WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal force control

  1. Financial Audit: Financial Reporting and Internal Controls at the Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    United States General Accounting Office GAO Report 1,o, the Commander, Air Force -A0 Systems Command Janar 191FINANCI-AL AUDTFI Financial Reporting ...20332 Dear General Yates: This report presents the results of our review of the Air Force Systems Command’s financial management operations. It addresses...internal control and financial reporting improvements needed within the Air Force Systems Command. The report resulted from our examination of the

  2. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-04-20

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  3. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  4. [Internal quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Arnaud, J; Adjidé, V; Vassault, A

    2010-12-01

    The internal quality control is a key technical requirement through accreditation by the NF EN ISO 15189. This document presents recommendations to assist the medical laboratory to design, implement and operate daily and retrospectively an efficient system of internal control quality. It identifies the important issues attached to these different steps.

  5. Diagnostic comparison of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Obesity Task Force criteria for obesity classification in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselakgomo, Kankane V; Van Staden, Marlise

    2017-08-31

    This study was designed to estimate overweight and obesity in school children by using contrasting definitions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). The sample size consisted of 1361 learners (n = 678 boys; n = 683 girls) aged 9-13 years who were randomly selected from Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used to measure the children's anthropometric characteristics. Based on height and weight measurements, the children's body mass index (BMI) was calculated and used to classify them as underweight, overweight and obese. Percentage body fat was calculated from the sum of two skinfolds (i.e. triceps and subscapular). Age-specific BMI, percentage body fat and sum of skinfolds were examined for the boys and girls. A higher prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in boys and girls when the CDC BMI categories were used. In contrast, the IOTF BMI classifications indicated a strong prevalence of underweight among the children. In contrast to the IOTF index that yielded a greater occurrence of underweight among South African children, the CDC criteria indicated a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight among the same children. Future large-scale surveillance studies are needed to determine the appropriateness of different definitions in order to establish a more reliable indicator for estimating overweight and obesity in South African children.

  6. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  7. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  8. A Comparison between International Obesity Task Force and Center for Disease Control References in Assessment of Overweight and Obesity Among Adolescents in Babol, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad

    2013-02-01

    This study compares the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) references in assessment of overweight and obesity among Iranian adolescents. The data of this study was drawn from a cross sectional study of a representative sample of 1200 adolescents aged 12-17 years in Babol, northern Iran. A standard procedure was used to measure height and weight and the body mass index was calculated. Each subject was classified as overweight and obese based on IOTF cut off values of BMI and CDC references BMI percentile sets by age and sex. The kappa coefficients were estimated for the degree of agreement. In assessment of obesity/overweight prevalence, the CDC and IOTF references produced a similar estimate by age group and sex. The maximum differences was about 1% and the kappa coefficients was 0.96 to 1 (P = 0.001). While for assessment of obesity, the CDC reference produced slightly a higher rate of obesity and the difference in prevalence between the two sets of references was ranged from 1.4% to 3.2% with kappa coefficients: 0.90 to 0.70 (P = 0.001) depending on the age group and sex and a greater difference was observed among younger age group. The findings suggest an excellent agreement between the TOTF and CDC references in assessment of overall overweight/obesity prevalence among adolescent boys and girls. While in assessment of obesity prevalence alone the degree of agreement between the two sets of references slightly diminished. Overall, the two references are comparable and the agreement varies a little with respect to age and sex.

  9. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient...... paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more...... for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based...

  10. Forced Internal Waves in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Conseil Perm. Intern. p. l’Expl. de la Mer, Pub. de Circonstance, No. 43, 47 pp. Estoque , M. A. and C. M. Bhumralker, 1969. Flow over a localized heat...surface stress. Two different integral expressions are de - rived for the response and they give identical results. Using estimates of surface stress based...regulate the rotation rate of the drum and this, along with the large drum diameter, assured a constant lowering speed. The automatic control of the

  11. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  12. Participation in Armed Forces, National, and International Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-09

    American Games , Olympic Games , and other authorized national and international sports competitions (to include qualifying and preparatory events) as long...concerning the participation of Armed Forces personnel in Armed Forces, national, and international sports competitions ; establishes a Senior Military Sports ...program is to ensure that the U.S. Armed Forces are appropriately represented in national and international sports competitions . 3. The purpose of this

  13. Force optimized recoil control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.

    1982-05-01

    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  14. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  15. AN INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR FORCE MIGRATION ON NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chernyak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The governmental regulation of labor force migration is an important part of country’s image. The interdependence between international labor force migration and national economy’s competitiveness is analyzed. The Global Competitiveness Index was chosen as a background of the research. The ways of improving of Ukrainian performance in a Global Competitiveness Index are defined. Tough control and the migrants inflow limits implementation will cause a decrease in an unemployment rate and an increase in a competitiveness of national business. The stimulation of the high-qualified specialists’ immigration is also a way of gaining a competitive advantage. The necessity of governmental programs, supporting national entrepreneurs must be emphasized.

  16. Researching the use of force: the background to the international project

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article provides the background to an international project on use of force by the police that was carried out in seven countries. Force is often considered to be the defining characteristic of policing and much research has been conducted on the determinants, prevalence and control of the use of force, particularly in the United States. However, little work has looked at police officers? own views on the use of force, in particular the way in which they justify it. U...

  17. Forced population displacement | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... UPDATE | SAFE AND INCLUSIVE CITIES What is driving urban violence? ... While their homes have improved, families are struggling to cope with the realities of forced changes in lifestyle: jobs and schools are no longer safe or easy to reach, and new environments are unfamiliar and menacing.

  18. Controlling photonic structures using optical forces

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhecker, Gustavo S.; Chen, Long; Gondarenko, Alexander; Lipson, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The downscaling of optical systems to the micro and nano-scale results in very compliant systems with nanogram-scale masses, which renders them susceptible to optical forces. Here we show a specially designed resonant structure for enabling efficient static control of the optical response with relatively weak repulsive and attractive optical forces. Using attractive gradient optical forces we demonstrate a static mechanical deformation of up to 20 nanometers in the resonator structure. This d...

  19. Civilian control of armed forces: challenges for the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pfarr, Mag Dietmar

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Since 1989 the study of democratic civil military relations has undergone a revival of the formation of new theory. These concepts deal with civilian control of armed forces at a national level. Since after the end of the Cold War, the European employment of military forces within a multinational framework became a regularity, it is now pertinent to ask whether and how these concepts fit at the international level. The construction of ...

  20. The International Criminal Court: Considerations for the Joint Force Commander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the issues and remedies a Joint Force Commander should be concerned about because of the relationship between the United States and the newly-created International Criminal Court (ICC...

  1. Internal Displacement and Forced Migration within Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that, contrary to the picture portrayed by the government of Zimbabwe, internal displacement, as one form of (forced) migration within a country's borders, is more prevalent in the country than is at first discernable. The paper offers an overview of the current scholarship on the forced mobility of particular ...

  2. Telerobotic Control Architecture Including Force-Reflection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the implementation of a telerobotic control architecture to manipulate a standard six-degree-of-freedom robot via a unique seven-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting exoskeleton...

  3. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Leukel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force...... output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force......-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased...

  4. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  5. Robust Force Control of Series Elastic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calanca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Force-controlled series elastic actuators (SEA are widely used in novel human-robot interaction (HRI applications, such as assistive and rehabilitation robotics. These systems are characterized by the presence of the “human in the loop”, so that control response and stability depend on uncertain human dynamics, including reflexes and voluntary forces. This paper proposes a force control approach that guarantees the stability and robustness of the coupled human-robot system, based on sliding-mode control (SMC, considering the human dynamics as a disturbance to reject. We propose a chattering free solution that employs simple task models to obtain high performance, comparable with second order solutions. Theoretical stability is proven within the sliding mode framework, and predictability is reached by avoiding the reaching phase by design. Furthermore, safety is introduced by a proper design of the sliding surface. The practical feasibility of the approach is shown using an SEA prototype coupled with a human impedance in severe stress tests. To show the quality of the approach, we report a comparison with state-of-the-art second order SMC, passivity-based control and adaptive control solutions.

  6. THE DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  7. Feedback Control of Floor Reaction Force Based on Force-Reflecting-Type Multilateral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Kazuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Real-world haptics is being studied not only for improving feedback on real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also for developing key technologies for future human support. For the remote operating of systems at distant places, haptic information is required in addition to visual information. The haptic information around a work environment can be the floor reaction force, which can be obtained using a movement-type haptic device. The floor reaction force from the environment that the mobile haptic device touches is fed back accurately to the operator. First, this paper proposes a general force-reflecting-type multilateral control. Second, this paper extends the control to feedback control of the floor reaction force by using force-reflecting-type multilateral control and a novel haptic device employing a biped robot with a slave system. The position response of a master system is transformed to a leg tip position command for the biped-type haptic device. In addition, the floor reaction force determined by the biped-type haptic device is fed back to the master system. The proposed method can determine the force feedback to the sole of the foot, which is not possible with a conventional stationary system. As a result, the floor reaction force from a large area can be obtained, and the operability of the control system is improved by using the proposed system.

  8. Magnetic force control technique in industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    Techniques of the magnetic force control have been examined for industrial application. The problems and the technique are different in dispersion medium of gas and that of liquid. In addition, the method is different depending on the magnetic characteristic of the target objects. In case of the liquid, the dispersion medium having different viscosity was examined. The separation speed is decided with the magnitude of the magnetic force because a drag force increases with the viscosity. When the water is the dispersion medium, magnetic seeding is possible and hence the nonmagnetic materials can be separated and even the dissolved material could be separated. The separation technique has been used for purifying the waste water form paper mill or wash water of drum. On the other hand when the water is not dispersion medium, mainly the ferromagnetism particle becomes the target object because the magnetic seeding becomes difficult. The iron fragments have been separated from the slurry of slicing machine of solar battery. It has been clarified high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) can be applied for the viscous fluid of which viscosity was as high as 10 Pa s. When the dispersion medium is gaseous material, the air is important. The drag force from air depends greatly on Reynolds number. When speed of the air is small, the Reynolds number is small, and the drag force is calculated by the Stokes' law of resistance. The study with gaseous dispersion medium is not carried out much. The magnetic separation will discuss the possibility of the industrial application of this technique.

  9. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  10. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force...

  11. Cogging force rejection method of linear motor based on internal model principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Zhenyu; Yang, Tianbo

    2015-02-01

    The cogging force disturbance of linear motor is one of the main factors affecting the positioning accuracy of ultraprecision moving platform. And this drawback could not be completely overcome by improving the design of motor body, such as location modification of permanent magnet array, or optimization design of the shape of teeth-slot. So the active compensation algorithms become prevalent in cogging force rejection area. This paper proposed a control structure based on internal mode principle to attenuate the cogging force of linear motor which deteriorated the accuracy of position, and this structure could make tracking and anti-disturbing performance of close-loop designed respectively. In the first place, the cogging force was seen as the intrinsic property of linear motor and its model constituting controlled object with motor ontology model was obtained by data driven recursive identification method. Then, a control structure was designed to accommodate tracking and anti-interference ability separately by using internal model principle. Finally, the proposed method was verified in a long stroke moving platform driven by linear motor. The experiment results show that, by employing this control strategy, the positioning error caused by cogging force was decreased by 70%.

  12. Mixing and Formation of Layers by Internal Wave Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossmann, Yvan; Pollet, Florence; Odier, Philippe; Dauxois, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    The energy pathways from propagating internal waves to the scales of irreversible mixing in the ocean are not fully described. In the ocean interior, the triadic resonant instability is an intrinsic destabilization process that may enhance the energy cascade away from topographies. The present study focuses on the integrated impact of mixing processes induced by a propagative normal mode-1 over long-term experiments in an idealized setup. The internal wave dynamics and the evolution of the density profile are followed using the light attenuation technique. Diagnostics of the turbulent diffusivity KT and background potential energy BPE are provided. Mixing effects result in a partially mixed layer colocated with the region of maximum shear induced by the forcing normal mode. The maximum measured turbulent diffusivity is 250 times larger than the molecular value, showing that diapycnal mixing is largely enhanced by small-scale turbulent processes. Intermittency and reversible energy transfers are discussed to bridge the gap between the present diagnostic and the larger values measured in Dossmann et al. (). The mixing efficiency η is assessed by relating the BPE growth to the linearized KE input. One finds a value of Γ=12-19%, larger than the mixing efficiency in the case of breaking interfacial wave. After several hours of forcing, the development of staircases in the density profile is observed. This mechanism has been previously observed in experiments with weak homogeneous turbulence and explained by Phillips (1972) argument. The present experiments suggest that internal wave forcing could also induce the formation of density interfaces in the ocean.

  13. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an internal...

  14. Special Forces Command and Control in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhyne, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... The author examines how Special Forces and conventional forces worked together in the past in Vietnam, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield...

  15. Precision Force Control for an Electro-Hydraulic Press Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Ming Chen; Guo-Wei Yang; Chong-Cyuan Liao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is primarily intended to design a PC-based control system to control the force of an electro-hydraulic servo press system for implementing precision force control. The main feature is to develop a composite control by using the relief valve and the flow servo valve. Using feedback from a force sensor, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW software as the system control core for achieving a precision force control for the hydraulic cylinder on its travel and output. The weak...

  16. A New Method of Force Control for Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Mallapragada

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Current robotic systems are expected to interact with unknown environment where controlling the interaction forces becomes an important issue. We propose a new control technique for force control on unknown environments that tunes the force controller based on online estimation of the environment parameters. However, the proposed approach overcomes the need for precise estimation of environment parameters, which are needed in many system identification-based force control approaches. This framework uses an artificial neural network (ANN-based proportional-integral (PI-gain scheduling force controller to track the desired force by adjusting control gains such that error in parameter estimation can be accommodated. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the proposed controller are discussed.

  17. Control of forced vibrations of mechanical structures by an electromagnetic controller with a permanent magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of an electromagnetic vibration controller is presented. The analyzed device consists of a pot-type iron core with a coil and a permanent magnet as a source of constant magnetic flux. The magnetic circuit is closed by a yoke, excited by an external harmonic mechanical force....... The so generated magnetic flux variation induces alternating voltage in the electric circuit, which is dissipated in a shunt resistor. The induced current driven through the coil generates magnetic force, which damps the excitation force and changes the damped natural frequency of the oscillatory system....... Due to the hysteretic effects in the magnetic material the internal losses influence the overall system’s performance. A mathematical model of the force balance in the oscillatory system is derived in a simplified, linearised form. The electric as well as mechanical system is modelled using lumped...

  18. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamprommarat Chumpol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  19. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  20. International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    significantly associated with suicide attempts were: female gender, younger age at illness onset, depressive polarity of first illness episode, depressive polarity of current or most recent episode, comorbid anxiety disorder, any comorbid substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, any illicit substance use......OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with a high risk of suicide attempts and suicide death. The main objective of the present study was to identify and quantify the demographic and clinical correlates of attempted and completed suicide in people with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Within...... the framework of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide, a systematic review of articles published since 1980, characterized by the key terms bipolar disorder and 'suicide attempts' or 'suicide', was conducted, and data extracted for analysis from all eligible articles...

  1. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the...

  2. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established by...

  3. Motor control differs for increasing and releasing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kwon, MinHyuk; Solis, Danielle; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-06-01

    Control of the motor output depends on our ability to precisely increase and release force. However, the influence of aging on force increase and release remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether force control differs while increasing and releasing force in young and older adults. Sixteen young adults (22.5 ± 4 yr, 8 females) and 16 older adults (75.7 ± 6.4 yr, 8 females) increased and released force at a constant rate (10% maximum voluntary contraction force/s) during an ankle dorsiflexion isometric task. We recorded the force output and multiple motor unit activity from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) mean discharge rate and variability of discharge rate of multiple motor units; and 3) power spectrum of the multiple motor units from 0-4, 4-10, 10-35, and 35-60 Hz. Participants exhibited greater force variability while releasing force, independent of age (P motor units from 35 to 60 Hz (R(2) = 0.38). Modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz was further correlated to the change in mean discharge rate of multiple motor units (r = 0.66) and modulation from 0 to 4 Hz (r = -0.64). In conclusion, these findings suggest that force control is altered while releasing due to an altered modulation of the motor units. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Force control compensation method with variable load stiffness and damping of the hydraulic drive unit force control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong

    2016-05-01

    Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this

  5. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  6. High Cable Forces Deteriorate Pinch Force Control in Voluntary-Closing Body-Powered Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hichert

    Full Text Available It is generally asserted that reliable and intuitive control of upper-limb prostheses requires adequate feedback of prosthetic finger positions and pinch forces applied to objects. Body-powered prostheses (BPPs provide the user with direct proprioceptive feedback. Currently available BPPs often require high cable operation forces, which complicates control of the forces at the terminal device. The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of high cable forces on object manipulation with voluntary-closing prostheses.Able-bodied male subjects were fitted with a bypass-prosthesis with low and high cable force settings for the prehensor. Subjects were requested to grasp and transfer a collapsible object as fast as they could without dropping or breaking it. The object had a low and a high breaking force setting.Subjects conducted significantly more successful manipulations with the low cable force setting, both for the low (33% more and high (50% object's breaking force. The time to complete the task was not different between settings during successful manipulation trials.High cable forces lead to reduced pinch force control during object manipulation. This implies that low cable operation forces should be a key design requirement for voluntary-closing BPPs.

  7. Force Reflection Algorithms for Exoskeleton Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryfogle, Mark

    1991-01-01

    This research effort investigated the kinematics and dynamics of open chain, serial linkage mechanisms with specific emphasis placed upon the application of this linkage as a force reflecting exoskeleton mechanism...

  8. Computer-Controlled Force Generator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  9. Computer-Controlled Force Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  10. Internal quality control: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinns, Helen; Pitkin, Sarah; Housley, David; Freedman, Danielle B

    2013-12-01

    There is a wide variation in laboratory practice with regard to implementation and review of internal quality control (IQC). A poor approach can lead to a spectrum of scenarios from validation of incorrect patient results to over investigation of falsely rejected analytical runs. This article will provide a practical approach for the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory to introduce an efficient quality control system that will optimise error detection and reduce the rate of false rejection. Each stage of the IQC system is considered, from selection of IQC material to selection of IQC rules, and finally the appropriate action to follow when a rejection signal has been obtained. The main objective of IQC is to ensure day-to-day consistency of an analytical process and thus help to determine whether patient results are reliable enough to be released. The required quality and assay performance varies between analytes as does the definition of a clinically significant error. Unfortunately many laboratories currently decide what is clinically significant at the troubleshooting stage. Assay-specific IQC systems will reduce the number of inappropriate sample-run rejections compared with the blanket use of one IQC rule. In practice, only three or four different IQC rules are required for the whole of the routine biochemistry repertoire as assays are assigned into groups based on performance. The tools to categorise performance and assign IQC rules based on that performance are presented. Although significant investment of time and education is required prior to implementation, laboratories have shown that such systems achieve considerable reductions in cost and labour.

  11. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  12. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  13. Cross Cultural Awareness in International Military Operation: International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Brudnicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism defined as a multitude of cultures can be typified as a major trend in international relations, what is a chellenge for every participant of global affairs. The phenomen of multiculturalism is absolutely nothing new, but under conditions of progresive globalisation mechanism its importance has been appreciated.In practise multinational forces have to operate in culturally heterogeneous environment in an array of tasks to combat threats of mostly a non-military transnational nature. All the time there are a highly complex relations within coalition personnel, in cuturally diverse society living in the theatre of operation and between all them mutually.

  14. Surface Force Strategy: Return to Sea Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the freedom of the seas provided by the U.S. Navy. Threats ranging from low-end piracy to well-armed non-state militant groups, to the navies of...improvements to mission planning software , battle management software for Warfare Commanders, and tools to manage unit and force level emissions. The

  15. Internal forces during static prehension: effects of age and grasp configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied effects of healthy aging on 3 components of the internal force vector during static prehensile tasks. Young and older subjects held an instrumented handle using a 5-digit prismatic grasp under different digit configurations and external torques. Across digit configurations, older subjects showed larger internal normal (grip) and tangential (load-resisting) digit force components and larger internal moment of force. In contrast to earlier reports, safety margin values were not higher in the older subjects. The results show that the increased grip force in older persons is a specific example of a more general age-related problem reflected in the generation of large internal force vectors in prehensile tasks. It is possible that the higher internal forces increase the apparent stiffness of the hand+handle system and, hence, contribute to its stability. This strategy, however, may be maladaptive, energetically wasteful, and inefficient in ensuring safety of hand-held objects.

  16. A Southwest Pacific Coral Perspective on ENSO Variability: Precessional Forcing vs. Internal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T. M.; Partin, J. W.; Thirumalai, K.; Maupin, C. R.; Vara, M. A.; Shen, C. C.; Taylor, F. W.

    2014-12-01

    ENSO variability is manifest in the western Pacific through heat and moisture exchanges associated with the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Forward modeling (pseudoproxy analysis) results and published coral proxy records from the tropical Pacific indicate that in addition to the central and eastern Pacific regions, corals from the WPWP and SPCZ regions skillfully record ENSO variability. Some studies suggest that precessional forcing directly reduces/enhances ENSO variability. Other studies suggest that internal variability is the primary control on Holocene ENSO changes. Herein, we use coral proxy records from the tropical Pacific and numerical simulations to better understand the response of ENSO to precessional forcing and internal variability. We extend the coral record of ENSO variability using a new modern coral record from the Solomon Islands (1716-2008 CE) and a select suite of Holocene fossil coral records from the WPWP. The new modern coral record captures large ENSO events with considerable skill, providing new evidence for potential large ENSO events during the early 18th and 19th centuries, events that are not represented in current coral and/or multi-proxy reconstructions. We also note that long periods of reduced ENSO activity can occur during intervals with near constant precessional forcing at modern values. The fossil coral records provide discrete time windows into ENSO variability over the Holocene. These records provide evidence of similar patterns of ENSO activity during intervals with different precessional configurations. The modern and fossil coral records imply a strong influence of internal variability in the modulation of ENSO, which may make it difficult to establish a direct control of precessional forcing on ENSO variability over the Holocene.

  17. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  18. Remodeling Air Force Cyber Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Air Force CyberWorx offers facilitated design thinking sessions that bring stakeholders, industry and academic experts together to develop...career cyber officers, will relay the orders and help work priorities for units to the best of her abilities while motivating those below her...to use of a collaborative network forum, like an improved MilSuite. This will ultimately increase the sharing of information among cyber squadrons

  19. FRAX® International Task Force of the 2010 Joint International Society for Clinical Densitometry & International Osteoporosis Foundation Position Development Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Luckey, Marjorie M

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) in conjunction with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) assembled an international panel of experts that ultimately developed joint Official Positions of the ISCD and IOF advising clinicians regarding FRAX® usage. As part of the process, the charge of the FRAX® International Task Force was to review and synthesize data regarding geographic and race/ethnic variability in hip fractures, non-hip osteoporotic fractures, and make recommendations about the use of FRAX® in ethnic groups and countries without a FRAX® calculator. This synthesis was presented to the expert panel and constitutes the data on which the subsequent Official Positions are predicated. A summary of the International Task Force composition and charge is presented here. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.

  1. 77 FR 29899 - Safety Zone; International Special Operations Forces Week Capability Exercise, Seddon Channel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; International Special Operations Forces... follows: Sec. 165.T07-0007 Safety Zone; International Special Operations Forces Week Capability Exercise... rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Seddon Channel...

  2. Precision Force Control for an Electro-Hydraulic Press Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ming Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is primarily intended to design a PC-based control system to control the force of an electro-hydraulic servo press system for implementing precision force control. The main feature is to develop a composite control by using the relief valve and the flow servo valve. Using feedback from a force sensor, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW software as the system control core for achieving a precision force control for the hydraulic cylinder on its travel and output. The weakness of hydraulic systems is that hydraulic oil is compressible and prone to leaking, and its characteristics can vary with oil temperature, thus making it difficult for a general linear controller to achieve accurate control. Therefore, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW along with a NI-PCI_6221 interface card and a load cell to control the servo valve flow and the relief valve to control the pressure source. The testing results indicate that accurate force control output of an electro-hydraulic servo press system can be obtained.

  3. A novel adaptive force control method for IPMC manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Lina; Sun, Zhiyong; Su, Yunquan; Gao, Jianchao; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    IPMC is a type of electro-active polymer material, also called artificial muscle, which can generate a relatively large deformation under a relatively low input voltage (generally speaking, less than 5 V), and can be implemented in a water environment. Due to these advantages, IPMC can be used in many fields such as biomimetics, service robots, bio-manipulation, etc. Until now, most existing methods for IPMC manipulation are displacement control not directly force control, however, under most conditions, the success rate of manipulations for tiny fragile objects is limited by the contact force, such as using an IPMC gripper to fix cells. Like most EAPs, a creep phenomenon exists in IPMC, of which the generated force will change with time and the creep model will be influenced by the change of the water content or other environmental factors, so a proper force control method is urgently needed. This paper presents a novel adaptive force control method (AIPOF control—adaptive integral periodic output feedback control), based on employing a creep model of which parameters are obtained by using the FRLS on-line identification method. The AIPOF control method can achieve an arbitrary pole configuration as long as the plant is controllable and observable. This paper also designs the POF and IPOF controller to compare their test results. Simulation and experiments of micro-force-tracking tests are carried out, with results confirming that the proposed control method is viable. (paper)

  4. Air Force Command and Control: The Need for Increased Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Commander, General Michael Moseley, Coalition Forces Land Component Commander, Lieutenant General Da­ 76 vid McKiernan, Coalition Forces Maritime...Command and Control of Space Assets The unique characteristics of systems operating in the ulti­ mate high ground present special considerations for the C2

  5. Control of force during rapid visuomotor force-matching tasks can be described by discrete time PID control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob Lund; Feeney, Daniel F; Almuklass, Awad M; Enoka, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    Force trajectories during isometric force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions vary substantially across individuals. In this study, we investigated if this variability can be explained by discrete time proportional, integral, derivative (PID) control algorithms with varying model parameters. To this end, we analyzed the pinch force trajectories of 24 subjects performing two rapid force-matching tasks with visual feedback. Both tasks involved isometric contractions to a target force of 10% maximal voluntary contraction. One task involved a single action (pinch) and the other required a double action (concurrent pinch and wrist extension). 50,000 force trajectories were simulated with a computational neuromuscular model whose input was determined by a PID controller with different PID gains and frequencies at which the controller adjusted muscle commands. The goal was to find the best match between each experimental force trajectory and all simulated trajectories. It was possible to identify one realization of the PID controller that matched the experimental force produced during each task for most subjects (average index of similarity: 0.87 ± 0.12; 1 = perfect similarity). The similarities for both tasks were significantly greater than that would be expected by chance (single action: p = 0.01; double action: p = 0.04). Furthermore, the identified control frequencies in the simulated PID controller with the greatest similarities decreased as task difficulty increased (single action: 4.0 ± 1.8 Hz; double action: 3.1 ± 1.3 Hz). Overall, the results indicate that discrete time PID controllers are realistic models for the neural control of force in rapid force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions.

  6. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  7. Force-assisted ultrasound imaging system through dual force sensing and admittance robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting-Yun; Zhang, Haichong K; Finocchi, Rodolfo; Taylor, Russell H; Boctor, Emad M

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been a gold standard for clinical diagnoses due to its unique advantages compared to other imaging modalities including: low cost, noninvasiveness, and safeness to the human body. However, the ultrasound scanning process requires applying a large force over extended periods of time, often in uncomfortable postures in order to maintain the desired orientation. This physical requirement over sonographers' careers often leads to musculoskeletal pain and strain injuries. To address this problem, we propose a cooperatively controlled robotic ultrasound system to reduce the force sonographers apply. The proposed system consists of two key components: a six-axis robotic arm that holds and actuates the ultrasound probe, and a dual force sensor setup that enables cooperative control and adaptive force assistance. With the admittance force control, the robotic arm complies with the motion of the operator, while assisting with force during the scanning. We validated the system through a user study involving expert sonographers and lay people and demonstrated 32-73% reduction in human applied force and 8- 18% improvement in image stability. These results indicate that the system has the potential to not only reduce the burden on the sonographer, but also provide more stable ultrasound scanning.

  8. Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Loftus, Zachary; McCormac, Nathan; Venable, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control of the penetration force applied to a pin tool in friction stir welding has been found to be a robust and reliable means for controlling the depth of penetration of the tool. This discovery has made it possible to simplify depth control and to weld with greater repeatability, even on workpieces with long weld joints. Prior to this discovery, depths of penetration in friction stir welding were controlled by hard-tooled roller assemblies or by depth actuators controlled by feedback from such external sensors as linear variable-differential transformers or laser-based devices. These means of control are limited: A hard-tooled roller assembly confines a pin tool to a preset depth that cannot be changed easily during the welding process. A measurement by an external sensor is only an indirect indicative of the depth of penetration, and computations to correlate such a measurement with a depth of penetration are vulnerable to error. The present force-feedback approach exploits the proportionality between the depth and the force of penetration Unlike a depth measurement taken by an external sensor, a force measurement can be direct because it can be taken by a sensor coupled directly to the pin tool. The reading can be processed through a modern electronic servo control system to control an actuator to keep the applied penetration force at the desired level. In comparison with the older depth-control methods described above, this method offers greater sensitivity to plasticizing of the workpiece metal and is less sensitive to process noise, resulting in a more consistent process. In an experiment, a tapered panel was friction stir welded while controlling the force of penetration according to this method. The figure is a plot of measurements taken during the experiment, showing that force was controlled with a variation of 200 lb (890 N), resulting in control of the depth of penetration with a variation of 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).

  9. Nanoscopic control and quantification of enantioselective optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Saleh, Amr A. E.; van de Haar, Marie Anne; Baum, Brian; Briggs, Justin A.; Lay, Alice; Reyes-Becerra, Olivia A.; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2017-11-01

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) exerts a force of different magnitude on left- and right-handed enantiomers, an effect that could be exploited for chiral resolution of chemical compounds as well as controlled assembly of chiral nanostructures. However, enantioselective optical forces are challenging to control and quantify because their magnitude is extremely small (sub-piconewton) and varies in space with sub-micrometre resolution. Here, we report a technique to both strengthen and visualize these forces, using a chiral atomic force microscope probe coupled to a plasmonic optical tweezer. Illumination of the plasmonic tweezer with CPL exerts a force on the microscope tip that depends on the handedness of the light and the tip. In particular, for a left-handed chiral tip, transverse forces are attractive with left-CPL and repulsive with right-CPL. Additionally, total force differences between opposite-handed specimens exceed 10 pN. The microscope tip can map chiral forces with 2 nm lateral resolution, revealing a distinct spatial distribution of forces for each handedness.

  10. Force analysis of magnetic bearings with power-saving controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Brown, G.V.; Inman, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Most magnetic bearing control schemes use a bias current with a superimposed control current to linearize the relationship between the control current and the force it delivers. For most operating conditions, the existence of the bias current requires more power than alternative methods that do not use conventional bias. Two such methods are examined which diminish or eliminate bias current. In the typical bias control scheme it is found that for a harmonic control force command into a voltage limited transconductance amplifier, the desired force output is obtained only up to certain combinations of force amplitude and frequency. Above these values, the force amplitude is reduced and a phase lag occurs. The power saving alternative control schemes typically exhibit such deficiencies at even lower command frequencies and amplitudes. To assess the severity of these effects, a time history analysis of the force output is performed for the bias method and the alternative methods. Results of the analysis show that the alternative approaches may be viable. The various control methods examined were mathematically modeled using nondimensionalized variables to facilitate comparison of the various methods

  11. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  12. Multidigit control of contact forces during transport of handheld objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A; Soechting, John F; Flanders, Martha

    2007-08-01

    When an object is lifted vertically, the normal force increases and decreases in tandem with tangential (load) force to safely avoid slips. For horizontal object transport, horizontal forces at the contact surfaces can be decomposed into manipulation forces (producing acceleration/deceleration) and grasping forces. Although the grasping forces must satisfy equilibrium constraints, it is not clear what determines their modulation across time, nor the extent to which they result from active muscle contraction or mechanical interactions of the digits with the moving object. Grasping force was found to increase in an experimental condition where the center of mass was below the contact plane, compared with when it was in the contact plane. This increase may be aimed at stabilizing object orientation during translation. In another experimental condition, more complex moments were introduced by allowing the low center of mass to swing around a pivot point. Electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from several intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles failed to reveal active feedback regulation of contact force in this situation. Instead, in all experimental conditions, EMG data revealed a strategy of feedforward stiffness modulation. Multiple regression analysis revealed that muscle activity at remote digits (e.g., the index and ring fingers) was highly correlated with the contact force measured at another digit (e.g., the thumb). The data suggest that to maintain grasp stability during horizontal translation, predictable as well as somewhat unpredictable inertial forces are compensated for by controlling the stiffness of the hand through cocontraction and modulation of hand muscle activity.

