow extensional rheometry and capillary break-up during jetting as a rheometric technique. Additionally, we provide a constitutive model based on fractional calculus to describe the physical gelation in HMEHEC solutions.

  19. Supramolecular Phase-Selective Gelation by Peptides Bearing Side-Chain Azobenzenes: Effect of Ultrasound and Potential for Dye Removal and Oil Spill Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachl, Jürgen; Oehm, Stefan; Mayr, Judith; Cativiela, Carlos; Marrero-Tellado, José Juan; Díaz Díaz, David

    2015-01-01

    Phase selective gelation (PSG) of organic phases from their non-miscible mixtures with water was achieved using tetrapeptides bearing a side-chain azobenzene moiety. The presence of the chromophore allowed PSG at the same concentration as the minimum gelation concentration (MGC) necessary to obtain the gels in pure organic phases. Remarkably, the presence of the water phase during PSG did not impact the thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of the corresponding organogels. In the case of miscible oil/water mixtures, the entire mixture was gelled, resulting in the formation of quasi-hydrogels. Importantly, PSG could be triggered at room temperature by ultrasound treatment of the mixture or by adding ultrasound-aided concentrated solution of the peptide in an oil-phase to a mixture of the same oil and water. Moreover, the PSG was not affected by the presence of salts or impurities existing in water from natural sources. The process could be scaled-up, and the oil phases (e.g., aromatic solvents, gasoline, diesel fuel) recovered almost quantitatively after a simple distillation process, which also allowed the recovery and reuse of the gelator. Finally, these peptidic gelators could be used to quantitatively remove toxic dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:26006247

  20. Multifunctional gels from polymeric spin-crossover metallo-gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Pauline; Roubeau, Olivier; Castro, Miguel; Saadaoui, Hassan; Colin, Annie; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2010-04-06

    The gelation abilities toward organic solvents of a series of triazole-based coordination polymers of formula [M(C(n)trz)(3)]A(2) (M = Fe(II) or Zn(II); C(n)trz = 4-n-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole with n = 13, 16, 18; A = monovalent anions, abbreviated as MC(n)A) have been studied to form thermally responsive multifunctional metallogels, in particular for the iron polymers that present the spin-crossover phenomenon. Indeed thermo-reversible physical gels exhibiting thermally reversible magnetic and optical crossovers are formed in decane and toluene. The FeC(18)ptol/decane and FeC(18)ptol/toluene phase diagrams are described (ptol = p-toluene sulfonate anion), together with the rheological properties of the gels determined as a function of the solvent, the gelator concentration as well as temperature. Microscopic observations of the gel structure are correlated to the composition and rheological properties of the gels. Magnetic and thermal studies show that both the gel-liquid and spin-crossover phenomena can be adjusted through the composition of the gel mixture.

  1. Solubility and dissolution improvement of ketoprofen by emulsification ionic gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmaniar, Revika; Tristiyanti, Deby; Hamdani, Syarif; Afifah

    2018-02-01

    Ketoprofen or [2-(3-benzoylphenyl) propionic acid] is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) and an analgesic which has high permeability and low solubility. The purpose of this work was to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen prepared by emulsification ionic gelation method and utilizing polymer (chitosan) and cross linker (tripolyphosphate, TPP) for particles formulation. The results show that increasing pH value of TPP, higher solubility and dissolution of as-prepared ketoprofen-chitosan was obtained. The solubility in water of ketoprofen-chitosan with pH 6 for TPP increased 2.71-fold compared to untreated ketoprofen. While the dissolution of ketoprofen-chitosan with pH 6 of TPP in simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (0.1 N HCl), pH 4.5 buffer and simulated intestinal fluid without enzyme (phosphate buffer pH 6.8) was increased 1.9-fold, 1.6-fold and 1.2-fold compared to untreated ketoprofen for dissolution time of 30 minutes, respectively. It could be concluded that chitosan and TPP in the emulsification ionic gelation method for ketoprofen preparation effectively increases solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen.

  2. Entrapment and release of quinoline derivatives using a hydrogel of a low molecular weight gelator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friggeri, A; Feringa, BL; van Esch, J; Feringa, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Gels of low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) are self-assembled, thermoreversible, viscoelastic materials which can also be rendered sensitive to light, pH or chemical substances by simple chemical modifications. In addition, the ability of some of these LMWGs to gelate water (hydrogelators) makes

  3. Gelation of covalently edge-modified laponites in aqueous media. 1. rheology and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suhas P; Mathew, Renny; Ajithkumar, T G; Rajamohanan, P R; Mahesh, T S; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy

    2008-04-17

    We describe the covalent modification of the edges of laponite with organic groups and the influence of this modification on gelation behavior. We compare three materials: an unmodified laponite, a laponite edge modified with a trimethyl moiety (MLap), and an octyldimethyl moiety (OLap). Gelation is investigated using rheology and NMR T1 relaxation measurements and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). MLap and OLap show qualitatively different gelation. Gelation of MLap is very similar to laponite: MLap gels over the same time scale as laponite and has about the same solid modulus, and the MLap gel is almost as transparent as laponite. In contrast, OLap gels rapidly relative to laponite and forms a weak, turbid gel. We believe that gelation in laponite and MLap results from the formation of a network of well-dispersed platelets (or a few platelets), while in OLap, gelation results from a network of stacks of several platelets. NMR relaxation measurements indicate that gelation does not affect the average relaxation of water protons. However, T1 increases marginally for the protons in the organic moieties in MLap and decreases for protons in the organic moieties in OLap. Relaxation measurements, analyses of line width, and NOESY taken together suggest that, in OLap, gelation is a consequence of association of the organic moieties on the laponite edges, and that this association strengthens with time. Thus, the time-dependent changes in NMR suggest a structural origin for the time-dependent changes in the rheological behavior.

  4. Uranium 2000 : International symposium on the process metallurgy of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozberk, E.; Oliver, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Process Metallurgy of Uranium has been organized as the thirtieth annual meeting of the Hydrometallurgy Section of the Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM). This meeting is jointly organized with the Canadian Mineral Processors Division of CIM. The proceedings are a collection of papers from fifteen countries covering the latest research, development, industrial practices and regulatory issues in uranium processing, providing a concise description of the state of this industry. Topics include: uranium industry overview; current milling operations; in-situ uranium mines and processing plants; uranium recovery and further processing; uranium leaching; uranium operations effluent water treatment; tailings disposal, water treatment and decommissioning; mine decommissioning; and international regulations and decommissioning. (author)

  5. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  6. Towards a fragment-based approach in gelator design: halogen effects leading to thixotropic, mouldable and self-healing systems in aryl-triazolyl amino acid-based gelators!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Bhartendu K; Manheri, Muraleedharan K

    2017-04-18

    A simple replacement of a H atom by Br transformed non-gelating aryl triazolyl amino acid benzyl ester into a versatile gelator, which formed shape-persistent, self-healing and mouldable gels. The 'bromo-aryl benzyl ester' fragment was then transplanted into another framework, which resulted in similar solvent preference and gelation efficiency.

  7. Influence of geometric nanoparticle rotation on cellular internalization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Yuan, Bing; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2013-09-07

    It is increasingly recognized that the investigation of the rotational motion of geometric nanoparticles in the cellular internalization process is significant to understand certain fundamental cellular activities, such as endocytosis. However, the mechanism of rotation of geometric nanoparticles in the internalization process is still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the rotational dynamics of geometric nanoparticles when they adhere onto or are wrapped by lipid membranes, by using dissipative particle dynamics. A variety of rotational modes of the nanoparticles are observed, which are closely related to the complicated competition in the internalization process. We find that the breaking of geometric symmetry of a nanoparticle is important for the occurrence of particle rotation, while its effect can be changed by the orientation of the nanoparticles and the affinity between the ligands and the receptors. Importantly, it is found by our simulations that the rotational mode even determines the possible perturbation of the geometric nanoparticle to the membrane and the configuration between the nanoparticle and lipid membrane in the internalization process. These results provide a new strategy and also provide pivotal insight for the design of nanoparticles as advanced drug-delivery vectors to cells.

  8. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  9. The Entrepreneurial Process: An International Analysis of Entry and Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with the entrepreneurial process from an international perspective. The first part explores which people decide to enter entrepreneurship. A distinction is made between two modes of entrepreneurial entry: taking over an existing firm and starting a new firm. The second

  10. Lepton flavor violating processes at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P. M.; Guedes, R. B.; Santos, R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of dimension-six effective operators on the flavor violating production and decay of leptons at the International Linear Collider. Analytic expressions for the cross sections, decay widths, and asymmetries of all flavor changing processes will be presented, as well as an analysis of the feasibility of their observation at the ILC

  11. C-ADU Gel Particle Preparation by Modified-External Gelation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Cha; Eom, Sung Ho; Cho, Cho Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon black powder as a carbon source in the final UCO kernel is added during the broth solution preparation, in the processing of UCO kernel fabrication. The preparation of a good quality UCO kernel is very difficult owing to the homogeneous distribution of carbon in a UCO kernel. The key technology used to obtain a good quality sphere (sphericity, density, C/U, O/U ratios) is a uniform distribution of carbon particles into the C-ADU gel sphere, i.e., during the gelation step of liquid droplets formation before the thermal treatment. We carried out carbon source selection experiments on the various kinds of carbon black powder and a dispersion test in a simulated broth solution. The CB10 sample shows that the relative cumulative velocity and the velocity distribution density have the highest value. This is a Cabot Emperor 1800 CB particle.

  12. International Patients' Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Jamal; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-02-01

    Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce.

  13. International Patients’ Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHAN, Mohammad Jamal; CHELLIAH, Shankar; HARON, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. Methods: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Results: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Conclusion: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce. PMID:27114978

  14. Fourth International Conference on Signal and Image Processing 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; ICSIP 2012

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings includes cutting-edge research articles from the Fourth International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP), which is organised by Dr. N.G.P. Institute of Technology, Kalapatti, Coimbatore. The Conference provides academia and industry to discuss and present the latest technological advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and application of signal, image and video processing. The book provides latest and most informative content from engineers and scientists in signal, image and video processing from around the world, which will benefit the future research community to work in a more cohesive and collaborative way.

  15. 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2014) held in Bydgoszcz, 10-12 September 2014. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

  16. 8th International Image Processing and Communications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 8th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2016) held in Bydgoszcz, Poland September 7-9 2016. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods of image processing, computer vision is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

  17. First International Conference Multimedia Processing, Communication and Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guru, Devanur

    2013-01-01

    ICMCCA 2012 is the first International Conference on Multimedia Processing, Communication and Computing Applications and the theme of the Conference is chosen as ‘Multimedia Processing and its Applications’. Multimedia processing has been an active research area contributing in many frontiers of today’s science and technology. This book presents peer-reviewed quality papers on multimedia processing, which covers a very broad area of science and technology. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize readers with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields of multimedia processing and is widely used in many disciplines such as Medical Diagnosis, Digital Forensic, Object Recognition, Image and Video Analysis, Robotics, Military, Automotive Industries, Surveillance and Security, Quality Inspection, etc. The book will assist the research community to get the insight of the overlapping works which are being carried out across the globe at many medical hospitals and instit...

  18. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  19. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  20. Worm structure piezoelectric energy harvester using ionotropic gelation of barium titanate-calcium alginate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Selvarajan, Sophia; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Lee, Gae Myoung; Jeong, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-01-01

    A laterally aligned flexible composite linear worm-based piezoelectric energy harvester made up of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles and a three dimensional gel network of calcium alginate biopolymer was aimed to harness the low frequency mechanical energy. It is highly desirable to fabricate innovative micro/nanostructures for high performance energy harvesting beyond the conventional thin films, and small scale fabrication of nanowires (or rods). The open circuit voltage of a single composite worm-based energy harvester (diameter ≈ 550 μm, length ≈ 2.5 cm) increases up to 5 times by increasing the frequency of mechanical load (11 N) from 3 to 20 Hz. Similarly, 1.5 times voltage increment was observed by increasing the length of the composite worm from 1.5 to 3.5 cm upon the bio-mechanical hand force. The energy harvester can function as an efficient portable/wearable self-powered device due to its good flexibility, and multiple lengths of composite linear worms can be utilized to drive low-power electronic devices. In this work, the composite worms were prepared by an ionotropic gelation approach, which is eco-friendly, non-toxic, having low processing temperature/time, and potential for cost-effective, large-scale fabrication, making it suitable for low frequency based self-powered devices. - Highlights: • Portable energy harvester was developed using composite linear worm structure. • Real time power generating shoe insole was demonstrated by two energy harvesters. • Energy harvested from the applied mechanical load, air and human body motions. • The relation between composite worm length and generated energy was identified. • Eco-friendly, Mass production of worms developed by ionotropic gelation method.

  1. Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowsad, A A; Kanoh, S; Niwa, E

    2000-01-01

    Thermal gelation properties of spent hen mince and surimi were investigated. The mince from 98-wk-old spent hens was washed two times with 0.1% NaCl. A portion of unwashed and washed mince was mixed with 4% sugar, 4% sorbitol, and 0.2% Na-tripolyphosphate to produce surimi and was kept frozen at -20 C. The mince and surimi were ground with 3% NaCl and a small amount of water to adjust the final moisture content to 80%. A 6 to 8% potato starch was mixed with some pastes. The pastes were stuffed into sausage casings and heated by one-step and two-step heating. The effects of washing, heating, and addition of ingredients on the color, composition, and functional properties of the mince and gel were compared. Washed, spent hen mince was lighter and less red in color and higher in collagen, gel strength, water-holding ability, and cooking yield than unwashed mince. The best temperature and time schedule for the gelation of spent hen mince was 90 C for 15 min in one-step heating. Heating at 100 C for 5 min after preheating at 60 to 70 C for 30 min resulted a gel with distinctly improved gel strength. Sucrose (4%), sorbitol (4%), and Na-tripolyphosphate (0.2%) improved the gel quality of nonfrozen mince but showed little cryoprotective effect against the degradation of frozen-stored product. A 6% potato starch improved the gel texture, cooking yield, and water-holding ability compared with 8% starch.

  2. 9th International Symposium on Ultrafast Processes in Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestri, S; Denardo, G

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the Ninth International Symposium on "Ultrafast Processes in Spectroscopy" (UPS '95) held at the International Centre for Theo­ retical Physics (ICTP), Trieste (Italy), October 30 -November 3, 1995. These meetings have become recognized as the major forum in Europe for discussion of new work in this rapidly moving field. The UPS'95 Conference in Trieste brought together a multidisciplinary group of researchers sharing common interests in the generation of ultrashort optical pulses and their application to studies of ultrafast phenomena in physics, chemistry, material science, electronics, and biology. It was attended by approximately 250 participants from 20 countries and the five-day program comprises more than 200 papers. The progress of both technology and applications in the field of ultrafast processes during these last years is truly remarkable. The advent of all solid state femtosecond lasers and the extension of laser wavelengths by frequency convers...

  3. Gelation or molecular recognition; is the bis-(α,β-dihydroxy esters motif an omnigelator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Griffiths

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the gelation of liquids by low molecular weight solutes at low concentrations gives an insight into many molecular recognition phenomena and also offers a simple route to modifying the physical properties of the liquid. Bis-(α,β-dihydroxy esters are shown here to gel thermoreversibly a wide range of solvents, raising interesting questions as to the mechanism of gelation. At gelator concentrations of 5–50 mg ml−1, gels were successfully formed in acetone, ethanol/water mixtures, toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform (the latter, albeit at a higher gelator concentration. A range of neutron techniques – in particular small-angle neutron scattering (SANS – have been employed to probe the structure of a selection of these gels. The universality of gelation in a range of solvent types suggests the gelation mechanism is a feature of the bis-(α,β-dihydroxy ester motif, with SANS demonstrating the presence of regular structures in the 30–40 Å range. A correlation between the apparent rodlike character of the structures formed and the polarity of the solvent is evident. Preliminary spin-echo neutron scattering studies (SESANS indicated the absence of any larger scale structures. Inelastic neutron spectroscopy (INS studies demonstrated that the solvent is largely unaffected by gelation, but does reveal insights into the thermal history of the samples. Further neutron studies of this kind (particularly SESANS and INS are warranted, and it is hoped that this work will stimulate others to pursue this line of research.

  4. Egyptian international labor migration and social processes: toward regional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, R R

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews evidence that contemporary Egyptian international labor migration to oil-rich Arab countries has followed a classic social process which starts with a homo economicus phase, advances into a goal reorientation phase, and ends with the establishment of diaspora communities in destination societies. The history of Egyptian migration, current estimates of migration, the role of Egyptians in selected Arab countries, and emergent processes all were found to support the predictions of the social process model. Particularly important support comes from the finding that all social classes participated in this migration. For 1982, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, based on individual consulate figures, reported 2.9 million migrants in oil-rich countries. Conclusions suggest the likelihood that Egyptian migration processes will promote economic and perhaps social integration in the region.

  5. 4th International Conference on Software Process Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Mirna; Rocha, Álvaro; Calvo-Manzano, Jose

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers from The 2015 International Conference on Software Process Improvement (CIMPS’15), held between the 28th and 30th of October in Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México. The CIMPS’15 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners that present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, results, experiences and concerns in the several perspectives of Software Engineering with clear relationship but not limited to software processes, Security in Information and Communication Technology and Big Data Field. The main topics covered are: Organizational Models, Standards and Methodologies, Knowledge Management, Software Systems, Applications and Tools, Information and Communication Technologies and Processes in non-software domains (Mining, automotive, aerospace, business, health care, manufacturing, etc.) with a demonstrated relationship to software process challenges.

  6. 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Wai; Sulaiman, Hamzah; Othman, Mohd; Saat, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This book presents important research findings and recent innovations in the field of machine learning and signal processing. A wide range of topics relating to machine learning and signal processing techniques and their applications are addressed in order to provide both researchers and practitioners with a valuable resource documenting the latest advances and trends. The book comprises a careful selection of the papers submitted to the 2015 International Conference on Machine Learning and Signal Processing (MALSIP 2015), which was held on 15–17 December 2015 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with the aim of offering researchers, academicians, and practitioners an ideal opportunity to disseminate their findings and achievements. All of the included contributions were chosen by expert peer reviewers from across the world on the basis of their interest to the community. In addition to presenting the latest in design, development, and research, the book provides access to numerous new algorithms for machine learni...

  7. The status of international purification process of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lunguan; Zhuang Haixing; Zhuo Jianwei; Jiang Ping; Niu Yuqing

    1998-01-01

    The information of international purification process of uranium since 1976 is retrieved by both computer and handwork. The uranium purification processes and parameters in the United States, England, France, Canada, India, Korea, Australia, Pakistan, Brazil, Spain, Philippines, Japan, Argentina and China are summarized. The review show that, in addition to amine extraction in Japan and Argentina, TBP extraction was normally used in the rest countries. In order to reduce the volume of equipment and consumption of reagents, the feed solution with high uranium content (more than 300 g/L uranium) was adopted by almost all countries. During scrubbing of loaded organic phase, the methods using partly returned product liquor were studied in some countries and columns were mainly used as extraction equipment so as to improve the purification efficiency. In some countries, pulp extraction was studied to overcome the difficulties in the process of filtering

  8. Acceleration of gelation and promotion of mineralization of chitosan hydrogels by alkaline phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Skwarczynska, A.; Modrzejewska, Z.; Balcaen, L.; Schaubroeck, D.; Lycke, S.; Vanhaecke, F.; Vandenabeele, P.; Dubruel, P.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels containing sodium beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP), whose gelation is induced by increasing temperature to body temperature, were functionalized by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone. ALP incorporation led to

  9. Proceedings of the international seminar on atomic processes in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takako; Murakami, Izumi [eds.

    2000-01-01

    The International Seminar on Atomic Processes in Plasmas (ISAPP), a satellite meeting to the ICPEAC was held July 28-29 at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Gifu, Japan. About 110 scientists attended the ISAPP meeting and discussed atomic processes and atomic data required for fusion research. This Proceedings book includes the papers of the talks, posters and panel discussion given at the meeting. The invited talks described the super configuration array method for complex spectra, near-LTE atomic kinetics, R-matrix calculations, the binary-encounter dipole model for electron-impact ionization of molecules, other calculations of molecular processes, the ADAS project and the NIFS atomic data-base, and a survey of the role of molecular processes in divertor plasmas. On the experimental side crossed-beam ion-ion collision-experiments for charge transfer, and storage-ring and EBIT measurements of ionization, excitation and dielectronic recombination cross-sections were presented, and atomic processes important for x-ray laser experiments and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical plasmas were described. The new method of plasma polarization spectroscopy was outlined. There was also a spectroscopic study of particle transport in JT-60U, new results for detached plasmas, and a sketch of the first hot plasma experiments with the Large Helical Device recently completed at NIFS. The 63 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. The role of internal and external constructive processes in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin; Odling-Smee, John; Turner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The architects of the Modern Synthesis viewed development as an unfolding of a form already latent in the genes. However, developing organisms play a far more active, constructive role in both their own development and their evolution than the Modern Synthesis proclaims. Here we outline what is meant by constructive processes in development and evolution, emphasizing how constructive development is a shared feature of many of the research developments central to the developing Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Our article draws out the parallels between constructive physiological processes expressed internally and in the external environment (niche construction), showing how in each case they play important and not fully recognized evolutionary roles by modifying and biasing natural selection. PMID:24591574

  11. 1st International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Partha; Sen, Debashis

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume contains technical contributions in the field of computer vision and image processing presented at the First International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP 2016). The contributions are thematically divided based on their relation to operations at the lower, middle and higher levels of vision systems, and their applications. The technical contributions in the areas of sensors, acquisition, visualization and enhancement are classified as related to low-level operations. They discuss various modern topics – reconfigurable image system architecture, Scheimpflug camera calibration, real-time autofocusing, climate visualization, tone mapping, super-resolution and image resizing. The technical contributions in the areas of segmentation and retrieval are classified as related to mid-level operations. They discuss some state-of-the-art techniques – non-rigid image registration, iterative image partitioning, egocentric object detection and video shot boundary detection. Th...

  12. The role of internal and external constructive processes in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin; Odling-Smee, John; Turner, Scott

    2014-06-01

    The architects of the Modern Synthesis viewed development as an unfolding of a form already latent in the genes. However, developing organisms play a far more active, constructive role in both their own development and their evolution than the Modern Synthesis proclaims. Here we outline what is meant by constructive processes in development and evolution, emphasizing how constructive development is a shared feature of many of the research developments central to the developing Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Our article draws out the parallels between constructive physiological processes expressed internally and in the external environment (niche construction), showing how in each case they play important and not fully recognized evolutionary roles by modifying and biasing natural selection. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. Self-Healing Phase Change Salogels with Tunable Gelation Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimineghlani, Parvin; Palanisamy, Anbazhagan; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2018-04-19

    Chemically cross-linked polymer matrices have demonstrated strong potential for shape stabilization of molten phase change materials (PCM). However, they are not designed to be fillable and removable from a heat exchange module for an easy replacement with new PCM matrices and lack self-healing capability. Here, a new category of shapeable, self-healing gels, "salogels", is introduced. The salogels reversibly disassemble in a high-salinity environment of a fluid inorganic PCM [lithium nitrate trihydrate (LNH)], at a preprogrammed temperature. LNH was employed as a high latent heat PCM and simultaneously as a solvent, which supported the formation of a network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) chains via physical cross-linking through poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of various generations. The existence of hydrogen bonding and the importance of low-hydration state of PVA for the efficient gelation were experimentally confirmed. The thermal behavior of PCM salogels was highly reversible and repeatable during multiple heating/cooling cycles. Importantly, the gel-sol transition temperature could be precisely controlled within a range of temperature above LNH's melting point by the choice of dendrimer generation and their concentration. Shape stabilization and self-healing properties of the salogels, taken together with tunability of their temperature-induced fluidization make these materials attractive for thermal energy storage applications that require on-demand removal and replacement of used inorganic PCM salt hydrates.

  14. Gelation of soybean protein and polysaccharides delays digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Chen, Qing; Cai, Qimeng; Fan, Yun; Wilde, Peter J; Rong, Zhen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-04-15

    Xanthan gum and carrageenan, representing the medium and highly negatively charged polysaccharides, were heated respectively together with soybean protein isolate (SPI) at different biopolymer ratios. Upon mixing with simulated stomach juice (SSJ), the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI at biopolymer ratios higher than 0.01 leads to self-assembled gelation immediately. Stronger gel is formed under higher biopolymer ratios. Highly negatively charged carrageenan forms a stronger gel than that composed with xanthan gum. SDS-PAGE results show the digestibility of SPI is delayed after incorporation with the polysaccharides, which is enhanced with the increase of the biopolymer mass ratios. And the polysaccharide with higher negative charge has stronger potential in delaying the digestion of SPI. Furthermore, the microstructure of the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI gel before and after simulated stomach digestion was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which also confirms that the gel delays the digestion of soybean protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: International Workshop on Multi-Rate processes and Hysterisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Michael P.; O'Malley, Robert E.; Pokrovskii, Alexei V.; Sobolev, Vladimir A.

    2006-12-01

    We are interested in singular perturbation problems and hysteresis as common strongly nonlinear phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The wording `strongly nonlinear' means that linearization will not encapsulate the observed phenomena. Often these two types of phenomena are manifested for different stages of the same or similar processes. A number of fundamental hysteresis models can be considered as limit cases of time relaxation processes, or admit an approximation by a differential equation which is singular with respect to a particular parameter. However, the amount of interaction between practitioners of theories of systems with time relaxation and systems with hysteresis (and between the `relaxation' and `hysteresis' research communities) is still low. In recent years Ireland has become a home for a series of prestigious International Workshops in Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis: International Workshop on Hysteresis and Multi-scale Asymptotics (University College Cork, Ireland, 17-21 March 2004). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series 22. International Workshop on Relaxation Oscillations and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 1-6 April 2002). The related collection of invited lectures, was published as a volume Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2005. International Workshop on Geometrical Methods of Nonlinear Analysis and Semiconductor Laser Dynamics (University College Cork, Ireland, 5-5 April 2001). A collection of invited papers has been published as a special issue of Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences: Nonlinear dynamics of laser and reacting systems. Among the aims of these workshops were to bring together leading experts in time relaxation and hysteresis phenomena in applied problems; to discuss important problems in areas such as reacting systems, semiconductor lasers, shock phenomena in economic modelling, fluid mechanics, etc

  16. Supra-dendron Gelator Based on Azobenzene-Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Interactions: Photoswitched Optical and Chiroptical Reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fan; Ouyang, Guanghui; Qin, Long; Liu, Minghua

    2016-12-12

    A novel amphiphilic dendron (AZOC 8 GAc) with three l-glutamic acid units and an azobenzene moiety covalently linked by an alkyl spacer has been designed. The compound formed hydrogels with water at very low concentration and self-assembled into chiral-twist structures. The gel showed a reversible macroscopic volume phase transition in response to pH variations and photo-irradiation. During the photo-triggered changes, although the gel showed complete reversibility in its optical absorptions, only an incomplete chiroptical property change was achieved. On the other hand, the dendron could form a 1:1 inclusion complex through a host-guest interaction with α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), designated as supra-dendron gelator AZOC 8 GAc/α-CD. The supra-dendron showed similar gelation behavior to that of AZOC 8 GAc, but with enhanced photoisomerization-transition efficiency and chiroptical switching capacity, which was completely reversible in terms of both optical and chiroptical performances. The self-assembly of the supra-dendron is a hierarchical or multi-supramolecular self-assembling process. This work has clearly illustrated that the hierarchical and multi-supramolecular self-assembling system endows the supramolecular nanostructures or materials with superior reversible optical and chiroptical switching. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. PREFACE: International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Michael P.; O'Malley, Robert E.; Pokrovskii, Alexei; Rachinskii, Dmitrii; Sobolev, Vladimir A.

    2008-07-01

    We are interested in singular perturbation problems and hysteresis as common strongly nonlinear phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The wording `strongly nonlinear' means that linearization will not encapsulate the observed phenomena. Often these two types of phenomena are manifested for different stages of the same or similar processes. A number of fundamental hysteresis models can be considered as limit cases of time relaxation processes, or admit an approximation by a differential equation which is singular with respect to a particular parameter. However, the amount of interaction between practitioners of theories of systems with time relaxation and systems with hysteresis (and between the `relaxation' and `hysteresis' research communities) is still low, and cross-fertilization is small. In recent years Ireland has become a home for a series of prestigious International Workshops in Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis: International Workshop on Multi-rate Processes and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 3-8 April 2006). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 55. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2008.htm International Workshop on Hysteresis and Multi-scale Asymptotics (University College Cork, Ireland, 17-21 March 2004). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 22. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2006.htm International Workshop on Relaxation Oscillations and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 1-6 April 2002). The related collection of invited lectures, was published as a volume Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2005. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/hamsa2004.htm International Workshop on Geometrical Methods of Nonlinear Analysis and Semiconductor Laser Dynamics (University College Cork, Ireland, 5-5 April 2001). A collection of invited papers has been

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of New Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles Obtained by Ionic Gelation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We derivatized low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA by a coupling reaction. The chemical modification of LMWC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance, 1HNMR. We researched the influence of 3-MPA on the nanoparticles formation by ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP as cross-linker reagent. In order to optimize the nanoparticles formation, we studied the effect of the pH solution and molar ratio on nanoparticles stability. Analyses of particle size, morphology, and surface charge were determined by dynamic light scattering, Atomic Force Microscopy, and zeta potential, respectively. It was found that formation of semispherical and stable nanoparticles was improved due to the chemical modification of chitosan. Optimized semispherical nanoparticles of thiolated chitosan were synthesized with the parameters (pH 4.7, molar ratios 1 : 106. Additionally, we reported the thermodynamic profile of the nanoparticles formation determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. The aggregation process achieved to form nanoparticles of thiolated and nonmodified chitosan consisted of two stages, considering one binding site model. Gibbs free energy (ΔG and binding constant (Ka describe the aggregation process of thiolated chitosan/TPP, which is an initial reaction and followed by an endothermic stage. These results are promising for the possible application of these nanoparticles as nanocarriers and delivery systems.

  19. Colloidal Gelation-2 and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 Investigations Conducted on STS-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Monica T.

    2000-01-01

    The Colloidal Gelation-2 (CGEL 2) and Colloidal Disorder-Order Transition-2 (CDOT 2) investigations flew on Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-95 (also known as the John Glenn Mission). These investigations were part of a series of colloid experiments designed to help scientists answer fundamental science questions and reduce the trial and error involved in developing new and better materials. Industries dealing with semiconductors, electro-optics, ceramics, and composites are just a few that may benefit from this knowledge. The goal of the CGEL 2 investigation was to study the fundamental properties of colloids to help scientists better understand their nature and make them more useful for technology. Colloids consist of very small (submicron) particles suspended in a fluid. They play a critical role in the technology of this country, finding uses in materials ranging from paints and coatings to drugs, cosmetics, food, and drink. Although these products are routinely produced and used, there are still many aspects of their behavior about which scientists know little. Understanding their structures may allow scientists to manipulate the physical properties of colloids (a process called "colloidal engineering") to produce new materials and products. Colloid research may even improve the processing of known products to enhance their desirable properties.

  20. Gelation of photopolymerized hyaluronic acid grafted with glycidyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, S.S.; Weaver, J.M.; Love, B.J., E-mail: bjlove@umich.edu

    2011-12-01

    Experiments have tracked the ambient gelation of a series of hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) resins grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GM) and photopolymerized as a function of dose. The resin mixtures range in GMHA concentration between 0.5 and 1.5% w/w in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Illuminated at 20 mW/cm{sup 2}, the dynamic viscosity ({eta}(t)) has been tracked and characterized using the Boltzmann log-sigmoidal model. A gelled viscosity of {approx} 10 Pa s was determined at 0.5% w/w which rose to {approx} 50 Pa s at or above 1% w/w. More curing agent marginally increased the gel viscosity at each concentration. Time constants associated with viscosity advancement were shortest at [GMHA] = 1.0%; higher concentrations are attributed with lower quantum efficiency when illuminated. Subsequent frequency sweeps replicated already published work using similar GHMA concentrations in PBS. G' values ranged from 100 to 500 Pa over the formulation range with expected sensitivity to GMHA and curing agent concentration. Overall, the sigmoidal model represented this advancing viscosity data well, and further analysis of the physical significance of these model parameters may help in understanding photopolymerization of this complicated formulation more broadly. Highlights: {yields} The ambient dynamic viscosity of photopolymerized GMHA gels has been measured. {yields} 2 physical parameters and two time constants were extracted from the sigmoidal model. {yields} Higher crosslinker content for a fixed GMHA concentration led to higher gel viscosity. {yields} The time to toggle between the initial and final viscosity ranged between 5 and 10 s. {yields} Dynamic frequency sweep tests on cured gels also revealed G' values between 100 and 500 Pa.

  1. Thermal gelation and tissue adhesion of biomimetic hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Sean A; Ritter-Jones, Marsha; Lee, Bruce P; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2007-01-01

    Marine and freshwater mussels are notorious foulers of natural and manmade surfaces, secreting specialized protein adhesives for rapid and durable attachment to wet substrates. Given the strong and water-resistant nature of mussel adhesive proteins, significant potential exists for mimicking their adhesive characteristics in bioinspired synthetic polymer materials. An important component of these proteins is L-3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine (DOPA), an amino acid believed to contribute to mussel glue solidification through oxidation and crosslinking reactions. Synthetic polymers containing DOPA residues have previously been shown to crosslink into hydrogels upon the introduction of oxidizing reagents. Here we introduce a strategy for stimuli responsive gel formation of mussel adhesive protein mimetic polymers. Lipid vesicles with a bilayer melting transition of 37 0 C were designed from a mixture of dipalmitoyl and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholines and exploited for the release of a sequestered oxidizing reagent upon heating from ambient to physiologic temperature. Colorimetric studies indicated that sodium-periodate-loaded liposomes released their cargo at the phase transition temperature, and when used in conjunction with a DOPA-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) polymer gave rise to rapid solidification of a crosslinked polymer hydrogel. The tissue adhesive properties of this biomimetic system were determined by in situ thermal gelation of liposome/polymer hydrogel between two porcine dermal tissue surfaces. Bond strength measurements showed that the bond formed by the adhesive hydrogel (mean = 35.1 kPa, SD = 12.5 kPa, n = 11) was several times stronger than a fibrin glue control tested under the same conditions. The results suggest a possible use of this biomimetic strategy for repair of soft tissues

  2. International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, H

    1988-01-01

    The International Symposium on Dynamics of Ordering Processes in Condensed Matter was held at the Kansai Seminar House, Kyoto, for four days, from 27 to 30 August 1987, under the auspices of the Physical Soci­ ety of Japan. The symposium was financially supported by the four orga­ nizations and 45 companies listed on other pages in this volume. We are very grateful to all of them and particularly to the greatest sponsor, the Commemorative Association for the Japan World Exposition 1970. A total Df 22 invited lectures and 48 poster presentations were given and 110 participants attended from seven nations. An objective of the Symposium was to review and extend our present understanding of the dynamics of ordering processes in condensed matters, (for example, alloys, polymers and fluids), that are brought to an un­ stable state by sudden change of such external parameters as temperature and pressure. A second objective, no less important, was to identify new fields of science that might be investigated by sim...

