WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal flood analyses

  1. Internal flooding analyses results of Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopira, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of the flood risk was the objective of the internal flooding analysis for NPPs Bohunice V1, V2 and Mochovce. All important flooding sources were identified. The rooms containing safety important components were analyzed from the point of view of: Integrity of flood boundaries; Capability for drainage; Flood signalisation; Flood localization and liquidation; Vulnerability of safety system component. The redundancies of safety systems are located mostly separately and no flood can endanger more than single train. It can be concluded that NPPs with WWER-440 are very safe against the flooding initiating event

  2. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, F.; Benitez Fonzalez, F.

    1994-01-01

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  3. Results and insights of internal fire and internal flood analyses of the Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states (POSs) other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies (CDFs), important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a Level 3 PRA for internal events and a Level 1 PRA for seismically induced and internal fire and flood induced core damage sequences. This paper summarizes the results and highlights of the internal fire and flood analysis documented in Volumes 3 and 4 of NUREG/CR-6144 performed for the Surry plant during mid-loop operation

  4. Evaluation of internal flooding in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Sun, Y.H.; Anavim, E.; Ilberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    Flooding inside a nuclear power station is capable of concurrently disabling redundant safety systems. This paper presents the results of a recent review study performed on internally-generated floods inside a boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor building. The study evaluated the flood initiator frequency due to either maintenance or ruptures using Markovian models. A time phased event tree approach was adopted to quantify the core damage frequency based on the flood initiator frequency. It is found in the study that the contribution to the total core damage due to internal flooding events is not insignificant and is comparable to other transient contributors. The findings also indicate that the operator plays an important role in the prevention as well as the mitigation of a flooding event

  5. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...... theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works.......Presented with conflicting evidence and interpretations, how do we ever come to valid conclusions about complex questions of continuity and change in global politics? In any analytical task you need to consider a number of things and this final chapter will take you through some of them including...

  6. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  7. Modeling the dynamics of internal flooding - verification analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The results from conducted software WATERFOW's verification analysis, developed for the purposes of reactor building internal flooding analysis have been presented. For the purpose of benchmarking the integrated code MELCOR is selected. Considering the complex structure of reactor building, the sample tests were used to cover the characteristic points of the internal flooding analysis. The inapplicability of MELCOR to the internal flooding study has been proved

  8. Lessons learned from international flood PSAS in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungro; Lee, Beomsu; Kang, Sunkoo

    1998-01-01

    Risk due to internal flooding has been one of the major concerns for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. To reduce the risk from internal flooding, two design approaches for flood protection systems, active and passive, can be considered. The approaches to flood protection design are different for each plant design, and they are highly dependent on the plant type. The flood PSA revealed that the potential plant risk due to a flooding event is highly dependent on the flood design. The major design characteristics are 1) the location of systems that utilize sea water and their impact to other safety related systems, and 2) the existence of emergency overflow paths and an emergency sump which can transfer and accommodate flood water to prevent a significant flooding event. To identify and compare the effectiveness and potential vulnerability of various Korean nuclear power plants' flood designs, the flood PSAs have been performed for three plant designs, such as existing Korean PWR plants, CANDU type PHWR plants, and Korean Standard Nuclear Plants. Based on the evaluation, several design changes were recommended. (author)