  13. Emerging economies a new force in international giving | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-03-04

    Mar 4, 2014 ... Emerging economies' increasing engagement in overseas philanthropy, private investment, and government aid is transforming the landscape of international giving, a groundbreaking study reports.

  14. Basal Ganglia Mechanisms Underlying Precision Grip Force Control

    OpenAIRE

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We revi...

  15. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...

  16. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  17. Controlling Force in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Fused Biconical Tapering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused biconical tapering (FBT is an important method of manufacturing polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF couplers. However, the tension on the ends of the fibers can affect the performance of the coupler. In this paper, a computer-based method of controlling the drawing force was presented. The system includes a drawing mechanism, rotary position encoders, and a control circuit. A three-dimensional model of a permanent magnet and a coil is constructed, and the relationship among the coil current, rotation angle of the clamp, and electromagnetic force is determined using finite element simulations. Electromagnetic force control based on these simulations can be realized. The method is verified experimentally, and it is shown that a drawing force of 0–1.8 gf can be achieved with an error of within 3.04%. This result can be used in the FBT-based manufacture of fiber components such as fiber couplers and gratings.

  18. Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Hubballi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.

  19. Control of jaw-clenching forces in dentate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Rolando, Mara; Roatta, Silvestro

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the control of jaw-clenching forces by means of a simple force-matching exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects, provided with visual feedback of the exerted force, carried out a unilateral force-matching exercise requiring developing and maintaining for 7 seconds a jaw-clenching force at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of the maximum voluntary contraction. The task was repeated three times in each of two sessions. Motor performance was assessed, for both left and right sides, by different indices quantifying mean distance (MD), offset error (OE), and standard deviation (SD). Their dependence on force intensity, side, and time was assessed by ANOVA. All error indices increased with the intensity of contraction in absolute terms. After normalization with respect to force level, the average performance in the second session was characterized by MD of 8.1% ± 2.6, OE 4.8% ± 2.9, and SD 12.7% ± 6.7 (mean ± standard deviation). Assessment of performance exhibited good reliability for all indices (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 74% to 88%). The motor performance improved with repetition (P .05) but was highly correlated between left and right side (P < .01). The adopted approach is adequate to provide for an objective assessment of individual force control, although the presence of a learning phase must be taken into account.

  20. Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, J V; Norman, R A

    2007-08-07

    Destabilising a biological system through periodic or stochastic forcing can lead to significant changes in system behaviour. Forcing can bring about coexistence when previously there was exclusion; it can excite massive system response through resonance, it can offset the negative effect of apparent competition and it can change the conditions under which the system can be invaded. Our main focus is on the invasion properties of continuous time models under periodic forcing. We show that invasion is highly sensitive to the strength, period, phase, shape and configuration of the forcing components. This complexity can be of great advantage if some of the forcing components are anthropogenic in origin. They can be turned into instruments of control to achieve specific objectives in ecology and disease management, for example. Culling, vaccination and resource regulation are considered. A general analysis is presented, based on the leading Lyapunov exponent criterion for invasion. For unstructured invaders, a formula for this exponent can typically be written down from the model equations. Whether forcing hinders or encourages invasion depends on two factors: the covariances between invader parameters and resident populations and the shifts in average resident population levels brought about by the forcing. The invasion dynamics of a structured invader are much more complicated but an analytic solution can be obtained in quadratic approximation for moderate forcing strength. The general theory is illustrated by a range of models drawn from ecology and epidemiology. The relationship between periodic and stochastic forcing is also considered.

  1. An internal force solving method and its application in teaching of mechanics of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an improved method of positive assumption for internal force solving, and the application process of this improved method is introduced by some examples, matters to be noted in teaching by this improved method are also analyzed. Teaching practice shows that using improved method of positive assumption to solve internal force, can effectively reduce the error rate, improve the students’ ability to analyze the internal force, increase the confidence in mechanics of materials learning, and can produce positive transfer effect for subsequent rated courses learning.

  2. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  3. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  4. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.

  5. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March 2008. The funding is intended to support activities outlined in RITC's program ...

  6. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  7. Design control system of telescope force actuators based on WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2010-05-01

    With the development of the technology of autocontrol, telescope, computer, network and communication, the control system of the modern large and extra lager telescope become more and more complicated, especially application of active optics. Large telescope based on active optics maybe contain enormous force actuators. This is a challenge to traditional control system based on wired networks, which result in difficult-to-manage, occupy signification space and lack of system flexibility. Wireless network can resolve these disadvantages of wired network. Presented control system of telescope force actuators based on WLAN (WFCS), designed the control system framework of WFCS. To improve the performance of real-time, we developed software of force actuators control system in Linux. Finally, this paper discussed improvement of WFCS real-time, conceived maybe improvement in the future.

  8. Enforcing international obligations through the use of force?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2008 (2008), s. 595-631 ISSN 0035-3256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : public international law * weapons of mass destruction * fight against terrorism Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. The Special Forces Organization for Foreign Internal Defense in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-07

    Philippines during World War II. Lansdale’s chief Filipino associate was Colonel Napoleon Valeriano , who commanded units called "skull squadrons" for their...called the "skull squadron" for their practice of beheading suspected Huk guerrillas. Army Colonel Napoleon Valeriano , commander of the Nenita Unit, a...command of Lieutenant Marana to become the Force X. Colonel Valeriano and Lieutenant Marana personally screened and then selected three officers and

  10. Jump distance of dance landings influencing internal joint forces: I. Axial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K J; Kanter, L

    1997-07-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and rate of applying axial forces (AF) during actual dance movements is necessary for understanding the etiology of chronic injuries and osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of jumping distance on component ankle and knee joint AFs generated during the landing phase of traveling jumps. Six female dancers performed 10 jumps each at 30, 60, and 90% maximum jump distance (JD) and 15 jumps ranging from 35 to 100% JD. A sagittal view of the right leg landing onto a force platform was filmed. Greater ground reaction force maxima, knee flexion, knee and ankle flexion velocity, tibial landing angle, net ankle and knee joint moment maxima, ankle and knee joint reaction AFs, and quadriceps AFs (QuadAF) peak magnitudes and rates of AF application (dFmax/dt) were observed (P JD. The QuadAF was a more important determinant of knee AF than joint reaction AF. Increased quadriceps force was useful for accommodating impact forces but served to increase its contribution to Knee AF, particularly during the later portion of the impact phase. High impact situations create significant magnitudes (e.g., 14 BW) and dFmax/dt of muscle AFs which could contribute to excessive joint wear.

  11. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  12. External force/velocity control for an autonomous rehabilitation robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saekow, Peerayuth; Neranon, Paramin; Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a primary cause of death and the leading cause of permanent disability in adults. There are many stroke survivors, who live with a variety of levels of disability and always need rehabilitation activities on daily basis. Several studies have reported that usage of rehabilitation robotic devices shows the better improvement outcomes in upper-limb stroke patients than the conventional therapy-nurses or therapists actively help patients with exercise-based rehabilitation. This research focuses on the development of an autonomous robotic trainer designed to guide a stroke patient through an upper-limb rehabilitation task. The robotic device was designed and developed to automate the reaching exercise as mentioned. The designed robotic system is made up of a four-wheel omni-directional mobile robot, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor used to measure contact force and a microcontroller real-time operating system. Proportional plus Integral control was adapted to control the overall performance and stability of the autonomous assistive robot. External force control was successfully implemented to establish the behavioral control strategy for the robot force and velocity control scheme. In summary, the experimental results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force and velocity control can be considered acceptable. The gain tuning for proportional integral (PI) velocity control algorithms was suitably estimated using the Ziegler-Nichols method in which the optimized proportional and integral gains are 0.45 and 0.11, respectively. Additionally, the PI external force control gains were experimentally tuned using the trial and error method based on a set of experiments which allow a human participant moves the robot along the constrained circular path whilst attempting to minimize the radial force. The performance was analyzed based on the root mean square error (E_RMS) of the radial forces, in which the lower the variation in radial

  13. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-01-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H ∞ control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments

  14. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  15. Internal force corrections with machine learning for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingheng; Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2017-10-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation is a useful tool to calculate thermodynamic properties such as potential of mean force for chemical reactions but intensely time consuming. In this paper, we developed a new method using the internal force correction for low-level semiempirical QM/MM molecular dynamics samplings with a predefined reaction coordinate. As a correction term, the internal force was predicted with a machine learning scheme, which provides a sophisticated force field, and added to the atomic forces on the reaction coordinate related atoms at each integration step. We applied this method to two reactions in aqueous solution and reproduced potentials of mean force at the ab initio QM/MM level. The saving in computational cost is about 2 orders of magnitude. The present work reveals great potentials for machine learning in QM/MM simulations to study complex chemical processes.

  16. Internal force corrections with machine learning for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingheng; Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2017-10-28

    Ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation is a useful tool to calculate thermodynamic properties such as potential of mean force for chemical reactions but intensely time consuming. In this paper, we developed a new method using the internal force correction for low-level semiempirical QM/MM molecular dynamics samplings with a predefined reaction coordinate. As a correction term, the internal force was predicted with a machine learning scheme, which provides a sophisticated force field, and added to the atomic forces on the reaction coordinate related atoms at each integration step. We applied this method to two reactions in aqueous solution and reproduced potentials of mean force at the ab initio QM/MM level. The saving in computational cost is about 2 orders of magnitude. The present work reveals great potentials for machine learning in QM/MM simulations to study complex chemical processes.

  17. Report of the Material Control and Material Accounting Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    In September 1977 a Task Force was formed to complete a study of the role of material control and material accounting in NRC's safeguards program. The Task Force's assignment was to: define the roles and objectives of material control and material accounting in the NRC safeguards program; recommend goals for the material control and material accounting systems based on their roles and objectives; assess the extent to which the existing safeguards regulatory base meets or provides the capability to meet the recommended goals; and provide direction for material control and material accounting development, including both near-term and long-term upgrades. The study was limited to domestic nuclear facilities possessing significant amounts of plutonium, uranium-233 or highly enriched uranium in unsealed form. The Task Force findings are reported

  18. Basal ganglia mechanisms underlying precision grip force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E

    2009-06-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review, we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force.

  19. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atha, Roberto J

    2008-01-01

    .... It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today...

  20. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M

    2011-01-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  1. Synchronization of Forced damped Pendulum via Active Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper active controllers are designed to synchronize two identical forced damped pendula. The performance of the controllers in the synchronization of the chaotic dynamics of the two pendula, resulting from different initial conditions, is investigated numerically and found to be effective. Transition from ...

  2. An Analysis of Internal Controls and Procurement Fraud Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    22 2. Objectives of the COSO Internal Control Framework ..................22 a. Operation Objectives...23 3. Five COSO Internal Control Components ......................................23 a. Control...33 c. Collusion among Contractors or Contractor Acting Alone ..34 E. APPLICATION OF COSO INTERNAL CONTROL COMPONENTS

  3. Robust Operation of Tendon-Driven Robot Fingers Using Force and Position-Based Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven finger and a control system. The system controls the finger via a force-based control law when a tension sensor is available, and via a position-based control law when a sensor is not available. Multiple tendons may each have a corresponding sensor. The system selectively injects a compliance value into the position-based control law when only some sensors are available. A control system includes a host machine and a non-transitory computer-readable medium having a control process, which is executed by the host machine to control the finger via the force- or position-based control law. A method for controlling the finger includes determining the availability of a tension sensor(s), and selectively controlling the finger, using the control system, via the force or position-based control law. The position control law allows the control system to resist disturbances while nominally maintaining the initial state of internal tendon tensions.

  4. Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for

  5. Exact Internal Controllability of Maxwell's Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we obtain two exact internal controllability results of Maxwell's equations in a general region by using multiplier techniques. The first one is exact controllability in a short time, in which we obtain the 'optimal' (observability) estimates when the location and the shape of the controller is fixed. What happens if we allow the controller to change? Under some conditions, we show that by doing that the system can be exactly controllable within any given time duration, which is our second exact controllability result

  6. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  7. Formation control of robotic swarm using bounded artificial forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Long; Zha, Yabing; Yin, Quanjun; Peng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions.

  8. Formation Control of Robotic Swarm Using Bounded Artificial Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions.

  9. Formation Control of Robotic Swarm Using Bounded Artificial Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yabing; Peng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Formation control of multirobot systems has drawn significant attention in the recent years. This paper presents a potential field control algorithm, navigating a swarm of robots into a predefined 2D shape while avoiding intermember collisions. The algorithm applies in both stationary and moving targets formation. We define the bounded artificial forces in the form of exponential functions, so that the behavior of the swarm drove by the forces can be adjusted via selecting proper control parameters. The theoretical analysis of the swarm behavior proves the stability and convergence properties of the algorithm. We further make certain modifications upon the forces to improve the robustness of the swarm behavior in the presence of realistic implementation considerations. The considerations include obstacle avoidance, local minima, and deformation of the shape. Finally, detailed simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, and the direction of possible futrue work is discussed in the conclusions. PMID:24453809

  10. Trajectory-tracking control of underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals using Time Delay Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon-Young [Green Growth Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 65 Munjiro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: asura@kepco.co.kr; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung [Green Growth Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 65 Munjiro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.

  11. Trajectory-tracking control of underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals using Time Delay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon-Young; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF GRIP FORCE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorij Kurillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The majority of hand functionality tests are based on qualitative assessment which largely depends on the experience of the therapist. Computer-assisted methods can provide more objective and accurate measurements of the grip force and other parameters related to grasping.Methods. We analysed the grip force control in 12 patients with muscular dystrophy using the tracking system developed. The system consists of a grip-measuring device with endobjects assessing the force applied in different grips. The device was used as input to a tracking task where the patient applied the grip force according to the visual feedback from the computer screen. Each patient performed two tasks which consisted of tracking a ramp and sinus target.Results. We analysed the maximal grip force as assessed in the ramp task and the tracking accuracy of the sinus task. The results are compared among five different grips (cylindrical, lateral, palmar, pinch and spherical grip, applied with dominant and non-dominant hand. The results show no significant difference in tracking accuracy between the dominant and non-dominant hand.Conclusions. The results obtained in tracking the ramp target showed that the method could be used for the assessment of the muscle fatigue, providing quantitative information on muscle capacity. The results of the sinus-tracking task showed that the method can evaluate the grip force control in different types of grips, providing information on hand dexterity, muscle activation patterns or tremor.

  13. Jump distance of dance landings influencing internal joint forces: II. Shear forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K J; Pettit, M

    1997-07-01

    Little is known about shear loading patterns during dance movements. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of jumping distance (JD) on contributors of ankle and knee shear forces (SF) generated during the landing phase of traveling jumps. Six female dancers performed 10 trials each at 30, 60, and 90% maximum jump distance (JD) and 15 jumps ranging from 35 to 100% JD. A sagittal view of the right leg landing onto a force platform was filmed using a high-speed cine camera. Greater ankle and knee joint reaction shear forces (JRSF) and quadriceps SF (QuadSF) were observed (P JD. Although the triceps surae SF (TriSurSF) also increased at greater JD for all but one participant, the effect on minimizing the increase in the ankle SF was minor. The peak QuadSF magnitude and rate of loading were always greater than the corresponding knee JRSF variables. However, the increased QuadSF that occurred at longer jumps led to increased knee SF for only half of the participants.

  14. iCub Whole-body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Noncoplanar Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eNori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the implementation on the humanoid robot iCub of state-of-the-art algorithms for whole-body control. We regulate the forces between the robot and its surrounding environment to stabilize a desired robot posture. We assume that the forces and torques are exerted on rigid contacts. The validity of this assumption is guaranteed by constraining the contact forces and torques, e.g. the contact forces must belong to the associated friction cones. The implementation of this control strategy requires to estimate the external forces acting on the robot, and the internal joint torques. We then detail algorithms to obtain these estimations when using a robot with an iCub-like sensor set, i.e. distributed six-axis force-torque sensors and whole-body tactile sensors. A general theory for identifying the robot inertial parameters is also presented. From an actuation standpoint, we show how to implement a joint torque control in the case of DC brushless motors. In addition, the coupling mechanism of the iCub torso is investigated. The soundness of the entire control architecture is validated in a real scenario involving the robot iCub balancing and making contacts at both arms.

  15. The interplay of internal and forced modes of Hadley Cell expansion: lessons from the global warming hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Dillon J.; Siler, Nicholas; Xie, Shang-Ping; Miller, Arthur J.

    2017-09-01

    The poleward branches of the Hadley Cells and the edge of the tropics show a robust poleward shift during the satellite era, leading to concerns over the possible encroachment of the globe's subtropical dry zones into currently temperate climates. The extent to which this trend is caused by anthropogenic forcing versus internal variability remains the subject of considerable debate. In this study, we use a Joint EOF method to identify two distinct modes of tropical width variability: (1) an anthropogenically-forced mode, which we identify using a 20-member simulation of the historical climate, and (2) an internal mode, which we identify using a 1000-year pre-industrial control simulation. The forced mode is found to be closely related to the top of the atmosphere radiative imbalance and exhibits a long-term trend since 1860, while the internal mode is essentially indistinguishable from the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Together these two modes explain an average of 70% of the interannual variability seen in model "edge indices" over the historical period. Since 1980, the superposition of forced and internal modes has resulted in a period of accelerated Hadley Cell expansion and decelerated global warming (i.e., the "hiatus"). A comparison of the change in these modes since 1980 indicates that by 2013 the signal has emerged above the noise of internal variability in the Southern Hemisphere, but not in the Northern Hemisphere, with the latter also exhibiting strong zonal asymmetry, particularly in the North Atlantic. Our results highlight the important interplay of internal and forced modes of tropical width change and improve our understanding of the interannual variability and long-term trend seen in observations.

  16. The Interplay of Internal and Forced Modes of Hadley Cell Expansion: Lessons from the Global Warming Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, D. J.; Siler, N.; Xie, S. P.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The poleward branches of the Hadley Cells show a robust shift poleward shift during the satellite era, leading to concerns over the possible encroachment of the globe's subtropical dry zones into currently temperate climates. The extent to which this trend is caused by anthropogenic forcing versus internal variability remains the subject of considerable debate. In this study, we us a joint EOF method to identify two distinct modes of Hadley Cell variability: (i) an anthropogenically-forced mode, which we identify using a 20-member simulation of the historical climate, and (ii) an internal mode, which identify using a 1000-year pre-industrial control simulation with a global climate model. The forced mode is found to be closely related to the TOA radiative imbalance and exhibits a long-term trend since 1860, while the internal mode is found to be essentially indistinguishable from the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Together these two modes explain an average of 70% of the interannual variability seen in model "edge indices" over the historical period. Since 1980, the superposition of forced and internal modes has resulted in a period of accelerated Hadley Cell expansion and decelerated global warming (i.e., the "hiatus"). A comparison of the change in these modes since 1980 indicates that by 2013 the signal has emerged above the noise of internal variability in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), but not in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with the latter also exhibiting strong zonal asymmetry, particularly in the North Atlantic. Our results highlight the important interplay of internal and forced modes of Hadley Cell width change and improve our understanding of the interannual variability and long-term trend seen in observations.

  17. Internal Control Good Cooperative Governance And Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Arifian Rachman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of internal control and good cooperative governance partially and simultaneously to the performance of cooperatives in West Java Province. The research method used in this research is descriptive and verification. The sample in this research is 22 boards as manager of cooperative in West Java Province. The data used in the research is the primary data through questionnaire collection. Validity and reliability testing is performed before hypothesis testing. This research uses multiple regression analysis technique. Based on hypothesis testing obtained 1 internal control has no significant effect on performance 2 good cooperative governance has a significant effect on performance and 3 internal control and good cooperative governance have a significant effect on performance.

  18. Efficacy of internal control and controlling business risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies can gain additional efficiency in designing and implementing or assessing internal control by focusing on only those financial reporting objectives directly applicable to the company’s activities and circumstances, taking a risk based approach to internal control. It is important for any organization to have reliable financial data for internal decision-making purpose. Financial information is often useful in many internal decisions such as product or service pricing. This is why the most important function of the controller is to create and maintain the corporate financial control system. Today’s corporation operates in an increasingly complex environment and the controller’s role is to advice the management of current or future problems of the business environment or to prevent the fraud.

  19. Traceability of small force measurements and the future international system of units (SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelifa Naceur-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit of force is connected to the international prototype of the kilogramme, unit of mass in the international system of units (SI, via dead weight machines using calibrated masses. However, forces below 10 μN, ubiquitous in nature and in some devices cannot be measured with a traceability to the SI. The measurement, with the uncertainty of these forces has implications for both basic and applied science. Today, many emerging sectors in micro/nanotechnology and biotechnology have started producing and using systems to implement low forces that, for various reasons, require them to be traceable. Also, the revision of the SI, scheduled for 2018 year, of linking the definitions of the kilogramme, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole to fixed numerical values of fundamental constants, has aroused particular interest in the measurement and calibration of small forces. In this paper, we will give some indications of the state of the art on the small force with a focus on the development of a force sensor using a photoelastic crystal as a monolithic solid-state laser. Basically, the force to be measured is applied to the crystal induces a birefringence in the laser medium which in turn manifests itself by the appearance of a splitting between the frequencies associated with the two polarization components of the oscillating laser mode. This difference is then exploited because, within the elastic limit of the crystal, it is proportional to the force acting on the laser.

  20. Controlling propulsive forces in gait initiation in transfemoral amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    During prosthetic gait initiation, transfemoral (TF) amputees control the spatial and temporal parameters that modulate the propulsive forces, the positions of the center of pressure (CoP), and the center of mass (CoM). Whether their sound leg or the prosthetic leg is leading, the TF amputees reach

  1. 14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... Wheel 3 50 D in.-lbs 4 40 D in.-lbs.4 Elevator: Stick 167 lbs 100 lbs. Wheel (symmetrical) 200 lbs 100...

  2. Effect of laparoscopic grasper force transmission ratio on grasp control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westebring-Van der Putten, E.P.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Dankelman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background- Surgeons may cause tissue damage by incorrect laparoscopic pinch force control. Unpredictable tissue and grasper properties may cause slips or ruptures. This study investigated how different forms of haptic feedback influence the surgeon’s ability to generate a safe laparoscopic grasp

  3. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids

  4. Models and control for force/torque sensors in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Gert.

    1992-01-01

    One of the important problems in automatic assembly is the relative positioning accuracy between the parts in the assembly process. Inaccurate positions cause large insertion forces, wear and might damage the parts. They can also completely disable the assembly process. A solution to this problem is to detect the positioning error and to make a relevant adjustment of the position or path. This thesis presents a solution based on active feedback of force/torque data from a wrist mounted sensor. A task independent control algorithm has been realized through a sensor model concept. The sensor model includes an algorithm that transforms force/torque input to relevant motion of the end effector. The transformation is specified by a set of parameters e.g. desired forces, compliance and stopping criteria. The problem with gravity forces for varying end effector orientation is compensated by an algorithm, divided into three complexity levels. The compensation method includes a calibration sequence to ensure valid end effector properties to be used in the algorithm. A problem with available robot technology is bad integration possibilities for external sensors. To allow necessary modifications and expansions, an open and general control system architecture is proposed. The architecture is based in a computer workstation and transputers in pipeline for the robot specific operations. (au)

  5. Force-controlled patch clamp of beating cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Dario; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, János; Abriel, Hugues; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2015-03-11

    From its invention in the 1970s, the patch clamp technique is the gold standard in electrophysiology research and drug screening because it is the only tool enabling accurate investigation of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for action potentials. Because of its key role in drug screening, innovation efforts are being made to reduce its complexity toward more automated systems. While some of these new approaches are being adopted in pharmaceutical companies, conventional patch-clamp remains unmatched in fundamental research due to its versatility. Here, we merged the patch clamp and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques, thus equipping the patch-clamp with the sensitive AFM force control. This was possible using the FluidFM, a force-controlled nanopipette based on microchanneled AFM cantilevers. First, the compatibility of the system with patch-clamp electronics and its ability to record the activity of voltage-gated ion channels in whole-cell configuration was demonstrated with sodium (NaV1.5) channels. Second, we showed the feasibility of simultaneous recording of membrane current and force development during contraction of isolated cardiomyocytes. Force feedback allowed for a gentle and stable contact between AFM tip and cell membrane enabling serial patch clamping and injection without apparent cell damage.

  6. Argue internal audit on how to promote the nuclear power enterprise internal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen and standardize enterprise internal control, improve the management level and risk prevention ability, five departments jointly established the basic rules of internal control in enterprises, large and medium-sized enterprises as the national power enterprise, the enterprise internal audit executive power in strengthening and perfecting internal control, and in the enterprise internal control of play an active role. (author)

  7. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  8. Nuclear reactor internals with control elements guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, J.; Chevereau, G.

    1991-01-01

    The internals have a lower plate, a superior plate, support columns and guide tubes for the control rods displacements. The lower section of the control rod guide tube have a base that fits into a bevelled seat in the lower plate. The guide tube is held into the seat by a spring, compressed between the base of the upper section of the tube and the lower plate

  9. Climatic changes, the international control stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, S.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a juridical and economic analysis of the control mechanism called ''observance'' of the Kyoto protocol. This political and juridical innovation in the domain of the international agreements on the environment deals with the national sovereignty and the economical development mode. (A.L.B.)

  10. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ....2 What are the definitions for this part? * * * * * Currency cassette. A locked compartment that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 543 RIN 3141-AA27 Minimum... 590. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations establishing Minimum Internal Control...

  11. Forced excitation and active control for the measurement of fluid-elastic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillaud, Sebastien

    1999-01-01

    The action of a fluid flow on a tubes bundle is commonly decomposed into a random turbulent excitation and a fluid-elastic excitation. The fluid-elastic forces which are coupled to the tubes movement can be experimentally determined from an analysis of the vibratory response of the structure excited by turbulent forces. For low flow velocities, the turbulent excitation can be insufficient to make the tube significantly vibrate and to permit a correct vibratory analysis. On the opposite side, the structure can become unstable for high flow velocities: the fluid-elastic forces make the fluid-structure damping system fall towards zero. Two experimental methods are proposed in order to extend the considered flow rate. An additional excitation force allows to increase the tube vibration level for improving the signal-noise ratio at low velocities. When the tube is submitted to fluid-elastic instability, an artificial damping contribution by active control allows to stabilize it. Methods are implemented on a flexible tube inserted into rigid tubes bundle water and water-air transverse flows. Two actuator technologies are used: an electromagnetic exciter and piezoelectric actuators. The additional excitation method shows that the fluid-elastic forces remain insignificant at low velocity single phase flow. With the active control method, it is possible to carry out tests beyond the fluid-elastic instability. In two-phase flow, the stabilization of the structure is observed for low vacuum rates. The obtained new results are analyzed with the literature expected results in terms of fluid-elastic coupling and turbulent excitation. (author) [fr

  12. On position/force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulators using adaptive fuzzy backstepping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigzadehnoe, Barmak; Rahmani, Zahra; Khosravi, Alireza; Rezaie, Behrooz

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the position and force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulator system handling a common rigid object with unknown dynamical models and unknown external disturbances is investigated. The universal approximation properties of fuzzy logic systems are employed to estimate the unknown system dynamics. On the other hand, by defining new state variables based on the integral and differential of position and orientation errors of the grasped object, the error system of coordinated robot manipulators is constructed. Subsequently by defining the appropriate change of coordinates and using the backstepping design strategy, an adaptive fuzzy backstepping position tracking control scheme is proposed for multi-robot manipulator systems. By utilizing the properties of internal forces, extra terms are also added to the control signals to consider the force tracking problem. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed adaptive fuzzy backstepping position/force control approach ensures all the signals of the closed loop system uniformly ultimately bounded and tracking errors of both positions and forces can converge to small desired values by proper selection of the design parameters. Finally, the theoretic achievements are tested on the two three-link planar robot manipulators cooperatively handling a common object to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  14. Practice effects in bimanual force control: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben; Reuter, Eva-Maria; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined age-related differences in fine motor control during a bimanual coordination task. The task required the modulation of fingertip forces in the precision grip according to a visually presented sinusoidal antiphase pattern (force range 2-12 N; frequency 0.2 Hz). Thirty-four right-handed participants of three age groups (young, early middle-aged, and late middle-aged) practiced 30 trials of the task. Accuracy and variability of relative timing and relative forces at minima and maxima of the sine wave were analyzed for hand-hand and hand-stimulus couplings and compared between age groups. Analysis showed for relative timing and force weaker hand-hand than hand-stimulus coupling as well as lower accuracy and higher variability for minima as compared to maxima. Further, we analyzed practice effects by comparing the first and last trials and characterized the course of practice by detecting the transition of a steeper to a shallower acquisition slope for the different age groups. Late middle-aged participants demonstrated poorer performance than both other groups for all parameters. All groups improved performance to a similar amount. However, an age-related difference in acquisition strategy is visible. Late middle-aged participants seemed to have focused on improvement of force amplitude, whereas young and early middle-aged focused on timing.

  15. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  16. Numerical Simulations for Distribution Characteristics of Internal Forces on Segments of Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouju; Shangguan, Zichang; Cao, Lijuan

    A procedure based on FEM is proposed to simulate interaction between concrete segments of tunnel linings and soils. The beam element named as Beam 3 in ANSYS software was used to simulate segments. The ground loss induced from shield tunneling and segment installing processes is simulated in finite element analysis. The distributions of bending moment, axial force and shear force on segments were computed by FEM. The commutated internal forces on segments will be used to design reinforced bars on shield linings. Numerically simulated ground settlements agree with observed values.

  17. Normal-internal resonances in quasi-periodically forced oscillators a conservative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, H W; Jorba, A; Villanueva, J R; Wagener, F

    2002-01-01

    In the conservative dynamics of certain quasi-periodically forced oscillators, normal-internal resonances are considered in a bifurcational setting. So the unperturbed system has one degree of freedom. By averaging, the correspondence is made with the well-known case of periodic forcing and the way in which the present quasi-periodic case complicates the former. This paper extends work on the continuation of normally elliptic tori, where all normal-internal resonances are excluded: presently the gaps in the Cantor set are filled one by one.

  18. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal Control Plans. 225.33 Section 225.33....33 Internal Control Plans. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a written Internal Control... official business. Each railroad shall amend its Internal Control Plan, as necessary, to reflect any...

  19. Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... workers competence, independence of internal control staff, management observance of control, good remuneration of internal control staff, cost of instituting internal control measures, willingness to enforce controls, control measures for unusual transactions, and well-designed organizational structure have a significant ...

  20. International programs in United States schools of nursing: driving forces, obstacles, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Tamara H; McNelis, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    To understand the development of international programs in United States schools of nursing from the perspective of driving forces, obstacles, and opportunities. Despite increasing philosophical support for international programs, significant obstacles to their development, integration, and sustainability exist in schools of nursing across the United States. A National League for Nursing (NLN) survey collected information on the number and type of international programs being offered, with an emphasis on obstacles to integration. Driving forces for international programs, identified by 487 responding institutions, included valued program outcomes, a global focus, and limited availability of clinical sites. Obstacles, such as cost, safety, and lack of credit toward a major, were identified. Suggestions for addressing and overcoming the obstacles are proposed, including the sharing of resources and utilization of the NLN Faculty Preparation for Global Experiences Toolkit. More research is needed to understand the implications for curricula, logistics, development, costs, and sustainability.