  3. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In 1992, the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations ( COSO ), composed of the AICPA, IIA, FEI, and the AAA, established the Internal Control Integrated...Framework, which includes five internal control components ( COSO , 2013). In May 2013, COSO (2013) updated its internal control integrated framework...Internal Control for the Federal Government (Green Book). The five components of the framework are discussed in the following sections ( COSO , 2013

  4. Protein denaturation of whey protein isolates (WPIs) induced by high intensity ultrasound during heat gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Rikke P; Hammershøj, Marianne; Andersen, Ulf; Greve, Marie T; Wiking, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the impact of high intensity ultrasound (HIU) on proteins in whey protein isolates was examined. Effects on thermal behavior, secondary structure and nature of intra- and intermolecular bonds during heat-induced gelling were investigated. Ultrasonication (24 kHz, 300 W/cm(2), 2078 J/mL) significantly reduced denaturation enthalpies, whereas no change in secondary structure was detected by circular dichroism. The thiol-blocking agent N-ethylmaleimide was applied in order to inhibit formation of disulfide bonds during gel formation. Results showed that increased contents of α-lactalbumin (α-La) were associated with increased sensitivity to ultrasonication. The α-La:β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) ratio greatly affected the nature of the interactions formed during gelation, where higher amounts of α-La lead to a gel more dependent on disulfide bonds. These results contribute to clarifying the mechanisms mediating the effects of HIU on whey proteins on the molecular level, thus moving further toward implementing HIU in the processing chain in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production and characterization of alginate-starch-chitosan microparticles containing stigmasterol through the external ionic gelation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Mari Fujiwara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigmasterol - a plant sterol with several pharmacological activities - is susceptible to oxidation when exposed to air, a process enhanced by heat and humidity. In this context, microencapsulation is a way of preventing oxidation, allowing stigmasterol to be incorporated into various pharmaceutical forms while increasing its absorption. Microparticles were obtained using a blend of polymers of sodium alginate, starch and chitosan as the coating material through a one-stage process using the external gelation technique. Resultant microparticles were spherical, averaging 1.4 mm in size. Encapsulation efficiency was 90.42% and method yield 94.87%. The amount of stigmasterol in the oil recovered from microparticles was 9.97 mg/g. This technique proved feasible for the microencapsulation of stigmasterol.

  6. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  7. Audit of the consultation process on general internal medicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, J; Jordan, M; Ghali, W A

    2009-02-01

    To determine the proportion of consultations requested by general internal medicine services that communicate key components of the consultation process to medical subspecialists. Retrospective chart review by two researchers, using a standardised chart abstraction instrument (93.1% agreement, kappa 0.85). Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A random sample of medical consultations was selected from those generated on two medical teaching units (MTUs) from 2003 to 2004. The primary measure of interest was whether a "clear clinical question" was posed to the subspecialist, a binary variable. Two hundred consultations were sampled from the 2885 subspecialty consultations. Of the selected consultations, 94.0% (188/200) were available for review. A clear clinical question was posed in 69.7% (131/188) of consultations (CI 0.63 to 0.74). In a secondary analysis involving a larger sample permitting comparison across subspecialties, 95.1% (368/387) of the consultations, representative of the subspecialties, were available for review. An MTU member contacted the subspecialist for 74.2% of consultations. If a consultation was urgent, a member of the MTU contacted the subspecialist in 81.0% of consultations. Of these urgent consultations, 63.3% had a clear clinical question. More than one in four consultations does not contain a clear clinical question, illustrating suboptimal communication between physicians. Innovative strategies that provide a sustainable solution for overcoming barriers to communication could have a significant impact on quality of care.

  8. SANS study of understanding mechanism of cold gelation of globular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalikar, A. J.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Wagh, A. G.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the evolution of interaction and the resultant structures in the cold gelation of globular proteins. The cold gelation involves two steps consisting of irreversible protein deformation by heating followed by some means (e.g. increasing ionic strength) to bring them together at room temperature. We have examined the role of different salts in cold gelation of preheated aqueous Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein solutions. The interactions have been modeled by two Yukawa potential combining short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. We show that in step 1 (preheated temperature effect) the deformation of protein increases the magnitude of attractive interaction but not sufficient to induce gel. The attractive interaction is further enhanced in step 2 (salt effect) to result in gel formation. The salt effect is found to be strongly depending on the valency of the counterions. The gel structure has been characterized by the mass fractals

  9. Automated Internal Revenue Processing System: A Panacea For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kogi State Board of Internal Revenue is responsible for the collection and management of internal revenue which is the financial backbone of the State. Information about the present method of revenue collection and management by the Board was gathered through interviews, group discussions, direct observation and ...

  10. NGL process and the role of International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Giang T.; Mackay, R. S.; Seidel, Philip K.

    2002-07-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) established a program in 1996 to narrow the Next Generation Lithography (NGL) options on the SIA Roadmap through a global consensus process. Methodologies developed by the SIA Lithography Technical Working Group (TWG) were adopted to ensure a balanced and objective assessment. Critical reviews with emphasis on technical program plans, solutions to critical issues (showstoppers), error budget analysis, cost-of-ownership, business plans, and schedules were implemented with the Technical Champions of each technology. White papers were written by the Technical Champion teams to better educate the participants in the annual worldwide NGL workshops. Participants made their recommendations through a survey conducted at the end of each workshop. A Task Force of the key stakeholders from global chip makers, equipment suppliers and consortia was commissioned to review the workshop output, assess the progress on the critical issues and make recommendations to ISMT on narrowing the options. As a result of this global consensus process and the critical issue projects, the NGL Task Force has made the following recommendations: (i) November 1997 - Massively Parallel Direct Write (MPDW) is not mature enough for introduction until at least the 50nm node. (ii) December 1998 - ISMT should narrow its support to two options EUVL and EPL, and that other worldwide activity on X-Ray and IPL continue. (iii) December 1999 - ISMT should continue its support for EUVL and EPL for the 70nm node, it also recognized the growing possibility that the industry might need more than one mainstream technology for the diverging application of DRAM/MPU and ASIC/SOC. (iv) September 2000 - The industry in general should narrow its support for commercialization to EUVL and EPL for insertion at the 70nm node. (v) August 2001 - The industry should continue to fund the commercialization of both EUVL and EPL. Today, the ISMT program for NGL is transitioning from option selection to

  11. Silica-gel structural characterization during the initial phases of gelation and drying; Caracterizacao estrutural de geis de silica durante as etapas iniciais de gelacao e secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Max Passos

    1996-12-31

    For centuries, glasses and ceramics have been made via melting or solid state reactions at temperatures above 100 deg C. The sol-gel process offers new approaches to the synthesis of glasses and ceramics, combining control of composition and structure at the molecular level with the ability to shape materials in bulk, powder, fiber and thin-film forms. The growth of sol-gel technology research is due to the many unique features of that class of materials. Major applications include optical elements and integrated optical devices, ceramic filters, membranes, supercondutors, magnetic, catalytic and manostructured materials to antioxidant, anticorrosion coatings and composite and biomedical materials. In this work a variety of techniques like spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, light scattering nuclear magnetic resonance, X ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption have been employed to investigate the initial phase of the sol-gel transition of gamma ray irradiated tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) solutions and non-irradiated TMOS solution and to get information about the structure of the silica gels obtained under different gelation conditions. Typically the tetramethoxysilane solutions were prepared using a molar ratio of TMOS to demineralized water of 1 to 16. Some experiments were made under catalysed conditions. The mixing was carried out at room temperature. The turbidity and light scattering experiments on the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane show that exists no drastic difference in the gelling time of a gamma ray irradiated and a non-irradiated TMOS+H{sub 2}O (1+16 M) solution. In the absence of a catalyst, the gelling time for both reactions occurs in about 3.30 h. When HNO{sub 3} (o.03 M) was used, the gelling time observed was 3 days. Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy show no drastic difference during the initial phase at the sol-gel transition under ambient temperature/pressure and under gamma radiation. The gels

  12. New sugar-based gelators with an amino group, the gelatin ability of which is remarkably reinforced by the hydrogen bond and the metal coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanokura, Natsuki; Kanekiyo, Yasumasa; Shinkai, Seiji; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    Three sugar-integrated gelators bearing a p-aminophenyl group which are expected to exert a hydrogen-bonding effect and a metal coordination effect on the gelation ability were synthesised. -D-Galactose-based 2b was only soluble or precipitated and -D-glucose-based 4b gelated only two of 15 solvents

  13. [The balanced scorecard used as a management tool in a clinical laboratory: internal business processes indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas La Casta, Maria; Flores Pardo, Emilio; Uris Selles, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    to propose a set of indicators as a management tool for a clinical laboratory, by using the balanced scorecard internal business processes perspective. indicators proposed are obtained from different sources; external proficiency testing of the Valencia Community Government, by means of internal surveys and laboratory information system registers. One year testing process proportion indicators results are showed. internal management indicators are proposed (process, appropriateness and proficiency testing). The process indicators results show gradual improvement since its establishment. after one years of using a conceptually solid Balanced Scorecard Internal business processes perspective indicators, the obtained results validate the usefulness as a laboratory management tool.

  14. International Workshop on Biogeochemical Processes in the Northern Indian Ocean: Notes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    , several International Conferences were conducted, among them ICSU (International Council of Scientific Unions) - SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) Workshops on "Particle flux in the Oceans" in 1991 (Goa) and 1993 (Hamburg...-1 NOTES INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE NORTHERN INDIAN OCEAN An International Workshop on Biogeochemical Processes in the Northern Indian Ocean was jointly . organized by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, CSIR), India...

  15. Temperature and concentration dependent viscosity and gelation temperature of ABA triblock copolymer solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijnlieff, P.F.; Visscher, K.; Mijnlieff, P.F.; Visscher, K.

    1991-01-01

    In solutions of ABA-triblock copolymers in a poor solvent for A thermoreversible gelation can occur. A three-dimensional dynamic network may form and, given the polymer and the solvent, its structure will depend on temperature and polymer mass fraction. The zero-shear rate viscosity of solutions of

  16. Solvent-mediated pathways to gelation and phase separation in suspensions of grafted nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Anyfantakis, Manos

    2009-01-01

    We explore the role of the solvent medium on the interplay between gelation and phase separation in suspensions of organosilicate planar hybrids grafted with hydrocarbon chains. We establish their phase diagram by means of dynamic light scattering, rheology and visual observations, and different routes to gelation, depending on the solvent used. In agreement with earlier works, the solvent quality for the grafted chains at a given temperature controls the balance between attractions and repulsions, and hence the phase diagram of the nanoparticles and their tendency to gel. Here we show how to tune the suspension state and hence its rheology. For decane, a good solvent for the hydrocarbon chains, gelation occurs at rather low volume fractions in the presence of phase separation. This is due to the interdigitation of solvent molecules with the grafted chains, resulting in their crystalline packing that promotes the attraction between particles. For toluene, a solvent of reduced quality for the hydrocarbon chains, no interdigitation takes place, and hence gelation is triggered by clustering at higher volume fractions before phase separation. Our results support the generic picture of complex kinetic arrest/phase separation interplay in soft matter, where phase separation can proceed, be interrupted or be completely inhibited. A number of interesting possibilities for tailoring the rheology of grafted colloidal systems emerge. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an unsaturated polyester resin. RAGHU RAJA PANDIYAN KUPPUSAMY† and SWATI NEOGI. ∗. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. †Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835 215, India.

  18. Comparison of Gelation Time and Polyalcohol Effect on Hydrogels from Domestic and Wild Silk Fibroins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin (SF hydrogels were obtained from both domestic (Bombyx mori and wild (Antheraea pernyi silkworms from aqueous silk fibroin solutions at room temperature. The gelation time of the Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi SF solution was significantly shorter than that of the Bombyx mori (B. mori SF solution. The secondary structures of the two kinds of hydrogels were also compared. In order to further reduce the gelation time, various amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG were blended with the silk fibroins of A. pernyi and B. mori. The gelation time of both A. pernyi SF and B. mori SF decreased with the increased amount of PEG. After freeze-drying, the hydrogels were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that the addition of polyalcohol did not change the main secondary structure of the hydrogels. However, the addition of polyalcohol did reduce the gelation time and triggered additional formation of β-sheets.

  19. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Committee Action Hearings is April 21-30, 2013 in Dallas, TX at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. This will be... Convention Center. ADDRESSES: Committee Action Hearings in Dallas, TX at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel and the... Fuel Gas Code. International Green Construction Code. International Mechanical Code. ICC Performance...

  20. The effect of temperature and chitosan concentration during storage on the growth of chitosan nanoparticle produced by ionic gelation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handani, Wenny Rinda; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Tawfiequrrahman, Ahmad; Wiratni, Kusumastuti, Yuni

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research was to get the mechanism of nano size chitosan particle growth during storage by observing the effect of temperature and initial concentration of chitosan. The products were analyzed using PSA to have the average of particle radius. Nanochitosan solution was prepared by ionic gelation method. This method is described as an electrostatic interaction between positively charged amine with negatively charged polyanion, such as tripolyphosphate (TPP). Chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid and was stirred for 30 minutes. Tween 80 was added to avoid agglomeration. TPP was prepared by dissolving 0.336 g into distilled water. The nano size chitosan was obtained by mixing TPP and chitosan solution dropwise while stirring for 30 minutes. This step was done at 15°C and ambient temperature (about 30°C) and chitosan concentration 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. The results show that temperature during ionic gelation process (15°C and 30°C) does not affect the initial size of the nanoparticles produced as well as the growth of the nanoparticles during storage. On the other hand, initial chitosan concentration strongly affects initial size of the nanoparticles produced and the growth of the nanoparticles during storage. The concentration of chitosan at 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% gave initial size of nanoparticle chitosan of 175.3 nm, 337.9 nm, 643.3 nm respectively. On the other hand, the growth mechanism of chitosan nanoparticle depended on its radius(R). At R500 nm, it is controlled by diffusion in the liquid film around the particles.

  1. Study of Hygrothermal Processes in External Walls with Internal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biseniece Edite

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Being an important contributor to the final energy consumption, historic buildings built before 1945 have high specific heating energy consumption compared to current energy standards and norms. However, they often cannot be insulated from the outside due to their heritage and culture value. Internal insulation is an alternative. However internal insulation faces challenges related to hygrothermal behaviour leading to mold growth, freezing, deterioration and other risks. The goal of this research is to link hygrothermal simulation results with experimental results for internally insulated historic brick masonry to assess correlation between simulated and measured data as well as the most influential parameters. The study is carried out by both a mathematical simulation tool and laboratory tests of historic masonry with internal insulation with four insulation materials (mineral wool, EPS, wood fiber and granulated aerogel in a cold climate (average 4000 heating degree days. We found disparity between measured and simulated hygrothermal performance of studied constructions due to differences in material parameters and initial conditions of materials. The latter plays a more important role than material parameters. Under a steady state of conditions, the condensate tolerating system varies between 72.7 % and 80.5 % relative humidity, but in condensate limiting systems relative humidity variates between 73.3 % and 82.3 %. The temperature between the masonry wall and all insulation materials has stabilized on average at +10 °C. Mold corresponding to Mold index 3 was discovered on wood fiber mat.

  2. Study of Hygrothermal Processes in External Walls with Internal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseniece, Edite; Freimanis, Ritvars; Purvins, Reinis; Gravelsins, Armands; Pumpurs, Aivars; Blumberga, Andra

    2018-03-01

    Being an important contributor to the final energy consumption, historic buildings built before 1945 have high specific heating energy consumption compared to current energy standards and norms. However, they often cannot be insulated from the outside due to their heritage and culture value. Internal insulation is an alternative. However internal insulation faces challenges related to hygrothermal behaviour leading to mold growth, freezing, deterioration and other risks. The goal of this research is to link hygrothermal simulation results with experimental results for internally insulated historic brick masonry to assess correlation between simulated and measured data as well as the most influential parameters. The study is carried out by both a mathematical simulation tool and laboratory tests of historic masonry with internal insulation with four insulation materials (mineral wool, EPS, wood fiber and granulated aerogel) in a cold climate (average 4000 heating degree days). We found disparity between measured and simulated hygrothermal performance of studied constructions due to differences in material parameters and initial conditions of materials. The latter plays a more important role than material parameters. Under a steady state of conditions, the condensate tolerating system varies between 72.7 % and 80.5 % relative humidity, but in condensate limiting systems relative humidity variates between 73.3 % and 82.3 %. The temperature between the masonry wall and all insulation materials has stabilized on average at +10 °C. Mold corresponding to Mold index 3 was discovered on wood fiber mat.

  3. Effects of gelation temperature on Mozzarella-type curd made from buffalo and cows' milk. 1: rheology and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imtiaz; Grandison, Alistair S; Bell, Alan E

    2012-10-01

    The rheology and microstructure of Mozzarella-type curds made from buffalo and cows' milk were measured at gelation temperatures of 28, 34 and 39 °C after chymosin addition. The maximum curd strength (G') was obtained at a gelation temperature of 34 °C in both types of bovine milk. The viscoelasticity (tan δ) of both curds was increased with increasing gelation temperature. The rennet coagulation time was reduced with increase of gelation temperature in both types of milk. Frequency sweep data (0.1-10 Hz was recorded 90 min after chymosin addition, and both milk samples showed characteristics of weak viscoelastic gel systems. When both milk samples were subjected to shear stress to break the curd system at constant shear rate, 95 min after chymosin addition, the maximum yield stress was obtained at the gelation temperatures of 34 °C and 28 °C in buffalo and cows' curd respectively. The cryo-SEM and CLSM techniques were used to observe the microstructure of Mozzarella-type curd. The porosity was measured using image J software. The cryo-SEM and CLSM micrographs showed that minimum porosity was observed at the gelation temperature of 34 °C in both types of milk. Buffalo curd showed minimum porosity at similar gelation temperature when compared to cows' curd. This may be due to higher protein concentration in buffalo milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption processes in a fluidised bed with internal circulation; Adsorptionsprozesse in intern zirkulierender Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhold, A. [Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Brennstofftechnik und Umwelttechnik, Wien (Austria); Hofbauer, H. [Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Brennstofftechnik und Umwelttechnik, Wien (Austria)

    1995-11-01

    The present contribution describes a fluidised bed with internal circulation which works as a continuous reaction/regeneration system, in this case as an adsorption/desorption system which serves to separate gaseous pollutants or recover useful gases. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Dargestellt wird eine intern zirkulierende Wirbelschicht als kontinuierliches Reaktions/Regenerations-System, hier als Adsorptions/Desorptions-System, zur Abtrennung bzw. Rueckgewinnung eines gasfoermigen Schad- oder Wertstoffes. (orig./SR)

  5. The international consensus process on psychopharmacology and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, S; Aman, M G

    1997-12-01

    The present authors invited 115 scientists, practitioners and consumers from 11 nations to form an international consensus panel on best practices and clinical effects regarding psychoactive medicines and intellectual disability. Co-sponsors included the American Association on Mental Retardation, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Association on Dual Diagnosis and The Arc of the United States. The panel developed 21 reports that were revised to reflect comments from 351 participants at a 1995 Ohio State University conference in Columbus, OH, USA. The reports will be published as chapters in a forthcoming book entitled Psychotropic Medication and Developmental Disabilities: The International Consensus Handbook. The need for research and training programmes is discussed.

  6. Global Processes and Institutions: Experience of International Research and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Morozov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main content and analyzes the problematic areas outlined in the publication of the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC “GLOBALIZATION 2.0. New Approaches to Research and Teaching” [2]. In the focus is conceptual diversity of interpretation of various aspects of globalization, which are considered in the original curricula and courses of Russian and Italian universities. The RIAC’s work aims to promote Russian universities in the international scientific and educational space as an instrument of “soft power”. L.S. Pankratova carried out a professional translation of the book’s materials in the framework of sociopolitical discourse in Russian, as well as the text of the review of the original language of the book. S.I. Morozov conducted a meaningful analysis of the publication, the scientific concept of the review was justified.

  7. The 4th international colloquium on process simulation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    The papers collected in this volume were presented at the 4th Colloquium on Process Simulation held at Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, June 11-13, 1997. In the more developed industrial nations, the processes for producing chemicals, energy, and materials encounter environmental concern and laws which challenge engineers to develop the processes towards more efficient, economical and safe operation. This necessitates more thorough understanding of the processes and phenomena involved. Formerly, the development of the processes was largely based on trial and error, whereas today, the development of computer performance together with the diversification of modelling software enables simulation of the processes. The increased capacity and possibilities for modelling the processes brought by the improved hardware and software, have generated a strong demand for more accurate mathematical descriptions of the processes. Especially, the coupling of computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics, combustion, and thermodynamics is of current interest in process oriented technology. This colloquium attempts to give examples of modelling efforts in operation in different universities, research institutes and companies. Furthermore, the aim of this colloquium is to offer an annual opportunity to the researchers to come together and discuss their common problems and the state of their investigations

  8. The Internationalization Process of International New Ventures: The Case of Skype

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cheuk-Hay

    2007-01-01

    Past literature has emphasized on large, long-established multinational enterprises (MNEs) in international business. However, the emerging phenomenon of international new ventures has attracted much attention due to their distinctive internationalization processes. Skype Technologies S.A. is one of these international new ventures with comparable characteristics, albeit it has shown differences compared with the typical international new ventures. This research aims to compare and contrast t...

  9. External and internal limitations in amplitude-modulation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments are presented to explore the relative role of "external" signal variability and "internal" resolution limitations of the auditory system in the detection and discrimination of amplitude modulations (AM). In the first experiment, AM-depth discrimination performance was determined......-term average envelope power spectrum was held constant. The experiment examined the validity of a long-term average quantity as the decision variable, and the role of memory in experiments with frozen-noise maskers. The empirical results were compared to predictions obtained with two modulation...

  10. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  11. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  12. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... hearing is May 14-22, 2010 in Dallas, Texas at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Completion of this cycle results... for Residential Construction in High Wind Areas. ICC 700: National Green Building Standard. The... recently completed the drafting phase in the development of the International Green Construction Code which...

  13. The Role of International Juridical Process in International Security and Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Court of Jerusalem in 1961, and the case of Klaus Barbie in France. Until today the application of international rules of war remains generally...227 By June 27, 2002 China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Iraq, and Turkey have failed to sign up to the 1998 Rome Treaty. The U.S., Egypt, Iran

  14. Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

  15. Factors influencing chymosin-induced gelation of milk from individual dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, F.; Glantz, M; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Optimisation of cheese yield is crucial for cheese production; a previous study showed large variations in chymosin-induced coagulation in milk from the second most common Swedish dairy breed, Swedish Red. In the present study, the effect of gross composition, protein composition, total and ionic...... the variation of gelation properties in this sample set. Non-coagulating milk was suggested to have lower ionic and total calcium content as well as lower relative concentrations of β-lactoglobulin than coagulating milk. The lower total calcium content in non-coagulating milk poses a problem as the difference...... calcium content, phosphorous content and casein micelle size on chymosin-induced gelation was determined in milk from 98 Swedish Red cows. The study showed that protein content and total calcium content, ionic calcium concentration and casein micelle size were the most important factors explaining...

  16. Enhanced gelation of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate thermosensitive hydrogel with sodium bicarbonate and biocompatibility evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aipeng; Kang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yang; Yang, Shulin

    2017-09-01

    The application of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP) thermosensitive hydrogel has been limited by the relatively slow gelation, weak mechanical resistance and poor cytocompatibility. In this study, sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 ) was applied with β-GP as gel agents to produce high-strength hydrogel. The hydrogels prepared with high NaHCO 3 concentration or more gel agents showed shorter gelation time, better thermostability, drastically enhanced resistance in compression. Meanwhile, the hydrogels presented obvious porous structures and excellent biocompatibility to HUVEC and NIH 3T3 cultured in vitro with higher NaHCO 3 concentration and moderate concentration of β-GP. Overall, appropriate concentration of β-GP combined with NaHCO 3 can be a good gel regent to improve properties of chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptide Drug Release Behavior from Biodegradable Temperature-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels Exhibiting Irreversible Gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Takata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the release behavior of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from a biodegradable injectable polymer (IP hydrogel. This hydrogel shows temperature-responsive irreversible gelation due to the covalent bond formation through a thiol-ene reaction. In vitro sustained release of GLP-1 from an irreversible IP formulation (F(P1/D+PA40 was observed compared with a reversible (physical gelation IP formulation (F(P1. Moreover, pharmaceutically active levels of GLP-1 were maintained in blood after subcutaneous injection of the irreversible IP formulation into rats. This system should be useful for the minimally invasive sustained drug release of peptide drugs and other water-soluble bioactive reagents.

  18. Understanding national and international safeguards: an evolutionary process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Domestic and international safeguards have been evolving and will continue to evolve. in the case of the United States, the concern was to protect the classified materials, at first. Then attention focussed on material accounting, then on measures to promptly detect theft by individuals with access, and later on physical protection to ward-off armed terrorists. The objective of the IAEA has always been to provide assurance that nuclear materials are not being diverted from the peaceful facilities that are under safeguards. The evolution has taken place in deciding how to provide this assurance, and in the definition of specific safeguards goals. In both cases the technology needed to meet the goals has improved due to R and D and to experience. A plea is made for more cooperation betwen those who develop and manage the policies, those who develop safeguards techniques, and those who are subject to national and IAEA safeguards. Some illustrations of the evolution of policies, inadequate coordination and general progress are given

  19. Gelation of edible blue-green algae protein isolate (Spirulina platensis Strain Pacifica): thermal transitions, rheological properties, and molecular forces involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronakis, I S

    2001-02-01

    Proteins isolated from blue-green algae Spirulina platensis strain Pacifica were characterized by visible absorption, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), viscometry, and dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements. Unique thermal unfolding, denaturation, aggregation, and gelation of the algal protein isolate are presented. DSC analysis showed that thermal transitions occur at about 67 and 109 degrees C at neutral pH. Calcium chloride stabilized the quaternary structure against denaturation and shifted the transitions at higher temperatures. Viscometric studies of Spirulina protein isolate as a function of temperature showed that the onset of the viscosity increase is closely related to the dissociation-denaturation process. Lower viscosities were observed for the protein solutions dissolved at pH 9 due to an increased protein solubility. Solutions of Spirulina protein isolate form elastic gels during heating to 90 degrees C. Subsequent cooling at ambient temperatures caused a further pronounced increase in the elastic moduli and network elasticity. Spirulina protein isolate has good gelling properties with fairly low minimum critical gelling concentrations of about 1.5 and 2.5 wt % in 0.1 M Tris buffer, pH 7, and with 0.02 M CaCl(2) in the same buffer, respectively. It is suggested that mainly the interactions of exposed hydrophobic regions generate the molecular association, initial aggregation, and gelation of the protein isolate during the thermal treatment. Hydrogen bonds reinforce the network rigidity of the protein on cooling and further stabilize the structure of Spirulina protein gels but alone are not sufficient to form a network structure. Intermolecular sulfhydryl and disulfide bonds were found to play a minor role for the network strength of Spirulina protein gels but affect the elasticity of the structures formed. Both time and temperature at isothermal heat-induced gelation within 40-80 degrees C affect substantially the network formation and

  20. International seminar on safeguards information reporting and processing. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Review of the safeguards of information technology, its current developments and status of safeguards in Member States are described concerning especially the role of domestic safeguards in cooperation with IAEA Safeguards. A Number of reports is dealing with declarations provided to the IAEA pursuant to Protocols Additional to Safeguard agreements. The Information Section of the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology Division is responsible for the data entry, loading and quality control od State supplied declarations. A software system is used to process information which should be readily accessible and usable in implementation of the strengthened safeguards system. Experiences in combating illegal trafficking of nuclear materials in a number of countries are included

  1. Factors influencing the gelation and rennetability of camel milk using camel chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, concentration of camel chymosin and addition of CaCl2 on the hydrolysis of κ-casein (κ-CN) and the coagulation kinetics of camel milk were investigated. The rate of κ-CN hydrolysis was higher at 40 °C than at 30 °C and with increasing addition of chymosin...... and decreasing pH. For all samples gelation was initiated at levels of camel milk κ-CN hydrolysis >95%. The gelation time (Tg) of camel milk was significantly reduced (from 717 to 526 s) at 30 °C when the concentration of chymosin was increased, but was independent of chymosin concentration at 40 °C. Reducing p......H also reduced Tg. The gel firmness increased at 40 °C (58 Pa) compared with 30 °C (44 Pa) and effect of CaCl2 addition on the gelation properties of camel milk was found to be dependent on pH; a significant improvement was only found at pH 6.3....

  2. The Gelation Ability and Morphology Study of Organogel System Based on Calamitic Hydrazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gelation property of a series of LMOG bearing hydrazide and azobenzene groups, namely, N-4-(alkoxyphenyl-N′-4-[(4-methoxyphenylazophenyl] benzohydrazide (BNBC-n, n=8,12,14, has been systematically studied in this work. The obtained results demonstrate that the gelling ability in organic solvents is significantly influenced by the length of terminal alkoxy chain. In different organic solvents, it is hard to observe the organogel formation for BNBC-8 molecule. On the contrary, the organogelators BNBC-12 and BNBC-14 bearing longer terminal chains have shown great ability to gel organic solvents to form stable organogels. The critical gelation concentration for BNBC-12 reaches as low as 5.3 × 10−3 M, which can be considered as a supergelator. It has been manifested that the aggregation morphology of organogel strongly depends on the nature of the gelling solvents and the length of the terminal alkoxy chain. The gelation of BNBC-n provides an easy method for the preparation of multidimensional structure and manipulation of morphology from ribbons, hollow tube fiber to 3D net-like structure in different solvents. The cooperation of hydrogen bonding, π-π interaction, and Van der Waals force is suggested to be the main contribution to this self-assembled structure.

  3. AN INVESTIGATION INTO FACTORS INFLUENCING INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Wahyuni

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research indicates that strategic alliances, like other organizational forms, emerge as an adaptive mechanism to market uncertainty, and their developments over time reflect the co-evolution of distinctive firm capabilities and of industry and market activities. Interestingly, most strategic alliances go through similar revolutionary cycles in terms of their motives and capabilities toward the cooperative relationship. Studies in this areas how that alliance failure is an outcome of the co-evolutionary adjustment to changes in the market, the competitive dynamics between partners, and assessment of efficiency of the alliance as an alternative governance structure. It is thus critical to adopt a dynamics perspective and historical observations of cooperative process. This paper attempts to distil, derive and integrate theories across different perspectives into a unified framework that offers a better understanding of alliance process development. Our analysis shows that we can divide strategic alliance development into three phases of development: formation, operation and evaluation. We further endeavor to seek the important factors that should be taken into account in each stage of their life.

  4. Process and outcome for international reliability in sleep scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhe; Dong, Xiaosong; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Li, Jing; Zhao, Long; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Penzel, Thomas; Han, Fang

    2015-03-01

    agreement for a specific sleep disorder. Intensive training is needed for the scoring of sleep in international multiple center studies to improve the scoring agreement.

  5. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  6. THE MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Alexandra Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    The model is a useful tool for improving the internal communication process of a project and help the project raise its efficiency. It has been created based on the characteristics of the information flow within a project. Also the Internal Communication Analysis Model – ICAM – helps improve the projects‘ deliverables by making sure that everyone in the project understood their roles correctly.

  7. Toward a Transnational Framework: Aligning Internal and External Quality Assurance Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the tensions between internal and external quality assurance processes, making a case for the preeminence of internal actions to ensure the capacity of institutions to respond quickly and effectively to the rapidly evolving global conditions affecting all of higher education. As the forms and means of formal and informal…

  8. SPATIALLY SELECTED SPECKLE-CORRELOMETRY OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT GELATION KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Isaeva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of speckle correlometry method with the spatial ring filtration of back scattered field with the usage of localized radiation source for the study of dynamic thermally activated processes in gel-like structures containing submicron particles and nanoparticles. Speckle-modulated images contain information about the processes taking place inside the investigated medium; therefore, they are effectively used in biomedicine and materials science. The transformation process from lysol to gel was considered in media based on technical gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.28% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.1% and 0.01% and media based on food gelatin dissolved in water with weight fraction equal to 0.3% containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles TiO2 (volume fraction of particles is equal to 0.01% and 0.01%. The temperature of the medium during the structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was changed from 50 to 25°C. To estimate the experimentally obtained distribution of space-time intensity fluctuations of backscattered speckle fields, the correlation analysis and the formalism of Kolmogorov structure functions were used. The estimations of activation temperatures for the “sol-gel” transition process for technical and food gelatin were obtained. This approach can be successfully applied for the study of dynamic systems, for example, the demonstration of Brownian particle movements.

  9. Succeeding in process standardization: Explaining the fit with international management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the fit between process standardization and international management strategy of multinational corporations (MNCs) by assessing the compatibility between process standardization and corporate structural characteristics in terms of asset configuration...... and headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Design/methodology/approach: First, after a literature review on MNCs’ strategy and process standardization, the study suggests two propositions on the fit between corporate international management strategy and process standardization. Second, to empirically examine....../value: The study provides in-depth understanding of how the international management strategy and consequent structural characteristics of MNCs affects process standardization in the course of a global enterprise resource planning implementation. The study proposes conditions of fit for aligning process...