  9. Coastal and river flood risk analyses for guiding economically optimal flood adaptation policies: a country-scale study for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; van Roomen, Vincent; Connor, Harry; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Eilander, Dirk M.; Ward, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Many countries around the world face increasing impacts from flooding due to socio-economic development in flood-prone areas, which may be enhanced in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. With increasing flood risk, it is becoming more important to be able to assess the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies. To guide the design of such strategies, policy makers need tools to prioritize where adaptation is needed and how much adaptation funds are required. In this country-scale study, we show how flood risk analyses can be used in cost-benefit analyses to prioritize investments in flood adaptation strategies in Mexico under future climate scenarios. Moreover, given the often limited availability of detailed local data for such analyses, we show how state-of-the-art global data and flood risk assessment models can be applied for a detailed assessment of optimal flood-protection strategies. Our results show that especially states along the Gulf of Mexico have considerable economic benefits from investments in adaptation that limit risks from both river and coastal floods, and that increased flood-protection standards are economically beneficial for many Mexican states. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to modelling uncertainties, the transferability of our modelling approach and policy implications. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  10. Estimation of Internal Flooding Frequency for Screening Analysis of Flooding PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Jun Eon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the internal frequency for the quantitative screening analysis of the flooding PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) with the appropriate data and estimation method. In the case of the existing flood PSA for domestic NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant), the screening analysis was performed firstly and then detailed analysis was performed for the area not screened out. For the quantitative screening analysis, the plant area based flood frequency by MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) method was used, while the component based flood frequency is used for the detailed analysis. The existing quantitative screening analysis for domestic NPPs have used data from all LWRs (Light Water Reactor), namely PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) for the internal flood frequency of the auxiliary building and turbine building. However, in the case of the primary auxiliary building, the applicability of the data from all LWRs needs to be examined carefully because of the significant difference in equipments between the PWR and BWR structure. NUREG/CR-5750 suggested the Bayesian update method with Jeffrey's noninformative prior to estimate the initiating event frequency for the flood. It, however, did not describe any procedure of the flood PSA. Recently, Fleming and Lydell suggested the internal flooding frequency in the unit of the plant operation year-pipe length (in meter) by pipe size of each specific system which is susceptible to the flooding such as the service water system and the circulating water system. They used the failure rate, the rupture conditional probability given the failure to estimate the internal flooding frequency, and the Bayesian update to reduce uncertainties. To perform the quantitative screening analysis with the method, it requires pipe length by each pipe size of the specific system per each divided area to change the concept of the component based frequency to the concept of the plant area

  11. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  12. Flood analyses for Department of Energy Y-12, ORNL and K-25 Plants. Flood analyses in support of flood emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The study involved defining the flood potential and local rainfall depth and duration data for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and K-25 plants. All three plants are subject to flooding from the Clinch River. In addition, the Y-12 plant is subject to flooding from East Fork Poplar and Bear Creeks, the ORNL plant from Whiteoak Creek and Melton Branch, and the K-25 plant from Poplar Creek. Determination of flood levels included consideration of both rainfall events and postulated failures of Norris and Melton Hill Dams in seismic events

  13. Analysing the Effects of Flood-Resilience Technologies in Urban Areas Using a Synthetic Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Schinke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection systems with their spatial effects play an important role in managing and reducing flood risks. The planning and decision process as well as the technical implementation are well organized and often exercised. However, building-related flood-resilience technologies (FReT are often neglected due to the absence of suitable approaches to analyse and to integrate such measures in large-scale flood damage mitigation concepts. Against this backdrop, a synthetic model-approach was extended by few complementary methodical steps in order to calculate flood damage to buildings considering the effects of building-related FReT and to analyse the area-related reduction of flood risks by geo-information systems (GIS with high spatial resolution. It includes a civil engineering based investigation of characteristic properties with its building construction including a selection and combination of appropriate FReT as a basis for derivation of synthetic depth-damage functions. Depending on the real exposition and the implementation level of FReT, the functions can be used and allocated in spatial damage and risk analyses. The application of the extended approach is shown at a case study in Valencia (Spain. In this way, the overall research findings improve the integration of FReT in flood risk management. They provide also some useful information for advising of individuals at risk supporting the selection and implementation of FReT.

  14. Do regional methods really help reduce uncertainties in flood frequency analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong Nguyen, Chi; Payrastre, Olivier; Gaume, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Flood frequency analyses are often based on continuous measured series at gauge sites. However, the length of the available data sets is usually too short to provide reliable estimates of extreme design floods. To reduce the estimation uncertainties, the analyzed data sets have to be extended either in time, making use of historical and paleoflood data, or in space, merging data sets considered as statistically homogeneous to build large regional data samples. Nevertheless, the advantage of the regional analyses, the important increase of the size of the studied data sets, may be counterbalanced by the possible heterogeneities of the merged sets. The application and comparison of four different flood frequency analysis methods to two regions affected by flash floods in the south of France (Ardèche and Var) illustrates how this balance between the number of records and possible heterogeneities plays in real-world applications. The four tested methods are: (1) a local statistical analysis based on the existing series of measured discharges, (2) a local analysis valuating the existing information on historical floods, (3) a standard regional flood frequency analysis based on existing measured series at gauged sites and (4) a modified regional analysis including estimated extreme peak discharges at ungauged sites. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to simulate a large number of discharge series with characteristics similar to the observed ones (type of statistical distributions, number of sites and records) to evaluate to which extent the results obtained on these case studies can be generalized. These two case studies indicate that even small statistical heterogeneities, which are not detected by the standard homogeneity tests implemented in regional flood frequency studies, may drastically limit the usefulness of such approaches. On the other hand, these result show that the valuation of information on extreme events, either historical flood events at gauged