  1. Active Control of Aerodynamic Forces on a Rapidly Maneuvering Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Daniel; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2009-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on a rapidly maneuvering free-moving airfoil are investigated in wind tunnel experiments. The airfoil is mounted on a 2-DOF traverse and its trim and dynamic characteristics are controlled using position and attitude feedback loops that are actuated by servo motors. The motion of the airfoil is effected by bi-directional changes in the pitching moment using controllable trapped vorticity concentrations on both the suction and pressure surfaces near the trailing edge that are induced and regulated by hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The dynamic coupling between the actuation and the time-dependent flow field is characterized using simultaneous force and velocity measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. The unsteady flow characteristics induced by the fluidic actuation during a prescribed maneuver are compared with the effects of a simple rigid-body motion of the airfoil when an external torque is used to achieve a similar maneuver. It is shown that the time-dependent aerodynamic forces and induced flow fields in the near wake of the moving airfoil are significantly different, emphasizing the role of the coupling between the flow control actuation and the model's unsteady aerodynamics.

  2. Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    that it has attained particular significance in the last decade. For instance, Hans Kelsen noted: There are two kinds of force not exercised by...reprisals. HANS KELSEN , COLLECTIVE SECURITY UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW 57 n.5 (49 Naval War College International Law Studies 1954, 1956). Ian Brownlie...Nations, 41 AM. J. INT’L L. 872 (1947); Hans Kelsen , Collective Security and Collective Self-Defense under the Charter of the United Nations 42 AM. J

  3. A Multiposture Locomotor Training Device with Force-Field Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control.

  4. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  5. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  6. Defense Procurement: An Analysis of Contract Management Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-22

    COSO ), composed of the AICPA, IIA, FEI, and the AAA, established the Internal Control Integrated Framework, which includes five internal control...components ( COSO , 2013). In May of 2013, COSO updated its internal control integrated framework, which now includes 17 principles within the five...components of internal control ( COSO , 2013). In September 2014, the GAO updated its Standards for Internal Control for the Federal Government (Green Book

  7. Internally Generated and Externally Forced Multidecadal Oceanic Modes and their Influence on the Summer Rainfall over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, D.; Hu, A.

    2017-12-01

    The interdecadal oceanic variabilities can be generated from both internal and external processes, and these variabilities can significantly modulate our climate on global and regional scale, such as the warming slowdown in the early 21st century, and the rainfall in East Asia. By analyzing simulations from a unique Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (CESM_LE) project, we show that the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is primarily an internally generated oceanic variability, while the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) may be an oceanic variability generated by internal oceanic processes and modulated by external forcings in the 20th century. Although the observed relationship between IPO and the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) summer rainfall in China is well simulated in both the preindustrial control and 20th century ensemble, none of the 20th century ensemble members can reproduce the observed time evolution of both IPO and YHRV due to the unpredictable nature of IPO on multidecade timescale. On the other hand, although CESM_LE cannot reproduce the observed relationship between AMO and Huanghe River valley (HRV) summer rainfall of China in the preindustrial control simulation, this relationship in the 20th century simulations is well reproduced, and the chance to reproduce the observed time evolution of both AMO and HRV rainfall is about 30%, indicating the important role of the interaction between the internal processes and the external forcing to realistically simulate the AMO and HRV rainfall.

  8. Forces during Tim Peake's Launch to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advanced technology and engineering that has gone onto the International Space Station and other space programmes, the measurement of the force experienced in the spacecraft is tested using a method that is well over 350 years old. The time of oscillation of a simple pendulum, as often investigated in school physics, provides the basis…

  9. External and internal influences as driving forces and/or stumbling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of national and institutional quality assurance and management systems is often forced (rightfully or wrongly) into a specific direction by external and internal environmental influences. In South Africa such influences play a major role in both the national higher education policy developments and the ...

  10. Interference of Locally Forced Internal Waves in Non-Uniform Stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Rohit; Peacock, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of constructive or destructive interference on the transmission of internal waves propagating through non-uniform stratifications. Such studies have been performed for internal waves that are spatiotemporally harmonic. To understand the effect of localization, we perform a theoretical and experimental study of the transmission of two-dimensional internal waves that are generated by a spatiotemporally localized boundary forcing. This is done by considering an idealized problem and applying a weakly viscous semi-analytic linear model. Parametric studies using this model show that localization leads to the disappearance of transmission peaks and troughs that would otherwise be present for a harmonic forcing. Laboratory experiments that we perform provide a clear indication of this physical effect. Based on the group velocity and angle of propagation of the internal waves, a practical criteria that assesses when the transmission peaks or troughs are evident, is obtained. It is found that there is a significant difference in the predicted energy transfer due to a harmonic and non-harmonic forcing which has direct implications to various physical forcings such as a storm over the ocean.

  11. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  12. Analysis of squat and stoop dynamic liftings: muscle forces and internal spinal loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgari, Babak; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Arjmand, Navid

    2007-05-01

    Despite the well-recognized role of lifting in back injuries, the relative biomechanical merits of squat versus stoop lifting remain controversial. In vivo kinematics measurements and model studies are combined to estimate trunk muscle forces and internal spinal loads under dynamic squat and stoop lifts with and without load in hands. Measurements were performed on healthy subjects to collect segmental rotations during lifts needed as input data in subsequent model studies. The model accounted for nonlinear properties of the ligamentous spine, wrapping of thoracic extensor muscles to take curved paths in flexion and trunk dynamic characteristics (inertia and damping) while subject to measured kinematics and gravity/external loads. A dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed accounting for the spinal synergy by simultaneous consideration of passive structures and muscle forces under given posture and loads. Results satisfied kinematics and dynamic equilibrium conditions at all levels and directions. Net moments, muscle forces at different levels, passive (muscle or ligamentous) forces and internal compression/shear forces were larger in stoop lifts than in squat ones. These were due to significantly larger thorax, lumbar and pelvis rotations in stoop lifts. For the relatively slow lifting tasks performed in this study with the lowering and lifting phases each lasting approximately 2 s, the effect of inertia and damping was not, in general, important. Moreover, posterior shift in the position of the external load in stoop lift reaching the same lever arm with respect to the S1 as that in squat lift did not influence the conclusion of this study on the merits of squat lifts over stoop ones. Results, for the tasks considered, advocate squat lifting over stoop lifting as the technique of choice in reducing net moments, muscle forces and internal spinal loads (i.e., moment, compression and shear force).

  13. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times...

  14. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  15. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen......Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions....

  16. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  17. How controllable is stratospheric radiative forcing through sulfur injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Weisenstein, D.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the controllability of solar radiation management (SRM) strategies to achieve a desired meridional radiative forcing (RF) profile using a two-dimensional chemistry-transport-aerosol model. By varying SO2 or H2SO4 injection latitude, altitude, and time, we compute RF response functions for a broad range of possible injection schemes, finding that linear combinations of the basis injection cases can roughly achieve RF profiles including an equatorial minimum and linear meridional gradients of either sign, profiles that have been proposed to accomplish various climate objectives. The RF normalized by the sulfur injection rate (the radiative efficacy) is largest at high altitudes, near the equator, and using H2SO4. There is a trade-off between radiative efficacy and control as temporal and spatial control is best achieved with injections at lower altitudes and higher latitudes. These results may inform studies using more realistic models that couple aerosol microphysics, chemistry, and stratospheric dynamics.

  18. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  20. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  1. Force control of a tri-layer conducting polymer actuator using optimized fuzzy logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itik, Mehmet; Sabetghadam, Mohammadreza; Alici, Gursel

    2014-12-01

    Conducting polymers actuators (CPAs) are potential candidates for replacing conventional actuators in various fields, such as robotics and biomedical engineering, due to their advantageous properties, which includes their low cost, light weight, low actuation voltage and biocompatibility. As these actuators are very suitable for use in micro-nano manipulation and in injection devices in which the magnitude of the force applied to the target is of crucial importance, the force generated by CPAs needs to be accurately controlled. In this paper, a fuzzy logic (FL) controller with a Mamdani inference system is designed to control the blocking force of a trilayer CPA with polypyrrole electrodes, which operates in air. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to optimize the controller’s membership function parameters and therefore enhance the performance of the FL controller. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model, which can capture the nonlinear dynamics of the actuator, is utilized in the optimization process. The optimized Mamdani FL controller is then implemented on the CPA experimentally, and its performance is compared with a non-optimized fuzzy controller as well as with those obtained from a conventional PID controller. The results presented indicate that the blocking force at the tip of the CPA can be effectively controlled by the optimized FL controller, which shows excellent transient and steady state characteristics but increases the control voltage compared to the non-optimized fuzzy controllers.

  2. Damping Force Tracking Control of MR Damper System Using a New Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Phu Do

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new direct adaptive fuzzy controller and its effectiveness is verified by investigating the damping force tracking control of magnetorheological (MR fluid based damper (MR damper in short system. In the formulation of the proposed controller, a model of interval type 2 fuzzy controller is combined with the direct adaptive control to achieve high performance in vibration control. In addition, H∞ (H infinity tracking technique is used in building a model of the direct adaptive fuzzy controller in which an enhanced iterative algorithm is combined with the fuzzy model. After establishing a closed-loop control structure to achieve high control performance, a cylindrical MR damper is adopted and damping force tracking results are obtained and discussed. In addition, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, two existing controllers are modified and tested for comparative work. It has been demonstrated from simulation and experiment that the proposed control scheme provides much better control performance in terms of damping force tracking error. This leads to excellent vibration control performance of the semiactive MR damper system associated with the proposed controller.

  3. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  4. Interactions between internal forces, body stiffness, and fluid environment in a neuromechanical model of lamprey swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L; Cohen, Avis H; Fauci, Lisa J

    2010-11-16

    Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed.

  5. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  7. Force control is related to low-frequency oscillations in force and surface EMG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwasil Moon

    Full Text Available Force variability during constant force tasks is directly related to oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force. However, it is unknown whether such oscillations exist in muscle activity. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to determine whether oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force are evident in the activation of muscle. Fourteen young adults (21.07 ± 2.76 years, 7 women performed constant isometric force tasks at 5% and 30% MVC by abducting the left index finger. We recorded the force output from the index finger and surface EMG from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1 variability of force using the SD of force; 2 power spectrum of force below 2 Hz; 3 EMG bursts; 4 power spectrum of EMG bursts below 2 Hz; and 5 power spectrum of the interference EMG from 10-300 Hz. The SD of force increased significantly from 5 to 30% MVC and this increase was significantly related to the increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.82. For both force levels, the power spectrum for force and EMG burst was similar and contained most of the power from 0-0.5 Hz. Force and EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz were highly coherent (coherence = 0.68. The increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz from 5 to 30% MVC was related to an increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R(2 = 0.51. Finally, there was a strong association between the increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz and the interference EMG from 35-60 Hz (R(2 = 0.95. In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that bursting of the EMG signal contains low-frequency oscillations below 0.5 Hz, which are associated with oscillations in force below 0.5 Hz.

  8. Measurement of internal forces in superconducting accelerator magnets with strain gauge transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.L.; Anerella, M.D.; Ganetis, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved method has been developed for the measurement of internal forces in superconducting accelerator magnets, in particular the compressive stresses in coils and the end restraint forces on the coils. The transducers have been designed to provide improved sensitivity to purely mechanical strain by using bending mode deflections for sensing the applied loads. Strain gauge resistance measurements are made with a new system that eliminates sources of errors due to spurious resistance changes in interconnecting wiring and solder joints. The design of the transducers and their measurement system is presented along with a discussion of the method of compensation for thermal and magnetic effects, methods of calibration with typical calibration data, and measured effect in actual magnets of the thermal stress changes from cooldown and the Lorentz forces during magnet excitation. 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  10. Analysis of squat and stoop dynamic liftings: muscle forces and internal spinal loads

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrgari, Babak; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Arjmand, Navid

    2006-01-01

    Despite the well-recognized role of lifting in back injuries, the relative biomechanical merits of squat versus stoop lifting remain controversial. In vivo kinematics measurements and model studies are combined to estimate trunk muscle forces and internal spinal loads under dynamic squat and stoop lifts with and without load in hands. Measurements were performed on healthy subjects to collect segmental rotations during lifts needed as input data in subsequent model studies. The model accounte...

  11. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  12. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  13. Dynamics and Control of a Biomimetic Vehicle Using Biased Wingbeat Forcing Functions: Part 2 - Controller (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) David B. Doman, Michael W. Oppenheimer, and David O. Sigthorsson (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d...REPORT NUMBER Control Design and Analysis Branch (AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles

  14. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In 1992, the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations ( COSO ), composed of the AICPA, IIA, FEI, and the AAA, established the Internal Control Integrated...Framework, which includes five internal control components ( COSO , 2013). In May 2013, COSO (2013) updated its internal control integrated framework...Internal Control for the Federal Government (Green Book). The five components of the framework are discussed in the following sections ( COSO , 2013

  15. 10 CFR 74.43 - Internal controls, inventory, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, inventory, and records. 74.43 Section... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.43 Internal controls, inventory, and records. (a) General. Licensees subject to § 74.41 shall maintain the internal control...

  16. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls and...

  17. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program. These...

  18. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any reason...

  19. 12 CFR 917.6 - Internal control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal control system. 917.6 Section 917.6... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.6 Internal control... internal control system that addresses: (i) The efficiency and effectiveness of Bank activities; (ii) The...

  20. Selective use of visual information signaling objects' center of mass for anticipatory control of manipulative fingertip forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Iran; Frazier, Wendy; Reilmann, Ralf; Gordon, Andrew M

    2003-05-01

    The present study examines whether visual information indicating the center of mass (CM) of an object can be used for the appropriate scaling of fingertip forces at each digit during precision grip. In separate experiments subjects lifted an object with various types of visual cues concerning the CM location several times and then rotated and lifted it again to determine whether the visual cues signaling the new location of the CM could be used to appropriately scale the fingertip forces. Specifically, subjects had either no visual cues, visual instructional cues (i.e., an indicator) or visual geometric cues where the longer axis of the object indicated the CM. When no visual cues were provided, subjects were unable to appropriately scale the load forces at each digit following rotation despite their knowledge of the new weight distribution. When visual cues regarding the CM location were provided, the nature of the visual cues determined their effectiveness in retrieval of internal representations underlying the anticipatory scaling of fingertip forces. Specifically, when subjects were provided with visual instructional information, they were unable to appropriately scale the forces. More appropriate scaling of the load forces occurred when the visual cues were ecologically meaningful, i.e., when the shape of the object indicated the CM location. We suggest that visual instructional cues do not have access to the implicit processes underlying dynamic force control, whereas visual geometric cues can be used for the retrieval of the internal representation related to CM for appropriate partitioning of the forces in each digit.

  1. Competition, control and price formation in the international energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bina, C. (Providence Coll., RI (USA))

    1989-07-01

    It is shown that, since the early 1970s, the market prices of all energy sources have been regulated by the market value of crude oil at the international level, which in turn depends upon the magnitude of individual value of production units located within the least productive oilfields of the continental USA. Thus, historically and methodologically, the globalization of the petroleum industry together with the preponderant influence of US oil capital over other energy sources, especially its control over US coal, can be considered as, first of all, the fundamental basis of an all-embracing energy industry consisting of all sources and, second, the driving force behind the internationalization of capital in the energy industry. (author).

  2. Moving objects with clumsy fingers: how predictive is grip force control in patients with impaired manual sensibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dennis A; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Marquardt, Christian; Topka, Helge

    2003-03-01

    Anticipatory grip force adjustments to movement-induced load fluctuations of a hand-held object suggest that motion planning is based on an internal forward model of both the external object properties and the dynamics of the own motor apparatus. However, the central nervous system also refers to real time sensory feedback from the grasping digits in order to achieve a highly economical coupling between grip force and the actual loading requirements. We analyzed grip force control during vertical point-to-point arm movements with a hand-held instrumented object in 9 patients with moderately impaired tactile sensibility of the grasping digits due to chronic median nerve compression (n = 3), axonal (n = 3) and demyelinating sensory polyneuropathy (n = 3) in comparison to 9 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects. Point-to-point arm movements started and ended with the object being held stationary at rest. Load force changes arose from inertial loads related to the movement. A maximum of load force occurred early in upward and near the end of downward movements. Compared to healthy controls, patients with impaired manual sensibility generated similar static grip forces during stationary holding of the object and similar force ratios between maximum grip and load force. These findings reflect effective grip force scaling in relation to the movement-induced loads despite reduced afferent feedback from the grasping digits. For both groups the maxima of grip and load force coincided very closely in time, indicating that the temporal regulation of the grip force profile with the load profile was processed with a similar high precision. In addition, linear regression analyses between grip and load forces during movement-related load increase and load decrease phases revealed a similar precise temporo-spatial coupling between grip and load forces for patients and controls. Our results suggest that the precise and anticipatory adjustment of the grip force profile to the

  3. [Stigma and Mental Health in Victims of Colombia's Internal Armed Conflict in Situation of Forced Displacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged sociopolitical phenomenon of Colombian violence generated a high number of victims, many of whom suffered a continual process of internal displacement and stigma-discrimination complex. To postulate possible mechanisms by which victims of Colombia's internal armed conflict in a situation of forced displacement were stigmatized and discriminated. Stigma affects mental health, not only because it represents a major stressor for discriminated individuals and groups, but also because it accounts for inequalities and inequities in health. Initially, as the victims of the internal armed conflict in situation of forced displacement were not considered as such, but as responsible for the situation. Thus, they had to cope with the social and economic inequalities, explained partially by low categorization or status that they received, possibly due to poor construction of social capital in the country. Also, victims of the internal armed conflict suffer from intersectional stigma and discrimination due to other characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnic-racial origin, or meeting criteria for a mental disorder. An active process of inclusive social development is required for the displaced victims of the armed conflict,in order to reduce multiple stigma and ensure their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  5. International pollution control: Cooperative versus noncooperative strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, E.J.; Van Long, N.

    1993-01-01

    International pollution control involving two neighboring countries is modeled as a simple two-player dynamic game. Each country produces a good that is consumed by domestic households. Production of each consumption good results in emissions of pollutants. Households in each country derive utility from the consumption of the domestically produced good but incur costs through the total stock of pollution (stock externality). In this setting we characterize cooperative as well as noncooperative pollution control strategies of the governments of the two countries that maximize the discounted stream of net benefits of a representative consumer. It turns out that when the governments are restricted to use linear strategies noncooperative behavior results in overall losses for both countries. If, on the contrary, governments use nonlinear Markov-perfect strategies and the discount rate is small enough a Pareto-efficient steady-state pollution stock can be supported as a differentiable subgame-perfect equilibrium. Thus, the emergence of first-best solutions (cooperative outcomes) does not require any institutional arrangements (threats, retaliation, etc.) but can be brought about through the use of nonlinear Markov-perfect equilibrium strategies. 20 refs., 1 tab

  6. Quantifying internally generated and externally forced climate signals at regional scales in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Kewei; Zhang, Xuebin; Church, John A.; Hu, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's climate evolves because of both internal variability and external forcings. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models, here we quantify the ratio of externally forced variance to total variance on interannual and longer time scales for regional surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level, which depends on the relative strength of externally forced signal compared to internal variability. The highest ratios are found in tropical areas for SAT but at high latitudes for sea level over the historical period when ocean dynamics and global mean thermosteric contributions are considered. Averaged globally, the ratios over a fixed time interval (e.g., 30 years) are projected to increase during the 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario (RCP8.5). In contrast, under two mitigation scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5), the ratio declines sharply by the end of the 21st century for SAT, but only declines slightly or stabilizes for sea level, indicating a slower response of sea level to climate mitigation.

  7. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  8. Breakdown of NAO reproducibility into internal versus externally-forced components: a two-tier pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Hervé; Ribes, A.; Tyteca, S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the ability of atmospheric models to capture observed climate variations when driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice concentration (SIC) and radiative forcings is a prerequisite for the feasibility of near term climate predictions. Here we achieve ensembles of global atmospheric simulations to assess and attribute the reproducibility of the boreal winter atmospheric circulation against the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth century reanalysis (ERA20C). Our control experiment is driven by the observed SST/SIC from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. It is compared to a similar ensemble performed with the ECMWF model as a first step toward ERA20C. Moreover, a two-tier methodology is used to disentangle externally-forced versus internal variations in the observed SST/SIC boundary conditions and run additional ensembles allowing us to attribute the observed atmospheric variability. The focus is mainly on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability which is more reproducible in our model than in the ECMWF model. This result is partly due to the simulation of a positive NAO trend across the full 1920-2014 integration period. In line with former studies, this trend might be mediated by a circumglobal teleconnection mechanism triggered by increasing precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). Surprisingly, this response is mainly related to the internal SST variability and is not found in the ECMWF model driven by an alternative SST dataset showing a weaker TIO warming in the first half of the twentieth century. Our results may reconcile the twentieth century observations with the twenty-first century projections of the NAO. They should be however considered with caution given the limited size of our ensembles, the possible influence of other sources of NAO variability, and the uncertainties in the tropical SST trend and breakdown between internal versus externally-forced variability.

  9. Control of master-slave manipulator based on virtual internal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Katsuhisa; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Shiote, Yoshinori; Hatano, Hiromu.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative control architecture of master-slave manipulators based on the concept of virtual internal model following control. The proposed control architecture realizes the master-salve manipulator system with functions which assist operators based on the external information from sensors as well as bilateral feedback. In this paper, the control problem of a master-slave manipulator is formulated as the realization problem of the desired relation between a master arm and a slave arm. The virtual internal model, whose input includes the external sensory information, is used to describe the desired relation. The control system is designed so that the master arm and the slave arm tracks the desired trajectories generated by the virtual internal model. The proposed control architecture is experimentally applied to the master-slave manipulator system with force sensors and the effectiveness of the control architecture is illustrated through experiments. (author)

  10. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  11. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  12. Internally displaced "victims of armed conflict" in Colombia: the trajectory and trauma signature of forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A; Wainberg, Milton L; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L; Ordóñez, Anna E; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E; Muñoz García, Natalia; Gómez Ceballos, Angela Milena; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2014-10-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement.

  13. Operational Command and Control: Lessons for Today's Joint Force from Grenada, Somalia, and Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foraker III, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines operational command and control issues encountered during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada, the deployment of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu, Somalia, and Operation Allied Force in Kosovo...

  14. Control of plant leaf movements by the lunisolar tidal force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisahn, Joachim

    2018-01-24

    Investigations into the diurnal ascent and descent of leaves of beans and other species, as well as experimental interventions into these movements, such as exposures to light at different times during the movement cycle, led to the concept of an endogenous 'clock' as a regulator of these oscillations. The causal origin of leaf movement can be traced to processes that modulate cell volume in target tissues of the pulvinus and petiole. However, these elements of the leaf-movement process do not sufficiently account for the rhythms that are generated following germination in constant light or dark conditions, or when plants are transferred to similar free-running conditions. To further unravel the regulation of leaf-movement rhythms, many of the published time courses of leaf movements that provided evidence for the concept of the endogenous clock were analysed in conjunction with the contemporaneous time courses of the lunisolar tidal acceleration. This was accomplished by application of the Etide program, which estimates, with high temporal resolution, local gravitational changes as a consequence of the diurnal variations of the lunisolar gravitational force due to the orbits and relative positions of Earth, Moon and Sun. To substantiate the results obtained in earthbound laboratories additional experiments were performed in the International Space Station (ISS). Tidal recurrence within the ISS exhibited a periodicity of 45 min. In all instances investigated, it was evident that a synchronism exists between the times of the turning points of both the lunisolar tide and of the leaftide when the direction of leaf movement changes. This finding of synchrony documents that the lunisolar tide is a regulator of the leaftide, and that the rhythm of leaf movement is not of endogenous origin but is an expression of an exogenous lunisolar clock impressed upon the leaf-movement apparatus. A huge number of correlations between leaftide and Etide time courses were established

  15. Forced and internal modes of variability of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern instrumental record (1979–2006 is analyzed in an attempt to reveal the dynamical structure and origins of the major modes of interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM and to elucidate their fundamental differences with the major modes of seasonal variability. These differences are instrumental in understanding of the forced (say orbital and internal (say interannual modes of variability in EASM. We show that the leading mode of interannual variation, which accounts for about 39% of the total variance, is primarily associated with decaying phases of major El Nino, whereas the second mode, which accounts for 11.3% of the total variance, is associated with the developing phase of El Nino/La Nina. The EASM responds to ENSO in a nonlinear fashion with regard to the developing and decay phases of El Nino. The two modes are determined by El Nino/La Nina forcing and monsoon-warm ocean interaction, or essentially driven by internal feedback processes within the coupled climate system. For this internal mode, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ and subtropical EASM precipitations exhibit an out-of-phase variations; further, the Meiyu in Yangtze River Valley is also out-of-phase with the precipitation in the central North China.

    In contrast, the annual cycle forced by the solar radiation shows an in-phase variation between the ITCZ and the subtropical EASM precipitation. Further, the seasonal march of precipitation displays a continental-scale northward advance of a southwest-northeastward tilted rainband from mid-May toward the end of July. This coherent seasonal advance between Indian and East Asian monsoons suggests that the position of the northern edge of the summer monsoon over the central North China may be an adequate measure of the monsoon intensity for the forced mode. Given the fact that the annual modes share the similar external forcing with orbital variability, the difference between the annual

  16. Design and Implementation of Nonlinear Force Controllers for Friction Stir Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    In the path force controller implementation, a constant path force is maintained, even in the presence of gaps, and wormhole generation during the...set of experiments is designed to demonstrate the ability of the path force controller to eliminate the generation of wormholes during the welding...reference value of 0.22 kN. The reference path force is selected so a good weld will be obtained without wormholes or the creation of surface voids

  17. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  18. An Evaluation of Air Force Aircraft Battle Damage Repair Techniques Applicable to Repair Activities Onboard the International Space Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhary, Ravi

    1999-01-01

    United States Air Force (USAF) Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR) strategies, techniques and technologies are directly applicable to NASA efforts to develop on-orbit repair capabilities for the International Space Station (ISS...

  19. The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century: A Case for an International Police Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kersten, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    ... its traditional logic and employment of military forces for international peacekeeping operations, The benefits of global economic investment and individual liberties should be apparent to all as a positive outcome...

  20. Internalization of Air Force Core Values Among Company Grade Officers: Where are We and Where are We Going?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Our senior leadership is placing renewed emphasis on Air Force core values and recognizes the internalization of these values are critical to the long-term success of our professional officer corps...

  1. Shared internal models for feedforward and feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark J; Smith, Maurice A

    2008-10-15

    A child often learns to ride a bicycle in the driveway, free of unforeseen obstacles. Yet when she first rides in the street, we hope that if a car suddenly pulls out in front of her, she will combine her innate goal of avoiding an accident with her learned knowledge of the bicycle, and steer away or brake. In general, when we train to perform a new motor task, our learning is most robust if it updates the rules of online error correction to reflect the rules and goals of the new task. Here we provide direct evidence that, after a new feedforward motor adaptation, motor feedback responses to unanticipated errors become precisely task appropriate, even when such errors were never experienced during training. To study this ability, we asked how, if at all, do online responses to occasional, unanticipated force pulses during reaching arm movements change after adapting to altered arm dynamics? Specifically, do they change in a task-appropriate manner? In our task, subjects learned novel velocity-dependent dynamics. However, occasional force-pulse perturbations produced unanticipated changes in velocity. Therefore, after adaptation, task-appropriate responses to unanticipated pulses should compensate corresponding changes in velocity-dependent dynamics. We found that after adaptation, pulse responses precisely compensated these changes, although they were never trained to do so. These results provide evidence for a smart feedback controller which automatically produces responses specific to the learned dynamics of the current task. To accomplish this, the neural processes underlying feedback control must (1) be capable of accurate real-time state prediction for velocity via a forward model and (2) have access to recently learned changes in internal models of limb dynamics.

  2. Stop Blaming Disasters on Forces Beyond Our Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.

    1999-04-09

    As we enter the new millennium, let us recognize that the losses resulting from natural or malevolent events that cause major property damage, severe injuries, and unnecessary death are not always due to forces beyond our control. We can prevent these losses by changing the way we think and act about design and construction projects. New tools, technologies, and techniques can improve structural safety, security, and reliability and protect owners, occupants, and users against loss and casualties. Hurricane Mitch, the African embassy bombings, the ice storms in Canada and the northeastern US last winter, the Oklahoma City bombing, flooding and earthquakes in California, tornadoes and flooding in Florida, and wildfires in the Southwest are threats to the safety and security of the public and the reliability of our constructed environment. Today's engineering design community must recognize these threats and address them in our standards, building codes, and designs. We know that disasters will continue to strike and we must reduce their impact on the public. We must demand and create innovative solutions that assure a higher level of structural performance when disasters strike.

  3. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  4. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homogeneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the -direction and the sides are simply supported. The size of the force is changed in proportion to the displacement measured at ...

  5. INTERNAL CONTROL AND MONITORING. CONCEPTS, TOOLS AND MODELS OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monica POP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal control system is currently under international control in a proper manner since the early 90s, when The Internal Control-Integrated Framework was published in 1992 by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission knowing over the years a series of steps that have marked key moments in shaping this system designed in particular to protect the financial resources of the institutions.

  6. The Use of Force in Modern Counter-Terrorism: International Legal and Political Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Sergeevna Gromoglasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent practice of the use of military force in extraterritorial counter-terrorist operations. It argues that nowadays we're witnessing a new stage in the 'war on terror' that's still going on. Although the most of the modern counter-terrorist operations like, for example, the US-led coalition against ISIL in Iraq are being conducted at the request of the affected government, the major risks of expanding and misuse of the right on individual or collective self-defense enshrined in the UN Charter are still present. This can be illustrated by reference to the US air strikes on ISIL in Syria that have been undertaken without consent of Syrian government. But the challenges emerging from 'failed states' and rise of new more radical and militant terrorist movements (ISIL, Ash-Shabaab, Boko Haram and others change the perceptions of legality of extraterritorial counter-terrorist force. The approach which reaffirms responsibility of the state for suppressing terrorist groups operating from within its territory seems to become more and more acceptable. Accordingly, if the state can't suppress terrorist activity it should accept the counter-terrorist intervention on its territory. Nevertheless, jus in bello norms (first of all international humanitarian law remain stringent legal framework for actual use of counter-terrorist military force. The paper concludes that overall political legitimacy of the modern military counter-terrorist operations should be accessed in terms of their humanitarian impact and consequences.

  7. Study on Forced Torsional Vibration of CFRP Drive-Line System with Internal Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mo; Hu, Yefa; Zhang, Jinguang; Ding, Guoping; Song, Chunsheng

    2017-12-01

    The use of CFRP transmission shaft has positive effect on the weight and flexural vibration reduction of drive-line system. However, the application of CFRP transmission shaft will greatly reduce the torsional stiffness of the drive-line, and may cause strong transient torsional vibration. Which will seriously affect the performance of CFRP drive-line. In this study, the forced torsional vibration of the CFRP drive-line system is carried out using the lumped parameter model. In addition, the effect of rotary inertia, internal damping, coupling due to the composite laminate, and excitation torque are incorporated in the modified transfer matrix model (TMM). Then, the modified TMM is used to predict the torsional frequency and forced torsional vibration of a CFRP drive-line with three-segment drive shafts. The results of modified TMM shown that the rotational speed difference of the CFRP transmission shaft segment is much larger than metal transmission shaft segment under excitation torque. And compared the results from finite element simulation, modified TMM and torsional vibration experiment respectively, and it has shown that the modified TMM can accurately predict forced torsional vibration behaviors of the CFRP drive-line system.

  8. EFFECTS OF COLUMN FAILURES ON THE INTERNAL FORCES OF ORTHOGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay KAYA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of column failures which may take place due to the special causes such as blast, vehicle impact, insufficient or deficient design, on the internal forces of orthogonal reinforced concrete building frames have been investigated. Calculations have been performed with SAP2000 structural analysis program, under static conditions. For a typical frame system, firstly, various column failure scenarios have been considered for uninfilled case and internal forces have been calculated and compared with those in the intact case. Then, similar calculations have been implemented for the case of presence of infill walls. The results of analyses have shown that the effects of column failures had condensed on the neighbor columns and beams of orthogonal frames on which the columns had been failed. Moreover, it has been determined that, while the bending moment capacities of the connected beams to the failed columns had exceeded in the bare frames, in the masonry infilled frames, walls give substantial support to the structural elements of the building, and capacities of the beams had not exceeded.