  10. An Internal Gelation Method for Forming Multilayer Microspheres and Product Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-26

    CoCl2 6H20 40 mg 22 Na?M04 2H20 50 mg 50 mg to 1000 ml cuci 2 FeCl2 6H20 dH20 24 25 26 27 Solution D: (500 x concentrate) 28...2 viability. 3 The influence of metabolic parameters such as the growth phase 1 of the bacteria and their nutritional state prior to encapsulation

  11. A novel method for the production of core-shell microparticles by inverse gelation optimized with artificial intelligent tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorado, Rosalia; Landín, Mariana; Altai, Ayça; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2018-03-01

    Numerous studies have been focused on hydrophobic compounds encapsulation as oils. In fact, oils can provide numerous health benefits as synergic ingredient combined with other hydrophobic active ingredients. However, stable microparticles for pharmaceutical purposes are difficult to achieve when commonly techniques are used. In this work, sunflower oil was encapsulated in calcium-alginate capsules by prilling technique in co-axial configuration. Core-shell beads were produced by inverse gelation directly at the nozzle using a w/o emulsion containing aqueous calcium chloride solution in sunflower oil pumped through the inner nozzle while an aqueous alginate solution, coming out from the annular nozzle, produced the beads shell. To optimize process parameters artificial intelligence tools were proposed to optimize the numerous prilling process variables. Homogeneous and spherical microcapsules with narrow size distribution and a thin alginate shell were obtained when the parameters as w/o constituents, polymer concentrations, flow rates and frequency of vibration were optimized by two commercial software, FormRules® and INForm®, which implement neurofuzzy logic and Artificial Neural Networks together with genetic algorithms, respectively. This technique constitutes an innovative approach for hydrophobic compounds microencapsulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of polyacrylamide gels with accelerator ammonium salts for water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs: Gelation performance and application recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs has received great attention in recent years. In previous study, we reported a phenol-formaldehyde-based gel formula with ammonium salt which can provide a gelation time between 2 hrs and 2 days at 25 °C. However, systematic evaluation and field recommendations of this gel formula when encountering complex reservoirs environment are not addressed. In this paper, how and why such practical considerations as water composition, temperature, pH, weight ratio of formaldehyde to resorcinol and contaminant Fe3+ to affect the gelation performance are examined. Brookfield DV-III and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed respectively for viscosity measurement and microstructure analysis. SEM results further illustrate the mechanism of the effect of salinity on gelation performance. It reveals that crosslinking done by covalent bond has great advantage for gel stability under high salinity environment. The target gel formula can provide desirable gelation time below 60 °C, perfect for 15–45 °C, while it is unfeasible to use high salinity to delay gelation at 60 °C. We summarized the effect of salinity on gelation performance of different gel formulas from the present study and published literature. The summarized data can provide important guideline for gel formula design before conducting any kinds of experiments. The variation of gelation performance at different salinity may be dominated by the interaction between crosslinker-salt-polymer, not only limited to “charge-screening effect” and “ion association” proposed by several authors. We hope the analysis encouraging further investigations. Some recommendations for field application of this gel are given in the end of this paper.

  13. 3rd International Conference on Modelling and Management of Engineering Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, Kilian; Szélig, Nikoletta; Vajna, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Innovative processes for the development of products and services are more and more considered as an organisational capability, which is recognised to be increasingly important for business success in today’s competitive environment. However, management and academia need a more profound understanding of these processes in order to develop improved management approaches to exploit business potentials. This book contains the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Modelling and Management of Engineering Processes (MMEP2013) held in Magdeburg, Germany, in November 2013. It includes contributions from international leading researchers in the fields of process modelling and process management. The conference topics were recent trends in modelling and management of engineering processes, potential synergies between different modelling approaches, future challenges for the management of engineering processes as well as future research in these areas.

  14. Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing…

  15. 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Mu, Jiasong; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming; Zhao, Chenglin

    2012-01-01

    Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems is a collection of contributions coming out of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held October 2012. This book provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, and their interactions in multidisciplinary fields, such as Smart Grid. The book also examines Radar Systems, Sensor Networks, Radar Signal Processing, Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems and Applications. Written by experts and students in the fields of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems.

  16. A new class of organogelators based on triphenylmethyl derivatives of primary alcohols: hydrophobic interactions alone can mediate gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangkhem P. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have explored the use of the triphenylmethyl group, a commonly used protecting group for primary alcohols as a gelling structural component in the design of molecular gelators. We synthesized a small library of triphenylmethyl derivatives of simple primary alcohols and studied their gelation properties in different solvents. Gelation efficiency for some of the derivatives was moderate to excellent with a minimum gelation concentration ranging between 0.5–4.0% w/v and a gel–sol transition temperature range of 31–75 °C. 1,8-Bis(trityloxyoctane, the ditrityl derivative of 1,8-octanediol was the most efficient organogelator. Detailed characterizations of the gel were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, rheology and powder XRD techniques. This gel also showed a good absorption profile for a water soluble dye. Given the non-polar nature of this molecule, gel formation is likely to be mediated by hydrophobic interactions between the triphenylmethyl moieties and alkyl chains. Possible self-assembled packing arrangements in the gel state for 1,8-bis(trityloxyoctane and (hexadecyloxymethanetriyltribenzene are presented. Results from this study strongly indicate that triphenylmethyl group is a promising gelling structural unit which may be further exploited in the design of small molecule based gelators.

  17. The learning processes of international students through the eyes of foreign supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemantsverdriet, S; van der Vleuten, C P M; Majoor, G D; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2006-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with external supervisors of international electives undertaken by Dutch undergraduate students, in order to gain insight into student learning processes during these electives. The interviews served to triangulate information on these learning processes that was obtained from students' self-reports. The results of the case study reported in this paper were largely consistent with findings from prior studies of international electives in which learning processes and sociocultural differences were examined: experiential learning processes appeared to dominate and sociocultural differences occasionally seemed to blur productive learning, especially when the differences between the national cultures of host country and student home country were substantial. It is recommended that students' experiential learning from international electives should be supplemented with 'guided' and 'self-directed' learning with a focus on the sociocultural dimension.

  18. Effect of protease inhibitors on thermal gelation of squid (Illex argentinus. mantle paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elida Paredi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the thermal gelation of squid mantle paste and the effect of protease inhibitors on them were investigated. Pastes in the absence and presence the protease inhibitors, ethylendiaminetetracetic acid (EDTA and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, were formulated. Pastes were made by the respective one or two step thermal treatments: direct heating at 85°C for 20 min and preincubation at 27 or 40 °C for 3 or 2 hours, followed by heating at 85 °C for 20 min. The gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC and whiteness of gelled pastes were analyzed. The tricloroacetic acid (TCA soluble peptides in homogenate of the muscle were determined. Gel strength decreased when heating was made in two steps. EDTA and PMSF were effective in avoiding that decrease when pre-incubation was made at 40 °C. Maximum gel strength was observed for the gels in presence of EDTA, giving values of 255 and 219 g x cm for the samples made by direct heating and pre-incubated at 40 °C  respectively. TCA soluble peptides increased between 20 and 60 °C, with maximum values reached at 30 and 60 °C. No significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in gel whiteness, neither with the thermal treatment nor with the inhibitors. The WHC was higher (p<0.05 in the gelated paste formulated with EDTA. These results show a good gelation capacity of I argentinus pastes and improvements with protease inhibitors. 

  19. Hydromechanics calculation for micro sphere UO2 fuel produced by sol-gelation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xin; Liang Tongxiang; Guo Wenli; Zhao Xingyu; Hao Shaochang

    2009-01-01

    Relation between the jet steam velocity in nozzle and height of glue solution level and relation between the jet steam velocity in nozzle and the pressure of glue solution level in pressure kettle are established with Bernoulli equation. The result calculated from this relations shows that the flow of gelation solution is of laminar, the effect of the height of solution level on the the jet steam velocity in nozzle is little and the maximum error for diameter of micro global UO 2 , resulting from the height of solution level, is far more less than the control error. (authors)

  20. Integrated Channel Selector for Directing Fluid Flow Using Thermoreversible Gelation Controlled by a Digital Mirror Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Shirasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated channel selector system employing thermoreversible gelation of a polymer was developed. Here, we show a system with 3×3 arrayed microchannels having nine crossing points. Infrared laser irradiation was used to form gel areas at several crossing points in arranging a flow path from the inlet to one of the nine outlets passing through certain junctions and channels. The multipoint irradiation by the infrared laser was realized using a personal-computer-controlled digital mirror device. The system was demonstrated to be able to direct flow to all nine outlets. Finally, we achieved to produce flexible paths for flowing particles including side trips.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of sugar based low molecular weight gelators and the preparation of chiral sulfinamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunuru, Hari Prasad Reddy

    Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have received considerable attention in the field of chemistry from last few decades. These compounds form self-assembled fibrous networks like micelles, cylindrical, sheets, fibers, layers and so on. The fibrous network entraps the solvent and forms gel, because of the self-assembly phenomenon and their demonstrated potential uses in a variety of areas, ranging from environmental to medicinal applications. Sugars are good starting materials to synthesize the new class of LMWG's, because these are different from some expensive materials, these are natural products. We have synthesized and characterized the LMGS's based on D-glucose and D-glucosamine. D-glucosamine is the versatile starting material to make different peptoids and triazoles. Several series of compounds were synthesized using compounds 1-3 as starting material and studied the gelation behavior all the compounds. We have studied the self-assembling properties of a new class of tripeptoids, synthesized by one-pot Ugi reaction from simple starting materials. Among the focused library of tripeptoids synthesized, we found that several efficient low molecular weight organogelators were obtained for aqueous DMSO and ethanol mixtures. We have also synthesized and characterized a series of monosaccharide triazole derivatives. These compounds were synthesized from N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucose via a Cu(I) catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAc). The compounds have been screened for their gelation properties and several efficient low molecular weight organo/hydro gelators were obtained, among these compounds, five per-acetyl glucosamine derivatives and one peracetyl glucose derivative were able to form gels in water. These new molecules are expected to be useful in drug delivery and tissue engineering.*. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines is a challenging in synthetic organic chemistry. The development of new catalysts for asymmetric organic

  2. Rheological and gelation properties of rice starch modified with 4-alpha-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ro; Park, Kwan Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2008-04-01

    Rheological measurements were performed to characterize rice starch modified with 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (4alphaGTase) isolated from Thermus scotoductus, in terms of effects of the enzyme and starch concentration on flow behavior, gel strength, and melting and gelling kinetics of the modified rice starch. Consistency index decreased and flow behavior index increased with the level of enzyme treatment, and at high level of enzyme treatment, it demonstrated Bingham plastic behavior. As the level of enzyme decreased and the starch concentration increased, gelation time decreased and the final gel strength increased significantly. Regardless of treatment variables, all the modified starch gels melted at similar temperature.

  3. Influence of Molecular Structure on the Gelation Behaviour of Fmoc-Dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dave J.; Butler, Michael F.; Kirkland, Mark; Mullen, Leanne; Frith, William J.

    2008-07-01

    We show that the gel strength of the hydrogels formed from a range of Fmoc-dipeptides is determined by the constituent amino acids, with the final gel strength being linked to the overall hydrophobicity of the Fmoc-dipeptide. Gelation is triggered using glucono-δ-lactone, which controllably lowers the pH, allowing the gel properties to be followed with time. This can be observed both in terms of the development of the gel strength with time using rheology and of the microstructure of the networks as observed by cryo-SEM.

  4. Processing of Internal and External Signals for Performance Monitoring in the Context of Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Valt, Christian; Palazova, Marina; Stürmer, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Performance monitoring can be based on internal or external signals. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether relating performance to external signals affects internal performance monitoring. Thirty participants performed a task in which responses were followed by faces whose expressions were partially contingent upon performance. Instructions given to half of the participants mentioned a link between task performance and the upcoming face expression. Instructed participants showed smaller error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) to erroneous responses and larger N170 to faces as compared to participants in the not-instructed group. In addition, we observed a correlation between ΔNe/ERN and P1-latency benefit for angry faces after errors. Taken together, processing of internally generated signals for performance monitoring is reduced by instructions referring to an emotional face. Furthermore, we relate the correlation between the magnitude of internal monitoring and facilitation in processing angry faces to priming induced by the negative affective meaning of errors.

  5. Enzyme-induced gelation of extensively hydrolyzed whey proteins by alcalase: comparison with the plastein reaction and characterization of interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Dany; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Otter, Don E; Foegeding, E Allen

    2003-09-24

    Extensive hydrolysis of whey protein isolate by Alcalase 2.4L produces a gel. The objectives of this study were to compare enzyme-induced gelation with the plastein reaction by determining the types of interactions involved in gelation. The average chain length of the peptides did not increase during hydrolysis and reached a plateau after 30 min to be approximately 4 residues, suggesting that the gel was formed by small molecular weight peptides held together by non-covalent interactions. The enzyme-induced gel network was stable over a wide range of pH and ionic strength and, therefore, showed some similarities with the plastein reaction. Disulfide bonds were not involved in the gel network. The gelation seems to be caused by physical aggregation, mainly via hydrophobic interactions with hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions playing a minor role.

  6. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Norman A; Vidaillet, Humberto J

    2010-01-25

    Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society.

  7. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NO x emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  8. Internationally Standardized Reporting (Checklist) on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Internationally Standardized Reporting Checklist on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites: • A mutual and beneficial work between a core group of uranium miners and nuclear utilities; • An approach based on an long term experience, international policies and sustainable development principles; • A process to optimize the reporting mechanism, tools and efforts; • 11 sections focused on the main sustainable development subject matters known at an operational and headquarter level. The WNA will make available the sustainable development checklist for member utilities and uranium suppliers. Utilities and suppliers are encouraged to use the checklist for sustainable development verification.

  9. Influence of gamma-irradiation on thermally-induced mesoscopic gelation of degalactosylated xyloglucans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, S.; Sabatino, M.A.; Walo, M.; Mangione, M.R.; Bulone, D.; Dispenza, C.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoresponsive degalactosylated xyloglucans have been already proposed as in situ gelling scaffolds for tissue engineering, due to their reversible macroscopic thermal gelation at body temperature and biodegradability. The highly branched, hydroxyl group-rich molecular structure renders xyloglucans interesting raw materials also in the form of micro/nanoparticles for application as nanoscalar drug delivery devices in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations. Owing to their natural source, xyloglucans show high average molecular weight, broad molecular weight distribution and poor water solubility, as large and compact aggregates usually form via inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. 60 Co γ-irradiation has been here applied to reduce the molecular weight. The aqueous solutions of irradiated xyloglucan were characterized by dynamic light scattering measurements and gel filtration chromatography. The aggregation kinetics at 37 °C were studied by dynamic light scattering measurements to confirm the temperature-responsive behavior of this polymer even when dispersed in water at low concentration after γ-irradiation. Irradiation dose–molecular properties relationship has been sought. - Highlights: • Influence of γ-irradiation on a partially degalactosylated xyloglucan is investigated. • Molecular weight reduction is observed in the investigated dose range. • Modification of the temperature-induced mesoscopic gelation kinetics is evidenced

  10. Stress Enhanced Gelation in α-Actinin-4 Cross-linked Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Norman; Broedersz, Chase; Depken, Martin; Becker, Daniel; Pollak, Martin; Mackintosh, Frederick; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    A hallmark of biopolymer networks is their exquisite sensitivity to stress, demonstrated for example, by pronounced nonlinear elastic stiffening. Typically, they also yield under increased static load, providing a mechanism to achieve fluid-like behavior. In this talk, I will demonstrate an unexpected dynamical behavior in biopolymer networks consisting of F-actin cross-linked by a physiological actin binding protein, α-Actinin-4. Applied stress actually enhances gelation of these networks by delaying the onset of structural relaxation and network flow, thereby extending the regime of solid-like behavior to much lower frequencies. By using human kidney disease-associated mutant cross-linkers with varying binding affinities, we propose a molecular origin for this stress-enhanced gelation: It arises from the increased binding affinity of the cross-linker under load, characteristic of catch-bond-like behavior. This property may have important biological implications for intracellular mechanics, representing as it does a qualitatively new class of material behavior.

  11. Simple Organic Salts Having a Naphthalenediimide (NDI) Core Display Multifunctional Properties: Gelation, Anticancer and Semiconducting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rumana; Maity, Nabasmita; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2018-01-18

    Following a supramolecular synthon rationale, a dicarboxylic acid derivative having a naphthalenediimide (NDI) core, namely, bis-N-carboxymethyl naphthalenediimide (NDI-G), was reacted with n-alkyl amines with varying alkyl chain lengths to generate a new series of primary ammonium dicarboxylate (PAD) salts. The majority of the salts (≈85 %) were found to gel various polar solvents. The gels were characterized by dynamic rheology and high-resolution electron microscopy. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses were used to study the supramolecular synthon present in one of the gelator salts (i.e., S8). Charge-transfer (CT)-induced gelation with donor molecules such as anthracene methanol (Ant) and pyrene (Py) was also possible with S8. The CT complex (S8.Ant) displayed anticancer activity as probed by cell migration assay on the highly aggresive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The DMSO gel of S8.Ant also displayed semiconducting behavior. To the best of our knowledge, simple organic salts with an NDI core that display such mulitifunctional properties are hitherto unknown. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A rational approach towards the design of chitosan-based nanoparticles obtained by ionotropic gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Brueggeney, H; Zorzi, G K; Fecker, T; El Gueddari, N E; Moerschbacher, B M; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan is a linear aminopolysaccharide that has been widely used for the formation of chitosan-based nanoparticles by ionic gelation with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Often, the experimental design used to obtain these systems does not take into consideration important variables, such as the degree of acetylation (DA) and the molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan. In this work, we studied the formation of chitosan-TPP nanoparticles with chitosan samples of varying DA and Mw (DA0 ∼ 0-47% and Mw ∼ 2.5-282 kDa). We addressed the influence the degree of space occupancy and the degree of crosslinking on the physical properties of chitosan-TPP nanoparticles. Nanoparticles that comprised chitosan of DA ∼ 0-21.7% behaved differently than those made of chitosan of DA ∼ 34.7-47%. We attributed these differences to the polymer conformation and chain flexibility of the distinct chitosans in solution. Moreover, chitosan of high Mw were found to have a stronger preference for incorporating into the formed nanoparticles than do low-Mw ones, as determined by SEC-HPLC. These results open new perspectives to understand the formation of chitosan nanoparticles by the ionic gelation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination of high-performance refractometry and infrared spectroscopy as a probe for chemically induced gelation and vitrification of epoxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Philipp, M; Gervais, P-C; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A avenue de la faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Possart, W; Wehlack, C [Fachbereich Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Kieffer, J, E-mail: ulrich.mueller@uni.l [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A combination of infrared spectroscopy and high-performance refractometry was used to investigate the chemically induced sol-gel and glass transition during the polymerization of epoxies. Representations of the refractive index versus chemical conversion reveal an interesting insight into the optical properties accompanying gelation and vitrification. Whereas the electronic polarizability of the liquid state of small average molecular mass and the glassy state is dominated by the mass density, an unexpected excess polarizability observed during the gelation is attributed to cooperative dipole-dipole interactions.

  14. Combination of high-performance refractometry and infrared spectroscopy as a probe for chemically induced gelation and vitrification of epoxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U; Philipp, M; Gervais, P-C; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K; Possart, W; Wehlack, C; Kieffer, J

    2010-01-01

    A combination of infrared spectroscopy and high-performance refractometry was used to investigate the chemically induced sol-gel and glass transition during the polymerization of epoxies. Representations of the refractive index versus chemical conversion reveal an interesting insight into the optical properties accompanying gelation and vitrification. Whereas the electronic polarizability of the liquid state of small average molecular mass and the glassy state is dominated by the mass density, an unexpected excess polarizability observed during the gelation is attributed to cooperative dipole-dipole interactions.

  15. Transient internal characteristic study of a centrifugal pump during startup process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, F F; Ma, X D; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2012-01-01

    The transient process of a centrifugal pump existed in a variety of occasions. There were a lot of researches in the external characteristic in startup process and stopping process, but internal characteristics were less observed and studied. Study of the internal flow field had significant meanings. The performance of a pump could be evaluated and improved by revealing the flow field. In the other hand, the prediction of external characteristic was based on the correct analysis of the internal flow. In this paper, theoretical method and numerical simulation were used to study the internal characteristic of a centrifugal pump. The theoretical study showed that the relative flow in an impeller was composed of homogeneous flow and axial vortex flow. The vortex intensity was mainly determined by angular velocity of impeller, flow channel width and blade curvature. In order to get the internal flow field and observe the evolution of transient internal flow in the impeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) were used to study the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible viscous flows in a centrifugal pump during starting period. The Dynamic Mesh (DM) method with non-conformal grid boundaries was applied to get the external characteristic and internal flow field. The simulate model included three pumps with different blade numbers and the same blade curvature. The relative velocity vector showed that there was a big axial vortex in impeller channel. At the beginning, the vortex was raised in the pressure side of the impeller outlet and with time went on, it shifted to the middle flow channel of the impeller and the vortex intensity increased. When the speed and flow rate reached a definite value, the influence of the axial vortex began to get smaller. The vortex developed faster when the flow channel got narrower. Due to the evolution of axial vortex, the slip factor during starting period was smaller than that in quasi-steady condition. As a result, transient head was

  16. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  17. Effect of uranyl nitrate and free acid concentration in feed solution of gelation on UO2 kernel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Wardaya; Widarmoko, A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of uranium and free nitric acid concentration of uranyl nitrate as feed of gelation process on quality of UO 2 kernel was done.The investigation is to look for some concentration of uranyl nitrate solutions those are optimum as feed for preparation of gelled UO 3 . Uranyl nitrate solution of various concentration of uranium (450; 500; 550; 600; 650; 700 g/l) and free nitric acid of (0.9; 1.0; 1.1 N) was made into feed solutions by adding urea and HMTA with mole ratio of urea/uranium and HMTA/uranium 2.1 and 2.0. The feed solutions were changed into spherical gelled UO 3 by dropping was done to get the optimum concentrations of uranyl nitrate solutions. The gelled UO 3 was soaked and washed with 2.5% ammonia solution for 17 hours, dried at 70 o C, calcined at 350 o C for 3 hours then reduced at 850 o C for 3 hours. At every step of the steps process the colour and percentage of well product of gelled UO 3 were noticed. The density and O/U ratio of end product (UO 2 kernel) was determined, the percentage of well product of all steps process was also determined. The three factor were used to chose the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate solution. From this investigation it was concluded that the optimum concentration of uranyl nitrate was 600 g/l uranium with free nitric acid 0,9 - 1,0 N, the percentage of well product was 97% density of 6.12 - 4.8 g/cc and O/U ratio of 2.15 - 2.06. (author)

  18. 2nd International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Krishnan, Sri; Li, Kuan-Ching; Mosin, Sergey; Ma, Maode

    2016-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the second International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2015), December 16-19, 2015, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 175 submissions. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 59 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into biometrics, digital watermarking, recognition systems, image and video processing, signal and speech processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and knowledge-based systems. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas. .

  19. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics

  20. Analysing the Role of Framework Conditions Influencing International Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonni Angel Cuero Acosta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The objective of this paper is to determine and analyse the framework conditions that influence the entrepreneurial opportunity identification and action in the international market context. Research Design & Methods: Scholars from the International Business and International Entrepreneurship (IE research fields agree that the process of internationalisation is triggered by opportunity identification. The extant literature is reviewed by assessing the framework conditions that domestic and international markets offer for entrepreneurial actions. An analytical juxtaposition of the influential factors is conducted in the light of various stages of the opportunity identification process by examining − at each stage − possible effects of domestic and international market context. Findings:This paper brings into the IE discussion a conceptual matrix of various elements and factors − external conditions – which influence the creation of nexus by entrepreneurs to the markets. Implications & Recommendations:The conceptual matrix offers new insights for theoretical development and arguments for designing empirical research in terms of external conditions. It is expected to provoke more theoretical and practical questions from scholars within the IE field. Contribution & Value Added:The originality of this work lies in proposing a comprehensive framework to understand how context interacts with the entrepreneurial opportunity identification process.

  1. Development of international labor migration in the dynamics of globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinskaya Eteri, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current characteristics of international migration caused by the qualitative changes that occur in the global economy under influence of increasing globalization. The paper attempts to suggest periodization of the global economy development and to identify features of international labor migration occurred under the influence of deep changes in the world economy. During this period, the author identifies three stages in the formation of globalization, the transition criterion from one to other is the degree of world economy changes under the influence of the productive forces development and the major social and political transformations resulted in qualitative changes in the processes of international labor migration. At the same time in the context of globalization the place and role of international labor migration changes in the global economy system: migration becomes a means of promoting the globalization of countries and regions, the most important factor of demographic development and economic growth.

  2. International perspectives on the influence of structure and process of weaning from mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Louise; Blackwood, Bronagh; Burns, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    context and processes. Objective To compare international data to assess differences in context and processes in intensive care units that could influence weaning. Methods Review of existing national data on provision of care for critically ill patients, including structure, staffing, skill mix, education...... ventilator weaning outcomes varied considerably across countries. Further quantification of these contextual influences should be considered when translating research findings into local clinical practice and when designing randomized controlled trials....

  3. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks

    OpenAIRE

    I. Agnolin; J.-N. Roux;  

    2007-01-01

    29 pages. Published in Physical Review E; International audience; This is the first paper of a series of three, reporting on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. Frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, slower processes inducing traces of crystallization, and exhibit specific properties direct...

  4. Reducing Post-Decision Dissonance in International Decisions: The Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Frank L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes use of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a teaching tool to illustrate the complexities of decision making in an international environment. The AHP approach uses managerial input to develop pairwise comparisons of relevant decision criteria to efficiently generate an appropriate solution. (DB)

  5. Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: A study of ICES reform processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.; Olssen, P.; Österblom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years

  6. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  7. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  8. Strengthening Internal Quality Assurance Processes: Facilitating Student Evaluation Committees to Contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmeijer, Renée; Whittingham, Jill; de Grave, Willem; Dolmans, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Student evaluation committees play a crucial role in internal quality assurance processes as representatives of the student body. However, the students on these committees sometimes experience difficulty in providing constructive and structured feedback to faculty in an environment characterised by a strong power differential between student and…

  9. A Process Model for Developing Learning Design Patterns with International Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Nicole; Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Nguyen-Ngoc, Anh Vu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the process of identifying design patterns in international collaborative learning environments. In this context, design patterns are referred to as structured descriptions of best practice with pre-defined sections such as problem, solution and consequences. We pay special attention to how the scope of a design pattern is…

  10. Acid skim milk gels: The gelation process as affected by preheated pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of preheating milk (10 min 80 [degree sign]C) at pH values from 6.20 to 6.90 on formation of acid skim milk gels was studied by dynamic oscillation measurements. Up to pH 6.65 a higher pH of heating (pHheating) resulted in a higher G'. Since below pH 4.9 the development of

  11. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Internationalisation Process: The Theoretical Foundations of International Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the article is to discuss and elaborate on the basics of international entrepreneurial orientation (IEO, its fundamentals and principles. The paper reviews these three important terms by trying to link them and suggests a holistic framework. The article is of descriptive character, thus it is based on literature review and its constructive critics. The article is an attempted synthesis of the concept of international entrepreneurial orientation. It focuses on IEO as the implementation of one of the most important research theme in the theory of entrepreneurship, which is entrepreneurial orientation (EO into the studies of international entrepreneurship (IE. Findings: Firstly, international entrepreneurial process was discussed from the international entrepreneurship perspective. Secondly, the paper introduces the conceptualisation of entrepreneurial orientation from both three- and multidimensional perspectives. Thirdly, IEO is conceptualised and operationalised from the perspective of entrepreneurial internationalisation of firms. Implications & Recommendations: IEO is a multi-dimensional concept. IEO can be considered both an individual and firm-level construct. IEO enables business to identify and exploit internationalisation opportunities. IEO reflects the firms overall proactiveness and aggressiveness in its pursuit of international markets.

  12. Internalization of the therapeutic process: differences between borderline and neurotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeck, Almut; Hartmann, Armin; Orlinsky, David E

    2006-02-01

    Intersession process in psychotherapy refers to the thoughts, memories, and feelings about each other and about their therapy sessions that participants experience during the intervals between sessions. This study compared the intersession process experienced by patients who had been diagnosed with severe borderline personality disorders (BPD) with others who had not. A total of 76 patients with neurotic disturbances and 20 patients with BPD were treated in a therapeutic day clinic and completed the Intersession Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) before sessions of individual psychotherapy and the Session Questionnaire (Stundenbogen) after those sessions. Comparison of the two groups on these measures of intersession process and postsession outcome showed markedly different patterns in patients' evaluations and internalizations of in-session therapeutic experiences: most prominently, that BPD patients internalize therapy sessions with much more negative and contradictory emotions.

  13. 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Pei-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Cheh

    2017-01-01

    This volume of Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies contains accepted papers presented in IIH-MSP-2016, the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. The conference this year was technically co-sponsored by Tainan Chapter of IEEE Signal Processing Society, Fujian University of Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Applications (Fujian University of Technology), and Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School. IIH-MSP 2016 is held in 21-23, November, 2016 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The conference is an international forum for the researchers and professionals in all areas of information hiding and multimedia signal processing. .

  14. Controlled gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels with competing guest molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Hou, Shengzhen; Ma, Haili; Li, Xu; Tan, Yebang

    2016-02-01

    Gelation kinetics of hydrogels is closely linked to many applications such as the development of injectable and printable hydrogels. However, the control of gelation kinetics without compromising the structure and other properties of the hydrogels, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a method to control the gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane (CB[7]-AD) cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels by using competing guest molecules. The association between CB[7] and AD moieties on the polymer backbone was impeded by pre-occupying the CB[7] cavity with competing guest molecules. By using various guest molecules and concentrations, the gelation of the hydrogels could be varied from seconds to hours. The strong interaction of CB[7]-AD pair endue the hydrogels good mechanical properties and stability. Moreover, the binding of functionalized guest molecules of CB[7] moieties offers a facile approach for tailoring of the hydrogels’ scaffold. Combined with hydrogel injection and printing technology, this method offers an approach for the development of hydrogels with advanced temporal and spatial complexity.

  15. 1st International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Vishnu; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing. It brings together content from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in areas of Wireless Communication and Image Processing. The volume provides a snapshot of current progress in computational creativity and a glimpse of future possibilities. The proceedings include two kinds of paper submissions: (i) regular papers addressing foundation issues, describing original research on creative systems development and modeling; and (ii) position papers describing work-in-progress or research directions for computational creativity. This work will be useful to professionals and researchers working in the core areas of wireless communications and image processing.

  16. VII International scientific conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the collection there are the reports of the VII International scientific conference and the VII All-Russian school-conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials which were conducted on October 2-10, 2010, in Tomsk. The reports deal with new developments of charged particles high-intensity beam sources, high-temperature metrology of high-current beams and work materials, radiation-thermal stimulated effects and processes in inorganic materials, physical basics of technological processes, radiation-thermal technologies and equipment for their realization, allied branches of science and technology, specifically, nanotechnologies [ru

  17. Business Process Risk Management, Compliance and Internal Control: A Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Best, Peter; Green, Peter

    (COSO). Based on an inductive methodological approach using literature review and interviews with managers engaged in risk management and internal control projects, this paper identifies three main areas that currently have management attention. These are business process risk management, compliance...... management and internal control development. This paper discusses these areas and identifies a series of research questions regarding these critical issues.......Integration of risk management and management control is emerging as an important area in the wake of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and with ongoing development of frameworks such as the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework from the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission...

  18. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  19. Supply chain process collaboration and Internet utilization: an international perspective of business to business relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Valadares de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the findings of an international study which primary objective was to investigate the relationships between Internet utilization in business-to-business relationships, collaborative efforts and their impact over supplier and customer-oriented processes performance. It highlights the Internet as an important enhancer of collaboration in supply chains and addresses the effects of such efforts on companies’ overall performance. As a conclusive-descriptive and quantitative study, data from a survey of 788 companies from the USA, China, Canada, United Kingdom, and Brazil were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, reliability evaluation of the research model’s internal scales, path analysis and structural equation modeling to evaluate supply chain processes collaboration, both up- and down-stream. Internet utilization in supplier and customer-oriented processes was found positively related to collaborative practices in business-to-business relationships. Collaborative practices in supplier and customer-oriented processes, in turn, showed potential effects on performance. Also, supplier-oriented processes performance was found positively associated with customer-oriented process performance. Both internet use and collaborative practices are even more important in a high-context country like Brazil. The paper helps clarify the impact of internet use on business-to-business collaborative relationships. In this sense, practitioners can take this impact to redraw the organizational landscape and business processes amongst supply chain participants.

  20. Gelation of small diameter, thoria sol microspheres in non-flowing alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.A.; Salas, N.I.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made to determine the parameters affecting the mass transfer of water during gelation of 2 M thoria sols in nonflowing alcohol systems. The alcohols used were 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) and mixtures of isoamyl alcohol (iAA) and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The maximum gelled particle diameters were determined for 5- and 11-ft-long columns of alcohol. Mass transfer theory was used in the development of a computer program to predict the maximum diameters expected. With an increase in iAA concentration, the maximum gelled particle diameter increased. Cracking and deformation were noted, primarily in the larger spheres, at iAA concentrations greater than 30 vol percent. The predictions from correlations indicated the expected trends but were, in general, 10 to 20 percent low

  1. Self gelating isoracemosol A, new racemosaceramide A, and racemosol E from Barringtonia racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnapalli, Mangala Gowri; Dangeti, Nalini; Sura, Madhu Babu; Kothapalli, Haribabu; Akella, V S Sarma; Shaik, Jeelani Basha

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation into the CHCl 3 extract of the fruits of Barringtonia racemosa resulted in the isolation of two new metabolites along with isoracemosol A and betulinic acid as known metabolites. The new compounds were characterised as phytosphingosine-type ceramide [(2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2R)-2-hydroxyhexadecanoyl amino]-hexacos-8(E)-ene-1,3,4-triol, 1] and racemosol E [21β-acetoxy-22α-(2-methylbutyroxy)-olean-12-ene-3β,16α,28-triol, 2] on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis and chemical modifications. In addition, the self-gelating property of isoracemosol A (3) was investigated for the first time, which leads to the unexpected agglomerated porous-like morphology.

  2. Development of alginate microspheres containing thyme essential oil using ionic gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Sergio; Cortés, Pablo; Parada, Javier; Franco, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    Essential oils are a good antimicrobial and antioxidant agent alternative in human or animal feed. However, their direct use has several disadvantages such as volatilization or oxidation. The development of essential oil microspheres may help to avoid these problems. The objective of the present research was to microencapsulate thyme essential oil by generating emulsions with different dispersion degrees. The emulsions were encapsulated in calcium-alginate microspheres by ionic gelation. The microspheres were evaluated regarding size, shape, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and antimicrobial properties. The results indicate that encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity are dependent on concentration and degree of dispersion. The best encapsulation conditions were obtained at 2% v/v of thyme essential oil with a high dispersion degree (18,000rpm/5min), which was achieved with an efficiency of 85%. Finally, the microspheres obtained showed significant antimicrobial effect, especially in gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transdermal gelation of methacrylated macromers with near-infrared light and gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramlich, William M; Holloway, Julianne L; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels provide locally controlled tissue bulking and a means to deliver drugs and cells to the body. The formation of hydrogels in vivo may involve the delivery of two solutions that spontaneously crosslink when mixed, with pH or temperature changes, or with light (e.g., visible or ultraviolet). With these approaches, control over the kinetics of gelation, introduction of the initiation trigger (e.g., limited penetration of ultraviolet light through tissues), or alteration of the material physical properties (e.g., mechanics) may be difficult to achieve. To overcome these limitations, we used the interaction of near-infrared (NIR) light with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to generate heat through the photothermal effect. NIR light penetrates tissues to a greater extent than other wavelengths and provides a means to indirectly initiate radical polymerization. Specifically, this heating coupled with a thermal initiator (VA-044) produced radicals that polymerized methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and generated hydrogels. A range of VA-044 concentrations changed the gelation time, yielding a system stable at 37 ° C for 22 min that gels quickly (∼3 min) when heated to 55 ° C. With a constant irradiation time (10 min) and laser power (0.3 W), different VA-044 and AuNR concentrations tuned the compressive modulus of the hydrogel. By changing the NIR irradiation time we attained a wide range of moduli at a set solution composition. In vivo mouse studies confirmed that NIR laser irradiation through tissue could gel an injected precursor solution transdermally. (paper)

  4. Transdermal gelation of methacrylated macromers with near-infrared light and gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, William M.; Holloway, Julianne L.; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels provide locally controlled tissue bulking and a means to deliver drugs and cells to the body. The formation of hydrogels in vivo may involve the delivery of two solutions that spontaneously crosslink when mixed, with pH or temperature changes, or with light (e.g., visible or ultraviolet). With these approaches, control over the kinetics of gelation, introduction of the initiation trigger (e.g., limited penetration of ultraviolet light through tissues), or alteration of the material physical properties (e.g., mechanics) may be difficult to achieve. To overcome these limitations, we used the interaction of near-infrared (NIR) light with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to generate heat through the photothermal effect. NIR light penetrates tissues to a greater extent than other wavelengths and provides a means to indirectly initiate radical polymerization. Specifically, this heating coupled with a thermal initiator (VA-044) produced radicals that polymerized methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and generated hydrogels. A range of VA-044 concentrations changed the gelation time, yielding a system stable at 37 ° C for 22 min that gels quickly (˜3 min) when heated to 55 ° C. With a constant irradiation time (10 min) and laser power (0.3 W), different VA-044 and AuNR concentrations tuned the compressive modulus of the hydrogel. By changing the NIR irradiation time we attained a wide range of moduli at a set solution composition. In vivo mouse studies confirmed that NIR laser irradiation through tissue could gel an injected precursor solution transdermally.