  9. Digit forces bias sensorimotor transformations underlying control of fingertip position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Daisuke; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Santello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to modulate digit forces as a function of position despite changes in digit placement that might occur from trial to trial or when changing grip type for object manipulation. Although this phenomenon is likely to rely on sensing the position of the digits relative to each other and the object, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To address this question, we asked subjects (n = 30) to match perceived vertical distance between the center of pressure (CoP) of the thumb and index finger pads (dy) of the right hand (“reference” hand) using the same hand (“test” hand). The digits of reference hand were passively placed collinearly (dy = 0 mm). Subjects were then asked to exert different combinations of normal and tangential digit forces (Fn and Ftan, respectively) using the reference hand and then match the memorized dy using the test hand. The reference hand exerted Ftan of thumb and index finger in either same or opposite direction. We hypothesized that, when the tangential forces of the digits are produced in opposite directions, matching error (1) would be biased toward the directions of the tangential forces; and (2) would be greater when the remembered relative contact points are matched with negligible digit force production. For the test hand, digit forces were either negligible (0.5–1 N, 0 ± 0.25 N; Experiment 1) or the same as those exerted by the reference hand (Experiment 2).Matching error was biased towards the direction of digit tangential forces: thumb CoP was placed higher than the index finger CoP when thumb and index finger Ftan were directed upward and downward, respectively, and vice versa (p forces. We propose that the expected sensory consequence of motor commands for tangential forces in opposite directions overrides estimation of fingertip position through haptic sensory feedback. PMID:25136304

  10. An intelligent control scheme for precise tip-motion control in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Hu, Xiaodong; Xu, Linyan

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a new intelligent control method to precisely control the tip motion of the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The tip moves up and down at a high rate along the z direction during scanning, requiring the utilization of a rapid feedback controller. The standard proportional-integral (PI) feedback controller is commonly used in commercial AFMs to enable topography measurements. The controller's response performance is determined by the set of the proportional (P) parameter and the integral (I) parameter. However, the two parameters cannot be automatically altered simultaneously according to the scanning speed and the surface topography during continuors scanning, leading to an inaccurate measurement. Thus a new intelligent controller combining the fuzzy controller and the PI controller is put forward in the paper. The new controller automatically selects the most appropriate PI parameters to achieve a fast response rate on basis of the tracking errors. In the experimental setup, the new controller is realized with a digital signal process (DSP) system, implemented in a conventional AFM system. Experiments are carried out by comparing the new method with the standard PI controller. The results demonstrate that the new method is more robust and effective for the precise tip motion control, corresponding to the achievement of a highly qualified image by shortening the response time of the controller. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of critical circumferential through-wall-crack-lengths in welds between pieces of straight pipes to welds between straigth pipes and bends with and without internal pressure at force- and displacement-controlled bending load; Vergleich kritischer Umfangsdurchrisslaengen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken mit Schweissnaehten an Rohrbogen-Geradrohrverbindungen mit und ohne Innendruck bei kraft- und wegkontrollierter Biegebelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbuch, R. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Reutlingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    1998-11-01

    Methods for calculation of critical, circumferential through-wall crack lengths in pipes have been developed and verified by several research projects. In applications during the last few years it has been found that the force or displacement-controlled loads have to be considered separately, and this approach was integrated into the recent methods. Methods so far assumed cracks to be located in welds joining straight pipes. But this approach starts from an incomplete picture of reality, as with today`s technology, circumferential welds are less frequent in straight pipes and much more frequent in pipework of other geometry, as for instance in welds joining straight pipes and bends, or bends with longer legs, nozzles, or T-pieces. The non-linear FEM parameter study presented in the paper, covering cases with internal pressure of pipes and one-dimensional bending loads, is based on current geometries of pipework in the primary and secondary loops of industrial plants and compares the conditions induced by circumferential through-wall cracks in welds joining only straight pipes and in those joining bended and straight pipes. At the relevant, displacement-controlled bending loads due to hampered thermal expansion of the pipe system, the critical through-wall cracks lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are of about the same size and importance as those in pipe-to-pipe welds. As for the case of force-controlled loads, the technical codes calculate more serious effects and require lower bending load limits. Within the range of admissible loads given in the codes, the critical through-wall crack lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are similar in size to those in straight pipe welds. It is therefore a conservative or realistic approach to apply the values determined for critical through-wall crack lengths in pipe-to-pipe joints also to pipe-to-bend welds. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Verfahren zur Berechnung kritischer Umfangdurchrisslaengen in Rohrleitungen wurden in

  12. Force-controlled adjustment of car body fixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Production technology in modern car body assembling is affected by highly automated and complex facilities. However, in mounting car body assemblies adjustments are always necessary to react on quality instabilities of the input parts. Today these adjustments are made according to experience and with a high content of manual operation. This paper describes an innovative method that detects part deformations in a force sensitive way following the works of Dr. Muck, who developed a force sensit...

  13. In-depth Study on Cylinder Wake Controlled by Lorentz Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the electromagnetic control of cylinder wake are investigated and discussed. The effects of Lorentz force are found to be composed of two parts, one is its direct action on the cylinder (the wall Lorentz force) and the other is applied to the fluid (called the field Lorentz force) near the cylinder surface. Our results show that the wall Lorentz force can generate thrust and reduce the drag; the field Lorentz force increases the drag. However, the cylinder drag is dominated by the wall Lorentz force. In addition, the field Lorentz force above the upper surface decreases the lift, while the upper wall Lorentz force increases it. The total lift is dominated by the upper wall Lorentz force. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. Workspace Safe Operation of a Force- or Impedance-Controlled Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling a robotic manipulator of a force- or impedance-controlled robot within an unstructured workspace includes imposing a saturation limit on a static force applied by the manipulator to its surrounding environment, and may include determining a contact force between the manipulator and an object in the unstructured workspace, and executing a dynamic reflex when the contact force exceeds a threshold to thereby alleviate an inertial impulse not addressed by the saturation limited static force. The method may include calculating a required reflex torque to be imparted by a joint actuator to a robotic joint. A robotic system includes a robotic manipulator having an unstructured workspace and a controller that is electrically connected to the manipulator, and which controls the manipulator using force- or impedance-based commands. The controller, which is also disclosed herein, automatically imposes the saturation limit and may execute the dynamic reflex noted above.

  15. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  16. Control Design of Active Magnetic Bearings for Rotors Subjected to Destabilising Seal Forces - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt

    -rotor model, ii) identification of dynamic seal forces, iii) implementation of AMB controllers to compensate for dynamic seal forces. The stability and performance of the designed controllers are examined and compared to a reference decentralised PID controller. Controllers based on identified nominal seal...... parameters, ii) closed loop identification of unknown stiffness and damping coefficients of a dynamicseal model and iii) the design of AMB controllers to handle dynamic seal forces. Controllers that can guarantee stability and performance in the presence of uncertainseal forces are of special interest....... The main original contribution of the thesis is the framework for design of model based controllers for AMB systems subjected to uncertainand changing dynamic seal forces. An identification method has been developed, and experimentally validated, to obtain precise models of Linear Fractional Transformation...

  17. A computational simulated control system for a high-force pneumatic muscle actuator: system definition and application as an augmented orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Repperger, Daniel W

    2009-04-01

    High-force pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are used for force assistance with minimal displacement applications. However, poor control due to dynamic nonlinearities has limited PMA applications. A simulated control system is developed consisting of: (1) a controller relating an input position angle to an output proportional pressure regulator voltage, (2) a phenomenological model of the PMA with an internal dynamic force loop (system time constant information), (3) a physical model of a human sit-to-stand task and (4) an external position angle feed-back loop. The results indicate that PMA assistance regarding the human sit-to-stand task is feasible within a specified PMA operational pressure range.

  18. Learning to push and learning to move: The adaptive control of contact forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura eCasadio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To be successful at manipulating objects one needs to apply simultaneously well controlled movements and contact forces. We present a computational theory of how the brain may successfully generate a vast spectrum of interactive behaviors by combining two independent processes. One process is competent to control movements in free space and the other is competent to control contact forces against rigid constraints. Free space and rigid constraints are singularities at the boundaries of a continuum of mechanical impedance. Within this continuum, forces and motions occur in compatible pairs connected by the equations of Newtonian dynamics. The force applied to an object determines its motion. Conversely, inverse dynamics determine a unique force trajectory from a movement trajectory. In this perspective, we describe motor learning as a process leading to the discovery of compatible force/motion pairs. The learned compatible pairs constitute a local representation of the environment's mechanics. Experiments on force field adaptation have already provided us with evidence that the brain is able to predict and compensate the forces encountered when one is attempting to generate a motion. Here, we tested the theory in the dual case, i.e. when one attempts at applying a desired contact force against a simulated rigid surface. If the surface becomes unexpectedly compliant, the contact point moves as a function of the applied force and this causes the applied force to deviate from its desired value. We found that, through repeated attempts at generating the desired contact force, subjects discovered the unique compatible hand motion. When, after learning, the rigid contact was unexpectedly restored, subjects displayed after effects of learning, consistent with the concurrent operation of a motion control system and a force control system. Together, theory and experiment support a new and broader view of modularity in the coordinated control of forces and

  19. The Future Control of Food : A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... The Future Control of Food : A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual Property, Biodiversity and Food Security. Couverture du livre The Future Control of Food : A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules. Directeur(s):. Geoff Tansey et Tasmin Rajotte. Maison(s) d'édition:.

  20. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  1. Internal control in the company in order to financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explores the definition of financial monitoring, financial analysis and internal control in aspect to their correlation to fight money laundering and terrorism financing. Internal control is analyzed from the point of view of law, economics and management. The author pays much attention in the article to the work of systems of financial monitoring in organizations.

  2. Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real-time RT-PCR analysis during tomato flower abscission. ... The free software-based applications NormFinder and qBase PLUS were used to statistically identify the best internal controls for a given set of biological samples. The expression stability of a number ...

  3. Superiority of the dominant and nondominant hands in static strength and controlled force exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shinichi; Aoki, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    The dominant hand can be defined in such a way that Oldfield's Handedness Inventory may not identify the superior hand, i.e., the hand with more strength and/or more force control. The dominant and nondominant hands were compared for two different grip force-exertion tests. 50 healthy young men (M age = 21.1 yr.) performed two tests with each hand: a maximal grip strength test and a controlled force-exertion test with dynamic demand. In the latter test, the participants matched their submaximal grip force to the changing demand values with real-time feedback. The total sum of the differences between the demand value and grip force value for 25 sec. was used as an evaluation parameter for the test (unit: %). Mean maximal grip force values in the right and left hands were 439.9 N (SD = 59.1) and 405.6 N (SD = 59.3), respectively. Mean controlled force-exertion test values in the right and left hands were 610.3% (SD = 150.2) and 722.6% (SD = 147.8), respectively. In both tests, the dominant hand was significantly stronger and controlled dynamic force better. The relationship between the two hands was very high. Based on this study's criteria, the dominant hand was stronger in 34% (n = 17) of participants during the maximal grip strength test and more controlled in 54% (n = 27) of participants during the controlled force-exertion test. Thus, the dynamic force control test showed that for significantly more people the dominant hand is stronger and controls force better. Controlled force exertion may be a better test for identifying the superior hand.

  4. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  5. Robust Motion Control for Mobile Manipulator Using Resolved Acceleration and Proportional-Integral Active Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mailah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolved acceleration control (RAC and proportional-integral active force control (PIAFC is proposed as an approach for the robust motion control of a mobile manipulator (MM comprising a differentially driven wheeled mobile platform with a two-link planar arm mounted on top of the platform. The study emphasizes on the integrated kinematic and dynamic control strategy in which the RAC is used to manipulate the kinematic component while the PIAFC is implemented to compensate the dynamic effects including the bounded known/unknown disturbances and uncertainties. The effectivenss and robustness of the proposed scheme are investigated through a rigorous simulation study and later complemented with experimental results obtained through a number of experiments performed on a fully developed working prototype in a laboratory environment. A number of disturbances in the form of vibratory and impact forces are deliberately introduced into the system to evaluate the system performances. The investigation clearly demonstrates the extreme robustness feature of the proposed control scheme compared to other systems considered in the study.

  6. Robust Motion Control for Mobile Manipulator Using Resolved Acceleration and Proportional-Integral Active Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A resolved acceleration control (RAC and proportional-integral active force control (PIAFC is proposed as an approach for the robust motion control of a mobile manipulator (MM comprising a differentially driven wheeled mobile platform with a two-link planar arm mounted on top of the platform. The study emphasizes on the integrated kinematic and dynamic control strategy in which the RAC is used to manipulate the kinematic component while the PIAFC is implemented to compensate the dynamic effects including the bounded known/unknown disturbances and uncertainties. The effectivenss and robustness of the proposed scheme are investigated through a rigorous simulation study and later complemented with experimental results obtained through a number of experiments performed on a fully developed working prototype in a laboratory environment. A number of disturbances in the form of vibratory and impact forces are deliberately introduced into the system to evaluate the system performances. The investigation clearly demonstrates the extreme robustness feature of the proposed control scheme compared to other systems considered in the study.

  7. Passivity-based Visual Force Feedback Control for Fixed Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroyuki; Murao, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Masayuki

    This paper investigates passivity based 3D visual force feedback control for fixed camera systems. In our approach, we can control not only the position but also the orientation of the robot hand with a contact force by using visual information. The proposed method can be regarded as an extension of the hybrid position/force control to the hybrid vision/force control. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the 3D visual force feedback system has the passivity which allows us to prove stability in the sense of Lyapunov. Both the passivity of the manipulator dynamics and the visual feedback system are preserved. Finally simulation results on 3DOF planar manipulator are presented to verify the stability of the 3D visual force feedback system and understand our proposed method simply.

  8. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

  9. Analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete considering the structure internal force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyue Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumptions of uniform corrosion and linear elastic expansion, an analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete was established, which is able to consider the structure internal force. And then, by means of the complex variable function theory and series expansion technology established by Muskhelishvili, the corresponding stress component functions of concrete around the reinforcement were obtained. Also, a comparative analysis was conducted between the numerical simulation model and present model in this paper. The results show that the calculation results of both methods were consistent with each other, and the numerical deviation was less than 10%, proving that the analytical model established in this paper is reliable.

  10. International responsibility for conduct of UN peacekeeping forces: The question of attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Palchetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n70p19 The present paper aims at studying the international rules which have to be applied for the purposes of determining whether a certain conduct taken in the context of a UN peacekeeping operation must be attributed to troop-contributing states or to the UN. I will also consider whether, and under what circumstances, the same conduct may be attributed to both subjects. It argues that because of their dual status as organs of both the UN and the sending state, the formal status of peacekeeping forces within the UN system can hardly be regarded as decisive for purposes of attribution.

  11. Operational Command and Control of Joint Task Force Cyberspace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-27

    is the “coordination and cooperation towar objectives”55 which “can be achieved either through Unity of Command ( UoC ) or through cooperation.”56...According to Dr. Vego, “the highest degree of effectiveness is ensured by having UoE though UoC ” and “failure to establish UoC results in a state of...offers an adversary the ability to do the same to friendly forces. According to Dr. Vego, “without [ UoC ] the [JTF] cannot bring all available forces to

  12. Comparison of reaction forces on the anterior cruciate and anterolateral ligaments during internal rotation and anterior drawer forces at different flexion angles of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Having a complicated anatomy, the knee joint has been further detailed and a new formation defined, the anterolateral ligament (ALL), in recent studies. While the importance of this ligament, which previously was associated with Segond fractures, was explained via clinical, radiologic and biomechanical studies, and basically, is thought to be a fixator structures for the tibia against internal rotation stress. Although in recent studies efficient surgical treatment was applied to patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) operation, some patients having a positive pivot test highlights the clinical importance of the ALL. The aim of this study is to evaluate reaction forces of different flexion angles on the tibia during internal rotation and anterior drawer tests on both the ALL and ACL, and to examine theimportance of this ligament in knee biomechanics by a finite element analysis method. In this study, normal anatomy knee joint was modelled using Computed Tomography images from lower extremity length in DICOM format. 0°, 15°,30°,45°,60°,75° and 90° angles of flexion were applied, respectively, to these models and reaction force vectors formed on both ligaments were examined separately and as total vector and size by applying internal rotation and anterior drawer forces on each model. Non-linear analysis was conducted using ANSYS (version 17) with the same limit conditions applied to all models. After all models were examined, in general when comparing reaction forces, those on the ACL were found to be higher. However, when vectoral directions were examined, forces on ALL increased with increased flexion ratio and internal rotation momentum. Beyond 30° flexion, the tensile force on the ALL is increased and compressive overload on the ACL occurs. The ALL plays an important role in stability, especially against internal rotation forces, and an increased knee joint flexion ratio increases the stability contribution ratio. In particular, at 30

  13. Age-related changes in force control under different task contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Vieluf, Solveig; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2017-01-01

    We investigated age-related differences in motor behavior under different task contexts of isometric force control. The tasks involved rapid force production and force maintenance, either separately or in combination. For the combined context, we used Fitts-like tasks, in which we scaled either the force level (D manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the amplitude of the force to be produced) or the tolerance range (W manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the target width in which force is allowed to fluctuate). We studied two age groups and analyzed mainly variables that quantify behavioral variability (SD), information processing (signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency functions), and age-related slowing (slowing ratio). For rapid force control, age-related differences were more pronounced when preplanned processes were primarily involved, that is, in the rapid force production and Fitts-D manipulation tasks. Further, older adults were comparable to the younger adults in terms of end-point variability at the cost of being slower and more variable in timing. For force maintenance control, requiring mainly online control, age-related differences were the most visible in the stabilized phase of Fitts-D manipulation, followed by Fitts-W manipulation for SD, and then the force maintenance task. In sum, our findings reveal an age-related reorganization of how preplanned and online control processes are combined under different force control contexts. Indeed, both behavioral slowing and the overreliance on online control processes seem to be dependent on the task. In this respect, beyond the study of force control, we show the interest of investigating age effects using functionally different tasks.

  14. Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0965 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for...Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling by Satwik Bisoi Science and...REPORT TYPE Memorandum Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2017 July 05–2017 August 18 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Easy Atomic Force

  15. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  16. New Insights on the Deflection and Internal Forces of a Bending Nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Min; Liu, Jian-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Nanowires, nanofibers and nanotubes have been widely used as the building blocks in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting or storage devices, and small-scaled measurement equipment. We report that the surface effects of these nanobeams have a great impact on their deflection and internal forces. A simply supported nanobeam is taken as an example. For the displacement and shear force of the nanobeam, its dangerous sections are different from those predicted by the conventional beam theory, but for the bending moment, the dangerous section is the same. Moreover, the values of these three quantities for the nanobeam are all distinct from those calculated from the conventional beam model. These analyses shed new light on the stiffness and strength check of nanobeams, which are beneficial to engineer new-types of nano-materials and nano-devices. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11672334, 11672335 and 11611530541, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No 15CX08004A.

  17. An intelligent active force control algorithm to control an upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah Mohd Isa, Wan; Taha, Zahari; Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Fikri Muhammad, Khairul; Abdo Hashem, Mohammed; Mahmud, Jamaluddin; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton by means of an intelligent active force control (AFC) mechanism. The Newton-Euler formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the anthropometry based human upper extremity as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives. An intelligent AFC algorithm is also incorporated into the PD to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. The Mamdani Fuzzy based rule is employed to approximate the estimated inertial properties of the system to ensure the AFC loop responds efficiently. It is found that the IAFC-PD performed well against the disturbances introduced into the system as compared to the conventional PD control architecture in performing the desired trajectory tracking.

  18. Modelling and controlling infectious diseases | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research. The research team is exploring the potential of mathematical modelling to inform a new generation of tools and approaches to control disease spread. Drawing on research and surveillance data from China's National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, the team is creating disease models, focusing ...

  19. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  20. The everyday violence of forced displacement : community, memory and identity politics among Kurdish internal forced migrants in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerse, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Kurds in Turkey: the everyday violence of their forced displacement. Roughly fifteen years ago, more than one million Kurds were forcibly displaced from their villages in Southeast Turkey, mostly by Turkish security troops, who were engaged in a violent struggle with the PKK, an armed organization

  1. AUTOMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control system base d on the principles of standardi zation of all phases of laboratory testing and analysis of internal laboratory quality control and external quality assessment. For the detection accuracy of the results of laboratory tests, carried out internally between the laboratory and laboratory quality control. Under internal laboratory quality control we understand measurement results of each analysis in each anal ytical series rendered directly in the lab every day. The purpose of internal laboratory control - identifying and eliminating unacceptable deviations from standard perfor mance test in the laboratory, i.e. identifying and eliminating harmful analytical errors. The solutions to these problems by implementing automated systems - software that allows you to optimize analytical laboratory research stage of the procedure by automatically creating process control charts was shown.

  2. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 10 September 2008; revised 27 August 2009; accepted 17 December. 2009. Abstract. Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homo- geneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the x-direction and the sides ...

  3. Control over multiscale mixing in broadband-forced turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of explicit flow modulation on the dispersion of a passive scalar field are studied. Broadband forcing is applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence to modulate the energy cascading and alter the kinetic energy spectrum. Consequently, a manipulation of turbulent flow can be achieved

  4. Atmospheric forcing controlling inter-annual nutrient dynamics in the open Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Jouni; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Elken, Jüri; Dahlbo, Kim; Kuosa, Harri; Raateoja, Mika; Kauppila, Pirkko; Räike, Antti; Pitkänen, Heikki

    2017-07-01

    The loading of P into the Gulf of Finland has decreased markedly, but no overall trend in the concentration of P has been observed in the open Gulf, where the concentrations of both inorganic N and P still have a pronounced inter-annual variability. Our main aim was to study whether the internal processes driven by atmospheric forcing can explain the variation in the nutrient conditions in the Gulf during the period 1992-2014. We observed that the long-term salinity variation of the bottom water in the northern Baltic Proper controls that in the Gulf, and that the deep-water concentrations of oxygen and nutrients are significantly correlated between the basins. This imposes preconditions regarding how atmospheric forcing may influence deep water flows and stratification in the Gulf on a long-term scale. We found that over short timescales, winter winds in particular can control the in- and outflows of water and the vertical stratification and mixing, which to a large extent explained the inter-annual variation in the DIN and TP pools in the Gulf. We conclude that the inter-annual variation in the amounts, ratios, and spatial distribution of nutrients sets variable preconditions for the spring and potential blue-green algae blooms, and that internal processes were able to mask the effects of the P load reductions implemented across the whole Gulf. The transportation of P along the bottom from the northern Baltic Proper and its evident uplift in the Gulf highlights the fact that the nutrient reductions are also needed in the entire catchment of the Baltic Sea to improve the trophic status of the open Gulf.

  5. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  6. Grasping an augmented object to analyse manipulative force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Satoru; Summers, Valerie A; Mackenzie, Christine L; Ivens, Chris J; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2002-12-15

    Augmented reality allows changes to be made to the visual perception of object size even while the tangible components remain completely unaltered. It was, therefore, utilized in a study whose results are being reported here to provide the proper environment required to thoroughly observe the exact effect that visual change to object size had on programming fingertip forces when objects were lifted with a precision grip. Twenty-one participants performed repeated lifts of an identical grip apparatus to a height of 20 mm, maintained each lift for 8 seconds, and then replaced the grip apparatus on the table. While all other factors of the grip apparatus remained unchanged, visual appearance was altered graphically in a 3-D augmented environment. The grip apparatus measured grip and load forces independently. Grip and load forces demonstrated significant rates of increase as well as peak forces as the size of graphical images increased; an aspect that occurred in spite of the fact that extraneous haptic information remained constant throughout the trials. By indicating a human tendency to rely - even unconsciously - on visual input to program the forces in the initial lifting phase, this finding provides further confirmation of previous research findings obtained in the physical environment; including the possibility of extraneous haptic effects (Gordon et al. 1991a, Mon-Williams and Murray 2000, Kawai et al. 2000). The present results also suggest that existing knowledge concerning human manipulation tasks in the physical world may be applied to an augmented environment where the physical objects are enhanced by computer generated visual components.

  7. Internal Controlling of a Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, W; Busch, H P

    2015-11-01

    Caused by legal reform initiatives there is a continuous need to increase effectiveness and efficiency in hospitals and surgeries, and thus to improve processes.Consequently the successful management of radiological departments and surgeries requires suitable structures and optimization processes to make optimization in the fields of medical quality, service quality and efficiency possible.In future in the DRG System it is necessary that the organisation of processes must focus on the whole clinical treatment of the patients (Clinical Pathways). Therefore the functions of controlling must be more established and adjusted. On the basis of select Controlling instruments like budgeting, performance indicators, process optimization, staff controlling and benchmarking the target-based and efficient control of radiological surgeries and departments is shown. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  9. Force Sensor-less Workspace Virtual Impedance Control Considering Resonant Vibration for Industrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpataratanawong, Somsawas; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The motion control paradigm provides sufficient performance in many elementary industrial tasks. However, only stiff motion the robot cannot accommodate the interaction force under constrained motion. In such situation, the robot is required to perform interaction behavior with the environment. The conventional impedance control schemes require force-sensing devices to feedback force signals to the controllers. The force-sensing device is therefore indispensable and the performance of the system also depends on the quality of this device. This paper proposes a novel strategy for force sensor-less impedance control using disturbance observer and dynamic model of the robot to estimate the external force. In motion task, the robust D-PD (derivative-PD) control is used with feedforward inverse-dynamic torque compensation to ensure robustness and high-speed response with flexible joint model. When robot is in contact with environment, the proposed force sensor-less scheme impedance control with inner-loop D-PD control is utilized. D-PD control uses both position and speed as the references to implement the damping and stiffness characteristic of the virtual impedance model. In addition, the gravity and friction force-feedback compensation is computed by the same dynamic model, which is used in external force estimation. The flexible-joint robot model is utilized in both disturbance observer and motion control design. The workspace impedance control for robot interaction with human operator is implemented on the experimental setup three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator to assure the ability and performance of the proposed force sensor-less scheme for flexible-joint industrial robot.

  10. Force/position control of a robot manipulator for human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neranon Paramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to both human and robot capabilities, human-robot interaction provides several benefits, and this will be significantly developed and implemented. This work focuses on the development of real-time external force/position control used for human-robot interaction. The force-controlled robotic system integrated with proportional integral control was performed and evaluated to ensure its reliably and timely operational characteristics, in which appropriate proportional integral gains were experimentally adopted using a set of virtual crank-turning tests. The designed robotic system is made up of a robot manipulator arm, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor and a real-time external PC based control system. A proportional integral controller has been developed to provide stable and robust force control on unknown environmental stiffness and motion. To quantify its effectiveness, the robotic system has been verified through a comprehensive set of experiments, in which force measurement and ALTER real-time path control systems were evaluated. In summary, the results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force/position control system. The gain tuning for proportional plus integral control algorithm was successfully implemented. It can be reported that the best performance as specified by the error root mean square method of the radial force is observed with proportional and integral gains of 0.10 and 0.005 respectively.

  11. Research of a New 6-Dof Force Feedback Hand Controller System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of teleoperation with force telepresence has expanded its scope to include manipulation at different scales and in virtual worlds, and the key component of which is force feedback hand controller. This paper presents a novel force feedback hand controller system, including a 3-dof translational and 3-dof rotational hand controllers, respectively, to implement position and posture teleoperation of the robot end effector. The 3-dof translational hand controller adopts innovative three-axes decoupling structure based on the linear motor; the 3-dof rotational hand controller adopts serial mechanism based on three-axes intersecting at one point, improving its overall stiffness. Based on the kinematics, statics, and dynamics analyses for two platforms separately, the system applies big closed-loop force control method based on the zero force/torque, improving the feedback force/torque accuracy effectively. Experimental results show that self-developed 6-dof force feedback hand controller has good mechanical properties. The translational hand controller has the following advantages: simple kinematics solver, fast dynamic response, and better than 0.05 mm accuracy of three-axis end positioning, while the advantages of the rotational hand controller are wide turning space, larger than 1 Nm feedback, greater than 180 degrees of operating space of three axes, respectively, and high operation precision.

  12. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators ar...

  13. Magnetic particle separation using controllable magnetic force switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zunghang; Lee, C.-P.; Lai, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic particle separation is very important in biomedical applications. In this study, a magnetic particle microseparator is proposed that uses micro magnets to produce open/closed magnetic flux for switching on/off the separation. When all magnets are magnetized in the same direction, the magnetic force switch for separation is on; almost all magnetic particles are trapped in the channel side walls and the separation rate can reach 95%. When the magnetization directions of adjacent magnets are opposite, the magnetic force switch for separation is off, and most magnetic particles pass through the microchannel without being trapped. For the separation of multi-sized magnetic particles, the proposed microseparator is numerically demonstrated to have high separation rate.

  14. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  15. The climatic out of control. the climatic forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bony-Lena, S.; Dufresne, J.L.; Acot, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Berger, A.; Loutre, M.L.; Raynaud, D.; Thuiller, W.; Le Treut, H.; Houssais, M.N.; Duplessy, J.C.; Royer, J.F.; Douville, H.; Barberousse, A.; Quinon, P.

    2007-01-01

    The expert group on the climate evolution affirms that the global warming is unequivocal and that the human being is the main responsible. This document broaches the climatic change under many aspects: the principle, the historical aspect of the greenhouse effect, the GIEC, the carbon cycle, the paleo-climate theory, the antarctic ices and the impacts of the climatic change on the biodiversity, the simulations and the models, the climatic indicators and the climatic forcing by human activities. (A.L.B.)

  16. Fuzzy control with amplitude/pulse-width modulation of nerve electrical stimulation for muscle force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C. K.; Liu, W.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Ju, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal.

  17. Influence Implementation Internal Control To Quality Audit Internal Education Consultant In Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research focus to quality audit internal with accountancy Inspection. Hameed 1995 found that the most important factors that affect auditing quality are auditors experience honesty and the knowledge in accounting and auditing standards. Research into this express an inspection of Intern Accountancy amp attributed to Monetary inspection an consultant education with quality. Audit quality is obtained by a process of identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives . Since an entityamp8223s internal control is under the purview of its audit committee Krishnan 2005 the relation between audit committee quality and internal control weaknesses is a subject to be investigated. The methodology used is a quantitative analysis by examining the relationship between variables conceptually. While some study its accounting activity. In self-supporting internal control. Internal control is defined as a process affected by an entitys board of directors management and other personnel designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 1998 its bearing by reporting level an environment and reduction conduct in reporting result of mistake. What finally involvement by Audit Intern can be of benefit. In addition to researching into proposing Audit Intern can improve the target of consultant education going concern.

  18. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  19. International lighting in controlled environments workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research. There are a number of established guidelines for lighting in human and animal environments. Development of new lighting guidelines is necessary for three reasons: (1) recent scientific discoveries show that in addition to supporting the sensation of vision, light has profound nonvisual biological and behavioral effects in both animals and humans; (2) federal regulations (EPACT 1992) are requiring all indoor environments to become more energy efficient with a specific emphasis on energy conservation in lighting; (3) lighting engineers and manufacturers have developed a wealth of new light sources and lighting products that can be applied in animal and human environments. The workshop was aimed at bringing together plant scientists and physical scientists to interact in the discussions. It involved participation of biological scientists involved in studying mechanisms of light reactions and those involved in utilizing lighting for production of plants and maintenance of animals in controlled environments. It included participation of physical scientists from universities and government involved in research as well as those from industry involved in producing lamps and in construction of controlled growth facilities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  1. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  2. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  3. Evaluating Prediction Markets for Internal Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    would influence the survey indicators, the prediction market prices, and their sensitivity to misinformation. Finally, this study reveal s the results...realized in an academ ic setting. With a controll able number of influencing factors, the prediction markets were installed in several uni versity courses...of acceptance and the limited number of influencing factors in an academic setting, it is expected that the prediction market will perform

  4. Cortical activity differs between position- and force-control knee extension tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Peter C; Tucker, Kylie J; Finnigan, Simon; Scott, Dion; Sowman, Paul; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Neural control differs between position- and force-control tasks as evident from divergent effects of fatigue and pain. Unlike force-control tasks, position-control tasks focus on a postural goal to maintain a joint angle. Cortical involvement is suggested to be less during postural control, but whether this differs between position- and force-control paradigms remains unclear. Coherence estimates the functional communication between spatially distinct active regions within the cortex (cortico-cortical coherence; CCC) and between the cortex and muscles (corticomuscular coherence; CMC). We investigated whether cortical involvement differed between force-control and more posturally focused, position-control tasks. Seventeen adults performed position- and force-control knee extensor efforts at a submaximal load (10 % maximum voluntary contraction). Surface electromyography was recorded from the right knee extensor and flexor muscles and brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). CCC and CMC in the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency bands were calculated between combinations of intra- and inter-hemispheric pairs of electrodes, and between four EEG electrodes that approximated the left motor cortical area, and right knee extensor EMG, respectively. Differences in EEG power and muscle activity were also calculated. CCC was greater across distributed regions in the force-control task. Beta EEG power in the left hemisphere was higher for the position-control task. Although averaged CMC data differed between tasks, there was no task difference for individual CMC data. Muscle activity and force did not differ between tasks. The results demonstrate differential cortical contributions to control force- versus position-control tasks. This might contribute to differences in performance outcomes of these tasks that have been shown previously.

  5. Study on electromagnetism force of CARR control rod drive mechanism experimental machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuewei; Zhen Jianxiao; Wang Yulin; Jia Yueguang; Yang Kun; Yin Haozhe

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring electromagnetic force and electromagnetic field distributions of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), the force analysis on the CRDM was taken. Manufacturing the experimental machine, the electromagnetic force experiment was taken on it. The electromagnetic field and electromagnetic force simulation analyses of experimental machine were taken, working out distribution data of electromagnetic force and magnetic induction intensity distribution curve, and the effects of permanent magnetic field on electromagnetic field and structure parameters on electromagnetic force. The simulation value is accord with experiment value, the research results provide a reference to electromagnetic force study on CRDM in CARR, and also provide a reference to design of the same type CRDM. (authors)

  6. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  7. Salinity changes relative to the response to anthropogenic forcing and internal variability in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Buckley, Martha

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few decades, surface waters in the subpolar North Atlantic have experienced substantial fluctuations, including periods of rapid cooling and freshening alternating with the periods of enhanced warming, salinification, and decreased circulation of the gyre. Since these waters feed the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, such changes have the potential to impact the global ocean circulation and future climate states. A number of potential causes for the observed changes have been suggested, including those related to the strength of the ocean circulation and heat transports, as well as other factors, such as anthropogenic aerosol forcing or changes in surface fluxes. Here we assess how the observed warming/salinification events fit into the long-term picture, focusing on variations in upper-ocean salinity. Salinification of the subpolar North Atlantic may seem counter-intuitive to the reported long-term increase in freshwater supply to the region from river discharge and ice melting, sparking debates about whether the freshening of the subpolar gyre has ceased, and whether the recent salinification, if continued, will be able to forestall the projected slowdown of the overturning circulation. Using a suite of in situ salinity observations spanning the last 60 years, modern satellite salinity observations from Aquarius and SMOS missions, and multi-decadal realizations from global climate models, we estimate the likelihood of such salinity changes in the context of the historical record, contemporary estimates, and future projections. Results are discussed in terms of the probability of occurrence of a decade-long salinification in the presence of the background freshening in response to anthropogenic forcing. In particular, computed probabilities suggest that such "unusual" salinification events are plausible under the strong influence of internal, decadal-to-interdecadal variability.

  8. THE INFLUENCES OF THE SLAB DISCONTINUITIES ON THE INTERNAL FORCES, AT FRAME TYPE REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TERZİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To resist earthquake forces in a confidential manner is one of the fundamental requirements of the structural system design of buildings. The main principles of Earthquake-resistant design of buildings have the symetric plan and regular configuration of the structural system. Regular buildings are easier in application, for designing, dimensioning of structural elements and much more economic for consruction cost. Also, the results of the structural system analysis of regular buildings represent the behaviour of the real structure. For these reasons, regular buildings are prefered for the best building design and analysis. Vertical and horizontal discontinuities in building structures, instant stiffness changes and variation of mass distribution are negative states, display good seismic behaviour. The buildings having irregularities in plan and in elevation are accepted as non-regular buildings. In practise, non-regular buildings are not economic in construction cast, lead to stress concentrations hazardous to the structure and causing erroneous application. If the basic methods of structural analysis for regular buildings are applied to non-regular buildings the effects of irregularities must be considered. Analysis of the regular frame type structural systems according to The Turkish earthquake code is performed on a lineer elastic model assuming different cavity ratios of the floor slab by using SAP2000 Structural Analysis Programme applying simplified modal response spectrum analysis methods. Numerical results of the internal forces of the elements of the structural system are obtained and compared for two different casses in one case the floor diaphragms are sufficiently rigid in their plane, in the other case unsuffiently rigid in their plane.

  9. Inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and forced internalization of TRAIL receptor 1 by adenovirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, A E; Toth, K; Doronin, K; Kuppuswamy, M; Doronina, O A; Lichtenstein, D L; Hermiston, T W; Smith, C A; Wold, W S

    2001-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  10. Neuromechanical Control for Dynamic Bipedal Walking with Reduced Impact Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widenka, Johannes; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Matthias Braun, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Human walking emerges from an intricate interaction of nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Inspired by this principle, we integrate neural control and muscle-like mechanisms to achieve neuromechanical control of the biped robot RunBot. As a result, the neuromechanical controller enables Run...

  11. Notification: FY 2018 CSB Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    December 26, 2017. The OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2018 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  12. Los sistemas de control de la fuerza de ventas (the sales force control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Miguel Molina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este análisis es estudiar qué sistemas son utilizados para controlar a la fuerza de ventas y cuáles son más adecuados, si aquellos basados en el resultado o los basados en el comportamiento. Los directores de ventas deben combinar una cantidad elevada de diferentes elementos de control que podrán afectar al comportamiento de los vendedores de forma diferente. La combinación individual en un sistema integrado de supervisión es un ejercicio de gran complejidad que debe indicar a los vendedores cómo se supone que deben realizar su trabajo (Oliver y Anderson, 1994. La selección de herramientas y procesos depende de los objetivos que se quieran conseguir. Para analizar las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada uno de estos sistemas se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura. Tras este análisis se deduce que lo más aconsejable, en el caso de la fuerza de ventas, es utilizar un sistema híbrido. En un trabajo posterior, se podrían identificar las variables más adecuadas en función de los objetivos que quiera lograr cada empresa, lo que en concreto puede ser de gran utilidad para las pymes que carecen de sistemas de control. Su aplicación podrá permitir valorar la eficacia de las variables seleccionadas.(The objective of this paper is to analyze the suitability of the systems used to control the sales force: those that use the results as a reference and those that take into account aspects related to the behavior of sellers, to determine if they meet the objectives established by the company. It is therefore a complex issue that should guide the vendors in terms of how they are supposed to do their work (Oliver and Anderson, 1994. The literature review indicates that in most cases, hybrid systems are used with a predominance of one or another component, depending on the type of company, product and purpose. This study aims to facilitate the managers how to identify the variables that best suit the goals each company wants

  13. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  14. The contribution of internal control and audit to corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    EBONDO WA MANDZILA, Eustache

    2004-01-01

    Assimilating the management of managerial corporations to the governing of a nation, some researchers have focused their studies on developing their research and then recommending the mechanisms of internal and external control as remedies to limit the opportunistic behaviours of agents. After introducing the limits of these mechanisms, the first part of the thesis will focus on considering the internal control and audit as two mechanisms capable of regulating the behaviours of different stak...

  15. Internal controls and credit risk relationship among banks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study purport to investigate the effectiveness of internal control mechanisms, investigate whether evidence of agency problem is found among banks in Europe and determine how internal controls affect credit risk. Design/methodology/approach: Panel data from 91 banks from 23 European Union countries were studied from 2008-2014. Hausman’s specification test suggest the use of fixed effects estimation technique of GLS. Quantitatively modelled data on 15 variables covering elements of internal controls, objectives of internal controls, agency problem, bank and country specific variables were used. Findings: There is still high credit risk in spite of measures being implemented by the European Central Bank. Banks have individual entity factors that increase or decrease credit risk. The study finds effective internal control systems because objectives of internal controls are achieved and significantly determine credit risk. Agency problem is confirmed due to significant positive relation with credit risk. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk with specific variables as risk assessment, return on average risk weighted assets, institutional ownership, bank size, inflation, interest rate and GDP. Research limitations/implications: Missing data prevented the use of strongly balanced panel. The lack of flexibility with using quantitative approach did not allow further scrutiny of the nature of variables. However, statistical tests were acceptable for the model used. The study has implications for management and owners of banks to be warry of agency problem because that provides incentive for reckless high risk transactions that may benefit the agent than the principal. Management must engage in actions that profile the company better and enhances value maximization. Rising default risk has tendency to impair corporate image leading to loss of reputational capital. Originality/value: The study provides the use of

  16. COMPARISON OF COBIT AND COSO INTERNAL CONTROL APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Gökoğlan, Kadir

    2018-01-01

    The approach developed by COSO is aimed at increasing the quality of financial reporting by focusing on internal control and management issues of enterprises. COBIT, seen as the most important of these approaches, represents the governance of information technologies in the areas of identification, reporting and development of internal control. COBIT, Although it does appear in the focus of practitioners, it is often used in non-academic research. This is because it is not among the areas of ...

  17. Complimentary Force Allocation Control for a Dual-Mover Linear Switched Reluctance Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Pan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper inspects the complementary force allocation control schemes for an integrated, dual-mover linear switched reluctance machine (LSRM. The performance of the total force is realized by the coordination of the two movers. First, the structure and characteristics of the LSRM are investigated. Then, a complimentary force allocation control scheme for the two movers is proposed. Next, three force allocation methods—constant proportion, constant proportion with a saturation interval and error compensation, and the variable proportion allocation strategies—are proposed and analyzed, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the complimentary force interaction between the two movers can effectively reduce the total amount of force ripples from each method. The results under the variable proportion method also show that dynamic error values falling into 0.044 mm and −0.04 mm under the unit ramp force reference can be achieved. With the sinusoidal force reference with an amplitude of 60 N and a frequency of 0.5 Hz, a dynamic force control precision of 0.062 N and 0.091 N can also be obtained.

  18. Visual and somatosensory information about object shape control manipulative fingertip forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, P; Johansson, R S

    1997-06-01

    We investigated the importance of visual versus somatosensory information for the adaptation of the fingertip forces to object shape when humans used the tips of the right index finger and thumb to lift a test object. The angle of the two flat grip surfaces in relation to the vertical plane was changed between trials from -40 to 30 degrees. At 0 degrees the two surfaces were parallel, and at positive and negative angles the object tapered upward and downward, respectively. Subjects automatically adapted the balance between the horizontal grip force and the vertical lift force to the object shape and thereby maintained a rather constant safety margin against frictional slips, despite the huge variation in finger force requirements. Subjects used visual cues to adapt force to object shape parametrically in anticipation of the force requirements imposed once the object was contacted. In the absence of somatosensory information from the digits, sighted subjects still adapted the force coordination to object shape, but without vision and somatosensory inputs the performance was severely impaired. With normal digital sensibility, subjects adapted the force coordination to object shape even without vision. Shape cues obtained by somatosensory mechanisms were expressed in the motor output about 0. 1 sec after contact. Before this point in time, memory of force coordination used in the previous trial controlled the force output. We conclude that both visual and somatosensory inputs can be used in conjunction with sensorimotor memories to adapt the force output to object shape automatically for grasp stability.

  19. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  20. Nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Abbott, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy Order (DOE) 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials, includes several requirements for development and implementation of an internal audit program. Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc., manages five sites in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge and has a Central Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability (NMC and A) Manager with matrixed responsibility for the NMC and A program at the five sites. The Energy Systems Central NMC and A Manager has developed an NMC and A Internal Audit Handbook which defines the functional responsibilities, performance criteria, and reporting and documentation requirements for the Energy Systems NMC and A Internal Audit Program. The initial work to develop and implement these standards was tested at the K-25 Site when the site hired an internal auditor to meet the DOE requirements for an NMC and A Internal Audit program

  1. Force control of a magnetorheological damper using an elementary hysteresis model-based feedforward neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekkachai, Kittipong; Nilkhamhang, Itthisek; Tungpimolrut, Kanokvate

    2013-01-01

    An inverse controller is proposed for a magnetorheological (MR) damper that consists of a hysteresis model and a voltage controller. The force characteristics of the MR damper caused by excitation signals are represented by a feedforward neural network (FNN) with an elementary hysteresis model (EHM). The voltage controller is constructed using another FNN to calculate a suitable input signal that will allow the MR damper to produce the desired damping force. The performance of the proposed EHM-based FNN controller is experimentally compared to existing control methodologies, such as clipped-optimal control, signum function control, conventional FNN, and recurrent neural network with displacement or velocity inputs. The results show that the proposed controller, which does not require force feedback to implement, provides excellent accuracy, fast response time, and lower energy consumption. (paper)

  2. The role of external forcing and internal variability in regulating global mean surface temperatures on decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; McPhaden, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Global mean surface temperature (GMST) shows considerable decadal variations superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, with rapid warming during 1920-1945 and 1977-2000 and warming hiatuses during 1946-1976 and 2001-2013. The prevailing view is that internally generated variations associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) dominate decadal variations in GMST, while external forcing from greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols dominate the long-term trend in GMST over the last hundred years. Here we show evidence from observations and climate models that external forcing largely governs decadal GMST variations in the historical record with internally generated variations playing a secondary role, except during those periods of IPO extremes. In particular, the warming hiatus during 1946-1976 started from a negative IPO but was later dominated by the eruption of Mount Agung in 1963, while the subsequent accelerated warming during 1977-2000 was due primarily to increased greenhouse gas forcing. The most recent warming hiatus apparent in observations occurred largely through cooling from a negative IPO extreme that overwhelmed the warming from external forcing. An important implication of this work is that when the phase of the IPO turns positive, as it did in 2014, the combination of external forcing and internal variability should lead to accelerated global warming. This accelerated warming appears to be underway, with record high GMST in 2014, 2015, and 2016.

  3. Identification and Modeling of Electrohydraulic Force Control of the Material Test System (MTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, J; Pei, X; Zhu, F M

    2006-01-01

    In the heavy-duty material test device, an electrohydraulic force servo system is usually utilized to load the tested samples. The signal from the pressure sensor is compared with the instruction and the difference between them is then fed to a digital servo valve to form a closed loop control to the target force. The performance of the electrohydraulic force servo system is not only closely related to how accurate to feed the flow rate to the hydraulic cylinder, but also the stiffness of the system which is dominated by the compressibility of oil. Thus the clarification of the characteristic parameters becomes the key of the solution to optimal force control. To identify the electrohydraulic force servo system various step signals are input to excite the dynamic response of the system. From the relationship between the step magnitude and the force response, the system model and the key control parameters are determined. The electrohydraulic force servo system is identified as a first order system with time constant varied with the pressure. Based on the identification of the system optimal control parameters are finally obtained and force rate error is reduced to 0.2% from original 3%

  4. 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems.

  5. Force control in the absence of visual and tactile feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, W.; Abbink, D.A.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Motor control tasks like stance or object handling require sensory feedback from proprioception, vision and touch. The distinction between tactile and proprioceptive sensors is not frequently made in dynamic motor control tasks, and if so, mostly based on signal latency. We previously found that

  6. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Sound and Vibration 315: 1–21. Han J H, Tani J, Qui J 2006 Active flutter suppression of a lifting surface using piezoelectric actuation and modern control theory. J. Sound and Vibration 291: 706–722. Han J H, Lee I 1999 Optimal placement of piezoelectric sensors and actuators for vibration control of a composite plate ...

  7. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHO...

  8. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  9. "Having It All" at Sleep's Expense: The Forced Choice of Participants in Advanced Placement Courses and International Baccalaureate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Regan Clark; Hertberg-Davis, Holly; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2008-01-01

    The gifted can suffer from too many demands on their time and attention. This qualitative study tested the theory that advanced placement (AP) and international baccalaureate (IB) participants may feel forced to choose between academic success and social acceptance. The results, however, did not support the theory. Not only did gifted students not…

  10. Rules of engagement : Rules on the use of force as linchpin for the international law of military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddens Hosang, J.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the role and function of the rules on the use of force for military operations in terms of the interaction between international and national law applicable to such operations and the actual conduct of the operations in question. In doing so, this study focused on examining

  11. THE IMPACT OF LEFT HEMISPHERE STROKE ON FORCE CONTROL WITH FAMILIAR AND NOVEL OBJECTS: NEUROANATOMIC SUBSTRATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO APRAXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Amanda M.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Duff, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force scaling for lifting objects frequently occurs in anticipation of finger contact. An ongoing question concerns the types of memories that are used to inform predictive control. Object-specific information such as weight may be stored and retrieved when previously encountered objects are lifted again. Alternatively, visual size and shape cues may provide estimates of object density each time objects are encountered. We reasoned that differences in performance with familiar versus novel objects would provide support for the former possibility. Anticipatory force production with both familiar and novel objects was assessed in 6 left hemisphere stroke patients, 2 of whom exhibited deficient actions with familiar objects (ideomotor apraxia; IMA), along with 5 control subjects. In contrast to healthy controls and stroke participants without IMA, participants with IMA displayed poor anticipatory scaling with familiar objects. However, like the other groups, IMA participants learned to differentiate fingertip forces with repeated lifts of both familiar and novel objects. Finally, there was a significant correlation between damage to the inferior parietal and superior and middle temporal lobes, and impaired anticipatory control for familiar objects. These data support the hypotheses that anticipatory control during lifts of familiar objects in IMA patients are based on object-specific memories, and that the ventro-dorsal stream is involved in the long-term storage of internal models used for anticipatory scaling during object manipulation. PMID:19945445

  12. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable-driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut's active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable-driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man-machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  13. Control feedback as the motivational force behind habitual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafcha, O; Higgins, E T; Eitam, B

    2016-01-01

    Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties. In an attempt to answer both questions, we suggest that habitual behavior is motivated by the influence it brings over the environment-by the control motivation system, including "control feedback." Thus, when referring to intrinsic worth, we refer to a representation of an activity that has been reinforced due to it being effective in controlling the environment, managing to make something happen. As an answer to when does an activity attain such rewarding properties, we propose that this occurs when the estimated instrumental outcome expectancy of an activity is positive, but the precision of this expectancy is low. This lack of precision overcomes the chronic dominance of outcome feedback over control feedback in determining action selection by increasing the relative weight of the control feedback. Such a state of affairs will lead to repeated selection of control relevant behavior and entails insensitivity to outcome devaluation, thereby producing a habit. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reform of Command and Control Structures in North Atlantic Treaty Organization Special Operations Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    .... The central research question is as follows: Does NATO require a standing Special Operations Force Command and Control structure and combat capability to meet the emerging global security requirements of the Alliance...

  15. Centralized Command and Control of Theater Missile Defense: The Joint Force Missile Defense Component Coordinator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucey, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The numerous commands, decentralized command and control, and limited and expensive resources involved in TMD require changes to the joint doctrine in order to provide unity of command and economy of force...

  16. Issues of internal control during the reform period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Gresova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and methodological problems of organization and financial control activities, the main problems and reasons causing the need for a unified system of internal financial control in the State Administration of Railway Transport of Ukraine at the stage of the reform.

  17. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  18. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. rest...

  19. Construction of an internal amplification control for Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), internal control. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) is .... Time and detection of TB in patients is very useful in controlling and fighting the .... DNA PCR as a Diagnostic tool in Medical Bacteriology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4(5): 1575-1580 ...

  20. Vehicle Sliding Mode Control with Adaptive Upper Bounds: Static versus Dynamic Allocation to Saturated Tire Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tavasoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vehicle control allocation is achieved through distributing the task of vehicle control among individual tire forces, which are constrained to nonlinear saturation conditions. A high-level sliding mode control with adaptive upper bounds is considered to assess the body yaw moment and lateral force for the vehicle motion. The proposed controller only requires the online adaptation of control gains without acquiring the knowledge of upper bounds on system uncertainties. Static and dynamic control allocation approaches have been formulated to distribute high-level control objectives among the system inputs. For static control allocation, the interior-point method is applied to solve the formulated nonlinear optimization problem. Based on the dynamic control allocation method, a dynamic update law is derived to allocate vehicle control to tire forces. The allocated tire forces are fed into a low-level control module, where the applied torque and active steering angle at each wheel are determined through a slip-ratio controller and an inverse tire model. Computer simulations are used to prove the significant effects of the proposed control allocation methods on improving the stability and handling performance. The advantages and limitations of each method have been discussed, and conclusions have been derived.

  1. Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando-King, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Lando, Harry A; Jahnke, Sara A; Hawk, Nita; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas. They also perceived mixed messages coming from the USAF, including simultaneous discouragement of and accommodations for tobacco use, and variability in policies and enforcement. Many respondents indicated that allowing tobacco use creates conflict and undermines military discipline and suggested that a tobacco-free policy would be the best way to eliminate these contradictions. Although there has been substantial movement away from a culture of tobacco in the USAF, current policies and variable enforcement of these policies create unnecessary contradictions. Establishing a tobacco-free service would resolve these issues in addition to improving the health of service members and veterans.

  2. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  3. Combining spanwise morphing, inline motion and model based optimization for force magnitude and direction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Johannes; Braza, Marianna; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bats and other animals rapidly change their wingspan in order to control the aerodynamic forces. A NACA0013 type airfoil with dynamically changing span is proposed as a simple model to experimentally study these biomimetic morphing wings. Combining this large-scale morphing with inline motion allows to control both force magnitude and direction. Force measurements are conducted in order to analyze the impact of the 4 degree of freedom flapping motion on the flow. A blade-element theory augmented unsteady aerodynamic model is then used to derive optimal flapping trajectories.

  4. Impaired voluntary quadriceps force control following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: relationship with knee function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, Luke; Clark, Ross; Crossley, Kay; Pua, Yong-Hao; Whitehead, Tim; Morris, Hayden; Telianidis, Stacey; Bryant, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Impairments in quadriceps force control and altered quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation strategies have been observed following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; however, the functional implications of these impairments are unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between quadriceps force control, quadriceps activation, hamstring coactivation and clinically assessed knee function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft. Sixty-six patients (18 ± 3 months following surgery) and 41 uninjured individuals participated. Quadriceps force control was assessed using an isometric knee extension task. Participants cyclically increased and decreased quadriceps force at slow speeds between 5 and 30 % maximum voluntary isometric contraction matching a moving target displayed on a screen. Quadriceps activation and hamstring coactivation were assessed concurrently using surface electromyography. Knee function was assessed with the Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale and three single-leg hop tests. The reconstructed group completed the task with 48 % greater root-mean-square error (RMSE), indicating significantly worse quadriceps force control (p anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and may contribute to irregular knee joint loading and the onset or progression of knee osteoarthritis. Impairments in quadriceps force control and altered muscle activation strategies may be modifiable through neuromuscular training, and this is an area for future research. Case-control study, Level III.

  5. Hybrid-Mode Impedance Control for Position/Force Tracking in Motor-System Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwoo Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new robot controller for motor-system rehabilitation. The proposed controller simultaneously realizes rehabilitation motion tracking and force generation, as predefined through a musculoskeletal model-based optimization process. We introduce control parameters of weighted control action priorities for the motion-tracking and force-generation tasks, based on the position-tracking error. With the weighted control action priorities, the robot accords higher priority to motion tracking at the robot end point when the position-tracking error is larger than a threshold value, and to force generation when the position-tracking error is smaller than a threshold value. Smooth motion trajectory has to be designed and applied in robot-based rehabilitation. Through simulations and experimental results, we show the usefulness of the proposed control method.

  6. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  7. Combined Position & Force Control for a robotic manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Liefhebber, F.; Römer, G.W.R.B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The ARM is a 6 DOF robotic manipulator used by disabled people with a severe handicap at the upper extremities The present ARM is position and velocity controlled. The desired position of the robot is given by the user. However, in constraint scenario's, manipulation becomes too difficult and an

  8. Document Control and Retrieval System for the Brazilian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    documents and document management. For each document that is sent or received, the Protocol Section keeps a "Ficha Protocolo " (FP), that is, a Protocol...to be the experimental module. In this phase I became familiar with defining forms, defining database and control fields, choosing field attributes

  9. Using the modern CNC controllers capabilities for estimating the machining forces during the milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breaz Radu-Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machining forces can nowadays be measured by using 3D dynamometers, which are usually very expensive devices and hardly available for most of the CNC machine-tools users. On the other hand, modern CNC controllers have nowadays the ability to display and save many outputs within the machining process, such as the currents or even the torques at the shaft's level for the feed motors on each axis. These outputs can be used for estimating the machining forces, but it is to be noticed that the above-mentioned currents and torques are proportional with the overall resistant forces, which includes not only technological forces, but also friction, inertial and pre-tensioning forces. This paper presents an approach for estimating the machining forces during a milling process, by using the outputs stored in the CNC controller and separating the effects of technological forces from the other forces involved in the process. The separation was made by running two sets of experiments, one set for dry-run regime and the other one for machining regime.

  10. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Sandra M.; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de La Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose. L.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; García-Romero, Noemí; Luis, Jose; Cuñado, F.; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications.

  11. A Multi-Function Force Sensing Instrument for Variable Admittance Robot Control in Retinal Microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-05-01

    Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force. The given information is used to augment cooperatively controlled robot behavior with variable admittance control. This effectively creates an adaptive remote center-of-motion (RCM) constraint to minimize eye motion, but also allows the translation of the RCM location if the instrument is not near the retina. In addition, it provides force scaling for sclera force feedback. The calibration and validation of the multi-function force sensing instrument are presented, along with demonstration and performance assessment of the variable admittance robot control on an eye phantom.

  12. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  13. Validation of engineering methods for predicting hypersonic vehicle controls forces and moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughmer, M.; Straussfogel, D.; Long, L.; Ozoroski, L.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines the ability of the aerodynamic analysis methods contained in an industry standard conceptual design code, the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS II), to estimate the forces and moments generated through control surface deflections from low subsonic to high hypersonic speeds. Predicted control forces and moments generated by various control effectors are compared with previously published wind-tunnel and flight-test data for three vehicles: the North American X-15, a hypersonic research airplane concept, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Qualitative summaries of the results are given for each force and moment coefficient and each control derivative in the various speed ranges. Results show that all predictions of longitudinal stability and control derivatives are acceptable for use at the conceptual design stage.

  14. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  15. Impact of Export Control and Technology Transfer Regimes: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-07

    Iranians seeking fighter aircraft from Russia and China, but none of these initiatives have yet borne fruit (“Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force...and added to its range. A most important modification was to replace the computer-assisted control system of the YF-17 with a digital fly -by-wire...possible, their role essentially is that of customer rather than partner. Figure 1. Lifecycle Framework View Matters such as the location of the

  16. BITE-FORCE ENDURANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGENGA, B; BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; DEBONT, LGM; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of testing bite force endurance in patients with articular temporomandibular disorders. The endurance of a 50 N bite force was measured in 51 patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders. The results were compared

  17. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the

  18. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  19. Side force control on slender body by self-excited oscillation flag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong asymmetrical vortices appear on the leeward of slender body at high angles of attack, which has very unfavorable effect on the stability and control of the aircraft. A method is developed to control the side force of slender body at high angles of attack, and is verified in wind tunnel. A thin-film triangular self-excited oscillation flag is fixed at the tip of the slender body model whose semi-apex angle is 10°. Side force is approximately linearly proportional to roll-setting angle of self-excited oscillation flag at high angles of attack, and the slop of fitting straight line obtained by the least square method is −0.158. The linear relationship between side force and roll-setting angle provides convenience for developing side force control law of slender body at high angles of attack. Experimental data shows that the side force coefficients vary linearly with roll-setting angles when a specific plastic self-excited oscillation flag is used as the control flag. The range of side force coefficient and roll-setting angle are, respectively, −3.2 to 3.0 and −20° to 20°. The device is simple, effective, and is of great potential in engineering application.

  20. Development of master slave system for interventional radiology with force-rate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Masaru; Zobel, P.B.; Claudio, P.D.; Mohri, Makoto; Komeda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a master-slave system for a catheter-guided operation, which is performed by using radiology, through the vascular system. When the master-slave system is used, the surgeon is not exposed to x-rays during the operation. The master tool is managed by an operator away from the slave tool, which is near the patient. The system must provide a realistic picture to the surgeon, particularly in term of force information because this operation is performed by observing three-dimensional fields on a two-dimensional monitor. In this paper, we describe the development of a master slave system that involves the use of force-rate control for guiding the catheter without using force sensors. The master tool has a force-display function. This system can be controlled by force and velocity controlling; hence, this system realized an innovative mechanism and algorism. Finally, the preliminary experiment indicated that the new control method was effective. Further, the force display was stable and achieved fast response. (author)

  1. End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.

  2. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 03: The Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control: Core Investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, J.; Jaffray, D. A.; MacPherson, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) is a membership-based, non-governmental organization with a mandate to “…to unite the cancer community to reduce the global cancer burden, to promote greater equity, and to integrate cancer control into the world health and development agenda.” COMP is an associate member of the UICC. It is well recognized by the UICC that there are major gaps between high, and low and middle income countries, in terms of access to cancer services including access to radiation therapy. In this context, the UICC has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control with a charge to answer a single question: “What does it cost to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiotherapy globally?” The Task Force consists of leaders internationally recognized for their radiation treatment related expertise (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, radiation therapists) as well as those with global health and economics specialization. The Task Force has developed three working groups: (1) to look at the global burden of cancer; (2) to look at the infrastructure requirements (facilities, equipment, personnel); and (3) to consider outcomes in terms of numbers of lives saved and palliated patients. A report is due at the World Cancer Congress in December 2014. This presentation reviews the infrastructure considerations under analysis by the second work group. The infrastructure parameters being addressed include capital costs of buildings and equipment and operating costs, which include human resources, equipment servicing and quality control, and general overhead

  3. The Influence of Flexibility Coefficient on the Size of Internal Forces and Deformations in Circular Plates on Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Mirela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study which deals with the behavior of the circular plates in bending theory, considering the soil-structure interaction under Winkler's hypothesis. It was intended to illustrate the variation of internal forces and deformations according to the flexibility coefficient of plates considering three models: a fixed solid circular plate subjected to a uniformly distributed load, a fixed solid circular plate acted by a displacement applied on the exterior contour and a solid plate subjected to a temperature gradient. For this study the computation relations were written as a product between a dimensional and a non-dimensional factor, the last one indicating the variation of internal forces and deformations. For each type of action there are presented results obtained using the finite element method to illustrate the differences between this method and the analytical computation.

  4. Virtual Control of Prosthetic Hand Based on Grasping Patterns and Estimated Force from Semg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric prosthetic hands aim to serve upper limb amputees. The myoelectric control of the hand grasp action is a kind of real-time or online method. Thus it is of great necessity to carry on a study of online prosthetic hand electrical control. In this paper, the strategy of simultaneous EMG decoding of grasping patterns and grasping force was realized by controlling a virtual multi-degree-freedom prosthetic hand and a real one-degree-freedom prosthetic hand simultaneously. The former realized the grasping patterns from the recognition of the sEMG pattern. The other implemented the grasping force from sEMG force decoding. The results show that the control method is effective and feasible.

  5. International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016. It includes research findings from leading experts in the fields connected with INDUSTRY 4.0 and its implementation, especially: intelligent systems, advanced control, information technologies, industrial automation, robotics, intelligent sensors, metrology and new materials. Each chapter offers an analysis of a specific technical problem followed by a numerical analysis and simulation as well as the implementation for the solution of a real-world problem.