  5. Ultrashort self-assembling Fmoc-peptide gelators for anti-infective biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Alice P; Draper, Emily R; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2017-02-01

    Biomaterial-related infections have a significant impact on society and are a major contributor to the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. Current licensed antibiotic classes struggle to breakdown or penetrate the exopolysaccharide biofilm barrier, resulting in sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic at the surface of the biomaterial, treatment failure and increased spread of resistant isolates. This paper focuses for the first time on the ability of ultrashort Fmoc-peptide gelators to eradicate established bacterial biofilms implicated in a variety of medical device infections (Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The effect of increasing the cationicity of FmocFF via addition of di-lysine and di-orntithine was also studied with regard to antibacterial activity. Our studies demonstrated that Fmoc-peptides (FmocFF, FmocFFKK, FmocFFFKK, FmocFFOO) formed surfactant-like soft gels at concentrations of 1% w/v and above using a method of glucono-δ-Lactone pH induction. The majority of Fmoc-peptides (0.5-2% w/v) demonstrated selective action against established (grown for 24 h) biofilms of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These results are likely to increase the clinical translation of short-peptide gelator platforms within the area of anti-infective biomaterials including as wound dressings and coatings for prostheses, catheters, heart valves and surgical tubes. In the long term, this will lead to wider treatment choices for clinicians and patients involved in the management of medical device infections and reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world.

  7. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe international best practices for pre-processing and coprocessing of MSW and sewage sludge in cement plants, for the benefit of countries that wish to develop co-processing capacity. The report is divided into three main sections. Section 2 describes the fundamentals of co-processing, Section 3 describes exemplary international regulatory and institutional frameworks for co-processing, and Section 4 describes international best practices related to the technological aspects of co-processing.

  8. On the correct side of performance: Processing of internal and external signals in response speed evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valt, Christian; Stürmer, Birgit

    2017-07-01

    Response appropriateness is not exclusively limited to accuracy. Nevertheless, the processing of parameters other than accuracy for response monitoring has been mostly neglected. The present experiment explored how the cognitive system processes response speed based on internal and external signals. Participants performed a response-choice task where correct responses were classified as fast, average, or slow. External signals informative about performance quality were presented after the response in most of the trials; in some trials, instead, participants had to judge their own performance. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of response and feedback processing were analysed to investigate how the cognitive system monitors correct responses. Response quality affected the processing of internal signals. That is, both the response-related negativity (correct-related negativity, CRN) and positivity (correct positivity, Pc) showed modulations related to speed: with the largest and the smallest amplitudes associated with fast and slow responses, respectively. We ascribe these modulations to positive arousal associated with the optimal nature of correct fast responses. Response quality, also affected feedback processing. Here, response speed significantly modulated the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and had an effect on the latency and the magnitude of the preceding positive peak. These effects in feedback processing seem related to feedback expectation in a context where awareness of feedback quality is vague and average performance, although more difficult to detected, is generally expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ayahuasca and the process of regulation in Brazil and internationally: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Beatriz Caiuby; Feeney, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a summary and analysis of the regulation of ayahuasca in Brazil, from its prohibition in the mid-eighties to the recent adoption of CONAD's (Conselho Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas) 2010 Resolution, which established a set of rules, norms and ethical principles to be applied to religious and ritual uses of ayahuasca. Brazil's regulatory process is used as a starting point to explore emerging international regulatory themes as various nations respond to the global expansion of the Santo Daime and UDV (União do Vegetal) ayahuasca religions. The text reviews the primary legislative and court documents, academic literature, as well as solicited expert opinions. Three prominent themes have emerged internationally. The first concerns the scope of international treaties regarding plant-based psychoactive substances, as well as the responsibilities of individual nations to adhere to said treaties. The second concerns the scope of religious liberty and how to determine religious legitimacy. The final theme addresses the potential dangers of ayahuasca to health and public safety. Over the past 20 years the Brazilian ayahuasca religions have established a global presence, with congregations in the USA, Canada, Japan, South Africa, Australia, and throughout Europe and Latin America. As a result, many nations are faced with the predicament of balancing the interests of these religious minorities with the international "war on drugs." The regulatory process applied in Brazil exemplifies a progressive approach, one which considered issues of anthropology and involved representatives of ayahuasca religions, and which provided a degree of deference to the principle of religious liberty. The Brazilian process has influenced judicial and administrative decisions internationally, and stands as a model worthy of further consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  11. Dynamic capabilities and the inward internalization process of an Argentine multinational to Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Berger Werlang Werlang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to check which dynamic capabilities developed and used by the multinational has contributed to the internationalization process of the subsidiary in Brazil. The research methodology had a qualitative approach, and used the case study for data collection, with the application of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The results show that, according to the economic theory, the company took property advantages, from the development of locals and non-locals competencies. The location advantage was explored from the choice of the host country, taking into consideration the potential market. Regarding the behavioral theory, it was identified that the internalization occurred gradually, started with exportation, and currently it is characterized as greenfield. Concerning the dynamic capabilities, they were developed by the company at the moment the company knew how to reconfigure and adapt the competencies developed in each unit, using them in its internalization process.

  12. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    armed groups in Northern Ireland had decommissioned their arms.230 While the intractable and deeply-rooted political conflict in Northern Ireland still...As a conflict management strategy, mediation has offered a way to abate or resolve conflicts , and it is a solid alternative to escalating hostilities...terrorism conflicts , this thesis explores the styles of international mediation that have been employed in peace processes between states and terrorist

  13. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing and Process Plant Engineering (ICMMPE 2016) which was held from 23rd to 24th November, 2016 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The proceedings discuss genuine problems of joining technologies that are heart of manufacturing sectors. It discusses the findings of experimental and numerical works from soldering, arc welding to solid state joining technology that faced by current industry. .

  14. Marital Processes, Neuroticism, and Stress as Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-03-01

    Marital discord has a robust association with depression, yet it is rarely considered within broader etiological frameworks of psychopathology. Further, little is known about the particular aspects of relationships that have the greatest impact on psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to test a novel conceptual framework including neuroticism, specific relationship processes (conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy, and distribution of power and control), and stress as predictors of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety). Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 103 husbands and wives 5 times over the first 7 years of marriage. Results suggest that neuroticism (an expression of the underlying vulnerability for internalizing disorders) contributes to symptoms primarily through high levels of non-marital stress, an imbalance of power/control in one's marriage, and poor partner support for husbands, and through greater emotional disengagement for wives. Marital processes, neuroticism, and stress work together to significantly predict internalizing symptoms, demonstrating the need to routinely consider dyadic processes in etiological models of individual psychopathology. Specific recommendations for adapting and implementing couple interventions to prevent and treat individual psychopathology are discussed.

  15. [Internal audit in medical laboratory: what means of control for an effective audit process?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Chianéa, Denis; Dedome, Emmanuel; Sanmartin, Nancy; Bugier, Sarah; Linard, Cyril; Foissaud, Vincent; Vest, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the French Accreditation Committee (COFRAC) visit for initial certification of our medical laboratory, our direction evaluated its quality management system (QMS) and all its technical activities. This evaluation was performed owing an internal audit. This audit was outsourced. Auditors had an expertise in audit, a whole knowledge of biological standards and were independent. Several nonconformities were identified at that time, including a lack of control of several steps of the internal audit process. Hence, necessary corrective actions were taken in order to meet the requirements of standards, in particular, the formalization of all stages, from the audit program, to the implementation, review and follow-up of the corrective actions taken, and also the implementation of the resources needed to carry out audits in a pre-established timing. To ensure an optimum control of each step, the main concepts of risk management were applied: process approach, root cause analysis, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). After a critical analysis of our practices, this methodology allowed us to define our "internal audit" process, then to formalize it and to follow it up, with a whole documentary system.

  16. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, H.

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the upgrading of the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the Copenhagen area to nutrient removal special attention has been paid to the nitrification process regarding inhibition effects. Inhibitory substances in the wastewater could be identified by simple batch tests......, and the long-term effects on the nitrification process were tested in pilot plants or at full-scale. A distinction could be made between effects produced by wastewater from external sources in the catchment area and internally circulated flows in the wastewater treatment plant. Results from programmes...

  17. 8th International Conference on Robotic, Vision, Signal Processing & Power Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustaffa, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented, at the 8th International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Signal Processing and Power Applications (ROVISP 2013), by researchers, scientists, engineers, academicians as well as industrial professionals from all around the globe. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to: • Robotics, Control, Mechatronics and Automation • Vision, Image, and Signal Processing • Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications • Electronic Design and Applications • Telecommunication Systems and Applications • Power System and Industrial Applications  

  18. 9th International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Signal Processing & Power Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Shahid; Teoh, Soo; Mustaffa, Mohd

    2017-01-01

     The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented, at the 9th International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Signal Processing & Power Applications (ROVISP 2016), by researchers, scientists, engineers, academicians as well as industrial professionals from all around the globe to present their research results and development activities for oral or poster presentations. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to:   • Robotics, Control, Mechatronics and Automation • Vision, Image, and Signal Processing • Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications • Electronic Design and Applications • Telecommunication Systems and Applications • Power System and Industrial Applications • Engineering Education.

  19. Refining process representation in high-resolution models of headwater catchments using internal catchment diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, C.; McGlynn, B. L.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the complexity of the problems we seek to address with process-based models continues to increase, our approaches to improving confidence in our predictions must keep pace. Process-based, distributed models have been applied in headwater catchments to address many different objectives, all of which are linked by their reliance on the selection of a catchment-representative parameter set or sets. While these parameter sets are typically obtained through calibration to the streamflow hydrograph, it is widely acknowledged that there is often insufficient information in the hydrograph to effectively address parameter equifinality. Here, we suggest that optimal parameter sets can be obtained with an additional step in the calibration process that considers the spatial representation of internal catchment behavior (e.g. space-time distributions of evapotranspiration, water table depth, presence of overland flow, soil water). Modeled internal catchment behavior is an under-utilized but valuable source of information for separating plausible from unlikely model scenarios. We demonstrate how spatial patterns of hydrologic states and fluxes across annual, seasonal, and event time scales can improve the calibration process and reduce likely parameter sets. Our approach is applied to an extensively monitored headwater catchment in Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in central Montana, simulated using the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model. Consideration of spatial diagnostics in the calibration process has great potential to ensure a holistic representation of catchment dynamics as well as to increase confidence in conclusions from these types of modeling applications.

  20. Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Oren, Noga; Jacob, Yael; Gruberger, Michal; Hendler, Talma

    2013-03-26

    Numerous neuroimaging studies have implicated default mode network (DMN) involvement in both internally driven processes and memory. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether memory operations reflect a particular case of internally driven processing or alternatively involve the DMN in a distinct manner, possibly depending on memory type. This question is critical for refining neurocognitive memory theorem in the context of other endogenic processes and elucidating the functional significance of this key network. We used functional MRI to examine DMN activity and connectivity patterns while participants overtly generated words according to nonmnemonic (phonemic) or mnemonic (semantic or episodic) cues. Overall, mnemonic word fluency was found to elicit greater DMN activity and stronger within-network functional connectivity compared with nonmnemonic fluency. Furthermore, two levels of functional organization of memory retrieval were shown. First, across both mnemonic tasks, activity was greater mainly in the posterior cingulate cortex, implying selective contribution to generic aspects of memory beyond its general involvement in endogenous processes. Second, parts of the DMN showed distinct selectivity for each of the mnemonic conditions; greater recruitment of the anterior prefrontal cortex, retroesplenial cortex, and hippocampi and elevated connectivity between anterior and posterior medial DMN nodes characterized the semantic condition, whereas increased recruitment of posterior DMN components and elevated connectivity between them characterized the episodic condition. This finding emphasizes the involvement of DMN elements in discrete aspects of memory retrieval. Altogether, our results show a specific contribution of the DMN to memory processes, corresponding to the specific type of memory retrieval.

  1. International Conference on Materials, Processing and Product Engineering 2015 (MPPE2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, S; Ebner, R; Ludwig, A

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH (MCL) and the Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials (ASMET) have jointly organized the 'First International Conference on Materials, Processing and Product Engineering - MPPE' held in the Congress Center of Leoben from Nov. 3 rd to 5 th , 2015. The main topic of the conference was to present the state of the art in fundamental knowledge and technological expertise enabling and stimulating the development of knowledge based innovations across the entire product value chain starting from the material synthesis, proceeding with the processing of products and concluding with their in-service behaviour until the end of the product life time. Hence, the International Conference on Materials, Processing and Product Engineering MPPE 2015 focused on the core regions of industrial production chains, covering topics such as • Development and characterization of materials; • Materials synthesis and processing; • Dimensioning of components including integrated materials and process modelling; • Behaviour of materials and components during service. The scientific and technological goal was to present the state of the art of theoretical, experimental and numerical techniques and their combinations that are capable of improving the competitiveness of modern production facilities. (paper)

  2. The continuous improvement of the Internal Audits Process assurance the effective compliance of ISO 17025:2005 requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Di Candia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Improvement Process started in LATU in 1996. The Impact was so important that covered all the organization. Nowadays LATU has almost all its processes certificated and most than 200 tests accredited. The Internal Audits process began in 1996 with an annual planning for all the laboratory's areas. For the UKAS accreditation in 1998, LATU improves the internal audits planning auditing not only the system but also the tests. In 1999 LATU was certified by SQS and accredited the calibrations by DKD. Since 2004 internal audits was managed as a process; in order to that was defined objectives, indicators, achievements and the necessary resources of the internal audit programme and process. The internal audit programme has a pre defined tri annual planning that includes all the laboratory areas. The results of the measures obtained till now demonstrate the improvement in the internal audit and all the laboratory processes. Auditors final staff increase their technical competence. As a consequence of managing the internal audits as a process, the internal communication has an important relevance to feedback the continuous improvement of the laboratory. This was evidence in a decrease of the documentaries non conformities, improvement of the calibrations and maintenance programme, optimization trainings and qualifications of the staff, common internal trainings, creation of a quality assurance team to improvement the tests control, improvement in the relationship with the support areas. Most of this requirements are included in ISO 17025:2005; that assurance the effective compliance of this standard.

  3. International society is to international system as world society is to...? Systemic and societal processes in English school theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, N

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the distinction between international system and international society within the English School of International Relations theory, originally put forward by Bull and Watson, should not be abandoned. The distinction is shown to correspond to complementary etic and emic approaches to the study of social reality. The former approach is most appropriate for studying the unintended emergence of patterns of social organisation, the latter approach for the study of intersub...

  4. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  5. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  6. MCWASP XIV: International Conference on Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, H

    2015-01-01

    The current volume represents contributed papers of the proceedings of the 14th international conference on ''Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP XIV)'', Yumebutai International Conference Center, Awaji island, Hyogo, Japan on 21 – 26 June, 2016. The first conference of the series 'Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP)' was started up in 1980, and this is the 14th conference. The participants are more than 100 scientists from industry and academia, coming from 19 countries. In the conference, we have 5 invited, 70 oral and 31 poster presentations on different aspects of the modeling. The conference deals with various casting processes (Ingot / shape casting, continuous casting, direct chill casting and welding), fundamental phenomena (nucleation and growth, dendritic growth, eutectic growth, micro-, meso- and macrostructure formation and defect formation), coupling problems (electromagnetic interactions, application of ultrasonic wave), development of experimental / computational methods and so on. This volume presents the cutting-edge research in the modeling of casting, welding and solidification processes. I would like to thank MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Germany and SCSK Corporation, Japan for supporting the publication of contributed papers. Hideyuki Yasuda Conference Chairman Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University Japan (preface)

  7. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Abercrombie, Debra L; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).

  8. Averaging, not internal noise, limits the development of coherent motion processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Manning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of motion processing is a critical part of visual development, allowing children to interact with moving objects and navigate within a dynamic environment. However, global motion processing, which requires pooling motion information across space, develops late, reaching adult-like levels only by mid-to-late childhood. The reasons underlying this protracted development are not yet fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine whether the development of motion coherence sensitivity is limited by internal noise (i.e., imprecision in estimating the directions of individual elements and/or global pooling across local estimates. To this end, we presented equivalent noise direction discrimination tasks and motion coherence tasks at both slow (1.5°/s and fast (6°/s speeds to children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11 years, and adults. We show that, as children get older, their levels of internal noise reduce, and they are able to average across more local motion estimates. Regression analyses indicated, however, that age-related improvements in coherent motion perception are driven solely by improvements in averaging and not by reductions in internal noise. Our results suggest that the development of coherent motion sensitivity is primarily limited by developmental changes within brain regions involved in integrating motion signals (e.g., MT/V5.

  9. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fields

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias. Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins". Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples.

  10. Study of the spheronization process of glass particles by the gravitational falling process for internal selective radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, E.C.; Martinelli, J.R.; Sene, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    The internal selective radiotherapy is an alternative to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing β - emitter radionuclide are introduced in the liver, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which optimizes the blocking effect and avoid the migration to other parts of the human body. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the resulting particle size distribution. In the present work, the spheronization process to obtain microspheres from irregular shape glass particles with suitable diameter and shape for radiotherapy treatment is studied. (author)

  11. Analysis and prediction of dimensions and cost of laser micro-machining internal channel fabrication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabazon D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilisation of Response Surface Methodology (RSM as the prediction tool for the laser micro-machining process. Laser internal microchannels machined using pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser in polycarbonate were investigated. The experiments were carried out according to 33 factorial Design of Experiment (DoE. In this work the three input process set as control parameters were laser power, P; pulse repetition frequency, PRF; and sample translation speed, U. Measured responses were the channel width and the micro-machining operating cost per metre of produced microchannels. The responses were sufficiently predicted within the set micro-machining parameters limits. Two factorial interaction (2FI and quadratic polynomial regression equations for both responses were constructed. It is proposed that the developed prediction equations can be used to find locally optimal micro-machining process parameters under experimental and operational conditions.

  12. Proceedings of the international conference on sol-gel processes for advanced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, V.N.; Kumar, N.

    2009-01-01

    Sol-gel science and technology plays an important role in the synthesis of a wide range of materials. viz., fine ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerogels, nanomaterials of controlled composition and shape. speciality products such as nuclear fuels and industrial catalysts and so on. The products are homogeneous, and the synthesis and fabrication processes occur at significantly lower temperatures when compared to the conventional solid state reactions. The objective of the present International Conference on Sol-Gel Processes for Advanced Ceramics (SGPAC-2009) is to consolidate the knowledge on the wide spectrum applications of the sol-gel processes in materials synthesis and fabrication with special emphasis on ceramics. The aim is to bring together specialists from research groups across the globe to discuss the state of the art, and facilitate exchange of ideas. The articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Determination of hexamethylene tetramine in the process solution of sol-gel method for nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, V.R.; Sawant, R.M.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Vaidya, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA) was determined in the presence of large quantities of urea, formaldehyde and ammonium hydroxide by potentiometric titration with perchloric acid solution using an autotitrator coupled to a personal computer. This analysis is required for the process control of the sol-gel method in the production of ceramic metal oxide (e.g., oxides and mixed oxides of Th, U and Pu) microspheres using the internal gelation route. Feed solution used for preparation of microspheres contains large quantities of urea. The washings of gel microspheres produced after the internal gelation process contain urea, formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde complex and ammonium hydroxide. The presence of these constituents in the feed solution and washings seriously interfere in the commonly used methods for the determination of HMTA. Using this method the relative standard deviation was found to be 0.27% in eleven determinations of a typical feed solution (3.0M HMTA) when the aliquots contained 75 to 125 mg of HMTA. Time required for each titration was 5-7 minutes. Feed and effluent solutions of sol-gel process were analysed. (author)

  14. The Process for the Formulation of the International Telehealth Position Statement for Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    JACOBS, KAREN; CASON, JANA; MCCULLOUGH, ANN

    2015-01-01

    The World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) consists of 84 member organizations representing over 420,000 occupational therapists internationally (WFOT, 2014). In 2014, WFOT published the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement on the use of telehealth in occupational therapy. The process for the formulation of the official document involved reviewing WFOT member organizations’ telehealth position statements and data collected from a survey sent to member organizations’ delegates in April 2014. Qualitative data from 39 countries yielded factors to consider in five key areas: licensure/registration requirements, the cost of technology, privacy and security, reimbursement/payment models, and other issues (e.g., need for collaboration/transfer of knowledge, client selection, provider competencies, standard of care). The WFOT Telehealth Position Statement addressed each of these areas. The collaborative effort resulting in the development of the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement serves as a model for other international organizations. PMID:27563380

  15. The Process for the Formulation of the International Telehealth Position Statement for Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Jacobs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT consists of 84 member organizations representing over 420,000 occupational therapists internationally (WFOT, 2014.  In 2014, WFOT published the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement on the use of telehealth in occupational therapy. The process for the formulation of the official document involved reviewing WFOT member organizations’ telehealth position statements and data collected from a survey sent to member organizations’ delegates in April 2014.  Qualitative data from 39 countries yielded factors to consider in five key areas:  licensure/registration requirements, the cost of technology, privacy and security, reimbursement/payment models, and other issues (e.g., need for collaboration/transfer of knowledge, client selection, provider competencies, standard of care.  The WFOT Telehealth Position Statement addressed each of these areas.  The collaborative effort resulting in the development of the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement serves as a model for other international organizations.

  16. The Process for the Formulation of the International Telehealth Position Statement for Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen; Cason, Jana; McCullough, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT) consists of 84 member organizations representing over 420,000 occupational therapists internationally (WFOT, 2014). In 2014, WFOT published the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement on the use of telehealth in occupational therapy. The process for the formulation of the official document involved reviewing WFOT member organizations' telehealth position statements and data collected from a survey sent to member organizations' delegates in April 2014. Qualitative data from 39 countries yielded factors to consider in five key areas: licensure/registration requirements, the cost of technology, privacy and security, reimbursement/payment models, and other issues (e.g., need for collaboration/transfer of knowledge, client selection, provider competencies, standard of care). The WFOT Telehealth Position Statement addressed each of these areas. The collaborative effort resulting in the development of the WFOT Telehealth Position Statement serves as a model for other international organizations.

  17. Application of uti possidetis juris principle in the process of determination of international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uti possidetis juris principle was basic rule in determining international borders in the period of decolonization. It was applied in Latin America and Africa, but also at the end of 20th century in the processes of dissolution of USSR, SFRY and Czechoslovakia. Uti possidetis juris principle is based on the presumption that former colonial administrative borders kept stability and territorial integrity. It was undoubtedly connected with the right of self-determination. It keeps the existing borders by preventing secession, but in that way it does not solve the problem of badly determined and disputed borders. The unclear foundations on which the borders were determined can be a source of chaos and indisputes, which was shown n some cases before the International Court of Justice. The dominant theory is that uti possidetis juris principle should be applied with certain limitations, in the period after decolonization as a basis for preserving the territorial integrity of postcolonial states.

  18. Processing covariance data for the resonance region - International Evaluation Co-operation, V. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.; Leal, L.C.; Wiarda, D.; Jacqmin, R.; Kodeli, I.; ); Chiba, G.; Shibata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Oh, S.; Nikolaev, M.; Kahler, A.C. Jr.; Kawano, T.; Arcilla, R.

    2014-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are ENDF (United States), JEF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Cooperation with evaluation projects of non- OECD countries is organized through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report summarizes the work performed by WPEC Subgroup 28 (SG28) on issues pertinent to the methodology used to process covariance data in the resonance region. Specifically, SG28 has developed the requisite processing methods needed to process resonance parameter covariance data, generate cross-section covariance data files and demonstrate the use of covariance data in radiation transport analyses. The work performed by SG28 and documented in this report addresses the following tasks: - Produce resonance parameter covariance evaluation for 235 U; - Develop resonance parameter covariance processing methods in widely used processing systems (e.g., NJOY, AMPX, etc.); - Use the updated cross-section processing systems to generate covariance data files for use in radiation transport analyses. In addition, use sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analyses to demonstrate the propagation of the covariance data in specific radiation transport applications

  19. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Shin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  20. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  1. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangho; Heo, Youngmoo; Park, Hyungpil; Chang, Sungho; Rhee, Byungohk

    2013-12-12

    In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP) resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  2. In situ Gelation of Monodisperse Alginate Hydrogel in Microfluidic Channel Based on Mass Transfer of Calcium Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic method for the in situ production of monodispersed alginate hydrogels using biocompatible polymer gelation by crosslinker mass transfer is described. Gelation of the hydrogel was achieved in situ by the dispersed calcium ion in the microfluidic device. The capillary number (Ca) and the flow rate of the disperse phase which are important operating parameters mainly influenced the formation of three distinctive flow regions, such as dripping, jetting, and unstable dripping. Under the formation of dripping region, monodispersed alginate hydrogels having a narrow size distribution (C.V=2.71%) were produced in the microfluidic device and the size of the hydrogels, ranging from 30 to 60 µm, could be easily controlled by varying the flow rate, viscosity, and interfacial tension. This simple microfluidic method for the production of monodisperse alginate hydrogels shows strong potential for use in delivery systems of foods, cosmetics, inks, and drugs, and spherical alginate hydrogels which have biocompatibility will be applied to cell transplantation

  3. In situ Gelation of Monodisperse Alginate Hydrogel in Microfluidic Channel Based on Mass Transfer of Calcium Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A microfluidic method for the in situ production of monodispersed alginate hydrogels using biocompatible polymer gelation by crosslinker mass transfer is described. Gelation of the hydrogel was achieved in situ by the dispersed calcium ion in the microfluidic device. The capillary number (Ca) and the flow rate of the disperse phase which are important operating parameters mainly influenced the formation of three distinctive flow regions, such as dripping, jetting, and unstable dripping. Under the formation of dripping region, monodispersed alginate hydrogels having a narrow size distribution (C.V=2.71%) were produced in the microfluidic device and the size of the hydrogels, ranging from 30 to 60 µm, could be easily controlled by varying the flow rate, viscosity, and interfacial tension. This simple microfluidic method for the production of monodisperse alginate hydrogels shows strong potential for use in delivery systems of foods, cosmetics, inks, and drugs, and spherical alginate hydrogels which have biocompatibility will be applied to cell transplantation.

  4. Enzyme-induced gelation of extensively hydrolyzed whey proteins by Alcalase: peptide identification and determination of enzyme specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Dany; Otter, Don E; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Foegeding, E Allen

    2003-10-08

    Extensive hydrolysis of whey protein isolate by Alcalase was shown to induce gelation mainly via hydrophobic interactions. The aim of this work was to characterize the peptides released in order to better understand this phenomenon. The apparent molecular mass distribution indicated that aggregates were formed by small molecular mass peptides (Alcalase was observed to have a high specificity for aromatic (Phe, Trp, and Tyr), acidic (Glu), sulfur-containing (Met), aliphatic (Leu and Ala), hydroxyl (Ser), and basic (Lys) residues. Most peptides had an average hydrophobicity of 1-1.5 kcal/residue and a net charge of 0 at the pH at which gelation occurred (6.0). Therefore, an intermolecular attractive force such as hydrophobic interaction suggests the formation of aggregates that further leads to the formation of a gel.

  5. Non-Steroidal Biphenyl Gelators: Correlation of Xerogel Structure with Solid-State Structure and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cristina Geiger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the factors favoring the formation of well-formed single crystals are dissimilar to those conducive to gel formation, few examples of single-crystal structural characterizations of organogelators are found in the literature. A series of biphenyl methyl and ethyl diester derivatives of varying chain length were synthesized and their gelation abilities explored. X-ray diffraction of single crystals of one of the gelators reveals a columnar extended structure. Based on XRD results for xerogels obtained from the reported organogelators, the members of the series are isostructural and so also adopt a columnar superstructure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for the investigation of the morphology of the xerogels, which display either platelet-like morphologies or more typical entangled twisted ribbon-like aggregates. The gels exhibit chirality, which depends on the sol-gel transition history, as observed by induced circular dichroism (ICD spectroscopy.

  6. Multiple patterns of polymer gels in microspheres due to the interplay among phase separation, wetting, and gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Miho; Nigorikawa, Shinpei; Sakaue, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kei; Tokita, Masayuki

    2014-11-11

    We report the spontaneous patterning of polymer microgels by confining a polymer blend within microspheres. A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and gelatin solution was confined inside water-in-oil (W/O) microdroplets coated with a layer of zwitterionic lipids: dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC). The droplet confinement affected the kinetics of the phase separation, wetting, and gelation after a temperature quench, which determined the final microgel pattern. The gelatin-rich phase completely wetted to the PE membrane and formed a hollow microcapsule as a stable state in the PE droplets. Gelation during phase separation varied the relation between the droplet size and thickness of the capsule wall. In the case of the PC droplets, phase separation was completed only for the smaller droplets, wherein the microgel partially wetted the PC membrane and had a hemisphere shape. In addition, the temperature decrease below the gelation point increased the interfacial tension between the PEG/gelatin phases and triggered a dewetting transition. Interestingly, the accompanying shape deformation to minimize the interfacial area was only observed for the smaller PC droplets. The critical size decreased as the gelatin concentration increased, indicating the role of the gel elasticity as an inhibitor of the deformation. Furthermore, variously patterned microgels with spherically asymmetric shapes, such as discs and stars, were produced as kinetically trapped states by regulating the incubation time, polymer composition, and droplet size. These findings demonstrate a way to regulate the complex shapes of microgels using the interplay among phase separation, wetting, and gelation of confined polymer blends in microdroplets.

  7. Relationship marketing and disadvantaged health care segments: using internal marketing to improve the vocational rehabilitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W; Scovotti, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of vocational rehabilitation (VR) is to provide disabled individuals with the training and support services needed to assimilate into the workforce. This study incorporates concepts developed in the relationship marketing and internal marketing literature to determine the factors that influence overall satisfaction of vocational training services. Results underscore the importance of social and structural bonds that develop among the multiple stakeholders involved in the VR process. Satisfaction is also influenced by the design and equipment used in the facilities and the efficiency of initiating VR services. A highly reliable instrument to measure VR participant satisfaction is presented.

  8. Complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Meneses, G.; Cunha, T.; Gil, A.; Calhorda, M. J.; García, G.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2015-09-01

    We present negative ion formation from collisions of 100 eV neutral potassium atoms with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and its deuterated analogue molecules (CH3COOD, CD3COOH). From the negative ion time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra, OH- is the main fragment detected accounting on average for more than 25% of the total anion yield. The complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid have been evaluated with the help of theoretical calculations at the DFT levels explaining the fragmentation channel yielding OH-.

  9. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity special issue: II International Conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes. (50 years later).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael; Holm, Elis

    2018-06-01

    An international conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes was held in Seville, Spain, 6-9 November 2016 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 160 participants from 35 different countries. This was the 2nd conference on this item since 1966, 50 years ago. The conference covered aspects of radiological important radionuclides on terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and has allowed obtaining a clear picture of the status of the Radioecology as a consolidated discipline in the 21st century. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24999

  11. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance

  13. Encapsulating anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces by ionic gelation: Pigment stability during storage of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Sílvia C S R; Berling, Carolina L; Germer, Sílvia P M; Alvim, Izabela D; Hubinger, Míriam D

    2018-02-15

    Hibiscus extract (HE) has a strong antioxidant activity and high anthocyanin content; it can be used as a natural pigment, also adding potential health benefits. The objective of this work was the microencapsulation of HE anthocyanin by ionic gelation (IG) using two techniques: dripping-extrusion and atomization, both by means of a double emulsion (HE/rapseed oil/pectin) and a cross-linked solution (CaCl 2 ). Particles (77-83% moisture content) were conditioned in acidified solution at 5, 15 and 25°C, absence of light, and evaluated for anthocyanins and color for 50-days. The median diameter (D 50 ) of the particles ranged from 78 to 1100μm and encapsulation efficiency ranged from 67.9 to 93.9%. The encapsulation caused higher temperature stability compared with the free extract. The half-life (t 1/2 ) values of the particles ranged from 7 (25°C) to 180days (5°C) for anthocyanins and from 25 (25°C) to 462days (5°C) for Chroma value. The IG increased the stability of HE anthocyanin. Both the dripping-extrusion and the atomization have shown to be feasible techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  15. Anion-activated, thermoreversible gelation system for the capture, release, and visual monitoring of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lee, Songyi; Liu, Yifan; Lee, Minji; Yin, Jun; Sessler, Jonathan L; Yoon, Juyoung

    2014-04-04

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important green house gas. This is providing an incentive to develop new strategies to detect and capture CO2. Achieving both functions within a single molecular system represents an unmet challenge in terms of molecular design and could translate into enhanced ease of use. Here, we report an anion-activated chemosensor system, NAP-chol 1, that permits dissolved CO2 to be detected in organic media via simple color changes or through ratiometric differences in fluorescence intensity. NAP-chol 1 also acts as a super gelator for DMSO. The resulting gel is transformed into a homogeneous solution upon exposure to fluoride anions. Bubbling with CO2 regenerates the gel. Subsequent flushing with N2 or heating serves to release the CO2 and reform the sol form. This series of transformations is reversible and can be followed by easy-to-discern color changes. Thus, NAP-chol 1 allows for the capture and release of CO2 gas while acting as a three mode sensing system. In particular, it permits CO2 to be detected through reversible sol-gel transitions, simple changes in color, or ratiometric monitoring of the differences in the fluorescence features.