  6. Optimization of Process Parameters of Edge Robotic Deburring with Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghardt A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues addressed in the paper present a part of the scientific research conducted within the framework of the automation of the aircraft engine part manufacturing processes. The results of the research presented in the article provided information in which tolerances while using a robotic control station with the option of force control we can make edge deburring.

  7. Template model inspired leg force feedback based control can assist human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping; Sharbafi, Maziar; Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin; Seyfarth, Andre

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel control approach for assistive lower-extremity exoskeletons. In particular, we implement a virtual pivot point (VPP) template model inspired leg force feedback based controller on a lower-extremity powered exoskeleton (LOPES II) and demonstrate that it can effectively assist humans during walking. It has been shown that the VPP template model is capable of stabilizing the trunk and reproduce a human-like hip torque during the stance phase of walking. With leg force and joint angle feedback inspired by the VPP template model, our controller provides hip and knee torque assistance during the stance phase. A pilot experiment was conducted with four healthy subjects. Joint kinematics, leg muscle electromyography (EMG), and metabolic cost were measured during walking with and without assistance. Results show that, for 0.6 m/s walking, our controller can reduce leg muscle activations, especially for the medial gastrocnemius (about 16.0%), while hip and knee joint kinematics remain similar to the condition without the controller. Besides, the controller also reduces 10% of the net metabolic cost during walking. This paper demonstrates walking assistance benefits of the VPP template model for the first time. The support of human walking is achieved by a force feedback of leg force applied to the control of hip and knee joints. It can help us to provide a framework for investigating walking assistance control in the future.

  8. 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of instrument electrical and automatic control system, the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control (CEEAC) was established at the crossroads of information technology and control technology, and seeks to effectively apply information technology to a sweeping trend that views control as the core of intelligent manufacturing and life. This book takes a look forward into advanced manufacturing development, an area shaped by intelligent manufacturing. It highlights the application and promotion of process control represented by traditional industries, such as the steel industry and petrochemical industry; the technical equipment and system cooperative control represented by robot technology and multi-axis CNC; and the control and support of emerging process technologies represented by laser melting and stacking, as well as the emerging industry represented by sustainable and intelligent life. The book places particular emphasis on the micro-segments field, such as...

  9. Criteria for the Minimum Operation Length of Internal Forces as a Function of the Development of an Optimum Structure of Machinery Structural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fligiel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the operation length of internal forces (DDSW understood as the length of the flow of internal forces along the shortest possible internal routes. The operation length of internal forces is determined on the basis of stresses and the given volume in the constructional space. The minimum DDSW of the structure satisfies the criterial conditions of the most rigid structure, where the potential energy of deformation and the deformation energy potential is the same in the whole volume and thus the potential gradient is zero.

  10. High Refractive Index Silicone Gels for Simultaneous Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence and Traction Force Microscopy of Adherent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Achim; Sundd, Prithu; Ley, Klaus; Danuser, Gaudenz; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Groisman, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Substrate rigidity profoundly impacts cellular behaviors such as migration, gene expression, and cell fate. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy enables selective visualization of the dynamics of substrate adhesions, vesicle trafficking, and biochemical signaling at the cell-substrate interface. Here we apply high-refractive-index silicone gels to perform TIRF microscopy on substrates with a wide range of physiological elastic moduli and simultaneously measure traction forces exerted by cells on the substrate. PMID:21961031

  11. Painleve analysis for a forced Korteveg-de Vries equation arisen in fluid dynamics of internal solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Painleve analysis is used to test the Painleve integrability of a forced variable-coefficient extended Korteveg-de Vries equation which can describe the weakly-non-linear long internal solitary waves in the fluid with continuous stratification on density. The obtained results show that the equation is integrable under certain conditions. By virtue of the truncated Painleve expansion, a pair of new exact solutions to the equation is obtained.

  12. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  13. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  14. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent and...

  15. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  16. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  17. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  18. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However...... of MCSs when analyzing internal consistency in the MCS package and how managers obtain internal consistency in the new MCS package when a MCS change occur. This study focuses specifically on changes to administrative controls, which are not internal consistent with the current cybernetic controls. As top......, to date we know little about how managers maintain internal consistency, when individual MCSs change and do not fit with the other MCSs. Based on a case study in a global Danish manufacturing company this study finds that it is necessary to distinguish between the design characteristics of MCS and use...

  19. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  20. Control of forced vibrations of mechanical structures by an electromagnetic controller with a permanent magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    . The so generated magnetic flux variation induces alternating voltage in the electric circuit, which is dissipated in a shunt resistor. The induced current driven through the coil generates magnetic force, which damps the excitation force and changes the damped natural frequency of the oscillatory system...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Yevgeny, E-mail: e-somov@mail.ru [Samara State Technical University, Department for Guidance, Navigation and Control, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara 443100 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-10

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  2. The constrained control of force and position in multi-joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Boots, P J; de Groot, G; Snackers, R J; van Woensel, W W

    1992-01-01

    In many arm or leg movements the hand or foot has to exert an external force on the environment. Based on an inverse dynamical analysis of cycling, it is shown that the distribution of net moments in the joints needed to control the direction of the external force is often opposite to the direction of joint displacements associated with this task. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from five experienced cyclists during ergometer cycling by means of film analysis and pedal force measurement. An inverse dynamic analysis, based on a linked segments model, yielded net joint moments, joint powers and muscle shortening velocities of eight leg muscles. Activation patterns of the muscles were obtained by means of surface electromyography. The results show that the transfer of rotations in hip, knee and ankle joints into the translation of the pedal is constrained by conflicting requirements. This occurs between the joint moments necessary to contribute to joint power and the moments necessary to establish a direction of the force on the pedal which allows this force to do work on the pedal. Co-activation of mono-articular agonists and their bi-articular antagonists appear to provide a unique solution for these conflicting requirements: bi-articular muscles appear to be able to control the desired direction of the external force on the pedal by adjusting the relative distribution of net moments over the joints while mono-articular muscles appear to be primarily activated when they are in the position to shorten and thus to contribute to positive work. Examples are given to illustrate the universal nature of this constrained control of force (external) and position (joint). Based on this study and published data it is suggested that different processes may underlie the organization of the control of mono- and bi-articular muscles.

  3. A method to study precision grip control in viscoelastic force fields using a robotic gripper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambercy, Olivier; Metzger, Jean-Claude; Santello, Marco; Gassert, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Instrumented objects and multipurpose haptic displays have commonly been used to investigate sensorimotor control of grasping and manipulation. A major limitation of these devices, however, is the extent to which the experimenter can vary the interaction dynamics to fully probe sensorimotor control mechanisms. We propose a novel method to study precision grip control using a grounded robotic gripper with two moving, mechanically coupled finger pads instrumented with force sensors. The device is capable of stably rendering virtual mechanical properties with a wide dynamic range of achievable impedances. Eight viscoelastic force fields with different combinations of stiffness and damping parameters were implemented, and tested on eight healthy subjects performing 30 consecutive repetitions of a grasp, hold, and release task with time and position constraints. Rates of thumb and finger force were found to be highly correlated (r>0.9) during grasping, revealing that, despite the mechanical coupling of the two finger pads, subjects performed grasping movements in a physiological fashion. Subjects quickly adapted to the virtual dynamics (within seven trials), but, depending on the presented force field condition, used different control strategies to correctly perform the task. The proof of principle presented in this paper underscores the potential of such a one-degree-of-freedom robotic gripper to study neural control of grasping, and to provide novel insights on sensorimotor control mechanisms.

  4. Design and control of a macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulun; Mangaser, Amante; Laby, Keith; Jordan, Steve; Wilson, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Creating a robot which can delicately interact with its environment has been the goal of much research. Primarily two difficulties have made this goal hard to attain. The execution of control strategies which enable precise force manipulations are difficult to implement in real time because such algorithms have been too computationally complex for available controllers. Also, a robot mechanism which can quickly and precisely execute a force command is difficult to design. Actuation joints must be sufficiently stiff, frictionless, and lightweight so that desired torques can be accurately applied. This paper describes a robotic system which is capable of delicate manipulations. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system. Delicate force tasks such as polishing, finishing, cleaning, and deburring, are the target applications of the robot.

  5. Internal hydraulic control in the Little Belt, Denmark - observations of flow configurations and water mass formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and

  6. Corruption and internal control weaknesses. Case study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption represents one of the major causes of poverty all over the world and European Union is fighting against it. In the last few years, the corruption phenomenon registered a high level in some European countries and became one of the most problematic factors for doing business, due to the evolution of the perceived top five global risks: interstate conflict and regional consequences, extreme weather events, failure of national governance, state collapse or crises, high structural unemployment or underemployment              (WEF-Global Risk Report 2015, p. 14. One of the modalities in combating corruption is implementing the internal control and most of the governments and organizations adopted strong control techniques. Most of the control weaknesses are related to the financial procedures and the number of controllers. Some of the controllers do not have enough financial expertise or do not understand the importance of informatics systems.

  7. Building public health capacity in Afghanistan to implement the International Health Regulations: a role for security forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Jean-Paul; Yingst, Samuel L; Thompson, Donald

    2010-09-01

    The government of Afghanistan, with international partners and donors, has achieved substantial public health improvements during the past 8 years. But a critical gap remains: capacities to detect and respond to disease outbreaks that could constitute a public health emergency of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (IHR). The Afghan Ministry of Public Health seeks to build these capacities, but conflict and scarcity of resources hinder public health surveillance and response, diagnostic laboratory and clinical management capacity is limited, and massive international population movements could permit outbreaks to cross international borders. Several diseases covered by the IHR, such as polio, are endemic in Afghanistan, and risk of novel disease emergence may be elevated in some areas. The security forces of the United States and other countries with military presence in Afghanistan are potential partners for the government of Afghanistan in strengthening the public health capacity. They could extend specialized disease surveillance and response capabilities to the Afghan military and civilian sectors and could integrate surveillance and response capacity building into ongoing development programs, especially in insecure areas. The World Health Organization could provide the forum for coordinating military and civilian contributions to public health capacity strengthening in Afghanistan and could help ensure that international health sector development efforts address Afghan public health priorities in addition to IHR requirements.

  8. Robust position and force tracking control for a robot in contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Moo

    1993-01-01

    This thesis presents a robust position and force tracking control approach for a robot in contact. When a robot involves in a task of changing between free and contact motion, tracking contact position or force is a difficult problem in control. The approach uses the computed torque linearization to cancel the nonlinear dynamics of the robot. A target dynamics is then applied to the linearized system. The target dynamics relates position errors and force errors through force error compensators. Using the high-order compensators, the target dynamics guarantees smooth transition between free and contact maneuvers, position or force tracking, and robust performance to environmental uncertainty. In case of single degree-of-freedom robots, tracking in steady states can be achieved by designing compensators, placing zeros or poles at the origin for position or force tracking control, respectively. To improve tracking performance in transient states, the H(sub infinity) control synthesis is adopted to design a compensator that minimizes H(sub infinity) optimality. The optimality is augmented to trade off between mixed sensitivities and joint loads. The designed compensator for the multi-input and multioutput system shows that the tracking performance meets the design specifications. When the environmental uncertainty is structured as a simple inertia-damper-stiffness system with unbounded coefficients, robustly stable compensators exist for all variations of the coefficients. When the uncertainty is unstructured and bounded, the H(sub infinity) robust performance condition is employed to design a compensator robust to the uncertainty. A reduced-order compensator is obtained by iteratively applying optimization to a fixed-order compensator with unknown coefficients. The computed torque linearization is subject to modeling errors in sensing, measurements, and estimations, which degrade the stability of the controlled system. A sufficient condition for stability robust to

  9. Design of Active Magnetic Bearing Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Gas Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2018-01-01

    . Experimental and simulation results shows that significant performance can be achieved using the model based controllers compared to a reference decentralised Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and robustness against large variations of pressure across the seal can be improved by use of robust......Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries...... of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces...

  10. Comparison of two temperature control techniques in a forced water heater solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; E Guzmán, R.; Santos, A.; Cordoba, E.

    2017-12-01

    a study on the performance of a forced solar heating system in which a comparative analysis of two control strategies, including the classic on-off control and PID control is presented. From the experimental results it was found that the two control strategies show a similar behaviour in the solar heating system forced an approximate settling time of 60 min and over-elongation 2°C for the two control strategies. Furthermore, the maximum temperature in the storage tank was 46°C and the maximum efficiency of flat plate collector was 76.7% given that this efficiency is the ratio of the energy of the radiation on the collector and the energy used to heat water. The efficiency obtained is a fact well accepted because the business efficiencies of flat plate collectors are approximately 70%.

  11. External Periodic Force Control of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Vibroimpact System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-degree-of-freedom mechanical model of vibro-impact system is established. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are revealed with the time history diagram, phase trajectory map, and Poincaré map. According to the bifurcation and chaos of the actual vibro-impact system, the paper puts forward external periodic force control strategy. The method of controlling chaos by external periodic force feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. The stability of the control system is also analyzed especially by theory. By selecting appropriate feedback coefficients, the unstable periodic orbits of the original chaotic orbit can be stabilized to the stable periodic orbits. The effectiveness of this control method is verified by numerical simulation.

  12. The Perception of the Internal Managerial Control System – the Case of the Romanian Public Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    State Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the management of activities for achieve the objectives, the managers at all levels of the hierarchy must have relevant information on the organization's events and activities, in an appropriate form and detail. Thus, they can assume their responsibilities. In this context, we considered that important of organizing and implementing in the public entities of the system of internal managerial control. This system provides reasonable assurance that the organization's objectives will be achieved in terms of efficiency, efficacy, economically. For this purpose, we have carried out a documentary research of both specialized papers and the applicable regulations in force in Romania in the field of managerial internal control within the public entities, as well as empirical research. Thus, in a conjunct survey, we conducted a survey on the implementation of the managerial internal control system in different public institutions in Romania with the central objective to highlight the perception of the staff involved in this tool at the disposal of the management.

  13. Active Control of Contact Force for a Pantograph-Catenary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the high speed trains depends critically on the quality of the contact in the pantograph-catenary interaction. Maintaining a constant contact force needs taking special measures and one of the methods is to utilize active control to optimize the contact force. A number of active control methods have been proposed in the past decade. However, the primary objective of these methods has been to reduce the variation of the contact force in the pantograph-catenary system, ignoring the effects of locomotive vibrations on pantograph-catenary dynamics. Motivated by the problems in active control of vibration in large scale structures, the author has developed a geometric framework specifically targeting the remote vibration suppression problem based only on local control action. It is the intention of the paper to demonstrate its potential in the active control of the pantograph-catenary interaction, aiming to minimize the variation of the contact force while simultaneously suppressing the vibration disturbance from the train. A numerical study is provided through the application to a simplified pantograph-catenary model.

  14. The Transient Aerodynamic Forces Effected by Trailing Edge Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Dan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari

    2012-11-01

    The transient aerodynamic forces effected by trailing edge flow control are investigated in wind tunnel experiments using a 2-DOF traverse which enables application of time-dependent external torque and forces by servo motors. The global aerodynamic forces and moments are regulated by controlling vorticity generation and accumulation near the surface using hybrid synthetic jet actuators. The time-histories of surface pressure and aerodynamic lift and pitching moment immediately following the application of flow control are measured using simultaneous pressure, force and velocity measurements that are taken phase-locked to the commanded actuation waveform. Circulation time history that is estimated from a PIV wake survey shows that the entire flow over the airfoil readjusts within about 1 . 5TCONV , which is about two orders of magnitude shorter than the characteristic time associated with the controlled maneuver of the wind tunnel model. This illustrates that flow-control actuation can be typically effected on time scales that are commensurate with the flow's convective time scale, and that the maneuver response is primarily limited by the inertia of the platform.

  15. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  16. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  17. Oversight Review: Quality Control Review of Air Force Audit Agency's Special Access Program Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The Government Auditing Standards (GAS) require that an audit organization performing audits and/or attestation engagements in accordance with GAS should have an appropriate internal quality control system in place and undergo an external...

  18. Architectural study of the design and operation of advanced force feedback manual controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert; Kim, Whee-Kuk

    1990-01-01

    A teleoperator system consists of a manual controller, control hardware/software, and a remote manipulator. It was employed in either hazardous or unstructured, and/or remote environments. In teleoperation, the main-in-the-loop is the central concept that brings human intelligence to the teleoperator system. When teleoperation involves contact with an uncertain environment, providing the feeling of telepresence to the human operator is one of desired characteristics of the teleoperator system. Unfortunately, most available manual controllers in bilateral or force-reflecting teleoperator systems can be characterized by their bulky size, high costs, or lack of smoothness and transparency, and elementary architectures. To investigate other alternatives, a force-reflecting, 3 degree of freedom (dof) spherical manual controller is designed, analyzed, and implemented as a test bed demonstration in this research effort. To achieve an improved level of design to meet criteria such as compactness, portability, and a somewhat enhanced force-reflecting capability, the demonstration manual controller employs high gear-ratio reducers. To reduce the effects of the inertia and friction on the system, various force control strategies are applied and their performance investigated. The spherical manual controller uses a parallel geometry to minimize inertial and gravitational effects on its primary task of transparent information transfer. As an alternative to the spherical 3-dof manual controller, a new conceptual (or parallel) spherical 3-dof module is introduced with a full kinematic analysis. Also, the resulting kinematic properties are compared to those of other typical spherical 3-dof systems. The conceptual design of a parallel 6-dof manual controller and its kinematic analysis is presented. This 6-dof manual controller is similar to the Stewart Platform with the actuators located on the base to minimize the dynamic effects. Finally, a combination of the new 3-dof and 6-dof

  19. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  20. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  1. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  2. A novel feedback control system – Controlling the material flow in deep drawing using distributed blank-holder force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Tommerup, Søren; Danckert, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a feedback control system is often limited by the quality of the model on which it is based, and often the controller design is based on trial and error due to insufficient modeling capabilities. A framework is proposed where the controller design is based on classical state...... space control theory and time series. The system plant has been modeled using non-linear finite element and the gain factors for the control loop were identified by solving the optimal control problem using a non-linear least square optimization algorithm. The proposed design method has been applied...... on a deep drawing operation where the objective was to control material flow throughout the part using only spatial information regarding flange draw-in. The control system controls both the magnitude and distribution of the blank-holder force. The methodology proved stable and flexible with respect...

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the multitude of definitions, internal control is found in the centre of managerial concerns worldwide. This amplification of interest towards internal control has its origin in a series of events, of which two can be mentioned: the growing business complexity and dispersal activity centres, which led to the growth and development of the delegation of competence, the only way which enables the responsible to exercise powers from a distance and entirely, bringing together the components needed by its delegates. Regulatory domain, which has not ceased to expand: laws, regulations, rules, professional constraints, budgetary and social – all these have increasingly limited the decision makers, through a network of rules that must be respected. Consequently, what can be done to be safe from any punishment and to ensure constant watch over the essentials? To answer these questions, and many others, experts in the field have taken initiatives that have enabled them to define with precision the specific internal control and to set goals, creating the famous models: COSO and CoCo.

  4. Aging effects on the control of grip force magnitude: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jeremy W; Eng, Janice J; Kokotilo, Kristen J; Boyd, Lara A

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging techniques have allowed for investigations into the mechanisms of age-related deterioration in motor control. This study used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate age related differences in the control of grip force magnitude. Using an event-related design, fMRI scans were completed on 13 older adults, and 13 gender matched younger adults, while using their dominant hand to squeeze a rubber bulb for 4s at 10%, 40% or 70% of their maximum voluntary contraction. Both groups were able to match the relative force targets, however the older adults produced significantly lower levels of absolute force. fMRI analysis consisted of a 1) region of interest (ROI) approach to detect differences in selected motor areas within brain and 2) a voxel-wise whole brain comparison to find areas of differential activation that were not defined a priori between the older and younger group. The ROI analysis revealed that despite producing lower levels of absolute force, the older adults showed higher levels of activity predominantly in subcortical structures (putamen, thalamus and cerebellum) when compared to the younger group. The older adults also showed higher levels of activity in the ipsilateral ventral premotor cortex. A total of 19 of the 22 ROIs analyzed showed a significant main effect of the required force-level. In the majority of the ROIs that showed a significant force effect there were no significant differences in the magnitude of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal between the 10% and 40% conditions but a significantly higher BOLD signal in the 70% condition, suggesting that the modulation of brain activation with grip force may not be controlled in a linear fashion. It was also found that the older adult group demonstrate higher levels of activation in 7 areas during a force production task at higher force levels using a voxel-wise analysis. The 7 clusters that showed significant differences tended to be areas

  5. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...... and on the iCub simulator, validating the robustness of the proposed control method. The first set of experiments focused on the controller response to a set of disturbance frequencies along the vertical plane. The second shows the performances of the system under three-dimensional disturbances. The last set...

  6. Introduction to the IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics and International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zuo-Guang; Tan, Xiaoli; Bokov, Alexei A

    2012-09-01

    The 20th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (ISAF) was held on July 24-27, 2011, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, jointly with the International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials (PFM). Over a period of four days, approximately 400 scientists, engineers, and students from around the world presented their work and discussed the latest developments in the field of ferroelectrics, related materials, and their applications. It is particularly encouraging to see that a large number of students (115) were attracted to the joint conference and presented high-quality research works. This trend is not only important to this conference series, but more importantly, it is vital to the future of the ferroelectrics field.

  7. Performance and Usability of Various Robotic Arm Control Modes from Human Force Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Mick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating an efficient and usable mapping between input commands and output movements is still a key challenge for the design of robotic arm prostheses. In order to address this issue, we present and compare three different control modes, by assessing them in terms of performance as well as general usability. Using an isometric force transducer as the command device, these modes convert the force input signal into either a position or a velocity vector, whose magnitude is linearly or quadratically related to force input magnitude. With the robotic arm from the open source 3D-printed Poppy Humanoid platform simulating a mobile prosthesis, an experiment was carried out with eighteen able-bodied subjects performing a 3-D target-reaching task using each of the three modes. The subjects were given questionnaires to evaluate the quality of their experience with each mode, providing an assessment of their global usability in the context of the task. According to performance metrics and questionnaire results, velocity control modes were found to perform better than position control mode in terms of accuracy and quality of control as well as user satisfaction and comfort. Subjects also seemed to favor quadratic velocity control over linear (proportional velocity control, even if these two modes did not clearly distinguish from one another when it comes to performance and usability assessment. These results highlight the need to take into account user experience as one of the key criteria for the design of control modes intended to operate limb prostheses.

  8. Counter-Terrorism and the Use of Force in International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitt, Michael N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Michael Schmitt explores the legality of the attacks against Al Qaeda and the Taliban under the "jus ad bellum," that component of international law that governs when a State may resort...

  9. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  10. THE COMMUNICATION OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM WEAKNESSES - NECESSITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, NEDELCU (BUNEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its mission, the control is an inherent part of management, being a specifically human activity, especially useful serving both the management, business partners, public institutions and public. Especially in the last period, amid the economic and financial crisis manifested in recent years, the control has evolved and evolving both by the improvement of organization and management systems and by the response to continuous development of the environment in which it operates. The control activities are an integral part of the management process by which the entity aims to achieve their objectives. The research methodology consists essentially in a literature review and recent regulations in the analyzed field.The objective of this study is to highlight the way in which shall be communicated the deficiencies of internal control systems, to the persons responsible for their governance, inclusively in the banking system.

  11. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  12. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...... or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting...

  14. Globalisation, international education and the marketing of TESOL: student identity as a site of conflicting forces

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Md Raqibuddin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a critique of institutional discourses that are informed by race, culture and identity, learning constraints and particular constructions of English and offers ways of thinking that encourage multiplicity and complexity. Its principal aim is to probe issues relating to the identity formation of international TESOL students in the context of the globalisation of international education. To achieve this aim, the study poses questions about the commodification of the TESOL ma...

  15. A Cost-Effective Atomic Force Microscope for Undergraduate Control Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Goncalves, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, cost-effective and robust atomic force microscope (AFM), which has been purposely designed and built for use as a teaching aid in undergraduate controls labs. The guiding design principle is to have all components be open and visible to the students, so the inner functioning of the microscope has been made clear to…

  16. Improving Command and Control in the Mexican Army and Air Force to Support Land Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Facilities and Policy FLIR Forward Looking Infrared System FMF Fleet Marine Force FM Field Manual GDP Gross Domestic Product GPS Global Positioning...world market , this thesis will attempt to present optimal solutions to improve Command and Control in support of land operations. Significance of...researched manuals and public documents was considered employing criteria that meets validity, reliability, practicability, suitability and

  17. Force-controlled robotic assembly processes of rigid and flexible objects methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalyan, Ibrahim Fahad Jasim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive and integrated approaches for rigid and flexible object assembly. It presents comparison studies with the available force-guided robotic processes and covers contact-state modeling, scheme control strategies, and position searching algorithms. Further, it includes experimental validations for different assembly situations, including those for the assembly of industrial parts taken from the automotive industry. .

  18. A Novel Approach for Automatic Control of Piezoelectric Elements Used for Lorentz Force Detuning Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Przygoda, K; Napieralski, A; Grecki, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Linear accelerators such as Free Electron Lasers (FELs) use superconducting (SC) resonant cavities to accelerate electron beam to high energies. TESLA type resonators are extremely sensitive to detuning induced by mechanical deformations – Lorentz force detuning (LFD), mainly due to the extremely high quality factor (Q) of the 1.3 GHz resonance mode, in the range of 1e6. The resulting modulation of a resonance frequency of the cavity makes power consumption and stability performances of the Low-Latency Radio Frequency (LLRF) control more critical. In order to minimize the RF control efforts and desired stabilities, the fast piezoelectric actuators with digital control systems are commonly used. The paper presents a novel approach for automatic control of piezoelectric actuators used for compensation of Lorentz force detuning, the practical application and carried out tests in accelerating module ACC6 in Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).

  19. A new orthodontic force system for moment control utilizing the flexibility of common wires: Evaluation of the effect of contractile force and hook length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Jen; Midorikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Zuisei; Takemura, Hiroshi; Suga, Kazuhiro; Soga, Kohei; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    The application of an appropriate force system is indispensable for successful orthodontic treatments. Second-order moment control is especially important in many clinical situations, so we developed a new force system composed of a straight orthodontic wire and two crimpable hooks of different lengths to produce the second-order moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate this new force system and determine an optimum condition that could be used in clinics. We built a premolar extraction model with two teeth according to the concept of a modified orthodontic simulator. This system was activated by applying contractile force from two hooks that generated second-order moment and force. The experimental device incorporated two sensors, and forces and moments were measured along six axes. We changed the contractile force and hook length to elucidate their effects. Three types of commercial wires were tested. The second-order moment was greater on the longer hook side of the model. Vertical force balanced the difference in moments between the two teeth. Greater contractile force generated a greater second-order moment, which reached a limit of 150 g. Excessive contractile force induced more undesired reactions in the other direction. Longer hooks induced greater moment generation, reaching their limit at 10 mm in length. The system acted similar to an off-center V-bend and can be applied in clinical practice as an unconventional loop design. We suggest that this force system has the potential for second-order moment control in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Variations in Static Force Control and Motor Unit Behavior with Error Amplification Feedback in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Linda L; Lin, Yen-Ting; Hu, Chia-Ling; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    Error amplification (EA) feedback is a promising approach to advance visuomotor skill. As error detection and visuomotor processing at short time scales decline with age, this study examined whether older adults could benefit from EA feedback that included higher-frequency information to guide a force-tracking task. Fourteen young and 14 older adults performed low-level static isometric force-tracking with visual guidance of typical visual feedback and EA feedback containing augmented high-frequency errors. Stabilogram diffusion analysis was used to characterize force fluctuation dynamics. Also, the discharge behaviors of motor units and pooled motor unit coherence were assessed following the decomposition of multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG). EA produced different behavioral and neurophysiological impacts on young and older adults. Older adults exhibited inferior task accuracy with EA feedback than with typical visual feedback, but not young adults. Although stabilogram diffusion analysis revealed that EA led to a significant decrease in critical time points for both groups, EA potentiated the critical point of force fluctuations [Formula: see text], short-term effective diffusion coefficients (Ds), and short-term exponent scaling only for the older adults. Moreover, in older adults, EA added to the size of discharge variability of motor units and discharge regularity of cumulative discharge rate, but suppressed the pooled motor unit coherence in the 13-35 Hz band. Virtual EA alters the strategic balance between open-loop and closed-loop controls for force-tracking. Contrary to expectations, the prevailing use of closed-loop control with EA that contained high-frequency error information enhanced the motor unit discharge variability and undermined the force steadiness in the older group, concerning declines in physiological complexity in the neurobehavioral system and the common drive to the motoneuronal pool against force destabilization.

  1. Variations in Static Force Control and Motor Unit Behavior with Error Amplification Feedback in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Error amplification (EA feedback is a promising approach to advance visuomotor skill. As error detection and visuomotor processing at short time scales decline with age, this study examined whether older adults could benefit from EA feedback that included higher-frequency information to guide a force-tracking task. Fourteen young and 14 older adults performed low-level static isometric force-tracking with visual guidance of typical visual feedback and EA feedback containing augmented high-frequency errors. Stabilogram diffusion analysis was used to characterize force fluctuation dynamics. Also, the discharge behaviors of motor units and pooled motor unit coherence were assessed following the decomposition of multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG. EA produced different behavioral and neurophysiological impacts on young and older adults. Older adults exhibited inferior task accuracy with EA feedback than with typical visual feedback, but not young adults. Although stabilogram diffusion analysis revealed that EA led to a significant decrease in critical time points for both groups, EA potentiated the critical point of force fluctuations <ΔFc2>, short-term effective diffusion coefficients (Ds, and short-term exponent scaling only for the older adults. Moreover, in older adults, EA added to the size of discharge variability of motor units and discharge regularity of cumulative discharge rate, but suppressed the pooled motor unit coherence in the 13–35 Hz band. Virtual EA alters the strategic balance between open-loop and closed-loop controls for force-tracking. Contrary to expectations, the prevailing use of closed-loop control with EA that contained high-frequency error information enhanced the motor unit discharge variability and undermined the force steadiness in the older group, concerning declines in physiological complexity in the neurobehavioral system and the common drive to the motoneuronal pool against force destabilization.

  2. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A; Bonnin, C M; Bowie, C R; Carvalho, A F; Gallagher, P; Lafer, B; López-Jaramillo, C; Sumiyoshi, T; McIntyre, R S; Schaffer, A; Porter, R J; Torres, I J; Yatham, L N; Young, A H; Kessing, L V; Vieta, E

    2017-12-01

    To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. The task force was launched in September 2016, consisting of 18 international experts from nine countries. A series of methodological issues were identified based on literature review and expert opinion. The issues were discussed and expanded upon in an initial face-to-face meeting, telephone conference call and email exchanges. Based upon these exchanges, recommendations were achieved. Key methodological challenges are: lack of consensus on how to screen for entry into cognitive treatment trials, define cognitive impairment, track efficacy, assess functional implications, and manage mood symptoms and concomitant medication. Task force recommendations are to: (i) enrich trials with objectively measured cognitively impaired patients; (ii) generally select a broad cognitive composite score as the primary outcome and a functional measure as a key secondary outcome; and (iii) include remitted or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy in future trials and increase comparability between studies. © 2017 The Authors Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Role of Forcing and Internal Dynamics in explaining the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossee, Hugues; Crespin, Elisabeth; Dubinkina, Svetlana; Loutre, Marie-France; Mann, Michael E.; Renssen, Hans; Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    Proxy reconstructions suggest that peak global temperature during the past warm interval known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, roughly 950-1250 AD) has been exceeded only during the most recent decades. To better understand the origin of this warm period, we use model simulations constrained by data assimilation establishing the spatial pattern of temperature changes that is most consistent with forcing estimates, model physics and the empirical information contained in paleoclimate proxy records. These numerical experiments demonstrate that the reconstructed spatial temperature pattern of the MCA can be explained by a simple thermodynamical response of the climate system to relatively weak changes in radiative forcing combined with a modification of the atmospheric circulation, displaying some similarities with the positive phase of the so-called Arctic Oscillation, and with northward shifts in the position of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio currents. The mechanisms underlying the MCA are thus quite different from anthropogenic mechanisms responsible for modern global warming.