  16. Combined effects of presalted prerigor and postrigor batter mixtures on chicken breast gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-04-01

    We examined the combined effects of prerigor and postrigor batter mixtures on protein gelation. The postrigor batter was prepared with 2% salt, whereas the prerigor meat at 5 min postmortem was used to prepare postrigor batters at different salt levels. For 5 treatments, prerigor batters were mixed with postrigor batter that had 2% salt (control) as follows: T1: ground presalted (1%) hot-boned breast with 1% salt for 50% total batch; T2: ground presalted (2%) hot-boned breast for 50% total batch; T3: ground presalted (3%) hot-boned breast for 30% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; T4: ground presalted (4%) hot-boned breast for 25% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch; and T5: ground presalted (5%) hot-boned breast for 20% total batch that was mixed with cold-boned batter for 50% total batch. Treatments with both presalted prerigor and postrigor muscle showed less cooking loss and lower emulsion stability than the control, except T5. The protein solubility and apparent viscosity of the control was the lowest. Thus, presalted hot-boned muscle combined with cold-boned muscle positively affected physicochemical properties. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Kanyas

    Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

  18. Correlated changes in structure and viscosity during gelatinization and gelation of tapioca starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Kai Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Melting of native tapioca starch granules in aqueous pastes upon heating is observed in situ using simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS and solution viscometry. Correlated structure and viscosity changes suggest closely associated amylose and amylopectin chains in the semicrystalline layers, and the release of amylose chains for enhanced solution viscosity occurs largely after melting of the semicrystalline structure. Before melting, WAXS results reveal mixed crystals of A- and B-types (∼4:1 by weight, whereas SAXS results indicate that the semicrystalline layers are composed of lamellar blocklets of ca 43 nm domain size, with polydisperse crystalline (≃7.5 nm and amorphous (≃1.1 nm layers alternatively assembled into a lamellar spacing of ≃8.6 nm with 20% polydispersity. Upon melting, the semicrystalline lamellae disintegrate into disperse and molten amylopectin nanoclusters with dissolved and partially untangled amylose chains in the aqueous matrix which leads to increased solution viscosity. During subsequent cooling, gelation starts at around 347 K; successively increased solution viscosity coincides with the development of nanocluster aggregation to a fractal dimension ≃2.3 at 303 K, signifying increasing intercluster association through collapsed amylose chains owing to decreased solvency of the aqueous medium with decreasing temperature.

  19. Nanoparticle and Gelation Stabilized Functional Composites of an Ionic Salt in a Hydrophobic Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyas, Selin; Aydın, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A. Levent; Kizilel, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

  20. Production and characterization of nanocapsules encapsulated linalool by ionic gelation method using chitosan as wall material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuobing XIAO

    Full Text Available Abstract Linalool has been extensively applied in various fields, such as flavoring agent, perfumes, cosmetics and medical science. However, linalool is unstable, volatile and readily oxidizable. A sensitive substance can be encapsulated in a capsule, so encapsulation technology can solve these problems. In this paper, linalool-loaded nanocapsules (Lin-nanocapsules were prepared via the ionic gelation method and Lin-nanocapsules were characterized. The results of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed that linalool was successfully encapsulated in the wall materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM results demonstrated that the shapes of Lin-nanocapsules, with smooth surfaces, were nearly spherical. Lin-nanocapsule average particle size was 352 nm and its polydispersity index (PDI was proved to be 0.214 by the results of dynamic light scattering (DLC. Thermogravimetric results indicated that linalool loading capacity (LC was 15.17%, and encapsulation could decrease linalool release and increase linalool retaining time under the high temperature. Oscillatory shear and steady-state shear measurements of Lin-nanocapsule emulsions were systematically investigated. The results of steady-state shear showed that Lin-nanocapsule emulsion, which was Newtonian only for high shear rate, was non-Newtonian. It was proved by oscillatory shear that when oscillation frequency changed from low to high, Lin-nanocapsules emulsion changed from viscous into elastic.

  1. Barrier hopping, viscous flow, and kinetic gelation in particle-polymer suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-L; Kobelev, V; Schweizer, K S

    2005-04-01

    The naive mode coupling-polymer reference interaction site model (MCT-PRISM) theory of gelation and elasticity of suspensions of hard sphere colloids or nanoparticles mixed with nonadsorbing polymers has been extended to treat the emergence of barriers, activated transport, and viscous flow. The barrier makes the dominant contribution to the single particle relaxation time and shear viscosity, and is a rich function of the depletion attraction strength via the polymer concentration, polymer-particle size asymmetry ratio, and particle volume fraction. The dependences of the barrier on these three system parameters can be accurately collapsed onto a single scaling variable, and the resultant master curve is well described by a power law. Nearly universal master curves are also constructed for the hopping or alpha relaxation time for system conditions not too close to the ideal MCT transition. Based on the calculated barrier hopping time, a theory for kinetic gel boundaries is proposed. The form and dependence on system parameters of the kinetic gel lines are qualitatively the same as obtained from prior ideal MCT-PRISM studies. The possible relevance of our results to the phenomenon of gravity-driven gel collapse is studied. The general approach can be extended to treat nonlinear viscoelasticity and rheology of polymer-colloid suspensions and gels.

  2. Simulation study of nonergodicity transitions: gelation in colloidal systems with short-range attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Antonio M; Fuchs, Matthias; Cates, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Computer simulations were used to study the gel transition occurring in colloidal systems with short-range attractions. A colloid-polymer mixture was modeled and the results were compared with mode coupling theory (MCT) expectations and with the results for other systems (hard-spheres system and Lennard-Jones system). The self-intermediate scattering function and the mean squared displacement were used as the main dynamical quantities. Two different colloid packing fractions have been studied. For the lower packing fraction, alpha-scaling holds and the wave-vector analysis of the correlation function shows that gelation is a regular nonergodicity transition within MCT. The leading mechanism for the novel nonergodicity transition is identified as the bond formation caused by the short-range attraction. The time scale and diffusion coefficient also show qualitatively the expected behavior, although different exponents are found for the power-law divergences of these two quantities. The non-Gaussian parameter was also studied and a very large correction to Gaussian behavior was found. The system with higher colloid packing fraction shows indications of a nearby high-order singularity, causing alpha scaling to fail, but the general expectations for nonergodicity transitions still hold.

  3. Competence evaluation process for nursing students abroad: Findings from an international Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Mette Bro

    2017-01-01

    processes and instruments adopted for nursing students during their clinical placement abroad. Design: A case study design was adopted in 2015. Setting and Participants: A purposeful sample of eight nursing programmes located in seven countries (Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Italy......Background: Assessing clinical competence in nursing students abroad is a challenge, and requires both methods and instruments capable of capturing the multidimensional nature of the clinical competences acquired. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical competence assessment......) were approached. Methods: Tools as instruments for evaluating competences developed in clinical training by international nursing students, and written procedures aimed at guiding the evaluation process, were scrutinised through a content analysis method. Findings: All clinical competence evaluation...

  4. An internal model architecture for novelty detection: implications for cerebellar and collicular roles in sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sean R; Porrill, John; Pearson, Martin J; Pipe, Anthony G; Prescott, Tony J; Dean, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is thought to implement internal models for sensory prediction, but details of the underlying circuitry are currently obscure. We therefore investigated a specific example of internal-model based sensory prediction, namely detection of whisker contacts during whisking. Inputs from the vibrissae in rats can be affected by signals generated by whisker movement, a phenomenon also observable in whisking robots. Robot novelty-detection can be improved by adaptive noise-cancellation, in which an adaptive filter learns a forward model of the whisker plant that allows the sensory effects of whisking to be predicted and thus subtracted from the noisy sensory input. However, the forward model only uses information from an efference copy of the whisking commands. Here we show that the addition of sensory information from the whiskers allows the adaptive filter to learn a more complex internal model that performs more robustly than the forward model, particularly when the whisking-induced interference has a periodic structure. We then propose a neural equivalent of the circuitry required for adaptive novelty-detection in the robot, in which the role of the adaptive filter is carried out by the cerebellum, with the comparison of its output (an estimate of the self-induced interference) and the original vibrissal signal occurring in the superior colliculus, a structure noted for its central role in novelty detection. This proposal makes a specific prediction concerning the whisker-related functions of a region in cerebellar cortical zone A(2) that in rats receives climbing fibre input from the superior colliculus (via the inferior olive). This region has not been observed in non-whisking animals such as cats and primates, and its functional role in vibrissal processing has hitherto remained mysterious. Further investigation of this system may throw light on how cerebellar-based internal models could be used in broader sensory, motor and cognitive contexts.

  5. The International Consolidated Venous Ulcer Guideline Update 2015: Process Improvement, Evidence Analysis, and Future Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kara S; Corbett, Lisa; Gould, Lisa; Girolami, Susan; Bolton, Laura

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, members of the Association for the Advancement of Wound Care (AAWC), Wound Healing Society, and the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy formed the International Consolidated Guidelines Taskforce to update the AAWC Venous Ulcer Guidelines to the collaborative, intersociety, endorsed International Consolidated Venous Ulcer Guideline. This "guideline of guidelines" integrates recommendations from all relevant, published evidence-based guidelines on venous ulcer care and prevention. The update process was conducted in accordance with the National Guideline Clearinghouse inclusion criteria and was informed by a systematic review of the evidence, with additional content validation of each venous ulcer management recommendation. Twenty-three (23) wound experts participated. Compared to the 2010 version of the guideline, A-level recommendations increased from 62% to 77%, 31 recommendations were removed, and new recommendations included quality of life evaluations and surgical treatment options. Gaps in the evidence and needed areas for research include surgical, topical, and pharmaceutical interventions. Collaboration among societies and stakeholders and rigorous guideline development processes may expedite the implementation of evidence-based practices, fill in research gaps, and provide a powerful unified voice to regulatory and reimbursement agencies with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for persons with a venous ulcer.

  6. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  7. Attitudes and Actions That Adoptive Parents Perceive as Helpful in the Process of Raising Their Internationally Adopted Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Marina V.

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological dissertation study explored the lived experiences of adoptive parents in the process of raising their internationally adopted adolescents. The researcher interviewed 9 participants. Criteria for selection of the research sample included having personal experience with parenting one or more international adolescents adopted at…

  8. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  9. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  10. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  11. Investigation of the internal behavior in segmented PEMFCs of different flow fields during cold start process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.; Ren, Y.S.; Lin, X.W.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yang, Z.; Chang, Y.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have researched the internal behavior in segmented proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with three different flow fields during cold start process. The change of internal current density and temperature in fuel cells with different flow fields could be obviously shown by the printed circuit board (PCB) technology, and the study shows that the flow field is significant for enhancing the cold start ability and durability. Single serpentine flow field has the best cold start performance, while triple channel serpentine flow field has the best uniformity. It is found that without a robust temperature rising tendency, the cell temperature reaching 0 °C does not definitely mean a successful cold start because the cell temperature might drop down 0 °C again. Polarization curves show that there is almost no performance degradation after successful cold start, but the cell degrades quickly after the failed cold start at −7 °C and −10 °C. Based on these characteristics, we optimized the rapid cold start strategy by using electric heating and make it possible to start up the PEMFC at temperatures down to −20 °C within about 11 min. - Highlights: • Segmented fuel cell were used to record the internal current density and temperature distributions during the cold start. • The effects of flow fields on the PEMFC cold start capacity were evaluated. • The effect of cold start on the performance of fuel cell was evaluated. • An optimized strategy was adopted to improve the cold start capacity.

  12. Software package for integrated data processing for internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine (SPRIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Eric; Postema, Ernst; Boerman, Otto; Visschers, Jeroen; Oyen, Wim; Corstens, Frans

    2007-03-01

    Internal radiation dose calculations are normally carried out using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. This requires residence times of radiopharmaceutical activity and S-values for all organs of interest. Residence times can be obtained by quantitative nuclear imaging modalities. For dealing with S-values, the freeware packages MIRDOSE and, more recently, OLINDA/EXM are available. However, these software packages do not calculate residence times from image data. For this purpose, we developed an IDL-based software package for integrated data processing for internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine (SPRIND). SPRIND allows reading and viewing of planar whole-body scintigrams. Organ and background regions of interest (ROIs) can be drawn and are automatically mirrored from the anterior to the posterior view. ROI statistics are used to obtain anterior-posterior averaged counts for each organ, corrected for background activity and attenuation. Residence times for each organ are calculated based on effective decay. The total body biological half-time is calculated for use in the voiding bladder model. Red bone marrow absorbed dose can be calculated using bone regions in the scintigrams or by a blood-derived method. Finally, the results are written to a file in MIRDOSE-OLINDA/EXM format. Using scintigrams in DICOM, the complete analysis is gamma camera vendor independent, and can be performed on any computer using an IDL virtual machine. SPRIND is an easy-to-use software package for radiation dose assessment studies. It has made these studies less time consuming and less error prone.

  13. Competence evaluation processes for nursing students abroad: Findings from an international case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Cristina; Dobrowolska, Beata; Zarzycka, Danuta; Bacatum, Claudia; Bruun, Anne Marie Gran; Korsath, Dag; Roel, Siv; Jansen, Mette Bro; Milling, Tine; Deschamps, Anne; Mantzoukas, Stefanos; Mantzouka, Christine; Palese, Alvisa

    2017-04-01

    Assessing clinical competence in nursing students abroad is a challenge, and requires both methods and instruments capable of capturing the multidimensional nature of the clinical competences acquired. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical competence assessment processes and instruments adopted for nursing students during their clinical placement abroad. A case study design was adopted in 2015. A purposeful sample of eight nursing programmes located in seven countries (Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Italy) were approached. Tools as instruments for evaluating competences developed in clinical training by international nursing students, and written procedures aimed at guiding the evaluation process, were scrutinised through a content analysis method. All clinical competence evaluation procedures and instruments used in the nursing programmes involved were provided in English. A final evaluation of the competences was expected by all nursing programmes at the end of the clinical placement, while only four provided an intermediate evaluation. Great variability emerged in the tools, with between five and 88 items included. Through content analysis, 196 items emerged, classified into 12 different core competence categories, the majority were categorised as 'Technical skills' (=60), 'Self-learning and critical thinking' (=27) and 'Nursing care process' (=25) competences. Little emphasis was given in the tools to competences involving 'Self-adaptation', 'Inter-professional skills', 'Clinical documentation', 'Managing nursing care', 'Patient communication', and 'Theory and practice integration'. Institutions signing Bilateral Agreements should agree upon the competences expected from students during their clinical education abroad. The tools used in the process, as well as the role expected by the student, should also be agreed upon. Intercultural competences should be further addressed in the process of evaluation, in addition to

  14. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  15. In-situ fabrication of macroporous films for dye-sensitised solar cells: formation of the scattering layer and the gelation of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su-Jin; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2014-07-01

    Dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs) are a promising substitute for conventional silicon solar cells. A scattering layer of submicrometer pores or particles has been widely introduced to achieve a high light-harvesting efficiency. However, many such fabrication processes require high temperatures and multiple steps to prepare the scattering layer. Here, we have developed an in-situ fabrication process for a macroporous (MP) scattering film. The macropores were formed inside the assembled cell via the dissolution of polystyrene (PS) spheres from a PS/TiO2 composite layer caused by exposure to an electrolyte solution. Specifically, the in-situ MP scattering layer decreased the transmittance of the electrode film from 58% to below 1%. The DSCs using these MP scattering layers exhibited an increase in the efficiency of 22%. Moreover, the dissolution of the PS improved the cell stability because of the gelation of the electrolyte solution; the efficiency of the DSCs was maintained at 80% of its initial value after ageing for 20 days, whereas the efficiency of the bare-electrode DSCs was found to have decreased by 50%. We believe that in-situ porous scattering layers show great promise for next-generation flexible DSCs. Moreover, this approach can be extended to various applications that utilize porous film/liquid systems.

  16. Performance optimization of internal tin process multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke, E-mail: zhangke@c-wst.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); Zhang, Pingxiang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Shi, Yigong; Liu, Jianwei; Gao, Huixian; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Xianghong; Feng, Yong [Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • J{sub c} increases by adding Sn cores in the interspaces, hysteresis loss increases at the same time. • Enlarger the number of filaments with the same Sn proportion will increase J{sub c} and hysteresis loss. • Cu split adopted in each sub-element leads to a low hysteresis loss. - Abstract: In this study, internal tin process Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor are developed in Western Superconducting Technologies. Short cable-in-conduit conductors manufactured with these strands have been qualified. Mass production is accomplished, and all the performances of the strands meet the requirement of ITER project. Besides, more researches on the effect of strand design on critical current density and hysteresis loss for Nb{sub 3}Sn strands are carried out. It is found that critical current density can be enhanced by reducing filament diameter and increasing Sn content, and hysteresis loss of the strands can be significantly reduced through Cu split adopted in sub-element.

  17. Is Sustainable Remediation Now a Self-Sustaining Process? an International Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. W. N.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - the consideration of environmental, social and economic factors associated with soil and groundwater risk-management options, to help select the best overall solution - has been a rapidly evolving topic in recent years. The first published reference[1] to 'sustainable remediation' was in the title of a 1999 conference paper by Kearney et al., (1999), but activity really accelerated in the middle-late 2000's, with establishment of a number of collaborative sustainable remediation groups and fora, and increased publication rates in the peer reviewed literature (Fig 1). Figure 1. Journal paper publications with search term 'sustainable remediation' (SCOPUS survey, 17 July 2014) This presentation will review the international progress of sustainable remediation concept development and application in regulatory and corporate decision-making processes. It will look back at what has already been achieved, provide an update on the latest initiatives and developments, and look forward to what the future of sustainable remediation might look like. Specifically it will describe: Sustainable remediation frameworks: synergies and international collaboration; Latest guidance and tools developed by the various sustainable remediation organisations (SuRFs), including the SuRF-UK Best Management Practices and Tier 1 Briefcase; Best practice standard development by ASTM and ISO; Regulatory acceptance of sustainable remediation, including incorporation into legislation, and the NICOLE - Common Forum Joint statement on 'risk-informed and sustainable remediation' in Europe; Examples of corporate adoption of sustainable remediation principles. The presentation will conclude with a look forward to a vision of sustainable remediation in 2020.

  18. Simulation and Development of Internal Model Control Applications in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombé, Ph.; Dablainville, R.; Vacarisas, J.

    Traditional PID feedback control system is limited in its use in the Bayer cycle due to the important and omnipresent time delays which can lead to stability problems and sluggish response. Advanced modern control techniques are available, but suffer in an industrial environment from a lack of simplicity and robustness. In this respect the Internal Model Control (IMC) method may be considered as an exception. After a brief review of the basic theoretical principles behind IMC, an IMC scheme is developed to work with single-input, single-output, discrete-time, nonlinear systems. Two applications of IMC in the Bayer process, both in simulations and on industrial plants, are then described: control of the caustic soda concentration of the aluminate liquor and control of the A12O3/Na20 caust. ratio of the digested slurry, Finally, the results obtained make this technique quite attractive for the alumina industry.

  19. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...... discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...... on differences in three value orientations among cultures. activity orientation, mastery over nature, and assumptions about human nature are the value orientations that affect alliance functioning. The author/s argue that alliances are prone to interpretational, attributional, and behavioral conflicts...

  20. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  1. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimian, Mihai; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-02-01

    The International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS) conference series focuses on multiple scale systems, singular perturbation problems, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena occurring in physical, biological, chemical, economical, engineering and information systems. The 6th edition was hosted by Stefan cel Mare University in the city of Suceava located in the beautiful multicultural land of Bukovina, Romania, from May 21 to 24, 2012. This continued the series of biennial multidisciplinary conferences organized in Cork, Ireland from 2002 to 2008 and in Pécs, Hungary in 2010. The MURPHYS 2012 Workshop brought together more than 50 researchers in hysteresis and multi-scale phenomena from the United State of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine, and Romania. Participants shared and discussed new developments of analytical techniques and numerical methods along with a variety of their applications in various areas, including material sciences, electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and civil structures, biological and eco-systems, economics and finance. The Workshop was sponsored by the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources 2007-2013 (PRO-DOCT) and Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava. The Organizing Committee was co-chaired by Mihai Dimian from Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava (Romania), Amalia Ivanyi from the University of Pecs (Hungary), and Dmitrii Rachinskii from the University College Cork (Ireland). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Guest Editors wish to place on record their sincere gratitude to Miss Sarah Toms for the assistance she provided

  2. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF 6 gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF 6 -handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D ampersand D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D ampersand D, as will the other UF 6 -handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF 6 . These reagents include ClF 3 , F 2 , and other compounds. The scope of D ampersand D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs

  3. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, A.

    2001-06-01

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  4. Comparing and Correlating Solubility Parameters Governing the Self-Assembly of Molecular Gels Using 1,3:2,4-Dibenzylidene Sorbitol as the Gelator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Solvent properties play a central role in mediating the aggregation and self-assembly of molecular gelators and their growth into fibers. Numerous attempts have been made to correlate the solubility parameters of solvents and gelation abilities of molecular gelators, but a comprehensive comparison of the most important parameters has yet to appear. Here, the degree to which partition coefficients (log P), Henry’s law constants (HLC), dipole moments, static relative permittivities (εr), solvatochromic ET(30) parameters, Kamlet–Taft parameters (β, α, and π), Catalan’s solvatochromic parameters (SPP, SB, and SA), Hildebrand solubility parameters (δi), and Hansen solubility parameters (δp, δd, δh) and the associated Hansen distance (Rij) of 62 solvents (covering a wide range of properties) can be correlated with the self-assembly and gelation of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) gelation, a classic molecular gelator, is assessed systematically. The approach presented describes the basis for each of the parameters and how it can be applied. As such, it is an instructional blueprint for how to assess the appropriate type of solvent parameter for use with other molecular gelators as well as with molecules forming other types of self-assembled materials. The results also reveal several important insights into the factors favoring the gelation of solvents by DBS. The ability of a solvent to accept or donate a hydrogen bond is much more important than solvent polarity in determining whether mixtures with DBS become solutions, clear gels, or opaque gels. Thermodynamically derived parameters could not be correlated to the physical properties of the molecular gels unless they were dissected into their individual HSPs. The DBS solvent phases tend to cluster in regions of Hansen space and are highly influenced by the hydrogen-bonding HSP, δh. It is also found that the fate of this molecular gelator, unlike that of polymers, is influenced not only by the

  5. ISES [International Solar Energy Society] and the UNCED [United Nations Conference on Environment and Development] process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorriman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The International Solar Energy Society (ISES)/United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (UNCED) process, developed as a preparation for the Earth Summit 92 held in Brazil, involved the collection and compilation of material and the development of consensus. The process involved five phases of a survey on environment and energy issues, roundtable events, and final input into the Earth Summit. The following are results from the ISES survey. When setting national energy policies, the two least important considerations are concern for global environmental impacts and life cycle costs of energy options. In terms of electricity supply, the main issues are reliability and dispatchability. The most significant issues impacting economic development in developing countries are population growth and land resource degradation. Fresh water pollution was a concern in all countries. In industrialized countries with adequate power supply, the main issue is improved quality of life. In developing countries, growth dominates the need for new energy supplies. A large number of recommendations for United Nations action are presented. 3 refs

  6. Improving Knowledge and Process for International Emergency Medicine Fellowship Applicants: A Call for a Uniform Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Jacquet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are currently 34 International Emergency Medicine (IEM fellowship programs. Applicants and programs are increasing in number and diversity. Without a standardized application, applicants have a difficulty approaching programs in an informed and an organized method; a streamlined application system is necessary. Objectives. To measure fellows’ knowledge of their programs’ curricula prior to starting fellowship and to determine what percent of fellows and program directors would support a universal application system. Methods. A focus group of program directors, recent, and current fellows convened to determine the most important features of an IEM fellowship application process. A survey was administered electronically to a convenience sample of 78 participants from 34 programs. Respondents included fellowship directors, fellows, and recent graduates. Results. Most fellows (70% did not know their program’s curriculum prior to starting fellowship. The majority of program directors and fellows support a uniform application service (81% and 67%, resp. and deadline (85% for both. A minority of program directors (35% and fellows (30% support a formal match. Conclusions. Program directors and fellows support a uniform application service and deadline, but not a formalized match. Forums for disseminating IEM fellowship information and for administering a uniform application service and deadline are currently in development to improve the process.

  7. International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials' is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held four times in Tomsk, then in Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), and the island of Cyprus. The tenth conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects № 14-38-10210 and № 14-02-20376. (introduction)

  8. The internal and external customer focused process improvement and the performance analysis studies in healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piril Tekin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main contribution of this paper is to generate an optimum solution for capacity planning and appointment scheduling issues, which are frequently encountered in clinical flows with various route and treatment periods at dental hospitals. Design/methodology/approach: It is essential to define the system well in order to ensure that the working staff and patients use their time very efficiently and that the process flows continuously. By having examined a sample healthcare system through the help of a study addressed in such context, studies on process improvement in line with the dissatisfactions of the working staff and patients have been carried out. Within the scope of the study, the operation of 7 Departments in a dental hospital undergoing a treatment process have been reviewed and examined. The problems encountered as result of the observations made are discussed in detail, and formerly and recently designed system performance analyses are conducted by having performed the respective process improvement studies. The relevant samplings of this study are modeled via the Arena Simulation Program. The data of the previous four months is used in the parameters, which are used through the modellings. The system data are entered by taking into account seasonal characteristics of the data. Findings: The analyses are made as a consequence of such study that has been addressed, it is established that the efficiency of the internal customers of the hospital increases substantially, and that the waiting durations of the dental patients decrease and in turn, the external customer satisfaction increases drastically. Research limitations/implications: Under the scope of the present study, 7 different treatment processes are analysed in a dental hospital in Cukurova Region with a significant patient potential. The treatment clinics present in the hospital are radiology, periodontology, surgery, treatment, orthodontics and prosthesis. These

  9. Introduction to the First International Workshop on Process-Oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichert, Manfred; Peleg, Mor; Lenz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The proHealth’07 workshop is held in Brisbane in conjunction with the fifth international conference on business process management. ProHealth’07 elaborates both the potential and the limitations of IT support for healthcare processes. It further provides a forum wherein challenges, paradigms, and

  10. Facile synthesis of radial-like macroporous superparamagnetic chitosan spheres with in-situ co-precipitation and gelation of ferro-gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations of the ferro-gels. The results showed that the in-situ co-precipitation of ferro-ions gave rise to a radial morphology with non-spheroid macro pores (large cavities inside the chitosan spheres. The particle size of iron oxide can be adjusted from 2.5 nm to 5.4 nm by tuning the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, the synthesized nanoparticles were illustrated as Fe(3O(4 nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared macroporous chitosan spheres presented a super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature with a saturation magnetization value as high as ca. 18 emu/g. The cytotoxicity was estimated using cell viability by incubating doses (0∼1000 µg/mL of the macroporous chitosan spheres. The result showed good viability (above 80% with alginate chitosan particles below 1000 µg/mL, indicating that macroporous chitosan spheres were potentially useful for biomedical applications in the future.

  11. Two-Phase Diffusion Technique for the Preparation of Ultramacroporous/Mesoporous Silica Microspheres via Interface Hydrolysis, Diffusion, and Gelation of TEOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Minhua; Li, Yupeng; Yu, Liang; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2018-02-06

    Honeycombed hierarchical ultramacroporous/mesoporous silica microspheres were prepared via the hydrolysis of TEOS in the oil-water interface, with subsequent diffusion and gelation in the acidic water-phase microdroplets with the assistance of a simple homemade microdevice. The diffusion of furfuryl alcohol (FA) also happened at a relatively high rate during the hydrolysis and diffusion of TEOS. Therefore, plenty of FA will be inside of the water microdroplets and form a decent number of polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) microparticles, thereby obtaining honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres with abundant ultramacroporous cavities and mesopores after calcination. It was found that the concentration of FA, residence time, and reaction temperature have significant effects on the porosity and pore size due to the influence on the diffusion rate and amount of FA in water-phase microdroplets. The honeycombed silica microspheres have obvious microscopic visible ultramacroporous cavities with the submicrometer cavity diameter as high as 85% porosity based on the rough overall volume of microsphere. N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres have a high surface area of 602 m 2 g -1 , a mesopore volume of 0.77 cm 3 /g, and a mesopore porosity of 99.6% based on the total pore volume of N 2 adsorption-desorption. On the basis of the experiment results, a rational formation process of the honeycombed hierarchical porosity silica microspheres was deduced.

  12. Poleward propagation of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations in a coupled model: role of internal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayamohan, R. S.; Annamalai, H.; Luo, Jing-Jia; Hafner, Jan; Yamagata, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    The study compares the simulated poleward migration characteristics of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISO) in a suite of coupled ocean-atmospheric model sensitivity integrations. The sensitivity experiments are designed in such a manner to allow full coupling in specific ocean basins but forced by temporally varying monthly climatological sea surface temperature (SST) adopted from the fully coupled model control runs (ES10). While the local air-sea interaction is suppressed in the tropical Indian Ocean and allowed in the other oceans in the ESdI run, it is suppressed in the tropical Pacific and allowed in the other oceans in the ESdP run. Our diagnostics show that the basic mean state in precipitation and easterly vertical shear as well as the BSISO properties remain unchanged due to either inclusion or exclusion of local air-sea interaction. In the presence of realistic easterly vertical shear, the continuous emanation of Rossby waves from the equatorial convection is trapped over the monsoon region that enables the poleward propagation of BSISO anomalies in all the model sensitivity experiments. To explore the internal processes that maintain the tropospheric moisture anomalies ahead of BSISO precipitation anomalies, moisture and moist static energy budgets are performed. In all model experiments, advection of anomalous moisture by climatological winds anchors the moisture anomalies that in turn promote the northward migration of BSISO precipitation. While the results indicate the need for realistic simulation of all aspects of the basic state, our model results need to be taken with caution because in the ECHAM family of coupled models the internal variance at intraseasonal timescales is indeed very high, and therefore local air-sea interactions may not play a pivotal role.

  13. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  14. Studying Abroad: Developing a Model for the Decision Process of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco Oliveira, Diana; Soares, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Attracting international students is increasingly important for higher education institutions. In order to contribute to the understanding of how international students choose a university, we conducted a qualitative study in a public university in the north of Portugal. Results show that students seek an international experience mainly for…

  15. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  16. Exploring International Views on Key Concepts for Mass-gathering Health through a Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Malinda; Hutton, Alison E; Ranse, Jamie C; Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A; Bowles, Ron; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Arbon, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The science underpinning mass-gathering health (MGH) is developing rapidly. However, MGH terminology and concepts are not yet well defined or used consistently. These variations can complicate comparisons across settings. There is, therefore, a need to develop consensus and standardize concepts and data points to support the development of a robust MGH evidence-base for governments, event planners, responders, and researchers. This project explored the views and sought consensus of international MGH experts on previously published concepts around MGH to inform the development of a transnational minimum data set (MDS) with an accompanying data dictionary (DD). Report A two-round Delphi process was undertaken involving volunteers from the World Health Organization (WHO) Virtual Interdisciplinary Advisory Group (VIAG) on Mass Gatherings (MGs) and the MG section of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM). The first online survey tested agreement on six key concepts: (1) using the term "MG HEALTH;" (2) purposes of the proposed MDS and DD; (3) event phases; (4) two MG population models; (5) a MGH conceptual diagram; and (6) a data matrix for organizing MGH data elements. Consensus was defined as ≥80% agreement. Round 2 presented five refined MGH principles based on Round 1 input that was analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Thirty-eight participants started Round 1 with 36 completing the survey and 24 (65% of 36) completing Round 2. Agreement was reached on: the term "MGH" (n=35/38; 92%); the stated purposes for the MDS (n=38/38; 100%); the two MG population models (n=31/36; 86% and n=30/36; 83%, respectively); and the event phases (n=34/36; 94%). Consensus was not achieved on the overall conceptual MGH diagram (n=25/37; 67%) and the proposed matrix to organize data elements (n=28/37; 77%). In Round 2, agreement was reached on all the proposed principles and revisions, except on the MGH diagram (n=18/24; 75

  17. PREFACE: Third International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processes (ICASP - 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gerhard; Ratke, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processes was held in the Rolduc Abbey in the Netherlands a few kilometres away from Aachen. Around 200 scientists from 24 countries come in for the four day meeting. They found a stimulating but also relaxing environment and atmosphere, with beautiful weather and the medieval abbey inviting for walks, discussions, sitting outside and drinking a beer or wine. The contributions given at the conference reflected recent advances in various topics of solidification processes, ranging from fundamental aspects to applied casting technologies. In 20 oral sessions and a large poster session innovative results of segregation phenomena, microstructure evolution, nucleation and growth, phase formation, polyphase solidification, rapid solidification and welding, casting technology, thermophysics of molten alloys, solidification with forced melt flow and growth of single crystals and superalloys together with innovative diagnostic techniques were presented. Thereby, findings from experiments as well as from numerical modeling on different lengths scales were jointly discussed and contribute to new insight in solidification behaviour. The papers presented in this open access proceedings cover about half the oral and poster presentations given. They were carefully reviewed as in classical peer reviewed journals by two independent referees and most of them were revised and thus improved according to the reviewers comments. We think that this collection of papers presented at ICASP-3 gives an impression of the excellent contributions made. The papers embrace both the basic and applied aspects of solidification. We especially wish to express our appreciation for the team around Georg Schmitz and Margret Nienhaus organising this event and giving us their valued advice and support at every stage in preparing the conference. We also thank Lokasenna Lektorat for taking the task of checking all language-associated issues and

  18. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  19. Strata-1: An International Space Station Experiment into Fundamental Regolith Processes in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment will study the evolution of asteroidal regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies are subjected to a variety of forces and will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. Our understanding of this dynamical evolution and the inter-particle forces involved would benefit from long-term observations of granular materials exposed to small vibrations in microgravity. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples collected by missions such as OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa 1 and 2, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Understanding regolith dynamics will inform designs of how to land and set anchors, safely sample/move material on asteroidal surfaces, process large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predict behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces.

  20. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  1. Formation of Globular Clusters with Internal Abundance Spreads in r -Process Elements: Strong Evidence for Prolonged Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    Several globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to show internal abundance spreads in r -process elements (e.g., Eu). We propose a new scenario that explains the origin of these GCs (e.g., M5 and M15). In this scenario, stars with no/little abundance variations first form from a massive molecular cloud (MC). After all of the remaining gas of the MC is expelled by numerous supernovae, gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch stars can be accumulated in the central region of the GC to form a high-density intracluster medium (ICM). Merging of neutron stars then occurs to eject r -process elements, which can be efficiently trapped in and subsequently mixed with the ICM. New stars formed from the ICM can have r -process abundances that are quite different from those of earlier generations of stars within the GC. This scenario can explain both (i) why r -process elements can be trapped within GCs and (ii) why GCs with internal abundance spreads in r -process elements do not show [Fe/H] spreads. Our model shows (i) that a large fraction of Eu-rich stars can be seen in Na-enhanced stellar populations of GCs, as observed in M15, and (ii) why most of the Galactic GCs do not exhibit such internal abundance spreads. Our model demonstrates that the observed internal spreads of r -process elements in GCs provide strong evidence for prolonged star formation (∼10{sup 8} yr).

  2. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  3. On anisotropy and internal pressure errors in numerical ocean models and processes near the shelf edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, Oeyvind A.

    2004-12-01

    In this thesis the focus has been on anisotropy, internal pressure errors and shelf edge/slope processes. Anisotropy is a common problem in ocean models. Especially where a rectangular grid is used to discretize the horizontal. Selecting a horizontal grid, which reduces the anisotropy, will therefore probably be important when new ocean models are being developed. Hexagonal grid discretization in the horizontal has the desired property of reducing anisotropy, and therefore this grid should be considered as a reasonable choice for new ocean models. In sigma coordinate models internal pressure errors occur in areas with steep topography. In the second paper in this thesis, it is shown that the internal pressure errors depend on the grid orientation. It is further shown that the erroneous velocities in the sea mount test case of Beckmann and Haidvogel (1993) can be reduced significantly by first computing the internal pressure gradients in both the original and a coordinate system where the axis are rotated 45 degrees to the original. Then a normalized weighted linear combination of the two estimates is used as the internal pressure gradients in the simulation. A following up paper where this method is used on a real ocean should be performed to investigate how well this method performs in domains with irregular topography. In such an experiment the boundary should be closed and the initial velocities set to zero. The occurring currents should then be compared with a corresponding experiment, where the initial pressure gradients are computed in the original grid only. In the third and fourth paper the focus is on the use of BOM in along shelf barotropic flow. First the generation of eddies is investigated. This is done in the third paper and two simulations are performed. The first simulation is a barotropic simulation, and the second is a two layer simulation. The results from both simulations show development of eddies, but the strength of the eddies depend on the

  4. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse microcapsules with alginate and bentonite via external gelation technique encapsulating Pseudomonas putida Rs-198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wu, Zhansheng; He, Yanhui; Ye, Bang-Ce; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This paper evaluated the external gelation technique for preparing microcapsules. The microcapsules were consisted of Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 (Rs-198) core and sodium alginate (NaAlg)-bentonite (Bent) shell. Different emulsification rotation speeds and core/shell ratios were used to prepare the microcapsules of each formulation. The near-spherical microcapsules were monodisperse with a mean diameter of 25-100 μm and wrinkled surfaces. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed the physical mixture of the wall material and the superior thermal stability of the microcapsules. Percentage yield, water content, and encapsulation efficiency were evaluated and correlated with the changes in emulsification rotation speed and core/shell ratio. In vitro release experiments demonstrated that 60% of the bacteria were released from the NaAlg-Bent microcapsules within three days. Considerably better survival was observed for encapsulated cells compared to free cells, especially in pH 4.0 and 10.0. In summary, the desired properties of microcapsules can be obtained by external gelation technique and the microcapsules on the bacteria had a good protective effect.

  5. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  6. A process and container for transport and storage of irradiated internal equipment from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1996-01-01

    A transfer container is assembled (from at least two components) around the highly irradiated internal equipment, in the reactor pool; the entire internal equipment is then transported, as a whole, in the container to a storage zone. The storage container walls are fitted with biological protection and cooling means

  7. A review on process intensification in internally heat-integrated distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Olujic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is the most radical approach of a heat pump design, making efficient use of internal heat-integration: the rectifying section of a distillation column operating at a higher pressure becomes the heat source, while the stripping part of the column

  8. Software package for integrated data processing for internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine (SPRIND).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E. de; Postema, E.J.; Boerman, O.C.; Visschers, J.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Internal radiation dose calculations are normally carried out using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. This requires residence times of radiopharmaceutical activity and S-values for all organs of interest. Residence times can be obtained by quantitative nuclear imaging

  9. Effects of press sizes on internal steam pressure during particleboard hot-pressing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael Birkeland; James M. Wescott; Jane O' Dell; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2009-01-01

    Internal steam pressure produced during the hot-pressing cycle in particleboard production is critical to the newly developed bond strength that will determine the overall performance of particleboard. The difference between the accumulation of internal steam pressure for small panels made in the laboratory and that of large commercial-sized panels makes it difficult...

  10. Developing an Undergraduate International Business Program: Context, Rationale, Process and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jim; Gray, Brendan; McNaughton, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent development of a new undergraduate international business program at the University of Otago in New Zealand. Firstly, it describes the context of the initiative in terms of the New Zealand business environment, the university sector in New Zealand and recent global trends in international business education.…

  11. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue. Based on the study results, mathematical models and the functional correlation between water regime and resistant characteristics of silty-sandy soils, we defined the parameters of the occurrence of initial internal erosion and analyzed the effects of the practical application of the study results.

  12. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout: results of Delphi process and web-reliability exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G; Keen, Helen I; Kaeley, Gurjit S; Naredo, Esperanza; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Bruyn, George A; Balint, Peter V; Filippucci, Emilio; Mandl, Peter; Kane, David; Pineda, Carlos; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Christensen, Robin; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2015-10-01

    To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert international consensus. This collated information resulted in four statements defining US elementary lesions: double contour (DC), tophus, aggregates and erosion. The Delphi questionnaire was sent to 35 rheumatology experts in US, asking them to rate their level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The second step tested the reliability by a web-exercise. US images of both normal and gouty elementary lesions were collected by the participants. A facilitator then constructed an electronic database of 110 images. The database was sent to the participants, who evaluated the presence/absence of US elementary lesions. A group of 20 images was displayed twice to evaluate intra-reader reliability. A total of 32 participants responded to the questionnaires. Good agreement (>80%) was obtained for US definitions on DC, tophus, aggregates and erosion in the Delphi exercise after three rounds. The reliability on images showed inter-reader κ values for DC, tophus, aggregates, erosion findings of 0.98, 0.71, 0.54 and 0.85, respectively. The mean intra-reader κ values were also acceptable: 0.93, 0.78, 0.65 and 0.78, respectively. This, the first consensus-based US definition of elementary lesions in gout, demonstrated good reliability overall. It constitutes an essential step in developing a core outcome measurement that permits a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability between multicentre studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Study of the spheroidization process of glass particles for selective internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, Eraldo Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    The selective internal radiotherapy is an alternative method to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Glass microspheres containing radionuclides are introduced in the liver through the hepatic artery, and they are housed preferentially in the region where the cancer cells are located. The microspheres are trapped in the arterioles which feed the tumors, and the β - particles annihilate the cancer cells. When these particles simultaneously emit γ rays, they can also be used to provide images of the tumor. The glass particles must be spherical to avoid unnecessary bleeding, and the particle size must be restricted to a range which is appropriated to trap them and avoid the migration to other parts of the body. Furthermore, they must have a good chemical durability and be nontoxic. The particle size distribution of microspheres is not easily predicted based on the original irregular particles since the variation of the aspect ratio and the presence of agglomerates can influence the final result. In the present work, the spheroidization process to obtain microspheres for radiotherapy treatment was studied. The glass microspheres were characterized by X-rays diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Specific Superficial Area and cytotoxicity test. The dissolution rate in distilled water at 90 degree C (DR∼10 -8 g.cm - 2.min -1 ), density (2.79g.cm -3 ), viscosity, and size particle distribution were determined. The surface morphological aspect was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy before and after the chemical durability tests in SBF and after the neutron irradiation. It is proposed that the produced material should be sieved to select the most suitable microspheres

  14. Towards an integration of affiliated companies energy audit process system at P.T Astra International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaga, Abdi Suryadinata; Hartanto, Indra Dwi; Audina, Debby Rizky; Prabowo, Fransiscus Dimas

    2017-06-01

    Environmental awareness, stringent regulation and soaring energy costs, together make energy efficiency as an important pillar for every company. Particularly, in 2020, the ministry of energy and mineral resources of Indonesia has set a target to reduce carbon emission by 26%. For that reason, companies in Indonesia have to comply with the emission target. However, there is trade-off between company's productivity and carbon emission. Therefore, the companies' productivity must be weighed against the environmental effect such as carbon emission. Nowadays, distinguish excessive energy in a company is still challenging. The company rarely has skilled person that capable to audit energy consumed in the company. Auditing energy consumption in a company is a lengthy and time consuming process. As PT Astra International (AI) have 220 affiliated companies (AFFCOs). Occasionally, direct visit to audit energy consumption in AFFCOs is inevitable. However, capability to conduct on-site energy audit was limited by the availability of PT AI energy auditors. For that reason, PT AI has developed a set of audit energy tools or Astra green energy (AGEn) tools to aid the AFFCOs auditor to be able to audit energy in their own company. Fishbone chart was developed as an analysis tool to gather root cause of audit energy problem. Following the analysis results, PT AI made an improvement by developing an AGEn web-based system. The system has capability to help AFFCOs to conduct energy audit on-site. The system was developed using prototyping methodology, object-oriented system analysis and design (OOSAD), and three-tier architecture. The implementation of system used ASP.NET, Microsoft SQL Server 2012 database, and web server IIS 8.

  15. On the Internal Structure of Mobile Barchan Sand Dunes due to Granular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Arran, M.; Louge, M. Y.; Hay, A. G.; Valance, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we visualize the internal structure of mobile barchan desert dunes at the avalanche scale. We reveal an intriguing history of dune building using a novel combination of local sand sampling and advanced geophysical techniques resulting in high resolution measurements of individual avalanche events. Due to progressive rebuilding, granular avalanching, erosional and depositional processes, these marching barchan dunes are reworked every few years and a characteristic zebra-pattern (figure 1a), orientated parallel to the slipface at the angle of repose, appears at regular intervals. We present scientific data on the structure obtained from several mobile barchan dunes of different sizes during recent desert field campaigns (2014, 2015, 2017) in a mobile barchan dune field in Qatar (25.01°N, 51.34°E in the AlWakrah municipality). The site has been equipped with a weather station and has been regularly visited by a multidisciplinary research team in recent years (e.g. [1]). By applying high-frequency (1200 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects across the midline (figure 1b) we map the continuous evolution of this cross-bedding at high resolution deep within the dune. The GPR reveals a slope reduction of the slipface near the base of the dune; evidence of irregular wind reversals; and the presence of a harder aeolian cap around the crest and extending to the brink. The data is supplemented with granulometry from layers stabilized by dyed water injection and uncovered by excavating vertical walls perpendicular to old buried avalanches. We attribute visible differences in water penetration between adjacent layers to fine particle segregation processes in granular avalanches. This work was made possible by the support of NPRP grant 6-059-2-023 from the Qatar National Research Fund to MYL and AGH, and a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship to NMV. We thank Jean-Luc Métayer for performing detailed particle size distribution measurements

  16. Clathrin-dependent internalization, signaling, and metabolic processing of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanna, Naveen K; Mani, Indra; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac hormones, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP), have pivotal roles in renal hemodynamics, neuroendocrine signaling, blood pressure regulation, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Binding of ANP and BNP to the guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) induces rapid internalization and trafficking of the receptor via endolysosomal compartments, with concurrent generation of cGMP. However, the mechanisms of the endocytotic processes of NPRA are not well understood. The present study, using 125 I-ANP binding assay and confocal microscopy, examined the function of dynamin in the internalization of NPRA in stably transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells. Treatment of recombinant HEK-293 cells with ANP time-dependently accelerated the internalization of receptor from the cell surface to the cell interior. However, the internalization of ligand-receptor complexes of NPRA was drastically decreased by the specific inhibitors of clathrin- and dynamin-dependent receptor internalization, almost 85% by monodansylcadaverine, 80% by chlorpromazine, and 90% by mutant dynamin, which are specific blockers of endocytic vesicle formation. Visualizing the internalization of NPRA and enhanced GFP-tagged NPRA in HEK-293 cells by confocal microscopy demonstrated the formation of endocytic vesicles after 5 min of ANP treatment; this effect was blocked by the inhibitors of clathrin and by mutant dynamin construct. Our results suggest that NPRA undergoes internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis as part of its normal itinerary, including trafficking, signaling, and metabolic degradation.

  17. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  18. Identifying the Research Process to Analyse the Adoption of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outhwaite, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the flow-line around the methodology used inside an educational research process that was originally established to examine the expansion of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme (IBDP) in England. This article analyses the research question, then assesses the research focus, aims and objectives. The article…

  19. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  20. Internal Quality Assurance Reviews: Challenges and Processes--Walter Sisulu University's Business, Management Sciences and Law Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodly, A.; Saunderson, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Higher Educations' (CHE) Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) requires internal quality evaluations to be performed on the various programmes offered by the Faculty before visitation by the HEQC. This article examines some of the challenges and processes followed by six of the departments of Walter Sisulu University's Faculty…

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Internationalization Process in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of Florida International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuspa, Flavia Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Higher Education Institution's (HEI) process of internationalization. The theoretical model developed by Van Dijk and Miejer (1997) was used to review Florida International University (FIU)'s policy, support, and implementation dimensions and determine its position on the Internationalization Cube, and…

  2. Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration: The International Community and the Rwandan Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, II, Jeffrey H

    2008-01-01

    The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was a cataclysmic international event. Because of the devastation suffered during the genocide, a focused effort at repairing the social fabric of the nation had to take place...

  3. Amnesty, Reconciliation and Reintegration: The International Community and the Rwandan Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    the number of cattle a person owned and was usually directly attributed to the head of a family. The basis for Hutuism and Tutsism was accentuated...responsibility for the internal policing of Rwanda, securing of internally displaced persons, and guarding the overcrowded prison systems. The RPA was...genocide. It is the third phase of releases since 2003 - part of an attempt to ease overcrowding . 2006 January - Rwanda’s 12 provinces are replaced by

  4. Gelation of Oil upon Contact with Water: A Bioinspired Scheme for the Self-Repair of Oil Leaks from Underwater Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuntaek; Yaraghi, Nicholas; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2015-05-19

    Molecular organogelators convert oils into gels by forming self-assembled fibrous networks. Here, we demonstrate that such gelation can be activated by contacting the oil with an immiscible solvent (water). Our gelator is dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS), which forms a low-viscosity sol when added to toluene containing a small amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Upon contact with water, DMSO partitions into the water, activating gelation of DBS in the toluene. The gel grows from the oil/water interface and slowly envelops the oil phase. We have exploited this effect for the self-repair of oil leaks from underwater tubes. When a DBS/toluene/DMSO solution flows through the tube, it forms a gel selectively at the leak point, thereby plugging the leak and restoring flow. Our approach is reminiscent of wound-sealing via blood-clotting: there also, inactive gelators in blood are activated at the wound site into a fibrous network, thereby plugging the wound and restoring blood flow.

  5. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  6. Age Stereotypes and Self-Views Revisited: Patterns of Internalization and Projection Processes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    We investigated processes of age stereotype internalization into the self and projection of self-views onto age stereotypes from a life-span perspective, taking age-related differences in the relevance of life domains into account. Age stereotypes and self-views in eight life domains were assessed in a sample of N = 593 persons aged 30-80 years (T1) at two time points that were separated by a 4-year time interval. We estimated cross-lagged projection and internalization effects in multigroup structural equation models. Internalization and projection effects were contingent on age group and life domain: Internalization effects were strongest in the young and middle-aged groups and emerged in the domains family, personality, work, and leisure. Projection effects in different domains were most pronounced for older participants. Our findings suggest that the internalization of age stereotypes is triggered by domain-specific expectations of impending age-related changes and transitions during certain phases of the life span. Projection processes, however, seem to occur in response to changes that have already been experienced by the individual. Our study demonstrates the dynamic interrelation of age stereotypes and self-views across the life course and highlights the importance of a differentiated, life-span perspective for the understanding of these mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  8. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

  9. Liposome encapsulation of the internal control for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Skaug, K

    2003-10-01

    A system intended for whole process quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification assays was developed based on the use of liposomes as cell-mimicking vehicles for the internal control, allowing introduction of the internal control directly into the crude biological specimens. By the proof of principle testing, the Roche Cobas Amplicor CT assay was chosen as model system and the Roche CT/NG Internal Control was thus loaded into the liposomes. The liposome/DNA particles were spiked into a Chlamydia trachomatis-positive urine specimen. A quantitative "in-house" duplex real-time C. trachomatis PCR assay showed that liposomes having Blue Dextran 2000 polysaccharide co-entrapped were the most suited particles as they were efficiently deposited by the centrifugation carried out according to the Roche urine specimen preparation procedure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the liposome/DNA particles might be used for whole process quality assurance of Amplicor assay without major modifications of the assay protocol. An additional feature of the use of these liposomes was that the pellet became blue coloured and that might facilitate a thorough removal of the urine supernatant without increasing the risk of disturbance of the pellet. Principally, the liposome/internal control system is versatile and seems to be applicable for whole process quality control of amplification-based assays for detection of various pathogens.

  10. THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOW OF LABOR DURING THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alic BIRCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author debates the international migration flow of labor during the process of Republic of Moldova’s integration with the European Union. Therefore, the author presents the economic causes and effects of the international migration of workforce. Both emigration and immigration flows grouped by specific categories of persons are presented. The evolution of the number of Moldovan immigrants and emigrants in the member states is also presented. Furthermore, the article shows statistic data regarding the number of Moldovan citizens aged over 15 that are working abroad or searching for a workplace abroad.

  11. Dobly stochastic Poisson process in EMARG coupled with detection of β particles and internal conversion electrons emitted by a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusov, V.D.; Zelentsova, T.N.; Grechan, V.I.; Semenov, M.Yu.; Kravchenko, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the theoretical simulation of the probability two-cascade process of β-particle and interral conversion electron detection by photoemulsion, and its experimental testing using plane 3 H, 69 Ni, 14 C, β-sources and thin plane radioactive isotope 125 I conversion electron source. Indication counting-rate statistics during β-particle and internal conversion electron detection by nuclear photoemulsion is determined. For the first time it is experimentally shown that the photographic β-particle and internal conversion electron detection obeys the A-type Neyman distribution and not the Poisson one, as was believed earlier

  12. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of 'instructions for authors' in International Indexed Dental Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-04-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties) were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23%) reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19%) were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15%) insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53%) journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38%) journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the International Medical Research, 2006.

  13. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ′instructions for authors′ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugati Navaneetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Results: Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23% reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19% were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15% insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53% journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38% journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. Conclusions: A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the

  14. Effects of vacuum chopping on physicochemical and gelation properties of myofibrillar proteins from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaolan; Xiong, Shanbai; You, Juan; Hu, Yang; Huang, Qilin; Yin, Tao

    2018-04-15

    Physicochemical and gelation properties of myofibrillar proteins from silver carp surimi as affected by chopping under different vacuum degrees (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 MPa) were investigated. With the increase of vacuum degree, size and quantity of air bubbles in surimi paste decreased, disulfide bond content of myofibrillar proteins decreased significantly (p  .05), while surface hydrophobicity of myofibrillar proteins increased gradually (p vacuum degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that three-dimensional network of surimi gel under higher vacuum degree was more compact and orderly. Results indicated that vacuum chopping imparted physicochemical and structural changes of fish myofibrillar protein, which might contribute to the improvement in gelling properties of myofibrillar proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: International Symposium on Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Luis Elvira; Resa López, Pablo; Salazar, Jordi; Benedito Fort, José Javier; Martínez Graullera, Óscar

    2012-12-01

    The following describes most of the presentations (both oral and poster) given at the International Symposium of Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP 2012) celebrated in Madrid between 18 and 20 April 2012. This event was intended to be a meeting point for scientists, engineers and professionals from all over the world in the field of ultrasonics applied to the characterization and control of materials and processes in the industry. More precisely, the topics included were: 1. Novel applications of ultrasound in the industry (including high-power ultrasound) Food science Biotechnology and microbiology Pharmaceutics and cosmetics Petrochemistry and civil engineering 2. New insights in the ultrasonic characterization of media: Fluids and emulsions Nano- and micro-particle dispersions Soft materials Porous bodies and inhomogeneous materials 3. New developments in ultrasonic measuring techniques: Acoustic microscopy Piezoelectric sensors Ultrasonic imaging Signal processing The symposium was organized by the Centro de Acústica Aplicada y Evaluación No Destructiva (CAEND, UPM-CSIC) in collaboration with the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and the University of Leeds. During the conference, 32 posters and 33 oral communications were presented. In addition, 4 invited lectures were imparted: 'Acoustic microscopy, spectroscopy and nanoparticle detection' by Dr Malcolm Povey; 'Acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy' by Dr Andrei Dukhin; 'High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy and its application for material analysis by Dr Vitaly Buckin; 'Ultrasonic sensors for process applications - state of the art' by Dr Bern Henning; and three tutorials were given: 'PZFlex - Finite Element Analysis for Virtual Prototyping' by Weidlinger Associates; 'SITAU - A flexible architecture controlled by MATLAB for the development of ultrasonic applications' by DASEL; 'Ultra-SCATTERERTM (Acoustics Suite) - The R&D Tool for

  16. Biological Effects of Drug-Free Alginate Beads Cross-Linked by Copper Ions Prepared Using External Ionotropic Gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelková, M; Kubová, K; Vysloužil, J; Kejdušová, M; Vetchý, D; Celer, V; Molinková, D; Lobová, D; Pechová, A; Vysloužil, J; Kulich, P

    2017-05-01

    External ionotropic gelation offers a unique possibility to entrap multivalent ions in a polymer structure. The aim of this experimental study was to prepare new drug-free sodium alginate (ALG) particles cross-linked by Cu 2+ ions and to investigate their technological parameters (particle size, sphericity, surface topology, swelling capacity, copper content, release of Cu 2+ ions, mucoadhesivity) and biological activity (cytotoxicity and efficiency against the most common vaginal pathogens-Herpes simplex, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans) with respect to potential vaginal administration. Beads prepared from NaALG dispersions (3 or 4%) were cross-linked by Cu 2+ ions (0.5 or 1.0 M CuCl 2 ) using external ionotropic gelation. Prepared mucoadhesive beads with particle size over 1000 μm exhibited sufficient sphericity (all ˃0.89) and copper content (214.8-249.07 g/kg), which increased with concentration of polymer and hardening solution. Dissolution behaviour was characterized by extended burst effect, followed by 2 h of copper release. The efficiency of all samples against the most common vaginal pathogens was observed at cytotoxic Cu 2+ concentrations. Anti-HSV activity was demonstrated at a Cu 2+ concentration of 546 mg/L. Antibacterial activity of beads (expressed as minimum inhibition concentration, MIC) was influenced mainly by the rate of Cu 2+ release which was controlled by the extent of swelling capacity. Lower MIC values were found for E. coli in comparison with C. albicans. Sample ALG-3_1.0 exhibited the fastest copper release and was proved to be the most effective against both bacteria. This could be a result of its lower polymer concentration in combination with smaller particle size and thus larger surface area.

  17. Safe, reliable, and simplified user access of international space station through process efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory

    2001-03-01

    This paper offers an approach and methodology to defining standards, centered on process/product analysis and the premise that an effective process is a good standard. The paper then discusses the role effective processes have in integrating ISS process/product infrastructures into a customer/market focused Integrated Product and Data Environment (IPDE). The paper concludes with a discussion of the integration requirements ISS and future solicitations should consider.

  18. Study contribution to the new international philosophy of the radiological safety system on chemical processing of the natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.M. da.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the work is to adapt the radiological Safety System in the facilities concerned to the chemical treatment of the uranium concentrated (yellow-cake) until conversion in uranium hexafluoride in the pilot plant of IPEN-CNEN/SP, to the new international philosophy adopted by the International Commission Radiological on Protection ICPR publication 22(1973), 26(1977), 30(1978) and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA publication 9(1982). The new philosophy changes fully the Radiological Protection concepts of preceding philosophy, changes, also, the concept of the work place and individual monitoring as well as the classification of the working areas. These new concepts are applied in each phase of the natural uranium treatment chemical process in conversion facility. (author)

  19. Application of the Mathar Method to Identify Internal Stress Variation in Steel as a Welding Process Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with the method to identify internal stresses in two-dimensional steel members. Steel members were investigated in the delivery stage and after assembly, by means of electric-arc welding. In order to perform the member assessment two methods to identify the stress variation were applied. The first is a non-destructive measurement method employing local external magnetic field and to detecting the induced voltage, including Barkhausen noise The analysis of the latter allows to assess internal stresses in a surface layer of the material. The second method, essential in the paper, is a semi-trepanation Mathar method of tensometric strain variation measurement in the course of a controlled void-making in the material. Variation of internal stress distribution in the material led to the choice of welding technology to join. The assembly process altered the actual stresses and made up new stresses, triggering post-welding stresses as a response for the excessive stress variation.

  20. Linguistic Diversity in the International Workplace: Language Ideologies and Processes of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…

  1. Crosscutting Issues in International Transformation: Interactions and Innovations among People, Organizations, Processes, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    leaders, U.S. entities, and international players. For example, the number of projected homeless may need to be adjusted based on local knowledge, and...Federation was broken into two parties—the mostly Chinese Singapore seceded from the Federation in 1965, making Malaysia Malayan.29 More or less

  2. Affective Experiences of International and Home Students during the Information Search Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Adele Nicole; Clough, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of students are studying abroad requiring that they interact with information in languages other than their mother tongue. The UK in particular has seen a large growth in international students within Higher Education. These nonnative English speaking students present a distinct user group for university information services,…

  3. Processes and experiences of Portugal's international recruitment scheme of Colombian physicians: Did it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanet, Erika

    2017-08-01

    The Portuguese Ministry of Health performed five international recruitment rounds of Latin American physicians due to the need for physicians in certain geographic areas of the country and in some specialties, as a temporary solution to shortages. Among these recruitments is that of Colombian physicians in 2011 that was the largest of the five groups. This paper presents an evaluation of the international recruitment procedure of Colombian physicians based on the criteria of procedural outcomes and health system outcomes. The methodology used is qualitative, based on semi-structured interviews with key informants and Colombian physicians recruited in Portugal and also on documentary analysis of secondary sources. International recruitment of Colombian physicians coincided with a period of political change and severe economic crisis in Portugal that caused some problems in the course of this recruitment, mainly family reunification in the later group of Colombian physicians and non-compliance of the salary originally agreed upon. Furthermore, due to the continuous resignations of Colombian physicians throughout the 3-year contract, procedural outcomes and health system outcomes of this international recruitment were not fulfilled and therefore the expected results to meet the temporary needs for medical personnel in some areas of the country were not accomplished. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Student Agency and Language-Learning Processes and Outcomes in International Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharina, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on the kinds of learning afforded by asynchronous international computer-mediated communication (I-CMC) among Japanese, Mexican, and Russian English language learners and the role of student agency in learning. To find learning evidence, the discourse analysis and content analysis of interaction protocols were conducted in…

  5. Theoretical foundations of international migration process studies: analysis of key migration theories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska K.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for transformation of Ukraine's migration policy based on globalized world development trends and in response to the challenges of European integration transformations causes the need of researching the theoretical and methodological basis of migration studies, and the regulations of existing theories of international migration. The bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on international migration in cites indexes found that the recent researches on these problems acquire interdisciplinary character. It necessitates the transformation of migration study approaches basing on economic, social, institutional theories and concepts synthesis. The article is devoted to the study of theoretical regulations of existing international migration theories in the context of the evolution of scientists’ views on this phenomenon. The author found that the existing theories of international migration should be divided into three categories (microeconomic, macroeconomic, globalizational that contributes to their understanding in the context of implementation possibilities in migrational public administration practice. It allows to determine the theories which should be used for Ukrainian state migration policy constructing and eliminating or reducing the external migration negative effects.

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  7. Proceedings of the international symposium on control and optimization in minerals, metals and materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodouin, D.; Bazin, C.; Desbiens, A.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first symposium on Process optimization and Control in Ore Processing, Extractive Metallurgy and Material Science ever sponsored by Metsoc. Sure enough, papers dealing with these topics are regularly presented at the Annual Conference of Metallurgists, but they have always been, so far, scattered through different symposia dealing with specific mineral or metallurgical processes. The novelty, at this symposium, is that our central theme reflects the methods rather than the processes, a change of focus that should foster interdisciplinary exchanges in Metallurgical Engineering. The various methods reviewed in the symposium proceedings are presented in four chapters covering the following topics: data acquisition and filtering, process monitoring; process modelling; process control; and process optimization. We hope that the 41 papers collected in this volume can sensitize the reader to the importance of modern data processing techniques for the valorization of available process data to improve the metallurgical and economic efficiency of industrial processes. They should also incite production managers, research directors and educational leaders to expand their efforts in the field

  8. Advanced Nursing Process quality: Comparing the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) with the NANDA-International (NANDA-I) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Dantas Cavalcanti, Ana Carla; Ramos Goulart Caldas, Maria Cristina; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; da Silva, Marcos Barragan; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2017-02-01

    To assess the quality of the advanced nursing process in nursing documentation in two hospitals. Various standardised terminologies are employed by nurses worldwide, whether for teaching, research or patient care. These systems can improve the quality of nursing records, enable care continuity, consistency in written communication and enhance safety for patients and providers alike. Cross-sectional study. A total of 138 records from two facilities (69 records from each facility) were analysed, one using the NANDA-International and Nursing Interventions Classification terminology (Centre 1) and one the International Classification for Nursing Practice (Centre 2), by means of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes instrument. Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes scores range from 0-58 points. Nursing records were dated 2012-2013 for Centre 1 and 2010-2011 for Centre 2. Centre 1 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 35·46 (±6·45), whereas Centre 2 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 31·72 (±4·62) (p Nursing Diagnoses as Process' dimension, whereas in the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product', 'Nursing Interventions' and 'Nursing Outcomes' dimensions, Centre 1 exhibited superior performance; acceptable reliability values were obtained for both centres, except for the 'Nursing Interventions' domain in Centre 1 and the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Process' and 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product' domains in Centre 2. The quality of nursing documentation was superior at Centre 1, although both facilities demonstrated moderate scores considering the maximum potential score of 58 points. Reliability analyses showed satisfactory results for both standardised terminologies. Nursing leaders should use a validated instrument to investigate the quality of nursing records after implementation of standardised terminologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice—before and after crystallization—using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α=0.05. Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P<0.05. None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold.

  10. Internal State Dependent Odor Processing and Perception—The Role of Neuromodulation in the Fly Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Sayin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals rely heavily on their sense of olfaction to perform various vital interactions with an ever-in-flux environment. The turbulent and combinatorial nature of air-borne odorant cues demands the employment of various coding strategies, which allow the animal to attune to its internal needs and past or present experiences. Furthermore, these internal needs can be dependent on internal states such as hunger, reproductive state and sickness. Neuromodulation is a key component providing flexibility under such conditions. Understanding the contributions of neuromodulation, such as sensory neuron sensitization and choice bias requires manipulation of neuronal activity on a local and global scale. With Drosophila's genetic toolset, these manipulations are feasible and even allow a detailed look on the functional role of classical neuromodulators such as dopamine, octopamine and neuropeptides. The past years unraveled various mechanisms adapting chemosensory processing and perception to internal states such as hunger and reproductive state. However, future research should also investigate the mechanisms underlying other internal states including the modulatory influence of endogenous microbiota on Drosophila behavior. Furthermore, sickness induced by pathogenic infection could lead to novel insights as to the neuromodulators of circuits that integrate such a negative postingestive signal within the circuits governing olfactory behavior and learning. The enriched emporium of tools Drosophila provides will help to build a concrete picture of the influence of neuromodulation on olfaction and metabolism, adaptive behavior and our overall understanding of how a brain works.

  11. Modeling of secondary emission processes in the negative ion based electrostatic accelerator of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    G. Fubiani; H. P. L. de Esch; A. Simonin; R. S. Hemsworth

    2008-01-01

    The negative ion electrostatic accelerator for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is designed to deliver a negative deuterium current of 40 A at 1 MeV. Inside the accelerator there are several types of interactions that may create secondary particles. The dominating process originates from the single and double stripping of the accelerated negative ion by collision with the residual molecular deuterium gas (≃29% losses). The resulting seco...

  12. Constituents' formal participation in the due process of international accounting standard setting: A longitudinal analysis of stakeholder and geographical diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Ann; Lybaert, Nadine; Orens, Raf; Van der Tas, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Since IOSCO’s decision (May, 2000) to accept IASs for cross-border listing and since governments started to hand over accounting standard setting authority to the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) (EU Regulation EC N° 1606/2002, Australia FRC July 2002), the IASB is well under way to become the global accounting standard setter. For the IASB, being a private organization, widespread constituents’ participation in its due process of standard setting is a key element to reinforce...

  13. Procurement process in a manufacturing company in international environment

    OpenAIRE

    Skála, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with procurement process and ensuring of sources in a manufacturing company. The thesis is split into two parts. The first theoretical one deals with importance of procurement in creating economic value in a company, defines procurement, its goals and factors influencing it, describes procurement process, i.e. strategic sourcing, operational purchasing, procurement controlling, supplier relationship management, and procurement process support by IS/ICT. The second pra...

  14. Major influences on buying decision processes by international university students. Differences by continent of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirelli, Christian; Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Ladrón-De-Guevara, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze how food values and other variables related to dietary acculturation affect international university students' food buying decisions, this article provides an in-depth review of relevant literature related to the food buying decisions of groups of sojourners, which suggest several research hypotheses. The data collection targeted international university students in Spain and used factorial analysis of the main components together with linear parametric regressions. The resulting findings offer distinct insights, according to sojourners' continent of origin. Specifically, whereas European students exhibit a higher propensity to value sustainable production practices in the food choices, American students emphasize flavor and exhibit a greater degree of adaptation. These findings in turn suggest some key managerial recommendations and research guidelines for both private and public operators in related fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Suzanne; Graettinger, Caroline; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... Attendees from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Germany, Ireland, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Spain, and the United States discussed the challenges of process improvement in small and medium size...

  16. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Suzanne; Graettinger, Caroline; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    ... enterprises, small organizations within large companies, and small projects. The presentations addressed starting and sustaining process improvement, qualitative and quantitative studies, and using Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI...

  17. A Novel Mini-DNA Barcoding Assay to Identify Processed Fins from Internationally Protected Shark Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Andrew T.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Ce...

  18. Democratising the learning process: the use of Twitter in the teaching of Politics and International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    The version attached to this record is the authors final peer reviewed version. The publishers final version of record can be found by following the DOI link. Twitter has become an established feature of the contemporary landscape. It has been used by, among others, politicians, political parties, governments, international organisations, charities, think-tanks and individuals from academics to celebrities. Twitter has also been subject to a great deal of debate and analysis. This includes...