  4. Tactical Command and Control in the Combined Arms Battalion Task Force,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-08

    Develop decisIOns concerning the employment and sustaintment of:coatpoe appropriate Force Level Control System to that________Other fuctinal Control...are reviewed. The five battlefield functional area are examined with emphasis on emerging developments affocti ug Lattalion level operations...air defense, combat service support, and intel ligence and electronic warfare are addressed with 0- emphasis on emerging developments affecting battal

  5. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training-Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training-progression styles. To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults.

  6. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  7. Evaluation of friction forces between control bars and guide tubes of CAREM fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Fiori, Jose M.; Yedros, Pablo A.

    2003-01-01

    The design of the MSAC (Mecanismo del Sistema de ajuste y control, Mechanism of the Adjustment and control system, MACS) for CAREM reactor shall consider all loads that the reactor shall support during its operation. Several charges are originated by friction forces produced on contact points of the control Bars/Guide tubes assembly against other components. A test facility was designed and manufactured for the determination of friction components and the damping characteristics of the assembly formed by guide tubes fuel element, the control bars and the guide of the bar of the MACS. In this work a description of the test performed and the results obtained is presented. (author)

  8. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  9. On Synergistic Integration of Adaptive Dithering Based Internal Model Control for Hysteresis Compensation in Piezoactuated Nanopositioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Kumar Shome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric-stack actuated platforms are very popular in the parlance of nanopositioning with myriad applications like micro/nanofactory, atomic force microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, wafer design, biological cell manipulation, and so forth. Motivated by the necessity to improve trajectory tracking in such applications, this paper addresses the problem of rate dependent hysteretic nonlinearity in piezoelectric actuators (PEA. The classical second order Dahl model for hysteresis encapsulation is introduced first, followed by the identification of parameters through particle swarm optimization. A novel inversion based feedforward mechanism in combination with a feedback compensator is proposed to achieve high-precision tracking wherein the paradoxical concept of noise as a performance enhancer is introduced in the realm of PZAs. Having observed that dither induced stochastic resonance in the presence of periodic forcing reduces tracking error, dither capability is further explored in conjunction with a novel output harmonics based adaptive control scheme. The proposed adaptive controller is then augmented with an internal model control based approach to impart robustness against parametric variations and external disturbances. The proposed control law has been employed to track multifrequency signals with consistent compensation of rate dependent hysteresis of the PEA. The results indicate a greatly improved positioning accuracy along with considerable robustness achieved with the proposed integrated approach even for dual axis tracking applications.

  10. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  11. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  12. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Morita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces—such as metal, paper, film, and so on—thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects—aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block—considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  13. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nobutomo; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2018-01-23

    The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV) and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces-such as metal, paper, film, and so on-thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV) by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects-aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block-considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  14. The Line between Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the Use of Force in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Cristina Necula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we attempt to analyze the evolution of a conflictual situation between atleast two international parties, examining each stage involved, with focus on peaceful solutions.However, what we observe is that no all disputes can be resolved through the use of common peacefulmeans. Refusing to accept violet methods of international conflict resolution and expressing faith inhuman values, freedom and fundamental rights of people, we believe that, in cases like these,imposing peaceful coercive measures in order to restore cooperation between states, becomesnecessary. These actions specifically, represent the subject of this paper. First and foremost, we mustunderstand that the international system is not a stand-alone one, butone that has evolved over theyears from tribes, empires and colonies, being at this moment composed of sovereign nation states,most of them allies as part of inter-governmental organizations. We are currently witnessing thecreating of a new subject of international law-the European Union-which does not aim to become anational state, an inter-state organization, or a federation of states. It selectively combines the featuresof these, creating a whole new international entity, whose evolution is still unknown, but that willundoubtedly change the system certainly in a gradual manner.In the midst of all thesetransformations of the international world lie the differences between mentalities and humanbehavior, or maybe even the similarities between them. These get translated into conflicts and theirresolution is intended to be as least invasive as possible, eventually leading to the development oflegal instruments designed to protect the freedom and sovereignty of the parties involved.

  15. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  16. 2011 International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set contains the very latest, cutting-edge material in electrics, communication and automatic control. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covers include micro-electronics and integrated circuit control, signal processing technology, next-generation network infrastructure, wireless communication and scientific instruments. The aim of the International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control, held in Chongqing, China, in June 2011 was to provide a valuable inclusive platform for researchers, engineers, academicians and industrial professionals from all over the world to share their research results with fellow scientists in the sector. The call for papers netted well over 600 submissions, of which 224 were selected for presentation. This fully peer-reviewed collection of papers from the conference can be viewed as a single-source compendium of the latest trends and techniques in t...

  17. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  18. Effects of Internal Control Training on the Locus of Control of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of internal control training on the locus of control of selected school going adolescents in Benin City. A sample size of 60 was drawn from two of the 27 co-educational schools in Oredo Local government area of Benin City. A table of random number technique was used to select subjects for ...

  19. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  20. Method of Grasping Control by Computing Internal and External Impedances for Two Robot Fingers, and Its Application to Admittance Control of a Robot Hand-Arm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impedance control is an important technology used in the grasping control of a robot hand. Numerous studies related to grasping algorithms have been reported in recent years, with the contact force between robot fingers and the object to be grasped being primarily discussed in most cases. Generally, a coupling effect occurs between the internal loop of the grasping operation and the external loop of the interaction with the environment when a multi-fingered robot hand is used to complete a contact task. Therefore, a robot hand cannot hold an object using a large external force to complete a wide range of tasks by applying the conventional method. In this paper, the coupling of the internal/external forces occurring in grasping operations using multiple fingers is analysed. Then, improved impedance control based on the previous method is proposed as an effective tool to solve the problem of grasping failure caused by single-finger contact. Furthermore, a method for applying the improved grasping algorithm to the admittance control of a robot hand-arm system is also proposed. The proposed method divides the impedance effect into the grasping control of the hand and the cooperative control of the arm, so that expanding the task space and increasing the flexibility of impedance adjustment can be achieved. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Active disturbance rejection control for output force creep characteristics of ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Dong, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a type of electroactive polymer (EAP) that can be used as both sensors and actuators. An IPMC has enormous potential application in the field of biomimetic robotics, medical devices, and so on. However, an IPMC actuator has a great number of disadvantages, such as creep and time-variation, making it vulnerable to external disturbances. In addition, the complex actuation mechanism makes it difficult to model and the demand of the control algorithm is laborious to implement. In this paper, we obtain a creep model of the IPMC by means of model identification based on the method of creep operator linear superposition. Although the mathematical model is not approximate to the IPMC accurate model, it is accurate enough to be used in MATLAB to prove the control algorithm. A controller based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is designed to solve the drawbacks previously given. Because the ADRC controller is separate from the mathematical model of the controlled plant, the control algorithm has the ability to complete disturbance estimation and compensation. Some factors, such as all external disturbances, uncertainty factors, the inaccuracy of the identification model and different kinds of IPMCs, have little effect on controlling the output block force of the IPMC. Furthermore, we use the particle swarm optimization algorithm to adjust ADRC parameters so that the IPMC actuator can approach the desired block force with unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experimental examples validate the effectiveness of the ADRC controller.

  2. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  3. Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped Balance Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Satoshi; Nishio, Shingo; Fukumoto, Yuuki; Matsushita, Kojiro; Sasaki, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the balance control of a biped robot under a constant external force or on a sloped ground. We have proposed a control method with feedback of the ground reaction forces and have realized adaptive posture changes that ensure the stability of the robot. However, fast responses have not been obtained because effective control is achieved by an integral feedback that accompanies a time delay necessary for error accumulation. To improve this response, here, we introduce gravity compensation in a feedforward manner. The stationary state and its stability are analyzed based on dynamic equations, and the robustness as well as the response is evaluated using computer simulations. Finally, the adaptive behaviors of the robot are confirmed by standing experiments on the slope.

  4. Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the balance control of a biped robot under a constant external force or on a sloped ground. We have proposed a control method with feedback of the ground reaction forces and have realized adaptive posture changes that ensure the stability of the robot. However, fast responses have not been obtained because effective control is achieved by an integral feedback that accompanies a time delay necessary for error accumulation. To improve this response, here, we introduce gravity compensation in a feedforward manner. The stationary state and its stability are analyzed based on dynamic equations, and the robustness as well as the response is evaluated using computer simulations. Finally, the adaptive behaviors of the robot are confirmed by standing experiments on the slope.

  5. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  6. Joining forces: collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives.

  7. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  8. Non-Linear Fuzzy Logic Control for Forced Large Motions of Spinning Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEI, SHULIANG; PALAZZOLO, ALAN; NA, UHNJOO; KASCAK, ALBERT

    2000-08-01

    A unique control approach is developed for prescribed large motion control using magnetic bearings in a proposed active stall control test rig. A finite element based, flexible shaft is modeled in a closed loop system with PD controllers that generate the control signals to support and to shake the rotor shaft. A linearized force model of the stall rig with 16 magnetic poles (4 opposing C-cores) yields stability and frequency responses. The non-linear model retains the non-linearities in Ampere's law, Faraday's law and the Maxwell stress tensor. A fuzzy logic control system is then designed to show the advantages over the conventional controllers with the fully non-linear model.

  9. Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Yang Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.

  10. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 1: Understanding Potential Air Force Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    obtain additional information, contact Distribution Services: Telephone: (310) 451 -7002; Fax: (310) 451 -6915; Email: order@rand.org Library of...raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit ) DoD Department of Defense EIA U.S. Energy Information Administration IEA International

  11. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  12. Evaluation of Sulfide Control by Air-Injection in Sewer Force Mains: Field and Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan T. García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological processes consume dissolved oxygen (DO in urban wastewater during transportation along sewer systems. Anaerobic conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L are easily reached, leading to sulfide (S2− generation. Release of free sulfide, hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S, from the liquid to the gaseous phase, causes odor, corrosion of pipes and supposes a risk for health of people working in sewers. These issues get worse in force mains, due to inability to take oxygen from the gaseous phase of pipe. Air injection is a suggested practice to control H2S emission in force mains. That technique aims to keep aerobic conditions in wastewater in order to avoid sulfide generation and favor a decrease of Biochemical Organic Demand (BOD. However, several force mains with air injection are not achieving their goals due to a limited oxygen transfer. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen in urban wastewater are presented in an existing force main with air injection during the summer of 2014 in the southeast of Spain. A laboratory scale model is constructed to quantify two-phase flow conditions in pipe due to air injection for different incoming flows rates of water and air. Particularly, for the case of plug flow, also known as elongated bubble flow. Velocity field measurement of water phase in laboratory allows estimating turbulent diffusivity of oxygen in the water, Em, and inter-phase mass transfer coefficient KL(T. In the laboratory, flow and air depth, bubble length, water velocity field, pressure inside force main and water and airflow rates are determined experimentally. These variables are used to assess DO in water phase of force main by comparison with those obtained from field measurements. This work allows assessing air injection efficiency in wastewater, and, therefore, to predict DO in wastewater in force mains.

  13. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α md ) and mid-upstroke (α mu ), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ p ) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α md and low α mu produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α md and high α mu is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α md and high α mu is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The present

  14. Kinematic control of aerodynamic forces on an inclined flapping wing with asymmetric strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we conduct an experiment using a one-paired dynamically scaled model of an insect wing, to investigate how asymmetric strokes with different wing kinematic parameters are used to control the aerodynamics of a dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing in still fluid. The kinematic parameters considered are the angles of attack during the mid-downstroke (α(md)) and mid-upstroke (α(mu)), and the duration (Δτ) and time of initiation (τ(p)) of the pitching rotation. The present dragonfly-like inclined flapping wing has the aerodynamic mechanism of unsteady force generation similar to those of other insect wings in a horizontal stroke plane, but the detailed effect of the wing kinematics on the force control is different due to the asymmetric use of the angle of attack during the up- and downstrokes. For example, high α(md) and low α(mu) produces larger vertical force with less aerodynamic power, and low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for horizontal force (thrust) production. The pitching rotation also affects the aerodynamics of a flapping wing, but its dynamic rotational effect is much weaker than the effect from the kinematic change in the angle of attack caused by the pitching rotation. Thus, the influences of the duration and timing of pitching rotation for the present inclined flapping wing are found to be very different from those for a horizontal flapping wing. That is, for the inclined flapping motion, the advanced and delayed rotations produce smaller vertical forces than the symmetric one and the effect of pitching duration is very small. On the other hand, for a specific range of pitching rotation timing, delayed rotation requires less aerodynamic power than the symmetric rotation. As for the horizontal force, delayed rotation with low α(md) and high α(mu) is recommended for long-duration flight owing to its high efficiency, and advanced rotation should be employed for hovering flight for nearly zero horizontal force. The

  15. Visual Feedback of Bilateral Bite Force to Assess Motor Control of the Mandible in Isometric Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Geri, Tommaso; Signori, Alessio; Roatta, Silvestro

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of the individual ability of modulating and coordinating the right and left bite force is poorly investigated. The present study describes a methodology for the assessment of the bilateral control of the biting force and evaluates the test-retest reliability in a sample of 13 healthy subjects. By modulating the intensity and the left/right balance of the biting force, the subject was able to drive a cursor on the screen to "reach and hold" targets, randomly generated within the physiological "range of force" of the subject. The average motor performance was evaluated by the mean cursor-target distance = 13 ± 5%, the Offset Error = 9 ± 5% and the standard deviation of the force vector = 17.7 ± 6.1% (expressed as % of the target). Mean distance and standard deviation indices had acceptable reliability. This technique improves the characterization of the mandibular motor function and it may have a relevant role for the assessment and rehabilitation of the neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting the orofacial system.

  16. Low-force magneto-rheological damper design for small-scale structural control experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin D.; Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Experimental validation of novel structural control algorithms is a vital step in both developing and building acceptance for this technology. Small-scale experimental test-beds fulfill an important role in the validation of multiple-degree-offreedom (MDOF) and distributed semi-active control systems, allowing researchers to test the control algorithms, communication topologies, and timing-critical aspects of structural control systems that do not require full-scale specimens. In addition, small-scale building specimens can be useful in combined structural health monitoring (SHM) and LQG control studies, diminishing safety concerns during experiments by using benchtop-scale rather than largescale specimens. Development of such small-scale test-beds is hampered by difficulties in actuator construction. In order to be a useful analog to full-scale structures, actuators for small-scale test-beds should exhibit similar features and limitations as their full-scale counterparts. In particular, semi-active devices, such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers, with limited authority (versus active mass dampers) and nonlinear behavior are difficult to mimic over small force scales due to issues related to fluid containment and friction. In this study, a novel extraction-type small-force (0- 10 N) MR-fluid damper which exhibits nonlinear hysteresis similar to a full-scale, MR-device is proposed. This actuator is a key development to enable the function of a small-scale structural control test-bed intended for wireless control validation studies. Experimental validation of this prototype is conducted using a 3-story scale structure subjected to simulated single-axis seismic excitation. The actuator affects the structural response commanded by a control computer that executes an LQG state feedback control law and a modified Bouc-Wen lookup table that was previously developed for full-scale MR-applications. In addition, damper dynamic limitations are characterized and

  17. Vibrational spectra of trimethyl gallium species in relation to the force field and methyl group internal rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, D. C.; McQuillan, G. P.; Duncan, J. L.; Shephard, N.; Munro, B.; Fawcett, V.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    Infrared and Raman spectra are reported for Ga(CH 3) 3, Ga(CD 3) 3 and Ga(CHD 2) 3 in the gas phase. These were also examined in the i.r. spectrum in the solid phase at 78 K. The new Raman spectra of the CHD 2 species strongly support earlier i.r. evidence for CH force constant variation during free internal rotation of the methyl groups, from the presence of two bands at 2940 (vs) and 2922 cm -1 (w) identified as due to ν avis and ν †is respectively. The observed a' and e' frequencies of the d0 and d9 species are used to obtain a force field in which three interaction constants are well defined. The best value of the Ga-C stretching force constant is 2.356(28) mdyn Å -1. In the crystal phase at 78 K, the e' modes due to δ s Me and ν as GaC 3 are split, indicating a site group symmetry lower than C3. Gallium and carbon isotope frequency shifts are predicted.

  18. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  19. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  20. Proportional Derivative Active Force Control for “X” Configuration Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niam Tamami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a control method “x” configuration quadcopter. The control method used PDAFC (Proportional Derivative Active Force Control. PD is used to stabilize quadcopter, and AFC is used to reject uncertainty disturbance (e.g. wind by estimate disturbance torque value of quadcopter. By adding PD with AFC, better result is obtained, AFC can minimize uncertainty disturbance effect. The sensitivity toward uncertainty disturbance can be set from sensitivity constant to get best performance of disturbance rejection. Stability analysis of PDAFC was evaluated by Lyapunov stability theory.

  1. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  2. Force control tasks with pure haptic feedback promote short-term focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Gaofeng; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Focused attention has great impact on our quality of life. Our learning, social skills and even happiness are closely intertwined with our capacity for focused attention. Attention promotion is replete with examples of training-induced increases in attention capability, most of which rely on visual and auditory stimulation. Pure haptic stimulation to increase attention capability is rarely found. We show that accurate force control tasks with pure haptic feedback enhance short-term focused attention. Participants were trained by a force control task in which information from visual and auditory channels was blocked, and only haptic feedback was provided. The trainees were asked to exert a target force within a pre-defined force tolerance for a specific duration. The tolerance was adaptively modified to different levels of difficulty to elicit full participant engagement. Three attention tests showed significant changes in different aspects of focused attention in participants who had been trained as compared with those who had not, thereby illustrating the role of haptic-based sensory-motor tasks in the promotion of short-term focused attention. The findings highlight the potential value of haptic stimuli in brain plasticity and serve as a new tool to extend existing computer games for cognitive enhancement.

  3. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  4. Drag-Free Control and Drag Force Recovery of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh N.; Conklin, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Drag-free satellites provide autonomous precision orbit determination, accurately map the static and time varying components of Earth's mass distribution, aid in our understanding of the fundamental force of gravity, and will ultimately open up a new window to our universe through the detection and observation of gravitational waves. At the heart of this technology is a gravitational reference sensor, which (a) contains and shields a free-floating proof mass from all non-gravitational forces, and (b) precisely measures the position of the test mass inside the sensor. Thus, both test mass and spacecraft follow a pure geodesic in spacetime. By tracking the position of a low Earth orbiting drag-free satellite we can directly determine the detailed shape of geodesics and through analysis, the higher order harmonics of the Earths geopotential. This paper explores two different drag-free control systems on small satellites. The first drag-free control system is a continuously compensated single thruster 3-unit CubeSat with a suspension-free spherical proof-mass. A feedback control system commands the thruster and Attitude and Determination Control System to fly the tender spacecraft with respect to the test mass. The spheres position is sensed with a LED-based differential optical shadow sensor, its electric charge controlled by photoemission using UV LEDs, and the spacecraft position is maintained with respect to the sphere using an ion electrospray propulsion system. This configuration is the most fuel-efficient drag-free system possible today. The second drag-free control system is an electro-statically suspended cubical proof-mass that is operated with a low duty cycle, limiting suspension force noise over brief, known time intervals on a small GRACE-II -like satellite. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer, which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of voltage references. This system eliminates the need for a thruster, enabling drag

  5. Superposition of automatic and voluntary aspects of grip force control in humans during object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    When moving grasped objects, people automatically modulate grip force (GF) with movement-dependent load force (LF) in order to prevent object slip. However, GF can also be modulated voluntarily as when squeezing an object. Here we investigated possible interactions between automatic and voluntary GF control. Participants were asked to generate horizontal cyclic movements (between 0.6 and 2.0 Hz) of a hand-held object that was restrained by an elastic band such that the load force (LF) reached a peak once per movement cycle, and to simultaneously squeeze the object at each movement reversal (i.e., twice per cycle). Participants also performed two control tasks in which they either only moved (between 0.6 and 2.0 Hz) or squeezed (between 1.2 and 4.0 Hz) the object. The extent to which GF modulation in the simultaneous task could be predicted from the two control tasks was assessed using power spectral analyses. At all frequencies, the GF power spectra from the simultaneous task exhibited two prominent components that occurred at the cycle frequency (ƒ) and at twice this frequency (2ƒ), whereas the spectra from the movement and squeeze control task exhibited only single peaks at ƒ and 2ƒ, respectively. At lower frequencies, the magnitudes of both frequency components in the simultaneous task were similar to the magnitudes of the corresponding components in the control tasks. However, as frequency increased, the magnitudes of both components in the simultaneous task were greater than the magnitudes of the corresponding control task components. Moreover, the phase relationship between the ƒ components of GF and LF began to drift from the value observed in the movement control task. Overall these results suggest that, at lower movement frequencies, voluntary and automatic GF control processes operate at different hierarchical levels. Several mechanisms are discussed to account for interaction effects observed at higher movement frequencies.

  6. Superposition of automatic and voluntary aspects of grip force control in humans during object manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Danion

    Full Text Available When moving grasped objects, people automatically modulate grip force (GF with movement-dependent load force (LF in order to prevent object slip. However, GF can also be modulated voluntarily as when squeezing an object. Here we investigated possible interactions between automatic and voluntary GF control. Participants were asked to generate horizontal cyclic movements (between 0.6 and 2.0 Hz of a hand-held object that was restrained by an elastic band such that the load force (LF reached a peak once per movement cycle, and to simultaneously squeeze the object at each movement reversal (i.e., twice per cycle. Participants also performed two control tasks in which they either only moved (between 0.6 and 2.0 Hz or squeezed (between 1.2 and 4.0 Hz the object. The extent to which GF modulation in the simultaneous task could be predicted from the two control tasks was assessed using power spectral analyses. At all frequencies, the GF power spectra from the simultaneous task exhibited two prominent components that occurred at the cycle frequency (ƒ and at twice this frequency (2ƒ, whereas the spectra from the movement and squeeze control task exhibited only single peaks at ƒ and 2ƒ, respectively. At lower frequencies, the magnitudes of both frequency components in the simultaneous task were similar to the magnitudes of the corresponding components in the control tasks. However, as frequency increased, the magnitudes of both components in the simultaneous task were greater than the magnitudes of the corresponding control task components. Moreover, the phase relationship between the ƒ components of GF and LF began to drift from the value observed in the movement control task. Overall these results suggest that, at lower movement frequencies, voluntary and automatic GF control processes operate at different hierarchical levels. Several mechanisms are discussed to account for interaction effects observed at higher movement frequencies.

  7. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for keno... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.10 What are the minimum internal control standards for... procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this section, as approved...

  8. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  9. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and....46 Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. Grantee financial... organizations and tribal organizations, where applicable). (e) Internal control. Effective control and...

  10. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for table... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  11. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for... procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this section, as approved...

  12. The role of control in allocating international responsibility in collaborative military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutin, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the responsibility of States and international organizations for violations of international law committed during collaborative military operations. More specifically, it enquires into the role of control for allocating responsibility between States and international

  13. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  14. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  15. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion...... in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. Results In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio...

  16. Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shugen [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-01

    In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  17. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  18. AN INTELLIGENT NEURO-FUZZY TERMINAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Yasser Nikoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy fast terminal sliding mode control method is proposed for controlling a class of nonlinear systems with bounded uncertainties and disturbances. In this method, a nonlinear terminal sliding surface is firstly designed. Then, this sliding surface is considered as input for an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system which is the main controller. A proportinal-integral-derivative controller is also used to asist the neuro-fuzzy controller in order to improve the performance of the system at the begining stage of control operation. In addition, bee algorithm is used in this paper to update the weights of neuro-fuzzy system as well as the parameters of the proportinal-integral-derivative controller. The proposed control scheme is simulated for vibration control in a model of atomic force microscope system and the results are compared with conventional sliding mode controllers. The simulation results show that the chattering effect in the proposed controller is decreased in comparison with the sliding mode and the terminal sliding mode controllers. Also, the method provides the advantages of fast convergence and low model dependency compared to the conventional methods.

  19. Adaptive control of grip force to compensate for static and dynamic torques during object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, F; Giard, T; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2011-12-01

    Manipulating a cup by the handle requires compensating for the torque induced by the moment of the mass of the cup relative to the location of the handle. In the present study, we investigated the control strategy of subjects asked to perform grip-lift movements with an object with center of mass located away from the grip axis. Participants were asked to lift the manipulandum with a two-fingers precision grip and stabilize it in front of a visual target. Subjects showed a gradual and slow adaptation of the grip-force scaling across trials: the grip force tended to decrease slowly, and the temporal coordination between grip-force and load-torque rates displayed gradually, better-coordinated patterns. Importantly, this adaptation was much slower than the stabilization of the same parameters measured either when no torque came into play or after previous adaptation to the presence of a torque. In contrast, the maximum rotation induced by the torque was controlled efficiently after only few trials, and an unexpected decrease in the tangential torque produced significant overcompensation. An unexpected increase in torque produced a consistent opposite effect. This shows that the compensation for the dynamic torque was based on an anticipatory, dynamic counter-torque produced by the arm and wrist motor commands. The comparatively slow stabilization of grip-force control suggests a specific adaptation process engaged by the presence of the torque. This paradigm, including tangential torques, clearly constitutes a powerful tool to extract the adaptive component of grip control during object manipulation.

  20. The democratic civilian control of the Mongolian armed forces: the State Ih Hural

    OpenAIRE

    Mendee, Jargalsaikhan

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes the new civilian control mechanism of the Mongolian Armed Forces, focusing on the State Ih Hural (the Mongolian Parliament) and its defense-related committees, as well as the civilian Defense Minister. It identifies possible challenges to this mechanism. It will demonstrate that the legislative branch of the Mongolian government does not have sufficient defense expertise and information and there is an urgent need to ...

  1. Performance Improvement of Implicit Integral Robot Force Control through Constraint Based Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    2011, pp. 1085–1090. [4] A. D. Prete, N. Mansard , F. Nori, G. Metta, and L. Natale, “Partial force control of constrained floating-base robots,” in...Jan 2014. [6] H. Ferreau, A. Potschka, and C. Kirches, “qpOASES webpage,” http://www.qpOASES.org/, 2007–2015. [7] A. Escande, N. Mansard , and P.-B

  2. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  3. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  4. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  5. Active Nozzle Control and Integrated Design Optimization of a Beam Subject to Fluid-Dynamic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglund, D.

    1999-02-01

    Active nozzle control is used to improve the stability of a beam subject to forces induced by fluid flow through attached pipes. The control system has a significant effect on the structural stability, making both flutter and divergence type of instabilities possible. The stability analysis is carried out using a state-variable approach based on a finite element formulation of the structural dynamics. The simultaneous design of the control system and the beam shape minimizing structural mass is performed using numerical optimization. The inclusion of the control system in the optimization gives a considerable reduction of the structural mass but results in an optimal design which is very sensitive to imperfections. Using a simple model of the control system uncertainties, a more robust design is obtained by solving a modified optimization problem. Throughout the study, the theoretical findings are verified by experiments.

  6. Controller design for a teleoperator system with dissimilar kinematics and force feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a controller for dissimilar kinematic teleoperator systems, which include a force/torque sensor mounted on the slave. Due to improved modern microprocessor computing capability and the trend toward redundant slaves, the next generation of teleoperator systems will likely incorporate dissimilar kinematics in their design; consequently, a need exists for a workable control scheme for these systems. The control scheme presented in this paper incorporates the work and ideas of numerous researchers over the past 40 years. The master controller and the orientation representation using Euler parameters for the both the master and slave will be the main focus of this paper. The implementation of the master controller on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) master is also discussed. Only a brief summary of the overall strategy will be presented. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  7. The national and international regulatory environment in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2015-07-09

    Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.

  8. A high-force controllable MR fluid damper–liquid spring suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Pramod; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating a liquid spring in a semi-active suspension system for use in heavy off-road vehicles. A compact compressible magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper–liquid spring (CMRFD–LS) with high spring rate is designed, developed and tested. Compressible MR fluids with liquid spring and variable damping characteristics are used. These fluids can offer unique functions in reducing the volume/weight of vehicle struts and improving vehicle dynamic stability and safety. The proposed device consists of a cylinder and piston–rod arrangement with an internal annular MR fluid valve. The internal pressures in the chambers on either side of the piston develop the spring force, while the pressure difference across the MR valve produces the damping force, when the fluid flows through the MR valve. Harmonic characterization of the CMRFD–LS is performed and the force–displacement results are presented. A fluid-mechanics based model is also developed to predict the performance of the system at different operating conditions and compared to the experimental results. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical predictions has been achieved. (paper)

  9. Enhancing the control of force in putting by video game training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fery, Y A; Ponserre, S

    2001-10-10

    Even if golf video games provide no proprioceptive afferences on actual putting movement, they may give sufficient substitutive visual cues to enhance force control in this skill. It was hypothesized that this usefulness requires, however, two conditions: the video game must provide reliable demonstrations of actual putts, and the user must want to use the game to make progress in actual putting. Accordingly, a video game was selected on the basis of its fidelity to the real-world game. It allowed two different methods of adjusting the virtual player's putting force in order to hole a putt: an analogue method that consisted of focusing on the virtual player's movement and a symbolic method that consisted of focusing on the movement of a gauge on a scale representing the virtual player's putting force. The participants had to use one of these methods with either the intention of making progress in actual putting or in a second condition to simply enjoy the game. Results showed a positive transfer of video playing to actual putting skill for the learning group and also, to a lesser degree, for the enjoyment group; but only when they used the symbolic method. Results are discussed in the context of how vision may convey force cues in sports video games.

  10. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasse, Maxime; Brazier, Jean-Philippe; Léon, Olivier; Casalis, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m 1 , n 1 ), (m 2 , n 2 ), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m 1 − m 2 , n 1 − n 2 ). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes

  11. Parabolized Stability Equations analysis of nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes to control subsonic jet instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itasse, Maxime, E-mail: Maxime.Itasse@onera.fr; Brazier, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Brazier@onera.fr; Léon, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.Leon@onera.fr; Casalis, Grégoire, E-mail: Gregoire.Casalis@onera.fr [Onera - The French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-15

    Nonlinear evolution of disturbances in an axisymmetric, high subsonic, high Reynolds number hot jet with forced eigenmodes is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) approach to understand how modes interact with one another. Both frequency and azimuthal harmonic interactions are analyzed by setting up one or two modes at higher initial amplitudes and various phases. While single mode excitation leads to harmonic growth and jet noise amplification, controlling the evolution of a specific mode has been made possible by forcing two modes (m{sub 1}, n{sub 1}), (m{sub 2}, n{sub 2}), such that the difference in azimuth and in frequency matches the desired “target” mode (m{sub 1} − m{sub 2}, n{sub 1} − n{sub 2}). A careful setup of the initial amplitudes and phases of the forced modes, defined as the “killer” modes, has allowed the minimizing of the initially dominant instability in the near pressure field, as well as its estimated radiated noise with a 15 dB loss. Although an increase of the overall sound pressure has been found in the range of azimuth and frequency analyzed, the present paper reveals the possibility to make the initially dominant instability ineffective acoustically using nonlinear interactions with forced eigenmodes.

  12. A moving control volume method for smooth computation of hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.

    2017-11-01

    Fictitious domain methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) have been gaining popularity in the past few decades because of their robustness in handling arbitrarily moving bodies. Often the transient net hydrodynamic forces and torques on the body are desired quantities for these types of simulations. In past studies using immersed boundary (IB) methods, force measurements are contaminated with spurious oscillations due to evaluation of possibly discontinuous spatial velocity of pressure gradients within or on the surface of the body. Based on an application of the Reynolds transport theorem, we present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing the net forces and torques on a moving body immersed in a fluid. The approach is shown to be accurate for a wide array of FSI problems, including flow past stationary and moving objects, Stokes flow, and high Reynolds number free-swimming. The approach only requires far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information, thereby suppressing spurious force oscillations and eliminating the need for any filtering. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and is straightforward to implement within an existing parallel FSI simulation software. This work is supported by NSF (Award Numbers SI2-SSI-1450374, SI2-SSI-1450327, and DGE-1324585), the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR (Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NIH (Award Number HL117163).