  19. Dynamic Properties of the International Space Station throughout the Assembly Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-29

    Forge new partnerships with other nations for the benefit of mankind • Serve as a driving force for emerging technologies • Inspire our children...of many challenging tests for human space flight and its larger dream , the International Space Station. In March of 1995, NASA astronaut Dr. Norman...1998. This docking port was quickly exercised in March 1996 by Col. Kevin Chilton’s STS-76, which transported astronaut Shannon Lucid . She remained

  20. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  1. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  2. Analysis of International Monetary Fund under conditions of globalization of economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ksendzuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization in the economy requires proper management of countries' financial resources as the regulation of international financial market is one of the most important tasks of the successful development of the world economy and individual national economies. The International Monetary Fund since the beginning of its creation was intended to regulate the financial situation in the post-war period in world space. In present conditions of information development of the world economic system the role and importance of international financial institutions are changing. Thus, the policies and activities of the IMF are increasingly criticized, that is substantiated and requires some restructuring and reforming areas of the Fund activity. During the research the basic aspects of IMF activities in 2015 have been analyzed and the suggestions for its further effective development have been presented. In particular, it is advisable to use the specific individual approach to the problems of particular economies and to view the sizes of quotas and their functional purposes that will allow to develop new funding mechanisms that are based on social and ecological needs of society. This, in turn, will reduce the impact of developed countries on the activities of the financial institution

  3. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part I - International provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial reasons of the system changes of waste management in our legal system in Poland was a need to implement solutions and mechanisms that are applied in the European Union. At the European Union law level, a Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives constitutes a basic legal document described in this part of the article. The essential idea of the quoted directive is creating legal measures, promotion of eliminating waste production and treating it as a source instead. Achievement of these assumptions requires providing segregation at source and recycling of the main waste streams above all. It is necessary to encourage this action and support the reuse of products and waste utilization. Indicated international legal instruments are of primary importance for internal rules, which shall be constructed in a way that enables the achievement of goals determined by the EU law. Legal-organizational internal systems associated with the management of waste have undergone substantial changes from 2010. National legal provisions will be presented in the second part of the article.

  4. Proceedings of the international symposium NUCEF 2001. Scientific bases for criticality safety, separation process and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    These proceedings contain 94 papers presented at NUCEF2001, that was held on October 31 - November 2, 2001, in Tokai-mura, Japan. NUCEF2001 is the 3rd international symposium of the series. The subtitle of NUCEF2001 was Scientific Bases for Criticality Safety, Separation Process and Waste Disposal'. The papers were presented in oral and poster sessions on the research fields: Criticality Safety, Separation Process, Radioactive Waste Disposal and TRU Chemistry. The 94 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  6. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  7. PerPos: a Translucent Positioning Middleware Supporting Adaptation of Internal Positioning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2010-01-01

    process. To address this problem this paper proposes a positioning middleware named PerPos that is translucent and adaptable, i.e., it supports both high- and low-level interaction. The PerPos middleware provides translucency with respect to the positioning process and allows programmatic definition...

  8. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  9. Molecular design of ¿super¿ hydrogelators: understanding the gelation process of azobenzene-based sugar derivatives in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Friggeri, A.; Koumoto, Kazuya; Amaike, Masato; Shinkai, Seiji; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt to rationally design aqueous organogelators, a bolaamphiphilic azobenzene derivative (1) bearing two sugar groups was synthesized. Compound 1 formed a gel in water even at concentrations as low as 0.05 wt % (0.65 mM). Spectroscopic studies and electron-micrographic observations have

  10. Influence of double hydrogen bonds and alkyl chains on the gelation of nonchiral polyurethane model compounds: sheets, eaves trough, tubes and oriented fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Shalini; Khan, Mostofa Kamal; Sundararajan, Pudupadi

    2009-11-17

    We describe the gelation, upon self-assembly of a series of nonchiral molecules, resulting in tubular morphology of the fibers. These are biscarbamates, which are model compounds for polyurethanes with two hydrogen bonding groups separated by a (CH(2))(6) spacer and symmetrically substituted with alkyl chains on either side varying in length from C(6) to C(18). Upon gelation, these molecules form a sheet initially. The sheets then tend to wrap, leading to tubules. Those with partial wrapping resemble eaves troughs. With the predominant growth along the hydrogen bonding direction, the energy of interaction between the molecules along this direction would be more dominant than just the van der Waals interaction in the other two, leading to asymmetry of interaction in the sheet. We rationalize such tube formation in this case on the basis of the theories [Schnur, J. M.; Ratna, B. R.; Selinger, J. V.; Singh, A.; Jyothi, G.; Easwaran, K. R. K. Science, 1994, 264, 945. Schnur, J. M. Science, 1993, 262, 166. McKierman, R. L.; Heintz, A. M.; Hsu, S. L.; Gido, S. P.; Penelle, J. Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2001, 84, 416.] which were developed for amphiphilic mono and bilayers, which state that these bilayers are not at their minimal energy when they are flat, and prefer a bent state. The gelation behavior of this series with double hydrogen bond is compared with the monocarbamates with a single hydrogen bonding motif [Moniruzzaman, M.; Sundararajan, P. R. Langmuir 2005, 21, 3802.]. We attribute the tendency toward both gelation and crystallization in some cases to the competing contributions of the hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions between the long alkyl side chains. Oriented fibers for X-ray diffraction were obtained by simply using a magnetic stir bar during gelation. It is also found that the solvents that gel with diureas [van Esch, J.; Kellogg, R. M.; Feringa, B. L. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 281] also form gels with biscarbamates. While the biscarbamates with

  11. Process water reduction in a wire milling operation. 1989 summer intern report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberg, J.

    1989-12-31

    Johnson Filtration Systems is a company located in New Brighton, Minnesota which employs 256 people. The focus of the project was to reduce the water usage of the wire milling operation. Water in the milling process is used to clean the wire and cool the mill components. Total annual water usage for this operation is six million gallons. The milling process changes the cross sectional shape of the wire by using flattening hammers and rollers. A synthetic coolant is used to enhance this process and remove heat. The coolant is removed from the wire as it is pulled through a squeegee, washed it with water and dried with an air knife.

  12. Internal acid buffering in San Joaquin Valley fog drops and its influence on aerosol processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey L.; Hoag, Katherine J.; Rao, Xin; Pandis, Spyros N.

    Although several chemical pathways exist for S(IV) oxidation in fogs and clouds, many are self-limiting: as sulfuric acid is produced and the drop pH declines, the rates of these pathways also decline. Some of the acid that is produced can be buffered by uptake of gaseous ammonia. Additional internal buffering can result from protonation of weak and strong bases present in solution. Acid titrations of high pH fog samples (median pH=6.49) collected in California's San Joaquin Valley reveal the presence of considerable internal acid buffering. In samples collected at a rural location, the observed internal buffering could be nearly accounted for based on concentrations of ammonia and bicarbonate present in solution. In samples collected in the cities of Fresno and Bakersfield, however, significant additional, unexplained buffering was present over a pH range extending from approximately four to seven. The additional buffering was found to be associated with dissolved compounds in the fogwater. It could not be accounted for by measured concentrations of low molecular weight ( C1- C3) carboxylic acids, S(IV), phosphate, or nitrophenols. The amount of unexplained buffering in individual fog samples was found to correlate strongly with the sum of sample acetate and formate concentrations, suggesting that unmeasured organic species may be important contributors. Simulation of a Bakersfield fog episode with and without the additional, unexplained buffering revealed a significant impact on the fog chemistry. When the additional buffering was included, the simulated fog pH remained 0.3-0.7 pH units higher and the amount of sulfate present after the fog evaporated was increased by 50%. Including the additional buffering in the model simulation did not affect fogwater nitrate concentrations and was found to slightly decrease ammonium concentrations. The magnitude of the buffering effect on aqueous sulfate production is sensitive to the amount of ozone present to oxidize S

  13. Concepts in context: processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.; Mackey, S.; Wilson-Mendenhall, C.; Winkielman, P.; Paulus, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in

  14. Cultural differences and process adaptation in international R&D project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing; Li, J. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Chinese and Western ways of business interactions, such as collectivism versus individualism, personal relationship and group harmony versus impersonal contractual attitude, strong versus weak uncertainty avoidance, etc. A case study on Alcatel-Lucent China Research Technology Center shows how R&D project...... process can be effectively tuned to align with local cultural environment through a new generation stage-gate process model. The overseas company's branch has recognized the need to make its process both faster and more effective for telecommunication software development, and has gained remarkable......In the era of globalization, Western companies have started to explore China as a source of technology. Yet, Western R&D project management processes in China are frequently facing many problems. Some of the problems can be conceptualized by analyzing a number of known cultural contrasts between...

  15. Proceedings of the international society for optical engineering biomedical image processing 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovik, A.G.; Howard, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of biomedical image processing. Topics covered include: Filtering and reconstruction of biomedical images; analysis, classification and recognition of biomedical images; and 3-D microscopy

  16. CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI) Version 1.2 Method Description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunaway, Donna

    2001-01-01

    .... The method helps an organization to gain insight into its software development capability by identifying strengths and weaknesses of its current processes related to the Capability Maturity Model(registered) for Software V1.1...

  17. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.; Kannapel, M.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues concerning the physical chemical processes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine are discussed. The objectives being to supply the general purpose CFD code PHOENICS and the associated interactive graphics package - GRAFFIC; to demonstrate code usage on SSME related problems; to perform computations and analyses of problems relevant to current and future SSME's; and to participate in the development of new physical models of various processes present in SSME components. These objectives are discussed in detail.

  18. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, James W [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  20. Innovation indicators: a survey of innovative activities in the international food processed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to combine traditional methods of measuring intensity with other alternative indicators to examine the dispersion of innovation activities in different industries and countries. The hypothesis that underlies the study lies in the fact that in the Food Processed Industry (IAP the traditional methods are insufficient to detect the core of the innovation process. As method, we analyzed patent data extracted from the twenty-five largest food processed companies in the world and suggested different indicators developed from the Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (PINTEC, 2010 – for Brazilian companies – and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS, 2009 – for European Union companies. The results allowed us to establish relationships in three dimensions: (i the complexity of the innovative effort of the IAP; (ii the efforts to innovation in different countries are distinct and; (iii there is heterogeneity in country performance.

  1. OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS ON THE INNOVATION PROCESS: A BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marques de Almeida Guerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric Studies concepts. There were five stages for the configuration of this article: identification of the keyword, Innovation Process, and selection of the search criteria; selection of articles and listing them according to the number of citations under the search criteria; selection of the ten articles with the highest number of citations; analysis of the selected articles; and discussion about the conclusions. The study makes it possible to identify which are the main published articles on Innovation Process based on the number of citations, length of time and date, countries, areas of knowledge, journals, authors and universities of publication. According to the findings, it seems advisable for developing countries’ scholars to foster further research on Innovation Process, as well as more productions on Bibliometric Research as a whole.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS EPIDEMIC PROCESS: INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Balasaniantc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis epidemic process is characterized by decreasing in the basic epidemiological indexes which is possible the favorable tendency. Inside the process gradual and steady changing from drug sensitive on drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis population has taken place that has the consequence various organizational and medical complexities of therapy of the patients. Simultaneously population of tuberculosis patients is also change with increasing the proportion of patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV-infection. Lacks of HIV early detection, growth of HIV patients with prolonged stages of HIV and wide spreading of tuberculosis contamination among population become the reason of fast transformation latent tuberculous infection to disease. Antiviral therapy actively appointed to HIV patients does not render influence on this process yet.  

  3. Integration of International Service Learning in Developing Countries within Occupational Therapy Education: Process and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is included in an increasing number of courses at post-secondary levels of education, including programs which educate future occupational therapy practitioners. There is a limited amount of literature and research concerning best practices for course-based occupational therapy education featuring ISL experiences, in particular within developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to (a) to review key literature on ISL, (b) explicate key elements which can help design course-based ISL experiences; and (c) suggest areas for further research and development of course-based ISL. The seven elements of focus that provide a base to guide occupational therapy educators who create ISL courses with an immersion component in a country with a developing economy are discussed, as well as future challenges and possibilities when providing occupational therapy services to a global society.

  4. INTERNAL FRICTION USE IN MONITORING THE DEGRADATION PROCESSES IN A MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Palček

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the measurement of the fatigue life of material, the specimen undergoes large number of stress cycles. While the observed number of cycles before failure is considered to be the most important result (often the only one, more knowledge can be obtained. Measuring energy consumption of specimen during the cycling, the changes of microstructure of material (especially dislocation structure and crack initialization can be traced. The evolution of dynamic modulus can be watched on the same equipment. These information becomes very important, especially in the research of gigacycle fatigue strength and fatigue limit below which the continued loading does not lead to structural failure. In this article some remarks on microstructural changes in materials, which can be monitored by nondestructive measurement of internal friction are presented.

  5. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  6. Turning process monitoring of internal combustion engine piston’s cylindrical surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twardowski Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the monitoring method of turning process of combustion engine piston’s cylindrical surface is proposed. During this process, the PCD diamond tool cuts the piston’s cylindrical surface with the 3 grooves. The first groove is made in the cast iron insert. In case, when the machining allowances are selected inappropriately, the tool cuts the cast iron insert and consequently generates the reject. The proposed monitoring system based on vibration signals analysis enables the detection of these critical situations and react, in order to maintain the production quality.

  7. International recommendations for national patient safety incident reporting systems: an expert Delphi consensus-building process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ann-Marie; Burns, Elaine M; Hull, Louise; Mayer, Erik; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2017-02-01

    Patient safety incident reporting systems (PSRS) have been established for over a decade, but uncertainty remains regarding the role that they can and ought to play in quantifying healthcare-related harm and improving care. To establish international, expert consensus on the purpose of PSRS regarding monitoring and learning from incidents and developing recommendations for their future role. After a scoping review of the literature, semi-structured interviews with experts in PSRS were conducted. Based on these findings, a survey-based questionnaire was developed and subsequently completed by a larger expert panel. Using a Delphi approach, consensus was reached regarding the ideal role of PSRSs. Recommendations for best practice were devised. Forty recommendations emerged from the Delphi procedure on the role and use of PSRS. Experts agreed reporting system should not be used as an epidemiological tool to monitor the rate of harm over time or to appraise the relative safety of hospitals. They agreed reporting is a valuable mechanism for identifying organisational safety needs. The benefit of a national system was clear with respect to medication error, device failures, hospital-acquired infections and never events as these problems often require solutions at a national level. Experts recommended training for senior healthcare professionals in incident investigation. Consensus recommendation was for hospitals to take responsibility for creating safety solutions locally that could be shared nationally. We obtained reasonable consensus among experts on aims and specifications of PSRS. This information can be used to reflect on existing and future PSRS, and their role within the wider patient safety landscape. The role of PSRS as instruments for learning needs to be elaborated and developed further internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The influence of Uranium-Thorium ratio and heating time during gelation using as a CCl4(NH3) on the Gel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra-Suryawan; Sukarsono, R; Setyo-Sulardi

    1996-01-01

    Gel has been prepared from a uranium-thorium sol using CCI 4 (NH 3 ) as a gelling medium. The uranium-thorium ratio and the heating time during gelation have been chosen as variables. The sol was prepared by mixing Th(NO 3 ) 4 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solutions, heating the solution at 95 o C and adding NH 4 OH solution drop by drop until colloidal particles were formed. Sol was then fed into a gelation column containing CCI 4 (NH 3 ), where the sol was transformed into gel. A good gel has properties such as sphere in shape and elastic which it will not crack when it is dropped from 2 metres height. The experimental work resulted a good gel when the percentage of uranium was about 15 - 25 % at heating time of 40 - 50 minutes

  9. 45 CFR 147.136 - Internal claims and appeals and external review processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the external review; any officer, director, or management employee of the issuer; the plan... also provide additional consumer protections to ensure that adequate clinical and scientific experience... language; and (C) To the extent the plan or issuer maintains a customer assistance process (such as a...

  10. Introduction of an all-electronic administrative process for a major international pediatric surgical meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Harry; Boles, Kay; Atkinson, James B

    2003-12-01

    The administrative process for annual meetings is time consuming and increasingly costly when accomplished by traditional postal, fax, and telephone methods. The Pacific Association of Pediatric Surgeons introduced an all-electronic communication format for its 2002 annual meeting. Attendee acceptance and administrative and financial impact were evaluated. Interested physicians were directed to a Website containing detailed information and electronic forms. E-mail was used for the abstract selection and manuscript submission processes. Attendees were surveyed to evaluate the new format. Administrative costs for the new format were compared with estimated costs for a comparable traditionally managed meeting. Attendance was similar to that at previous US meetings. Eighty-two percent of respondents approved of the all-electronic format, although 48% believed a choice should remain. None suggested a complete return to the traditional format. Abstract and manuscript processing time was reduced substantially as were administrative costs (79.43 dollars savings per physician registrant). Adoption of an all-electronic annual meeting administrative process was associated with substantial cost reduction, increased efficiency, and excellent attendee satisfaction. This technology can help avoid increased registration fees while easing the burden on physician volunteers.

  11. International Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Physics School: Diffractive and electromagnetic processes at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The school "Diffractive and electromagnetic processes at high energies" is held in Bad Honnef, August 17-21, 2015. Applications from students and postdocs are encouraged. The school programme consists of invited talks of the HERA, RHIC, TEVATRON and CERN programmes, invited lectures and talks contributed by the participants.

  12. Bridging the Operational Divide: An Information-Processing Model of Internal Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Feger, Ana L.

    2009-01-01

    Supply Chain Management, the coordination of upstream and downstream flows of product, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer, has risen in prominence over the past fifteen years. The delivery of a product to the consumer is a complex process requiring action from several independent entities. An individual firm consists…

  13. Establishing an international reference image database for research and development in medical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, A.D.; Prinz, M.; Schneider, S.; Sipilä, O; Spinnler, K.; Vallée, J-P; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I; Vogl, R.; Wittenberg, T.; Zahlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The lack of comparability of evaluation results is one of the major obstacles of research and development in Medical Image Processing (MIP). The main reason for that is the usage of different image datasets with different quality, size and Gold standard. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, one of

  14. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  15. Competency-Based Training in International Perspective: Comparing the Implementation Processes Towards the Achievement of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boahin, Peter; Eggink, Jose; Hofman, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparison of competency-based training (CBT) systems in a number of countries with the purpose of drawing lessons to support Ghana and other countries in the process of CBT implementation. The study focuses on recognition of prior learning and involvement of industry since these features seem crucial in achieving…

  16. Proposal to support the 4th international conference on nitrification and related processes (ICoN4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Martin Gunter [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The 4th International Conference on Nitrification and Related Processes (ICoN4) commencing between June 27 and July 1, 2015, at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada brings together an international collection of academic, government, and private sector researchers of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle to share their scientific discoveries, innovations and pertinent societal impacts. The classical understanding of “nitrification” describes the two-step transformation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate; however, we now know from the analysis genome sequences, the application of ‘omics technologies, microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, and microbial physiology that the transformation of ammonium is not performed by a few particular groups of microorganisms nor is it confined to oxic environments. Past ICoN meetings have explored the interconnections between ammonium- and nitrite-consuming processes in all ecosystems, the emission of greenhouse gases by these processes and their control, and the intersection between intermediates of the nitrification process and other elemental cycles; this has generated tremendous progress in our understanding of the global nitrogen cycle and it has generated excitement in the next generation of N cycle researchers. Nitrification research has a long-standing connection to the Community Science Program of the DOE. Between 1999 and 2001, the JGI generated the first genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, and it has subsequently sequenced, or is in the process of sequencing over 50 additional genomes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Autotrophic ammonia- and nitrite-transforming microorganisms play also a critical role in carbon cycling and sequestration in nearly all ecosystems. Not only do they control the concentration and speciation of biologically available N to plants and other

  17. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC: Models of Engagement with International Institutions in the Process of Regional Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Andreyevna Safonkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After the global financial crisis in 2008 the Asia-Pacific region has become a main driver of global economic growth leaving behind the US and European economies. The regional integration processes and business environment improvement as a result of the multilateral regional fora`s activities, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC laid the foundation for such economic successes. In the process of regional governance the APEC engages with various international and regional organizations applying the models which help it to address its agenda demands in the best way. The article aims to explore what models of engagement with international and regional organizations the APEC forum applies in the process of regional governance; reasons and results of applying these models; track the evolution of engagement as well as assess the effectiveness of APEC`s engagement with international organizations in the context of shifting agenda. The research methods the author applied include qualitative and quantitative content analysis and comparative historical analysis. The official APEC documents adopted at the summits and ministerial meetings constituted the evidence base for the analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation has clearly organized agenda aimed at implementing primary goals on trade and investment liberalization and favorable business environment in the region. Accomplishing objectives of its agenda the APEC takes advantage of policy, finance and expert potential as well as instruments and mechanisms of the international organizations (model “governance through multilateral organizations”. The model of “catalytic influence” is applied by the APEC in very rare cases. APEC applies the model of “parallel treatment” when it establishes its own bodies. APEC uses the “core group” model when it defines the mission of its own bodies as well as gives mandates to the international

  18. Sentence-internal "same" and its quantificational licensors: A new window into the processing of inverse scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brasoveanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the processing of sentence-internal "same" with four licensors ("all", "each", "every" and "the" in two orders: licensor+"same (surface scope and "same"+licensor (inverse scope. Our two self-paced reading studies show that there is no general effect of surface vs. inverse scope, which we take as an argument for a model-oriented view of the processing cost of inverse scope: the inverse scope of quantifiers seems to be costly because of model structure reanalysis, not because of covert scope operations. The second result is methodological: the psycholinguistic investigation of semantic phenomena like the interaction of quantifiers and sentence-internal readings should always involve a context that prompts a deep enough processing of the target expressions. In one of our two studies, participants read the target sentences after reading a scenario introducing the two sets of entities the quantifier NP and the same NP referred to and they were asked to determine whether the sentence was true or false relative to the background scenario every time. In the other study, the participants read the same sentences without any context and there were fewer follow-up comprehension questions. The relevant effects observed in the study with contexts completely disappeared in the out-of-context study, although the participants in both studies were monitored for their level of attention to the experimental task. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.1 BibTeX info

  19. Impact of External and Internal Factors on the Behavior of Extended Aeration Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Al Abedrabah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Behavior of an extended aeration activated sludge process was studied. Factors that might affect the performance of such process were also investigated. Three basins, each consisted of two parts one for aeration and the other for sedimentation were employed. Required tests and results analysis were made. It was found that removal efficiency of dissolved organic matter was limited to F/M ratio. The study revealed that such treatment was capable of treating variable characteristics wastes. The supernatant leaving secondary sedimentation was found to attain constant characteristics irrespective of variable influent. The results show that the maximum overall COD removal efficiency occur at hydraulic detention time equal to 23 h, 80% of SVI value was less than 125 ml/gm and the minimum SVI occur at F/M equal to 0.387 day-1 while the effluent SS increase with SVI decrease.  

  20. Proceedings of the third international conference on recent advances in material processing technology: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, S.L.; Manisekar, K.; Lenin, N.; Ramanan, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the conference was to disseminate information on the latest trends and global research in manufacturing and material processing techniques. This conference provided a forum to share information on technologies, concepts, and techniques to improve the quality of the products and productivity. The deliberations at the conference provided discussion on Casting Technology, Forming processes, Manufacturing Techniques, Simulation and Modeling Techniques, Tools and Precision Engineering, Condition Monitoring, Composites, Optimization Techniques, Surface Engineering, Welding Technology, Nano Technology, Recycle Technology, Fuel Cell Technology, Sensors and Robotics, Materials for Energy Engineering, Rapid Protyping, Eco-Manufacturing Systems, Functionally Graded Materials, Non-Destructive Evaluation, Materials Development and Evaluation etc. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  2. A coupled FVM-DEM method to simulate internal erosion process in micro scale granular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q.; Man, T.; Hill, K. M.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a three dimensional coupling DEM-FVM method to simulate and analyze internal erosion behavior in a micro-scale granular system. The FVM (Finite Volume Method) part is set to simulate the seepage flow through the simulation field, providing the spatial distribution of fluid conditions (e.g., water discharge and confining pressure). The DEM (Discrete Element Method) part helps reproduce the details, such as the location, movement and rotation of soil particles driven by the resolved flow, and update the parameters used in the FVM part (e.g., porosity and grain size gradation). The simulation result is proved to be stable and reliable by verified convergence and symmetry in velocity profile as well as by reproduced rheology rules of granular flow. Then a series of cases with different boundary conditions were simulated. The value of critical shear stress, which is an essential parameter in macroscopic modeling framework, was statistically drawn within the granular system. It was shown that the value of critical shear stress remains a constant under given soil gradation and normal pressure, no matter how the hydraulic gradient changes. This finding is consistent with traditional assumption of being constant and shows the capability of reproducing macroscopic properties of soil through using the FVM-DEM modeling approach.

  3. Percentage of adults in learning processes in Slovenia with international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Čelebič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning the author presents the benefits of education for the individual, society and economy. On average better educated people have higher earnings and lower risks of poverty. However, education has also positive effects on economic growth. Furthermore the author presents, on the basis of Slovenian and international statistical data, the trends in participation of adults in education and the education structure of adult population in Slovenia after 2000. The participation of adults, aged 25 – 64 years in life-long learning in Slovenia is relatively high compared to other European countries and European average; it totaled 14.8% in 2007. Also, the participation of adults in secondary and tertiary education is above the European average and grew in the period 2000 – 2006. The educational structure of adult population improved as well. The share of the population with completed lower education or without the education declined, while the share of the population, with tertiary education increased. Also, the participation of adults, aged 25 – 64 years in non-formal education increased in the period 2003 – 2007, however there are considerable differences in participation between lower and tertiary educated population. Two important challenges are tied to stimulating higher level of participation of elderly people and low educated people in education.

  4. International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Failure Analysis: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Basta, Erin A.; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS configurations spanning ISS Stage 12A. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models used to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve its fatigue life prediction. On-Orbit dynamic responses were measured during the ISS configurations throughout ISS Stage 12A by the two main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). These nominal on-orbit events include Russian vehicle docking and undockings. Also, the ISS photogrammetric system recorded the movements of the 2A and 4A solar arrays during a modified ISS maneuver. Modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shapes. Correlation and comparisons between the test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the ISS configurations under consideration.

  5. World Nuclear Association (WNA) internationally standardized reporting (checklist) on the sustainable development performance of uranium mining and processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear Association (WNA) has developed internationally standardized reporting (‘Checklist’) for uranium mining and processing sites. This reporting is to achieve widespread utilities/miners agreement on a list of topics/indicators for common use in demonstrating miners’ adherence to strong sustainable development performance. Nuclear utilities are often required to evaluate the sustainable development performance of their suppliers as part of a utility operational management system. In the present case, nuclear utilities are buyers of uranium supplies from uranium miners and such purchases are often achieved through the utility uranium or fuel supply management function. This Checklist is an evaluation tool which has been created to collect information from uranium miners’ available annual reports, data series, and measurable indicators on a wide range of sustainable development topics to verify that best practices in this field are implemented throughout uranium mining and processing sites. The Checklist has been developed to align with the WNA’s policy document Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing: Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety, and Waste and the Environment which encompasses all applicable aspects of sustainable development to uranium mining and processing. The eleven sections of the Checklist are: 1. Adherence to Sustainable Development; 2. Health, Safety and Environmental Protection; 3. Compliance; 4. Social Responsibility and Stakeholder Engagement; 5. Management of Hazardous Materials; 6. Quality Management Systems; 7. Accidents and Emergencies; 8. Transport of Hazardous Materials; 9. Systematic Approach to Training; 10. Security of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Nuclear Substances; 11. Decommissioning and Site Closure. The Checklist benefits from many years of nuclear utility experience in verifying the sustainable development performance of uranium mining and processing sites. This

  6. Methods of the working processes modelling of an internal combustion engine by an ANSYS IC Engine module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchatkin, I. V.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Blagin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with developed methods of the working processes modelling in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine (ICE). Methods includes description of the preparation of a combustion chamber 3-d model, setting of the finite-element mesh, boundary condition setting and solution customization. Aircraft radial engine M-14 was selected for modelling. The cycle of cold blowdown in the ANSYS IC Engine software was carried out. The obtained data were compared to results of known calculation methods. A method of engine’s induction port improvement was suggested.

  7. On the integration developmental characteristics as a form of international policy in the context of modern globalization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under globalization of the world community, there are new opportunities and potential threats to the current system of international relations, collective security and geopolitical development of different regions. Integration and regionalization, consolidation and separatism entered upon the agenda of the political present. The integration process becomes one of the variations of peaceful and mutually beneficial solution to the question of the globalization influence of uneven development of the world regions, the fight against global problems of humanity, discrimination and intolerance, spread the values of democracy, rights, freedom and equality.

  8. Gelation of Photonic Microdomain Structures Formed in Semi-Dilute Solutions of Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-b-Polybutadiene with Various Polybutadiene Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S; Ito, S; Ando, K; Mouri, M; Ikeda, A; Hasegawa, H; Koshikawa, N, E-mail: okamoto.shigeru@nitech.ac.jp

    2010-11-15

    Well-ordered microdomain structures were obtained in semi-dilute solutions and successfully stabilized by gelation. We used polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) diblock copolymer with the weight-averaged molecular weight varying from several hundred thousands to millions g/mol. The solutions had iridescent colors because the domain spacing is on the order of the wavelength of visible light. As the structures are susceptible to distortion by flow or vibration, structural fixation was carried out by gelation. The polybutadiene used has the microstructure of 1,2-linkage and hence the chains can be cross-linkable. The Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements showed that in the case of PS-b-PBs with the PB volume fraction, {phi}{sub PB}, greater than about 50 vol % the microdomain structures were successfully fixed by gelation, while largely distorted in the case of those with {phi}{sub PB} < ca. 50 vol %. The SAXS scattering intensities were quantitatively analyzed by the scattering functions numerically calculated based on the one- and two-dimensional paracrystal theories and on the concentration fluctuation between the polymers and the solvent molecules.

  9. Evaluation of the Rockwell International flash-hydroliquefaction process. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, V.P.

    1980-09-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, UOP/SDC has evaluated the Rockwell Hydroliquefaction Process to determine the adequacy of the existing PDU data base and to assess the practicability and operability of the process. UOP/SDC conducted nine studies. Their findings follow: (1) A complete designed set of experiments must be run on the present PDU to make possible satisfactory analysis of the effects of variables especially the effect of diluents in the H/sub 2/ feed and the possibility of carbon deposition problems. (2) Basic improvements in the equipment and operation of the PDU should first be made (Ten specific recommendations are made). (3) A reactor design concept must be developed that looks feasible for design, fabrication, and operation. (4) A conceptual commercial design and economics should be prepared based on a realistic set of design bases and criteria. (5) If the above are accomplished successfully with attractive results, then and only then: (a) A study should be made of the refining requirements of the product, which are expected to be expensive based on the H/C ratio. (b) The PDU should be modified for continuous runs of up to one month to: Confirm the data correlations, estimate the reliability of the reactor and process, adhere to the requirements stated above, test cryogenic gas separation, study fouling and erosion, study lockhopper feeding, establish initial reliability of the coal injector and precombustion assembly head, collect scale-up and design data, and conduct a materials study and confirm materials choices. (c) Determine particle size of the char and of the solids in the oil product, the degree to which they may be separated, and how the ash should be removed from the product oil.

  10. Encapsulating betalains from Opuntia ficus-indica fruits by ionic gelation: Pigment chemical stability during storage of beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Osorio, Coralia; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena

    2016-07-01

    Betalain encapsulation was performed by ionic gelation as a stabilization strategy for these natural pigments. Betalains were extracted from purple cactus fruits and encapsulated in calcium-alginate and in combination of calcium alginate and bovine serum albumin. Beads were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined. Bead morphology was affected by matrix composition. Pigments storage stability was evaluated at different equilibrium relative humidity and temperatures. Pigment composition of beads was determined by HPLC-MS-MS and degradation products were also analysed after storage; betalamic acid being the major one. Both types of matrices protected the encapsulated pigments, being their storage stability better at low relative humidity than that of the non-encapsulated control material. Antiradical activities of beads were proportional to remaining betalain contents. At high relative humidity, there was no protection and low storage stability was observed in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of rare sugar d-allulose on heat-induced gelation of surimi prepared from marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masahiro; Inoue, Masaki; Hayakawa, Shigeru; O'Charoen, Siwaporn; Ogawa, Makiko

    2017-11-01

    d-Allulose (Alu), the C3-epimer of d-fructose, is a non-caloric sweetener (0.39 kcal g -1 ) with a suppressive effect on postprandial blood glucose elevation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Alu used as a sweetener and gel improver instead of sucrose on heat-induced gelation of surimi. The puncture test of a heat-induced surimi gel showed that with 50 g kg -1 Alu the gel had 15% and 6% higher gel strength than the corresponding gel with sucrose (Suc) and with sorbitol (Sor), respectively. In addition, Alu-gel had 26% and 25% higher water-holding capacity (WHC) than Suc- and Sor-gel. Heating of myofibrillar protein with Alu, unlike Suc and Sor, facilitated the formation of both disulfide and non-disulfide crosslinks that might be associated with the mechanical properties and WHC of Alu-gel. Alu improves the mechanical properties and WHC of the heat-induced surimi gel. Furthermore, Alu is low in calories compared with Suc (4.0 kcal g -1 ) and Sor (3.0 kcal g -1 ). Thus Alu will be an alternative of Suc or Sor for developing surimi-based products with health benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Binary Supramolecular Gel of Achiral Azobenzene with a Chaperone Gelator: Chirality Transfer, Tuned Morphology, and Chiroptical Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lukang; Ouyang, Guanghui; Liu, Minghua

    2017-10-31

    Binary supramolecular gels based on achiral azobenzene derivatives and a chiral chaperone gelator, long-alkyl-chain-substituted L-Histidine (abbreviated as LHC18) that could assist many nongelling acids in forming gels, were investigated in order to fabricate the chiroptical gel materials in a simple way. It was found that although the carboxylic acid-terminated achiral azobenzene derivatives could not form gels in any solvents, when mixed with LHC18 they formed the co-gels and self-assembled into various morphologies ranging from nanotubes and loose nanotubes to nanosheets, depending on the substituent groups on the azobenzene moiety. The ether linkage and the number of carboxylic acid groups attached to the azobenzene moiety played important roles. Upon gel formation, the localized molecular chirality in LHC18 could be transferred to the azobenzene moiety. Combined with the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene, optically and chiroptically reversible gels were generated. It was found that the gel based on azobenzene with two carboxylic acid groups and ether linkages showed clear optical reversibility but less chiroptical reversibility, whereas the gel based on azobenzene with one carboxylic acid and an ether linkage showed both optical and chiroptical reversibility. Thus, new insights into the relationship among the molecular structures of the azobenzene, self-assembled nanostructures in the gel and the optical and chiroptical reversibility were disclosed.

  13. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An unprecedented amplification of near-infrared emission in a Bodipy derived π-system by stress or gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherumukkil, Sandeep; Ghosh, Samrat; Praveen, Vakayil K; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2017-08-01

    We report an unprecedented strategy to generate and amplify near-infrared (NIR) emission in an organic chromophore by mechanical stress or gelation pathways. A greenish-yellow emitting film of π-extended Bodipy-1 , obtained from n -decane, became orange-red upon mechanical shearing, with a 15-fold enhancement in NIR emission at 738 nm. Alternatively, a DMSO gel of Bodipy-1 exhibited a 7-fold enhancement in NIR emission at 748 nm with a change in emission color from yellow to orange-red upon drying. The reason for the amplified NIR emission in both cases is established from the difference in chromophore packing, by single crystal analysis of a model compound ( Bodipy-2 ), which also exhibited a near identical emission spectrum with red to NIR emission (742 nm). Comparison of the emission features and WAXS and FT-IR data of the sheared n -decane film and the DMSO xerogel with the single crystal data supports a head-to-tail slipped arrangement driven by the N-H···F-B bonding in the sheared or xerogel states, which facilitates strong exciton coupling and the resultant NIR emission.

  15. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  16. Environmental Factors and Internal Processes Contributing to Interrupted Rapid Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, E. A.; Elsberry, R. L.; Velden, C.; Creasey, R.; Jorgensen, A.; Jordan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Joaquin (2015) was the most intense Atlantic hurricane with a non-tropical origin during the satellite era. In addition to its rapid intensification, Joaquin was noteworthy for the difficulty in forecasting its post-recurvature track to the northeast after having struck the Bahama Islands. Such a track typically leads to a decay as the hurricane moves poleward over colder water, and Joaquin had an extreme decay rate from 135 kt to 65 kt in only 30 h. The focus of this study is on the environmental and internal factors that interrupted this extreme decay at 1800 UTC 4 October, and then how Joaquin re-intensified to 75 kt and maintained that intensity for 30 hours. The real-time Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction System (SHIPS) database is used to calculate each six hours six environmental variables that Hendricks et al. (2010) had found contributed to intensity change. Only the deep-layer vertical wind shear (VWS) from SHIPS, and also from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), had a well-defined relationship with both the interrupted rapid decay and the subsequent constant intensity period. A special dataset of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) at 15-minute intervals prepared by CIMSS is then utilized to create a continuous VWS record that documents the large ( 15 m s-1) VWS throughout most of the rapid decay period, and then a rapid decrease in VWS to moderate ( 8 m s-1) values at and following the rapid decay period. Horizontal distributions of these CIMSS VWSs demonstrate that during this period Joaquin was located in a large gradient region between large VWSs to the north and near-zero VWSs to the south, which was favorable for sustaining Joaquin at hurricane intensity.

  17. Audit of internal quality control practice and processes in the south-east of England and suggested regional standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, David; Kearney, Edward; English, Emma; Smith, Natalie; Teal, Teresa; Mazurkiewicz, Janina; Freedman, Danielle B

    2008-03-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) has a long and well-established role in clinical biochemistry laboratories. However, despite the duration of use, and the publication of several articles detailing best practice, the implementation and use of IQC vary significantly between institutions. Consequently, the North Thames Audit and Quality Assurance Group undertook a region-wide audit of current IQC practice in 2006. On aspects of IQC testing, interpretation and laboratory processes, 54 laboratories in the region were audited. Audit data showed significant variability in all aspects of practice, including IQC frequency, use of appropriate material, statistical processing and grades of staff involved. Some of the variation in practice may affect the effectiveness of laboratory IQC, and thus the adequacy of a laboratory to monitor system performance. Consequently, a set of proposed regional standards have been developed and disseminated, prior to re-audit at a future date.

  18. Metallic materials for heat exchanger components and highly stressed internal of HTR reactors for nuclear process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The programme was aimed at the development and improvement of materials for the high-temperature heat exchanger components of a process steam HTR. The materials must have high resistance to corrosion, i.e. carburisation and internal oxidation, and high long-term toughness over a wide range of temperatures. They must also meet the requirements set in the nuclear licensing procedure, i.e. resistance to cyclic stress and irradiation, non-destructive testing, etc. Initially, it was only intended to improve and qualify commercial alloys. Later on an alloy development programme was initiated in which new, non-commercial alloys were produced and modified for use in a nuclear process heat facility. Separate abstracts were prepared for 19 pays of this volume. (orig./IHOE) [de

  19. Solid triphenylmethanol: A molecular material that undergoes multiple internal reorientational processes on different timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchin, Simon J.; Xu Mingcan; Serrano-Gonzalez, Heliodoro; Coates, Laura J.; Zaka Ahmed, S.; Glidewell, Christopher; Harris, Kenneth D.M.

    2006-01-01

    In solid triphenylmethanol, the molecules are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tetramers, and it is already well established that the hydrogen bonding in this material undergoes a dynamic switching process between different hydrogen bonding arrangements. In addition to this motion, we show here, from solid-state 2 H NMR studies of the deuterated material (C 6 D 5 ) 3 COH, that each phenyl ring in this material undergoes a 180 deg.-jump reorientation about the C 6 D 5 -C(OH) bond, with an activation energy of ca. 50 kJ mol -1 . The timescale for the phenyl ring dynamics is several orders of magnitude longer than the timescale for the hydrogen bond dynamics in this material, and is uncorrelated with the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding arrangement

  20. Internal structure visualization of flow and flame by process tomography and PLIF data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Shi; Sun, S.; Pan, X.; Schlaberg, I. H. I.

    2018-02-01

    To address the increasing demands on pollution control and energy saving, the study of low-emission and high-efficiency burners has been emphasized worldwide. Swirl-induced environmental burners (EV-burners), have notable features aligned with these requirements. In this study, an EV burner is investigated by both an ECT system and an OH-PLIF system. The aim is to detect the structure of a flame and obtain more information about the combustion process in an EV burner. 3D ECT sensitivity maps are generated for the measurement and OH-PLIF images are acquired in the same combustion zone as for the ECT measurements. The experimental images of a flame by ECT are in good agreement with the OH radical distribution pictures captured by OH-PLIF, which provide a mutual verification of the visualization method.

  1. Integration processes in CIS and international experience in economic and political cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Tsvetkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern tendencies and prospects of development of global integration in the global economic environment. It is shown that post-socialist transformation do not fit the classic model of transformational crossings, as have other stages, different specific hierarchy of procedural and structural factors are mixed, implement simultaneous transformations in various fields, save the importance of powerful items, stimulate the emergence of complex conflicts. Great attention is paid to the peculiarities of integration processes in Europe, in North America, the Asia-Pacific region. On the example of the European Union (EU, the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA, the Asia-Pacific economic cooperation (APEC, which are the centers of global integration, which focused on large-scale economic, financial, scientific-technological and human resources, by their importance comparable to their political, military-strategic values, analyzed the stages of formation and development of the integration of the unions further directions of their strategic development.

  2. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near

  3. Multi response optimization of internal grinding process parameters for outer ring using Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnuadi, Alief Regyan; Damayanti, Retno Wulan; Pujiyanto, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Bearing is one of the most widely used parts in automotive industry. One of the leading bearing manufacturing companies in the world is SKF Indonesia. This company must produce bearing with international standard. SKF Indonesia must do continuous improvement in order to face competition. During this time, SKF Indonesia is only performing quality control at its Quality Assurance department. In other words, quality improvement at SKF Indonesia has not been done thoroughly. The purpose of this research is to improve quality of outer ring product at SKF Indonesia by conducting an internal grinding process experiment about setting speed ratio, fine position, and spark out grinding time. The specific purpose of this experiment is to optimize some quality responses such as roughness, roundness, and cycle time. All of the response in this experiment were smaller the better. Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS are used for the optimization process. The result of this research shows that by using Taguchi method and PCR-TOPSIS, the optimum condition occurs on speed ratio 36, fine position 18 µm/s and spark out 0.5 s. The optimum conditions result were roughness 0.398 µm, roundness 1.78 µm and cycle time 8.1 s. This results have been better than the previous results and meet the standards. The roughness of 0.523 µm decrease to 0.398 µm and the average cycle time of 8.5 s decrease to 8.1 s.

  4. Evidence for ligand and/or receptor-specific mechanisms of internalization and processing in cultured H35 hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, R.I.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-05-01

    Total cell associated (TC) and intracellularly accumulated (IC) SVI-labeled insulin (INS) or -2-macroglobulin ( 2M) were assessed in cultured H35 hepatoma cells which were preincubated with various agents. Cytochalasin D or sodium azide, which affect microfilament- or energy-dependent receptor internalization, had no significant effects on INS TC or IC but each decreased 2M TC and IC to 50-75% of control. Monensin and chloroquine, acidotrophic agents, each increased INS TC and IC to 150-300% of control yet decreased TC and IC of 2M to 20-50% of control. Only leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, caused an increase in both INS and 2M TC and IC. These data suggest significant differences exist in the biochemical regulation or structural routes of INS and 2M receptors and/or receptor-ligand complexes in their (1) internalization, (2) processing in acidic organelles, (3) recycling to the cell surface or in combinations of the above. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies are being performed on the H35 hepatoma cell which will characterize the processing of INS and 2M receptors and provide an explanation for the differences observed.

  5. Evidence for ligand and/or receptor-specific mechanisms of internalization and processing in cultured H35 hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.I.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Total cell associated (TC) and intracellularly accumulated (IC) 125 I-labeled insulin (INS) or α-2-macroglobulin (α2M) were assessed in cultured H35 hepatoma cells which were preincubated with various agents. Cytochalasin D or sodium azide, which affect microfilament- or energy-dependent receptor internalization, had no significant effects on INS TC or IC but each decreased α2M TC and IC to 50-75% of control. Monensin and chloroquine, acidotrophic agents, each increased INS TC and IC to 150-300% of control yet decreased TC and IC of α2M to 20-50% of control. Only leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, caused an increase in both INS and α2M TC and IC. These data suggest significant differences exist in the biochemical regulation or structural routes of INS and α2M receptors and/or receptor-ligand complexes in their (1) internalization, (2) processing in acidic organelles, (3) recycling to the cell surface or in combinations of the above. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies are being performed on the H35 hepatoma cell which will characterize the processing of INS and α2M receptors and provide an explanation for the differences observed

  6. Decomplexation efficiency and mechanism of Cu(II)-EDTA by H2O2 coupled internal micro-electrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongfang; Hu, Yongyou; Guo, Qian; Yuan, Weiguang; Deng, Jiefan; Dang, Yapan

    2016-12-29

    Internal micro-electrolysis (IE) coupled with Fenton oxidation (IEF) was a very effective technology for copper (Cu)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) wastewater treatment. However, the mechanisms of Cu 2+ removal and EDTA degradation were scarce and lack persuasion in the IEF process. In this paper, the decomplexation and removal efficiency of Cu-EDTA and the corresponding mechanisms during the IEF process were investigated by batch test. An empirical equation and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) index were proposed to flexibly control IE and the Fenton process, respectively. The results showed that Cu 2+ , total organic carbon (TOC), and EDTA removal efficiencies were 99.6, 80.3, and 83.4%, respectively, under the proper operation conditions of iron dosage of 30 g/L, Fe/C of 3/1, initial pH of 3.0, Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 molar ratio of 1/4, and reaction time of 20 min, respectively for IE and the Fenton process. The contributions of IE and Fenton to Cu 2+ removal were 91.2 and 8.4%, respectively, and those to TOC and EDTA removal were 23.3, 25.1, and 57, 58.3%, respectively. It was found that Fe 2+ -based replacement-precipitation and hydroxyl radical (•OH) were the most important effects during the IEF process. •OH played an important role in the degradation of EDTA, whose yield and productive rate were 3.13 mg/L and 0.157 mg/(L min -1 ), respectively. Based on the intermediates detected by GC-MS, including acetic acid, propionic acid, pentanoic acid, amino acetic acid, 3-(diethylamino)-1,2-propanediol, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a possible degradation pathway of Cu-EDTA in the IEF process was proposed. Graphical abstract The mechanism diagram of IEF process.

  7. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    we target sun glint (specular reflection) points, where the surface reflectance is not uniform or randomly distributed. Over the desert area, where surface reflectance is high and dust layers extend to high altitude, we have to use lower gain to avoid saturation and multiple scattering is complicated. For both ocean high albedo targets, validation data of XCO2 and XCH4 are limited. Validation by airplane become accurate but extrapolation is needed above flight attitude. Comparison of surface pressure between retrieved data and a priori model forecast fields is useful. For such kind of consistency, measurement must be very linear within wide dynamic range. After launch, we are re-evaluating the linearity of the detector, analog circuit and AD converters using a lab-model on the ground. Since launch, we have received feedback about the radiance spectra data from many data users of diverse institutes. We have gathered many calibration and validation data from international collaboration. We have modified the Level 1 algorithm and instrument calibrations several times. We are currently measuring the grid point of the Earth's surface, but the sampling for source and sink retrieval has not been optimized yet. We will present how we have solved problems, which portions of the instrument design we should modify, and items that we have not understood well yet.

  8. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction ΦRCP≃0.639 with a high coordination number: z*≃6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction μ=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Φ≃0.593 and z*≃4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized “vibration” procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Φ is close to the maximum value ΦRCP . Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers—grains carrying no force—the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized “floppy modes” associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near neighbor correlations on various scales, and some

  9. Internal cholinergic regulation of learning and recall in a model of olfactory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo Benemann Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop. In our model, the novelty of an odor is reflected in firing rates and sparseness of cortical neurons in response to that odor and these firing rates can directly regulate learning in the system by modifying cholinergic inputs to the system. In the model, cholinergic neurons reduce their firing in response to familiar odors – reducing plasticity in the PC, but increase their firing in response to novel odor – increasing PC plasticity. Recordings from HDB neurons in awake behaving rats reflect predictions from the model by showing that a subset of neurons decrease their firing as an odor becomes familiar.

  10. Removing user fees: learning from international experience to support the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Barbara; Brikci, Nouria; Cometto, Giorgio; Schmidt, Alice; Araujo, Edson

    2011-11-01

    Removing user fees could improve service coverage and access, in particular among the poorest socio-economic groups, but quick action without prior preparation could lead to unintended effects, including quality deterioration and excessive demands on health workers. This paper illustrates the process needed to make a realistic forecast of the possible resource implications of a well-implemented user fee removal programme and proposes six steps for a successful policy change: (1) analysis of a country's initial position (including user fee level, effectiveness of exemption systems and impact of fee revenues at facility level); (2) estimation of the impact of user fee removal on service utilization; (3) estimation of the additional requirements for human resources, drugs and other inputs, and corresponding financial requirements; (4) mobilization of additional resources (both domestic and external) and development of locally-tailored strategies to compensate for the revenue gap and costs associated with increased utilization; (5) building political commitment for the policy reform; (6) communicating the policy change to all stakeholders. The authors conclude that countries that intend to remove user fees can maximize benefits and avoid potential pitfalls through the utilization of the approach and tools described.

  11. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A judicious choice of curing agents such as initiator and promoter and their ratio to the resin can avoid reduced gel-time and shortened exothermic reactions in applications such as liquid compositemoulding processes. In this study, effects of different ratio of initiator and promoter to the unsaturated polyester resin on curing ...

  12. Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (Ttheory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form

  13. Development of the Paris Definition of Early Crohn's Disease for Disease-Modification Trials: Results of an International Expert Opinion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Billioud, Vincent; D'Haens, Geert; Panaccione, Remo; Feagan, Brian; Panés, Julian; Danese, Silvio; Schreiber, Stefan; Ogata, Haruhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Beaugerie, Laurent; Chowers, Yehuda; Louis, Edouard; Steinwurz, Flávio; Reinisch, Walter; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Travis, Simon; Sandborn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the findings and outputs of an international expert opinion process to develop a definition of early Crohn's disease (CD) that could be used in future disease-modification trials. Nineteen experts on inflammatory bowel diseases held an international expert opinion meeting to discuss and

  14. From Green Aerogels to Porous Graphite by Emulsion Gelation of Acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) still remains the prevalent route to C-aerogels,11 despite the long (up to a week) process.12 The resulting C-aerogels... carbonyl carbon at 176.03 ppm). The structure of emulsions as well as of the fundamental building blocks of the resulting aerogel microstructures were...spectra of both E- and H-aerogels show not only resonances assigned (by simulation) to fused pyridines but also to additional carbonyls (Figure 7).52

  15. Processing and Characterization of Sol-Gel Cerium Oxide Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Zachary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Padilla Cintron, Cristina [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Of interest to space exploration and power generation, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) can provide long-term power to remote electronic systems without the need for refueling or replacement. Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) remains one of the more promising materials for thermoelectric power generation due to its high power density, long half-life, and low gamma emissions. Traditional methods for processing Pu-238 include ball milling irregular precipitated powders before pressing and sintering into a dense pellet. The resulting submicron particulates of Pu-238 quickly accumulate and contaminate glove boxes. An alternative and dust-free method for Pu-238 processing is internal gelation via sol-gel techniques. Sol-gel methodology creates monodisperse and uniform microspheres that can be packed and pressed into a pellet. For this study cerium oxide microspheres were produced as a surrogate to Pu-238. The similar electronic orbitals between cerium and plutonium make cerium an ideal choice for non-radioactive work. Before the microspheres can be sintered and pressed they must be washed to remove the processing oil and any unreacted substituents. An investigation was performed on the washing step to find an appropriate wash solution that reduced waste and flammable risk. Cerium oxide microspheres were processed, washed, and characterized to determine the effectiveness of the new wash solution.

  16. Results From an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  17. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  18. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  19. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  20. 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Collection of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.Yu.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The reports of the 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 4-8 October, 1999. Contents of the reports are the following: laser isotope separation of molecules and atoms; isotopic selection of molecules and atoms in the field of centrifugal forces; selection of molecules by means of rectification and isotopic exchange methods; separation of isotopes by ion cyclotron-resonance method, in electric discharge and electromagnetic field; change in physical properties of substances which variation of their natural isotopic composition; use of isotopes in pharmacy preparation; status of experimental and diagnostic technique; certain promising methods of selection of atoms and molecules. The problems of laser separation of uranium isotopes, separation of carbon isotopes by multi-photon selective dissociation are discussed. The procedures permitting production of isotopes with high concentration and efficiency are developed [ru

  1. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  2. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  3. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID

  4. 1,3:2,4-Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) and its derivatives--efficient, versatile and industrially-relevant low-molecular-weight gelators with over 100 years of history and a bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okesola, Babatunde O; Vieira, Vânia M P; Cornwell, Daniel J; Whitelaw, Nicole K; Smith, David K

    2015-06-28

    Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) has been a well-known low-molecular-weight gelator of organic solvents for over 100 years. As such, it constitutes a very early example of a supramolecular gel--a research field which has recently developed into one of intense interest. The ability of DBS to self-assemble into sample-spanning networks in numerous solvents is predicated upon its 'butterfly-like' structure, whereby the benzylidene groups constitute the 'wings' and the sorbitol backbone the 'body'--the two parts representing the molecular recognition motifs underpinning its gelation mechanism, with the nature of solvent playing a key role in controlling the precise assembly mode. This gelator has found widespread applications in areas as diverse as personal care products and polymer nucleation/clarification, and has considerable potential in applications such as dental composites, energy technology and liquid crystalline materials. Some derivatives of DBS have also been reported which offer the potential to expand the scope and range of applications of this family of gelators and endow the nansocale network with additional functionality. This review aims to explain current trends in DBS research, and provide insight into how by combining a long history of application, with modern methods of derivatisation and analysis, the future for this family of gelators is bright, with an increasing number of high-tech applications, from environmental remediation to tissue engineering, being within reach.

  5. The Lisbon new international airport: The story of a decision-making process and the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partidario, Maria R.; Coutinho, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This is the brief story of a decision process and the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment in government political decision-making. Following a prolonged, and agitated, decision process, initiated in the 1960s, the Government of Portugal in 2005 took the final decision to build the new international airport of Lisbon at the controversial location of Ota, 40 km north of Lisbon. The detailed project design and EIA were started. However this decision would change in 2007 due to the challenge raised by a private sponsored study that identified an alternative location for the airport at Campo de Tiro de Alcochete (CTA). This new site, which had never been considered as an option before, appeared to avoid many of the problems that caused public controversy at the Ota site. The Government, pressured by this challenge, promoted a strategic comparative assessment between the two sites. The result of this study was the choice of CTA as the preferred location. This paper discusses this radical change in the decision from a socio-political perspective. It will highlight the relevance of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and the strategic and constructive approach it enables in mega-project decision-making.

  6. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  7. Effect of Processing Variables on Tensile Modulus and Morphology of Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared in an Internal Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Jollands, M.; Kao, N.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative study on effect of internal mixer on high density Polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites preparation was done. Effect of temperature, rotor rotation (rpm), and mixing time, as well as rotor type (Roller and Banbury) on mechanical properties and morphology of HDPE/clay nanocomposites were studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. The model was developed according to secant modulus and confirmed to morphology analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The finding suggests that there is different mechanisms occurred in each rotor to improve the mechanical properties. The mechanism in Roller is medium shear and medium diffusion, while Banbury is high shear and low diffusion. The difference in mechanism to disperse the clay particles attribute to the different optimum processing conditions in each rotor. The settings for roller samples are predicted around mid temperature, mid speed, and mid mixing time. There is no optimum setting for Banbury within the processing boundaries. The best settings for Banbury are at low, high, low settings. The morphology results showed a hybrid composite structure, with some exfoliations and some intercalations. There was a correlation between better mechanical properties and morphology with more exfoliation and thinner intercalated particles.

  8. Modeling of secondary emission processes in the negative ion based electrostatic accelerator of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fubiani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative ion electrostatic accelerator for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER is designed to deliver a negative deuterium current of 40 A at 1 MeV. Inside the accelerator there are several types of interactions that may create secondary particles. The dominating process originates from the single and double stripping of the accelerated negative ion by collision with the residual molecular deuterium gas (≃29% losses. The resulting secondary particles (positive ions, neutrals, and electrons are accelerated and deflected by the electric and magnetic fields inside the accelerator and may induce more secondaries after a likely impact with the accelerator grids. This chain of reactions is responsible for a non-negligible heat load on the grids and must be understood in detail. In this paper, we will provide a comprehensive summary of the physics involved in the process of secondary emission in a typical ITER-like negative ion electrostatic accelerator together with a precise description of the numerical method and approximations involved. As an example, the multiaperture-multigrid accelerator concept will be discussed.

  9. The internal and external customer focused process improvement and the performance analysis studies in health care systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, P.; Erol, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main contribution of this paper is to generate an optimum solution for capacity planning and appointment scheduling issues, which are frequently encountered in clinical flows with various route and treatment periods at dental hospitals. Design/methodology/approach: It is essential to define the system well in order to ensure that the working staff and patients use their time very efficiently and that the process flows continuously. By having examined a sample healthcare system through the help of a study addressed in such context, studies on process improvement in line with the dissatisfactions of the working staff and patients have been carried out. Within the scope of the study, the operation of 7 Departments in a dental hospital undergoing a treatment process have been reviewed and examined. The problems encountered as result of the observations made are discussed in detail, and formerly and recently designed system performance analyses are conducted by having performed the respective process improvement studies. The relevant samplings of this study are modeled via the Arena Simulation Program. The data of the previous four months is used in the parameters, which are used through the modellings. The system data are entered by taking into account seasonal characteristics of the data. Findings: The analyses are made as a consequence of such study that has been addressed, it is established that the efficiency of the internal customers of the hospital increases substantially, and that the waiting durations of the dental patients decrease and in turn, the external customer satisfaction increases drastically. Research limitations/implications: Under the scope of the present study, 7 different treatment processes are analysed in a dental hospital in Cukurova Region with a significant patient potential. The treatment clinics present in the hospital are radiology, periodontology, surgery, treatment, orthodontics and prosthesis. These clinics run their own

  10. The internal and external customer focused process improvement and the performance analysis studies in health care systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, P.; Erol, R.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: The main contribution of this paper is to generate an optimum solution for capacity planning and appointment scheduling issues, which are frequently encountered in clinical flows with various route and treatment periods at dental hospitals. Design/methodology/approach: It is essential to define the system well in order to ensure that the working staff and patients use their time very efficiently and that the process flows continuously. By having examined a sample healthcare system through the help of a study addressed in such context, studies on process improvement in line with the dissatisfactions of the working staff and patients have been carried out. Within the scope of the study, the operation of 7 Departments in a dental hospital undergoing a treatment process have been reviewed and examined. The problems encountered as result of the observations made are discussed in detail, and formerly and recently designed system performance analyses are conducted by having performed the respective process improvement studies. The relevant samplings of this study are modeled via the Arena Simulation Program. The data of the previous four months is used in the parameters, which are used through the modellings. The system data are entered by taking into account seasonal characteristics of the data. Findings: The analyses are made as a consequence of such study that has been addressed, it is established that the efficiency of the internal customers of the hospital increases substantially, and that the waiting durations of the dental patients decrease and in turn, the external customer satisfaction increases drastically. Research limitations/implications: Under the scope of the present study, 7 different treatment processes are analysed in a dental hospital in Cukurova Region with a significant patient potential. The treatment clinics present in the hospital are radiology, periodontology, surgery, treatment, orthodontics and prosthesis. These clinics run their own

  11. Thiol-Ene Photo-Click Collagen-PEG Hydrogels: Impact of Water-Soluble Photoinitiators on Cell Viability, Gelation Kinetics and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róisín Holmes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels were prepared via step-growth polymerisation using thiol-functionalised type-I collagen and 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol norbornene-terminated (PEG-NB, as a potential injectable regenerative device. Type-I collagen was thiol-functionalised by a ring opening reaction with 2-iminothiolane (2IT, whereby up to 80 Abs.% functionalisation and 90 RPN% triple helical preservation were recorded via 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS colorimetric assay and circular dichroism (CD. Type, i.e., either 2-Hydroxy-1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone (I2959 or lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP, and concentration of photoinitiator were varied to ensure minimal photoinitiator-induced cytotoxicity and to enable thiol-ene network formation of collagen-PEG mixtures. The viability of G292 cells following 24 h culture in photoinitiator-supplemented media was largely affected by the photoinitiator concentration, with I2959-supplemented media observed to induce higher toxic response (0.1 → 0.5% (w/v I2959, cell survival: 62 → 2 Abs.% compared to LAP-supplemented media (cell survival: 86 → 8 Abs.%. In line with the in vitro study, selected photoinitiator concentrations were used to prepare thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels. Gelation kinetics proved to be largely affected by the specific photoinitiator, with LAP-containing thiol-ene mixtures leading to significantly reduced complete gelation time (τ: 187 s with respect to I2959-containing mixtures (τ: 1683 s. Other than the specific photoinitiator, the photoinitiator concentration was key to adjusting the hydrogel storage modulus (G’, whereby 15-fold G’ increase (232 → 3360 Pa was observed in samples prepared with 0.5% (w/v compared to 0.1% (w/v LAP. Further thiol-ene formulations with 0.5% (w/v LAP and varied content of PEG-NB were tested to prepare photo-click hydrogels with porous architecture, as well as tunable storage modulus (G

  12. Meaning, Internalization, and Externalization: Toward a Fuller Understanding of the Process of Reflection and Its Role in the Construction of the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cornu, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The study of the process of reflection has a dignified history. However, few have linked reflection to the development of the self in such a way that the form of reflection is understood to influence the resultant type of self. This article explores the process of reflection using a framework of meaning making, internalization, and externalization…

  13. Functional Biomaterials: Solution Electrospinning and Gelation of Whey Protein and Pullulan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stephanie Tolstedt

    fibrous structure after the heat treatment. Our second goal was to evaluate the ability of aqueous blends of whey protein and pullulan to form gels. We first looked at WP-PULL blend solutions at room temperature, finding an increasing linear trend in low shear viscosity as the relative concentration of pullulan increased. Blend solution samples were then heated to determine the ability of the blend solutions to form a gelled network. Starting with a homogeneous WP gel, adding PULL, at native mix or alkaline pH, maintained a transparent homogeneous microstructure, but resulted in weaker gels based on its response to stress. At WP isoelectric point (IEP) pH, both protein and blend gels became opaque due to protein aggregation, forming a particulate gel. All gels at the IEP were weaker, yielding at much lower stress and corresponding strain, due to the protein aggregation. The addition of transglutaminase enzyme yielded a stronger network than the native samples, while the addition of sodium trimetaphosphate salt yielded weaker gels and also induced relevant particle and/or course stranded microstructure in both pH 8 and IEP cases. The third part of this study demonstrated the ability of pullulan to form nanofibers in the solution electrospinning process. Aqueous pullulan solutions were able to form defect-free nanofibers with a minimum concentration of 15 w/w%. Pullulan and PULL:hydroxypropyl-beta- cyclodextrin (HPBCD) blend fibers were chemically crosslinked to form insoluble fibers using ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE), a chemical used in food contact coating applications. Next, solution blends of pullulan with whey protein were prepared and also electrospun at varying pH and relative biomaterial concentrations at 17 total w/w%. PULL-WP blend nanofiber mats were crosslinked via heat treatment and found to be both swellable and insoluble. When dried, the mats did not return to their original fiber state and instead appear to be gelatinous fibers in nature after

  14. NUMISHEET 2016: 10th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    ;Benchmark 1 - Failure Prediction after Cup Drawing, Reverse Redrawing and Expansion', for both an aluminium AA 5352 and steel TH330 alloys, where the major objectives are predicting the earing profile of the cup and the failure point after complex nonlinear strain paths; BM2) 'Benchmark 2 - Springback of a Jaguar Land Rover Aluminium Panel', where it is intended to study the thickness distribution and the springback profiles of a component of a Jaguar car at three particular cross-sections; BM3) 'Benchmark 3 - Springback of an Al-Mg alloy in warm forming conditions', where the main objective is to predict the springback of a Al-Mg alloy after warm forming conditions. The conference proceedings will include a standard proceedings for regular and keynote papers (Part B) and a separated proceedings for the industrial benchmarks (Part A). Both proceedings will be published by the Institute of Physics (IOP) and will be included in SCOPUS database for a wide scientific dissemination. The benchmarks book proceedings, Part A, will be available through a printed paperback book and an electronic version and the proceedings book for the regular papers, part B, will be available through a USB pen drive. Both proceedings books will also be available online through the Institute of Physics publishers' platform. The NUMISHEET 2016 international conference is organising two special issues in two prestigious peer-reviewed international journals: 1) The International Journal of Solids and Structures; 2) The European Journal of Computational Mechanics. The NUMISHEET 2016 conference delegates are thus invited to submit an extended version of their papers for these two special issues, which will have a peer reviewed process as usual before publication in the journals. (paper)

  15. PREFACE: PASREG 2005: The 5th International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masato; Cardwell, David; Salama, Kamel; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2006-07-01

    Large grain, (RE)BCO bulk superconductors fabricated by top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) have outstanding potential for a variety of engineering applications such as magnetic separators, flywheel energy storage, magnetic bearings and permanent magnet-like devices due to their ability to generate large magnetic fields. Recent developments in materials and systems research has led to the manufacture of proto-type devices for use in magnetron sputtering, magnetic stirrers and a mobile magnetic separator based on bulk materials technology. This issue contains selected papers presented at the 5th International Workshop on the Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials held on 21-23 October 2005 at Tokyo Marine University to report progress made in this field over the previous two years. The workshop followed those held previously in Cambridge, UK (1997), Morioka, Japan (1999), Seattle, USA (2001), and Jena, Germany (2003). A total of 76 papers were presented at this workshop, of which 27 were presented in oral form and 49 were presented as posters. This issue contains a total of 36 selected papers in the following categories of bulk (RE)BCO large grain material: processing, characterization, and applications. The editors are grateful for the support of many colleagues both within and outside the immediate bulk community who reviewed the manuscripts to guarantee their high technical quality. Finally, the attendees wish to acknowledge the efforts of Professor Mitsuru Izumi and his research staff from Tokyo Marine University for being generous hosts during the workshop, and the efforts of Professor Masato Murakami for the overall organization of the meeting. The International PASREG Board selected the following distinguished researchers as recipients of the 2005 PASREG Award of Excellence to acknowledge their contribution to the development of bulk high temperature superconductors: • Dr Michael Strasik (Boeing, Seattle, USA) • Dr Hiroshi

  16. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF THE REGIONALISATION OF THE PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio MANRIQUE DE LUNA BARRIOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase and complexity of conflicts with internal and international caracter the United Nations had to realize that their capacity to protect peace and international security have been surpassed by the caracteristics and dynamics of the conflicts that the international society has been confronted with. In this context the regional organizations had to assume a number of tasks on their own or in cooperation with the United Nations with the objective to contribute to maintaining international peace and security.

  17. Fabrication of a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress and high hardness for large area display applications by a pulse reverse current electroforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joongeok; Han, Jungjin; Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Shinill

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for large scale micro/nano components in the fields of display, energy and electrical devices, etc, the establishment of a roll imprinting process has become a priority. The fabrication of a roll stamp with high dimensional accuracy and uniformity is one of the key issues in the roll imprinting process, because the roll stamp determines the properties of the replicated micro/nano structures. In this study, a method to fabricate a metallic roll stamp with low internal stress, high flatness, and high hardness was proposed by a pulse reverse current (PRC) electroforming process. The effects of PRC electroforming processes on the internal stress, hardness, and grain size of the electroformed stamp were examined, and the optimum process conditions were suggested. As a practical example of the proposed method, various micro-patterns for electronic circuits were fabricated via the roll imprinting process using a PRC electroformed stamp. (paper)

  18. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  19. International Cooperation and Knowledge Transfer Processes / La cooperación internacional y los procesos de transferencia del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently launched a new initiative for internationalcooperation in Psychology, led by Agnaldo Garcia from Brazil, researchers from Chile, Argentina, Peru and Colombia, and myself as a coordinator. The tool stemming from it is http://psicologiacoopera.org/, a virtual space that we hope helps increase cooperation in our region. Our mission is as follows: “The International Scientific Psychology Network (ISPN aims at promoting the advancement of Psychology in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries through international scientific cooperation: (1 among Spanish and Portuguese-speaking Psychology researchers; (2 connecting Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Psychology researchers with scholars from all overthe world regardless of language and nationality.” We have a set of concrete initial actions: “(1 Identification of Researchers and Themes Investigated - ISPN invites all Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Psychology researchers to become a member, submitting some basic information related to her/his scientific activities.(2 Diffusion of Research Production and Interests - The website will publicize the scientific production and research interests of all ISPN members to promote the visibility of Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Scientific Psychology(3 Annual Reviews of Scientific Psychology in Spanish/Portuguese - ISPN will publish annual reviews covering different areas of Psychology investigation in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries (in English to promote its visibility.(4 Submit a Proposal - Authors interested in preparing critical reviews of specific Psychology areas are invited to submit a proposal (in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. The Annual Reviews aim at making research in Psychology produced in Spanish and Portuguese available to an international wideraudience, promoting its visibility and citation.”In just a few days after its launch, our tool reached over 250 researchers from 21 countries and workgroups have

  20. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.