  13. Position-force control of mobile manipulator – nonadaptive and adaptive case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Mirela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a control algorithm for nonholonomic mobile manipulators with a simple, geometric holonomic constraint imposed on the robot’s arm. A mathematical model in generalized, auxiliary and linearized coordinates is presented, as well as the constrained dynamics of the robotic system. A position-force control law is proposed, both for the fully known robot’s model, as well as for the model with parametric uncertainty in the dynamics. Theoretical considerations are supported by the results of computer simulations.

  14. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission... to implement tribal internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to... superseded specified sections [[Page 55270

  15. Latex beads internalization and quantitative proteomics join forces to decipher the endosomal proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães de Araújo, Mariana Eça; Huber, Lukas Alfons; Stasyk, Taras

    2011-06-01

    The proteome analysis of endocytic compartments has been constrained by the limited purity of the organelle fractions obtained by current biochemical methods. Duclos and coworkers have developed a novel method to isolate highly purified endosomal organelles based on small latex beads internalization followed by gradient centrifugation and successfully combined it with a redundant peptide counting method to compare the relative abundance of proteins in organelles. The presence of bona fide markers in their respective subcellular organelles and the identification of several new endosomal-associated proteins, attested the applicability of their combinatory approach. Future applications of this strategy may deliver a comprehensive endosomal proteome chart: from the identification of the key players to the determination of time and signaling-dependent proteome changes. As a long-term perspective, such an approach may unveil new clues to the molecular mechanisms underlining human diseases associated with endosomal biogenesis defects.

  16. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during...... the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...

  17. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Brian T; Stevens, Karla A; Clymer, Jeffrey W

    2016-09-09

    Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7-40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  18. Forced-Air Warming Provides Better Control of Body Temperature in Porcine Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Dent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining normothermia during porcine surgery is critical in ensuring subject welfare and recovery, reducing the risk of immune system compromise and surgical-site infection that can result from hypothermia. In humans, various methods of patient heating have been demonstrated to be useful, but less evaluation has been performed in techniques to prevent hypothermia perioperatively in pigs. Methods: We compared body temperature regulation during surgery before and after modification of the ambient temperature of the operating laboratories. Three different methods of heating were then compared; a standard circulating water mattress, a resistive fabric blanket, and a forced hot air system. The primary measure was percentage of temperature readings outside a specification range of 36.7–40.0 °C. Results: Tighter control of the ambient temperature while using a circulating water mattress reduced the occurrence of out-of-specification body temperature readings from 20.8% to 5.0%, with most of these the result of hypothermia. Use of a resistive fabric blanket further reduced out-of-specification readings to 1.5%, with a slight increase in the occurrence of hyperthermia. Use of a forced air system reduced out-of-specification readings to less 0.1%. Conclusions: Maintenance of normothermia perioperatively in pig can be improved by tightly controlling ambient temperatures. Use of a resistive blanket or a forced air system can lead to better control than a circulating water mattress, with the forced air system providing a faster response to temperature variations and less chance of hyperthermia.

  19. The validity of a portable clinical force plate in assessment of static postural control: concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golriz, Samira; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Foreman, K Bo; Walker, Bruce F

    2012-05-23

    The broad use of force plates in clinical settings for postural control assessment suggests the need for instruments that are easy to use, affordable and readily available. In addition, these instruments of measurement should be reliable and valid as adequate reliability and validity are prerequisites to making correct inferences. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of postural control measures obtained with a clinical force plate. Thirty-one healthy adults were recruited. Participants completed 1 set of 5 trials on each force plate. Postural control measures (centre of pressure [COP] average velocity and sway area) were collected and compared using the Midot Posture Scale Analyzer (clinical force plate) and the Accugait force plate (criterion measure). Intra class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement , and paired t-tests were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were constructed to compare the force plates and assess consistency of measurement and agreement between them. The ICC values (ICC = 0.14-0.60) between the two force plates were lower than the acceptable value for both COP average velocity and sway area. There was significant difference (p > 0.05) in COP average velocity and sway area between the force plates. Examination of the plots revealed that there is less difference between the force plates in lower magnitudes of COP for average velocity and sway area however, the greater the average velocity and sway area, the greater the difference between the measures obtained from the two force plates. Findings of this study showed poor concurrent validity of the clinical force plate. This clinical force plate cannot be a replacement for known reliable and valid force plates and consequently measures obtained from this force plate should be treated with caution especially in a clinical population.

  20. International confederation for cleft lip and palate and related craniofacial anomalies task force report: beyond eurocleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Gunvor

    2014-11-01

    The assigned objective for the Task Force Beyond Eurocleft was "to make recommendations for initiations of local and/or participation in multi-national cleft outcome studies and consist of individuals from the European experience with cleft outcome studies (Scandcleft, Eurocleft) and those who have initiated, or intend to initiate, similar studies in other geographical areas." By May 2013 the Task Force (TF) consisted of 183 members from 59 countries. It was agreed that this initiative should be truly global and include all cleft specialties as well as representatives from cleft support groups in recognition of the huge commitment for improving cleft care worldwide. The vision for this group is to build a dynamic, well-functioning TF that will work globally and be multidisciplinary with inclusive and respectful behavior to improve care for all individuals born with cleft lip and/or palate. As there is a large diversity in needs and interest in the group a range of parallel approaches would be required depending on the experience, resources, and challenges of regions, teams, and individuals. Important ideas for future work were: (1) Work on a global survey of access, existing outcome studies, current collaborations, and lessons learned. (2) Work towards the creation of a lasting, living resource for newcomers to intercenter collaboration that is kept fresh with new reports, copies of relevant publications, model grant applications, and a list of volunteers with the right experience to provide support and guidance for new initiatives. (3) Develop simple online training modules to provide information about the benefits and principles of multidisciplinary care, collaborative data collection and auditing short and longer-term outcomes. (4) Establish subgroups that will work within all regions of the world with regional and national leaders identified. An evaluation of current standards of care should be undertaken and country/region specific remedies to optimize

  1. The United States International Maritime Industry: Challenges to Sustaining the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    under which the State does not effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in adminstrative, tech- nical and social matters over a ship flying its...Administration. Merca E _t _ h orld: ~n ta an Motor Shigs gf O0 Gross Tons Q _g~ er as _of__Januar _. _19 . Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1985

  2. Force to Rebalance Control of HRG and Suppression of Its Errors on the Basis of FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingan Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of force to rebalance control for a hemispherical resonator gyro (HRG based on FPGA is demonstrated in this paper. The proposed design takes advantage of the automatic gain control loop and phase lock loop configuration in the drive mode while making full use of the quadrature control loop and rebalance control loop in controlling the oscillating dynamics in the sense mode. First, the math model of HRG with inhomogeneous damping and frequency split is theoretically analyzed. In addition, the major drift mechanisms in the HRG are described and the methods that can suppress the gyro drift are mentioned. Based on the math model and drift mechanisms suppression method, four control loops are employed to realize the manipulation of the HRG by using a FPGA circuit. The reference-phase loop and amplitude control loop are used to maintain the vibration of primary mode at its natural frequency with constant amplitude. The frequency split is readily eliminated by the quadrature loop with a DC voltage feedback from the quadrature component of the node. The secondary mode response to the angle rate input is nullified by the rebalance control loop. In order to validate the effect of the digital control of HRG, experiments are carried out with a turntable. The experimental results show that the design is suitable for the control of HRG which has good linearity scale factor and bias stability.

  3. Force to rebalance control of HRG and suppression of its errors on the basis of FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Wenqi; Luo, Bing; Fang, Zhen; Li, Yun; Jiang, Qingan

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of force to rebalance control for a hemispherical resonator gyro (HRG) based on FPGA is demonstrated in this paper. The proposed design takes advantage of the automatic gain control loop and phase lock loop configuration in the drive mode while making full use of the quadrature control loop and rebalance control loop in controlling the oscillating dynamics in the sense mode. First, the math model of HRG with inhomogeneous damping and frequency split is theoretically analyzed. In addition, the major drift mechanisms in the HRG are described and the methods that can suppress the gyro drift are mentioned. Based on the math model and drift mechanisms suppression method, four control loops are employed to realize the manipulation of the HRG by using a FPGA circuit. The reference-phase loop and amplitude control loop are used to maintain the vibration of primary mode at its natural frequency with constant amplitude. The frequency split is readily eliminated by the quadrature loop with a DC voltage feedback from the quadrature component of the node. The secondary mode response to the angle rate input is nullified by the rebalance control loop. In order to validate the effect of the digital control of HRG, experiments are carried out with a turntable. The experimental results show that the design is suitable for the control of HRG which has good linearity scale factor and bias stability.

  4. Visual feedback alters force control and functional activity in the visuomotor network after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek B. Archer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulating visual feedback may be a viable option to improve motor function after stroke, but the neurophysiological basis for this improvement is not clear. Visual gain can be manipulated by increasing or decreasing the spatial amplitude of an error signal. Here, we combined a unilateral visually guided grip force task with functional MRI to understand how changes in the gain of visual feedback alter brain activity in the chronic phase after stroke. Analyses focused on brain activation when force was produced by the most impaired hand of the stroke group as compared to the non-dominant hand of the control group. Our experiment produced three novel results. First, gain-related improvements in force control were associated with an increase in activity in many regions within the visuomotor network in both the stroke and control groups. These regions include the extrastriate visual cortex, inferior parietal lobule, ventral premotor cortex, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area. Second, the stroke group showed gain-related increases in activity in additional regions of lobules VI and VIIb of the ipsilateral cerebellum. Third, relative to the control group, the stroke group showed increased activity in the ipsilateral primary motor cortex, and activity in this region did not vary as a function of visual feedback gain. The visuomotor network, cerebellum, and ipsilateral primary motor cortex have each been targeted in rehabilitation interventions after stroke. Our observations provide new insight into the role these regions play in processing visual gain during a precisely controlled visuomotor task in the chronic phase after stroke.

  5. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future.

  6. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  7. Seismic control performance for Pounding Tuned Massed Damper based on viscoelastic pounding force analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qichao; Zhang, Jingcai; He, Jian; Zhang, Chunwei; Zou, Guangping

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on vibration control performance of Pounding Tuned Massed Damper (PTMD) with viscoelastic pounding layers, which can dissipate energy during collision process. By using of viscoelastic pounding force analytical method, two types of pounding force models for different contact geometries are developed to illustrate interactions among pounding components in PTMD. A shake table test based on a simplified experimental structure is conducted to verify the effectiveness of single PTMD as well as the viscoelastic pounding force model. Furthermore, a parametric study for a 14-storeys steel structure is presented to investigate the performance of PTMD device in multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) system. Results from numerical simulations demonstrated that properties of viscoelastic material and gaps between mass block and the limiters in PTMD are key factors for vibration control performance. By inputting a series of seismic excitations into MDOF system, comparisons between PTMD and traditional TMD reveals that the optimized PTMD has better performance than the traditional TMD in vibration suppression in certain cases.

  8. International standards and quality control procedures applied to nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.

    2008-01-01

    The survey of international standards related to Nuclear Instrumentation and QC tests was presented. From among the 29'336 active international standards published by such organizations as ISO, IEC, CEN and CENELEC, only 582 are devoted to nuclear instruments. The international classification of standards (ICS) is shown. Also, the list of 582 international standards related to nuclear instruments is attached. (author)

  9. Low-noise humidity controller for imaging water mediated processes in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponenko, I.; Gamperle, L.; Herberg, K.; Muller, S. C.; Paruch, P.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the construction of a novel low-noise continuous flow humidity controller and its integration with a commercial variable-temperature atomic force microscope fluid cell, allowing precise control of humidity and temperature at the sample during nanoscale measurements. Based on wet and dry gas mixing, the design allows a high mechanical stability to be achieved by means of an ultrasonic atomiser for the generation of water-saturated gas, improving upon previous bubbler-based architectures. Water content in the flow is measured both at the inflow and outflow of the fluid cell, enabling the monitoring of water condensation and icing, and allowing controlled variation of the sample temperature independently of the humidity. To benchmark the performance of the controller, the results of detailed noise studies and time-based imaging of the formation of ice layers on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite are shown.

  10. Low-noise humidity controller for imaging water mediated processes in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, I.; Gamperle, L.; Herberg, K.; Muller, S. C.; Paruch, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the construction of a novel low-noise continuous flow humidity controller and its integration with a commercial variable-temperature atomic force microscope fluid cell, allowing precise control of humidity and temperature at the sample during nanoscale measurements. Based on wet and dry gas mixing, the design allows a high mechanical stability to be achieved by means of an ultrasonic atomiser for the generation of water-saturated gas, improving upon previous bubbler-based architectures. Water content in the flow is measured both at the inflow and outflow of the fluid cell, enabling the monitoring of water condensation and icing, and allowing controlled variation of the sample temperature independently of the humidity. To benchmark the performance of the controller, the results of detailed noise studies and time-based imaging of the formation of ice layers on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite are shown.

  11. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  12. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B... B to Part 327—Internal Management Control Review Checklist (a) Task: Personnel and/or Organization... See footnote 2 to this Appendix B. (1) I attest that the above listed internal controls provide...

  14. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' under... Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect major...

  15. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each...

  16. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION... superseded specified sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, that was published in the Federal...

  17. Dimensional control and check of field machining parts for reactor internals installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caifang

    2010-01-01

    Some key issues of dimensional control for reactor internals installation are analyzed, and important technical requirements of crucial quality control elements on the measurement, machining, and checking of reactor internals filed machining parts are discussed. Moreover, provisions on quality control and risk prevention of reactor internals filed machining parts are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Dols, Annemiek; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Forester, Brent P; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Beyer, John; Manes, Facundo; Rej, Soham; Rosa, Adriane R; Schouws, Sigfried NTM; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Young, Robert C; Shulman, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). Methods This task force report addresses the unique aspects of OABD including epidemiology and clinical features, neuropathology and biomarkers, physical health, cognition, and care approaches. Results The report describes an expert consensus summary on OABD that is intended to advance the care of patients, and shed light on issues of relevance to BD research across the lifespan. Although there is still a dearth of research and health efforts focused on older adults with BD, emerging data has brought some answers, innovative questions, and novel perspectives related to the notion of late onset, medical comorbidity, and the vexing issue of cognitive impairment and decline. Conclusions Improving our understanding of the biological, clinical, and social underpinnings relevant to OABD is an indispensable step in building a complete map of BD across the lifespan. PMID:26384588

  19. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Dols, Annemiek; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Forester, Brent P; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Beyer, John; Manes, Facundo; Rej, Soham; Rosa, Adriane R; Schouws, Sigfried Ntm; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Young, Robert C; Shulman, Kenneth I

    2015-11-01

    In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). This task force report addresses the unique aspects of OABD including epidemiology and clinical features, neuropathology and biomarkers, physical health, cognition, and care approaches. The report describes an expert consensus summary on OABD that is intended to advance the care of patients, and shed light on issues of relevance to BD research across the lifespan. Although there is still a dearth of research and health efforts focused on older adults with BD, emerging data have brought some answers, innovative questions, and novel perspectives related to the notion of late onset, medical comorbidity, and the vexing issue of cognitive impairment and decline. Improving our understanding of the biological, clinical, and social underpinnings relevant to OABD is an indispensable step in building a complete map of BD across the lifespan. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Internally Displaced “Victims of Armed Conflict” in Colombia: The Trajectory and Trauma Signature of Forced Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Garfin, Dana Rose; Espinel, Zelde; Araya, Ricardo; Oquendo, Maria A.; Wainberg, Milton L.; Chaskel, Roberto; Gaviria, Silvia L.; Ordóñez, Anna E.; Espinola, Maria; Wilson, Fiona E.; García, Natalia Muñoz; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; Verdeli, Helen; Neria, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    While conflict-induced forced migration is a global phenomenon, the situation in Colombia, South America, is distinctive. Colombia has ranked either first or second in the number of internally displaced persons for 10 years, a consequence of decades of armed conflict compounded by high prevalence of drug trafficking. The displacement trajectory for displaced persons in Colombia proceeds through a sequence of stages: (1) pre-expulsion threats and vulnerability, (2) expulsion, (3) migration, (4) initial adaptation to relocation, (5) protracted resettlement (the end point for most forced migrants), and, rarely, (6) return to the community of origin. Trauma signature analysis, an evidence-based method that elucidates the physical and psychological consequences associated with exposures to harm and loss during disasters and complex emergencies, was used to identify the psychological risk factors and potentially traumatic events experienced by conflict-displaced persons in Colombia, stratified across the phases of displacement. Trauma and loss are experienced differentially throughout the pathway of displacement. PMID:25135775

  1. Foreign Internal Defense. Does Air Force Special Operations Have What it Takes?,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    to express sincere appreciation to my editor, Ms Marion Gorrie, who worked tirelessly to improve my grammar while leaving original ideas e\\an more...Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia, and the Philippines Paracel Islands Controlled by China; claimed by Vietnam Irian Jaya Indonesian secessionist movement East...Timor Ethnic unrest; Indonesian secessionist movement 79 Appendix B Runway Suitability The following measurements are extracted from the Defense Mapping

  2. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target: 2014 update of the recommendations of an international task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R; Bykerk, Vivian; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Kvien, Tore K; Navarro-Compán, M Victoria; Oliver, Susan; Schoels, Monika; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Stamm, Tanja; Stoffer, Michaela; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Aletaha, Daniel; Andreu, Jose Louis; Aringer, Martin; Bergman, Martin; Betteridge, Neil; Bijlsma, Hans; Burkhardt, Harald; Combe, Bernard; Durez, Patrick; Fonseca, Joao Eurico; Gibofsky, Alan; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Graninger, Winfried; Hannonen, Pekka; Haraoui, Boulos; Kouloumas, Marios; Landewe, Robert; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Nash, Peter; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Östör, Andrew; Richards, Pam; Sokka-Isler, Tuulikki; Thorne, Carter; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; de Wit, Martinus

    2016-01-01

    Background Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards this therapeutic goal in routine clinical practice, but these recommendations need to be re-evaluated for appropriateness and practicability in the light of new insights. Objective To update the 2010 treat-to-target recommendations based on systematic literature reviews (SLR) and expert opinion. Methods A task force of rheumatologists, patients and a nurse specialist assessed the SLR results and evaluated the individual items of the 2010 recommendations accordingly, reformulating many of the items. These were subsequently discussed, amended and voted upon by >40 experts, including 5 patients, from various regions of the world. Levels of evidence, strengths of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Results The update resulted in 4 overarching principles and 10 recommendations. The previous recommendations were partly adapted and their order changed as deemed appropriate in terms of importance in the view of the experts. The SLR had now provided also data for the effectiveness of targeting low-disease activity or remission in established rather than only early disease. The role of comorbidities, including their potential to preclude treatment intensification, was highlighted more strongly than before. The treatment aim was again defined as remission with low-disease activity being an alternative goal especially in patients with long-standing disease. Regular follow-up (every 1–3 months during active disease) with according therapeutic adaptations to reach the desired state was recommended. Follow-up examinations ought to employ composite measures of disease activity that include joint counts. Additional items provide further details for particular aspects of the

  3. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  4. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  5. Standard practice for conducting force controlled constant amplitude axial fatigue tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedure for the performance of axial force controlled fatigue tests to obtain the fatigue strength of metallic materials in the fatigue regime where the strains are predominately elastic, both upon initial loading and throughout the test. This practice is limited to the fatigue testing of axial unnotched and notched specimens subjected to a constant amplitude, periodic forcing function in air at room temperature. This practice is not intended for application in axial fatigue tests of components or parts. Note 1-The following documents, although not directly referenced in the text, are considered important enough to be listed in this practice: E 739 Practice for Statistical Analysis of Linear or Linearized Stress-Life (S-N) and Strain-Life (-N) Fatigue Data STP 566 Handbook of Fatigue Testing STP 588 Manual on Statistical Planning and Analysis for Fatigue Experiments STP 731 Tables for Estimating Median Fatigue Limits

  6. A new orthodontic force system for moment control utilizing the flexibility of common wires: Evaluation of the effect of contractile force and hook length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Lai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The system acted similar to an off-center V-bend and can be applied in clinical practice as an unconventional loop design. We suggest that this force system has the potential for second-order moment control in clinical applications.

  7. Humans can integrate force feedback to toes in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Alessandro; Edin, Benoni B; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Carrozza, Maria C; Johansson, Roland S

    2009-12-01

    Tactile sensory feedback is essential for dexterous object manipulation. Users of hand myoelectric prostheses without tactile feedback must depend essentially on vision to control their device. Indeed, improved tactile feedback is one of their main priorities. Previous research has provided evidence that conveying tactile feedback can improve prostheses control, although additional effort is required to solve problems related to pattern recognition learning, unpleasant sensations, sensory adaptation, and low spatiotemporal resolution. Still, these studies have mainly focused on providing stimulation to hairy skin regions close to the amputation site, i.e., usually to the upper arm. Here, we explored the possibility to provide tactile feedback to the glabrous skin of toes, which have mechanical and neurophysiological properties similar to the fingertips. We explored this paradigm in a grasp-and-lift task, in which healthy participants controlled two opposing digits of a robotic hand by changing the spacing of their index finger and thumb. The normal forces applied by the robotic fingertips to a test object were fed back to the right big and second toe. We show that within a few lifting trials, all the participants incorporated the force feedback received by the foot in their sensorimotor control of the robotic hand.

  8. Visualized Multiprobe Electrical Impedance Measurements with STM Tips Using Shear Force Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Botaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we devise a multiprobe electrical measurement system based on quartz tuning forks (QTFs and metallic tips capable of having full 3D control over the position of the probes. The system is based on the use of bent tungsten tips that are placed in mechanical contact (glue-free solution with a QTF sensor. Shear forces acting in the probe are measured to control the tip-sample distance in the Z direction. Moreover, the tilting of the tip allows the visualization of the experiment under the optical microscope, allowing the coordination of the probes in X and Y directions. Meanwhile, the metallic tips are connected to a current–voltage amplifier circuit to measure the currents and thus the impedance of the studied samples. We discuss here the different aspects that must be addressed when conducting these multiprobe experiments, such as the amplitude of oscillation, shear force distance control, and wire tilting. Different results obtained in the measurement of calibration samples and microparticles are presented. They demonstrate the feasibility of the system to measure the impedance of the samples with a full 3D control on the position of the nanotips.

  9. Impact Force Suppression for Redundant Legged Biped Robot Based on Unified Decoupling Control Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaaki; Tasaki, Go; Natori, Takeshi

    A swinging leg of a biped robot landing, impact force usually occurs between the sole and the ground, and then it causes instability of the gait. The paper describes the advantages of adopting redundant legs to the robot in order to conquer the difficulty, and proposes a novel way of the motion control for the redundant legged biped robot. In general, each leg of a conventional biped robot consists of 3 joints, namely, hip, knee and ankle in the sagittal plane. On the other hand, the proposed robot has been added extra joints, and thereby has redundancy in terms of degrees-of-freedom. Since the redundant leg can select its arbitrary posture, regardless of the tip position, the structure enables to move the position of the center of mass (COM) of the leg independently. The impact force is suppressed by controlling the COM acceleration of the landing leg. In order to achieve the decoupled motions between the tip and the COM, the unified decoupling controller is introduced. The controller includes three types of the disturbance observers together, and both desired motions are realized consequently. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed in physical experimental results.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Internal Corporate Controls in Coal Mines Illustrated By the Example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives reasons for the need to develop the mechanism and tools of performance evaluation based on the implementation of specific management functions, as well as the integrated evaluation of the effectiveness of internal corporate controls. It presents the approbation of the proposed assessment methodology on the example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”. The monitoring role as one of the functions of management is constantly increasing in the market economy. The participation of Russian companies in the international economy requires the organisation of internal company control. Moreover, with the enacting of the Law “On Accountings» № 402-FZ, for the majority of economic agents the organising of internal control became mandatory. Thus, the internal control means the process carried out by the Board of Directors and other staff of the organisation aimed at providing reasonable assurance that the objectives of the organisation such as ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting and compliance with the legislation in force will be achieved.

  11. Mammographic compression after breast conserving therapy: Controlling pressure instead of force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, J. E. de; Branderhorst, W.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Heeten, G. J. den

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray mammography is the primary tool for early detection of breast cancer and for follow-up after breast conserving therapy (BCT). BCT-treated breasts are smaller, less elastic, and more sensitive to pain. Instead of the current force-controlled approach of applying the same force to each breast, pressure-controlled protocols aim to improve standardization in terms of physiology by taking breast contact area and inelasticity into account. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential for pressure protocols to reduce discomfort and pain, particularly the number of severe pain complaints for BCT-treated breasts. Methods: A prospective observational study including 58 women having one BCT-treated breast and one untreated nonsymptomatic breast, following our hospital's 18 decanewton (daN) compression protocol was performed. Breast thickness, applied force, contact area, mean pressure, breast volume, and inelasticity (mean E-modulus) were statistically compared between the within-women breast pairs, and data were used as predictors for severe pain, i.e., scores 7 and higher on an 11-point Numerical Rating Scale. Curve-fitting models were used to estimate how pressure-controlled protocols affect breast thickness, compression force, and pain experience. Results: BCT-treated breasts had on average 27% smaller contact areas, 30% lower elasticity, and 30% higher pain scores than untreated breasts (allp 2 decrease in contact area, as well as increased pain sensitivity, BCT-breasts had on average 5.3 times higher odds for severe pain than untreated breasts. Model estimations for a pressure-controlled protocol with a 10 kPa target pressure, which is below normal arterial pressure, suggest an average 26% (range 10%–36%) reduction in pain score, and an average 77% (range 46%–95%) reduction of the odds for severe pain. The estimated increase in thickness is +6.4% for BCT breasts. Conclusions: After BCT, women have hardly any choice in avoiding an annual

  12. Internal and External Learning Races in ‘Born Transnationals’: What are the Driving Forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg FREILING

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an under-researched type of ‘born transnationals’ as  young  transnational  companies.  ‘Born  transnationals’  are  equipped  with  specific governance structures that may accelerate the internationalization process based on organizational learning. In this vein, the research question of the paper is: What are the core drivers of organizational learning in case of ‘born transnationals’? Based on a model of organizational learning, we present and  check  a  model-based  set  of  structured  research  propositions  of  the  learning process  of  ‘born  transnationals’.  The  propositions  undergo  a  first  reality  check  by developing two case studies based on semi-structured interviews. Empirical  evidence  challenges  the  role  of  some  factors  (e.g.  the role  of international  experience  and  proactivity  of  entrepreneurs  well-elaborated  in literature  and  examines  whether  others  (e.g.  transactive  knowledge  play  a  pivotal role. Against this background, some of the proposed causalities were to be modified and specified. The  findings  suggest  that  organizational  learning in born transnationals requires social capital and a particular type of learning culture. Moreover, entrepreneurs are well advised to foster the transfer of knowledge among the people in the company as far as possible to turn the 'wheel of knowledge'. The  paper  portrays  a  new  type  of  born  globals, introduces  a  new  model  and  develops  first  causal  structures  in  this  context.  It identifies  and  specifies  drivers  of  learning  processes  of  the  ‘born  transnationals’ archetype.

  13. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning

    2018-03-12

    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  14. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G

    2004-01-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The ρ T * (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength

  15. Preschool Executive Control and Internalizing Symptoms in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Tomaso, Cara C; Hankey, Maren; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2018-01-08

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent and impairing forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Deficits in early executive control (EC) may contribute to the development of these problems, but longitudinal studies with rigorous measurement across key developmental periods are limited. The current study examines EC in preschool as a predictor of subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school in a community sample (N = 280). Child participants completed a battery of nine developmentally-appropriate tasks designed to measure major aspects of EC at age 5 years, 3 months. Children later participated in an elementary school follow-up phase, during which they completed validated norm-referenced self-report questionnaires of depression and anxiety symptoms in fourth grade. Results indicate that poorer preschool EC was significantly associated with both greater depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school, controlling for baseline depression and anxiety symptoms in preschool and other relevant variables. These findings suggest that poor EC may be an important risk factor for the development of internalizing psychopathology in childhood. Given emerging evidence for the modifiability of EC, particularly in preschool, EC promotion interventions may hold promise as a potential target in psychopathology prevention.

  16. A simulation study on the intelligent active force control of a robot arm using neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa Mailah

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the use of neural network as an intelligent parameter estimator in conjunction with an active force control strategy to control a rigid robot arm. The estimated inertia matrix of the arm is computed automatically and continuously via neural network mechanism. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through a simulation study performed on a two link planar manipulator operating in a horizontal plane. The robustness of the proposed scheme is further investigated considering the trajectory tracking performance of the manipulator subject to various loading conditions and disturbances. Two types of neural network architectures - the error back propagation and radial basis function networks are individually experimented and applied in the study. (author)

  17. A Compliant Control Method Based on Force Sensors on Robot End-effectors for Live-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanbing GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a force control method for the live-working robot. Some live- working task requires larger stiffness such as pushing and butting when replacing cross arm or insulator. Two arms are attached on the live-working robot to meet this requirement and other need for cooperation by two arms. The different kinematic structure of this two arms brings many difficulties to get the dynamic model of the total system. This problem is solved by the proposed control scheme, the main idea of which is two arms could be considered as one arm. The force control method for the exact force control is based on the compliant relationship of the dual arms and the environment. The developed control scheme is experimentally tested on the live-working robot, and the experimental investigation concerns it has short computation time and can successfully tracking force.

  18. Trajectory Tracking of a Planer Parallel Manipulator by Using Computed Force Control Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Atilla

    2017-03-01

    Despite small workspace, parallel manipulators have some advantages over their serial counterparts in terms of higher speed, acceleration, rigidity, accuracy, manufacturing cost and payload. Accordingly, this type of manipulators can be used in many applications such as in high-speed machine tools, tuning machine for feeding, sensitive cutting, assembly and packaging. This paper presents a special type of planar parallel manipulator with three degrees of freedom. It is constructed as a variable geometry truss generally known planar Stewart platform. The reachable and orientation workspaces are obtained for this manipulator. The inverse kinematic analysis is solved for the trajectory tracking according to the redundancy and joint limit avoidance. Then, the dynamics model of the manipulator is established by using Virtual Work method. The simulations are performed to follow the given planar trajectories by using the dynamic equations of the variable geometry truss manipulator and computed force control method. In computed force control method, the feedback gain matrices for PD control are tuned with fixed matrices by trail end error and variable ones by means of optimization with genetic algorithm.

  19. Workspace Limiting Strategy for 6 DOF Force Controlled PKMs Manipulating High Inertia Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Mura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an efficient and effective strategy for limiting the workspace of a six degrees of freedom parallel manipulator, with challenging motion smoothness requirements due to both the high inertia objects carried by the end effector and the pose references coming from a force feedback loop. Firstly, a suitable formulation of the workspace is studied, distinguishing between different conventions and procedures. Thereafter a discrete and analytical formulation of the workspace is obtained and developed in order to suit this application. Having obtained the limits, a methodology to evaluate the robot pose is discussed, taking into account the reference pose buffering technique and the real time pose estimation through the numeric solution of the nonlinear forward kinematics equations. The safety algorithm designed checks the actual robot pose and future poses to be commanded, and takes control of the reference pose generation process, if an exit of the safety workspace is detected. The result obtained is a soft compliant surface within which the robot is free to move, but outside of which a “force field” pushes the robot end-effector to return smoothly. To reach this objective, the control deflects the end effector trajectory safely and smoothly and moves it back to within the workspace limits. Nevertheless, this preserves the continuity of the velocity and controls the acceleration, to avoid dangerous vibrations and shocks. Simulation and experimental result tests are conducted to verify the algorithm effectiveness and the efficient implementation.

  20. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases* International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G; Buono, P; Daniele, A; Della Valle, E; Farinaro, E; Ferns, G; Krogh, V; Kromhout, D; Masana, L; Merino, J; Misciagna, G; Panico, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Rozza, F; Salvatore, F; Salvatore, V; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Trimarco, B; Vetrani, C

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet-health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional dietadopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health.