  15. Overview of cooperative international piping benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an effort initiated in 1976 by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to evaluate detailed and simplified inelastic analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IAEA countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends (with emphasis on high temperature inelastic tests), to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used: a 90 0 -elbow at 600 0 C with an in-plane transverse force; a 90 0 -elbow with an in-plane moment; and a 180 0 -elbow at room temperature with a reversed, cyclic, in-plane transverse force. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this paper. 15 figures

  16. Methodological Framework for Analysing Cascading Effects from Flood Events: The Case of Sukhumvit Area, Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geofrey Hilly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacts from floods in urban areas can be diverse and wide ranging. These can include the loss of human life, infrastructure and property damages, as well as other kinds of nuisance and inconvenience to urban life. Hence, the ability to identify and quantify wider ranging effects from floods is of the utmost importance to urban flood managers and infrastructure operators. The present work provides a contribution in this direction and describes a methodological framework for analysing cascading effects from floods that has been applied for the Sukhumvit area in Bangkok (Thailand. It demonstrates that the effects from floods can be much broader in their reach and magnitude than the sole impacts incurred from direct and immediate losses. In Sukhumvit, these include loss of critical services, assets and goods, traffic congestion and delays in transportation, loss of business and income, disturbances and discomfort to the residents, and all these can be traced with the careful analysis of cascading effects. The present work explored the use of different visualization options to present the findings. These include a casual loop diagram, a HAZUR resilience map, a tree diagram and GIS maps.

  17. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  18. Adaptation to flood risk: Results of international paired flood event studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Di Baldassarre, G.; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Apel, H.; Aronica, G.T.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Bouwer, L.; Bubeck, P.; Caloiero, Tommaso; Chinh, Do. T.; Cortès, Maria; Gain, A.K.; Giampá, Vincenzo; Kuhlicke, C; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Carmen Llasat, M; Mård, Johanna; Matczak, Piotr; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Molinari, Daniela; Dung, N.V.; Petrucci, Olga; Schröter, Kai; Slager, Kymo; Thieken, A.H.; Ward, P.J.; Merz, B.

    2017-01-01

    As flood impacts are increasing in large parts of the world, understanding the primary drivers of changes in risk is essential for effective adaptation. To gain more knowledge on the basis of empirical case studies, we analyze eight paired floods, that is, consecutive flood events that occurred in

  19. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  20. Flood Mapping and Flood Dynamics of the Mekong Delta: ENVISAT-ASAR-WSM Based Time Series Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing is a valuable tool for monitoring flooding. Microwave sensors are especially appropriate instruments, as they allow the differentiation of inundated from non-inundated areas, regardless of levels of solar illumination or frequency of cloud cover in regions experiencing substantial rainy seasons. In the current study we present the longest synthetic aperture radar-based time series of flood and inundation information derived for the Mekong Delta that has been analyzed for this region so far. We employed overall 60 Envisat ASAR Wide Swath Mode data sets at a spatial resolution of 150 meters acquired during the years 2007–2011 to facilitate a thorough understanding of the flood regime in the Mekong Delta. The Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam comprises 13 provinces and is home to 18 million inhabitants. Extreme dry seasons from late December to May and wet seasons from June to December characterize people’s rural life. In this study, we show which areas of the delta are frequently affected by floods and which regions remain dry all year round. Furthermore, we present which areas are flooded at which frequency and elucidate the patterns of flood progression over the course of the rainy season. In this context, we also examine the impact of dykes on floodwater emergence and assess the relationship between retrieved flood occurrence patterns and land use. In addition, the advantages and shortcomings of ENVISAT ASAR-WSM based flood mapping are discussed. The results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of Mekong Delta flood dynamics in an environment where the flow regime is influenced by the Mekong River, overland water-flow, anthropogenic floodwater control, as well as the tides.

  1. Combining hydraulic model, hydrogeomorphological observations and chemical analyses of surface waters to improve knowledge on karst flash floods genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raynaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During a flood event over a karst watershed, the connections between surface and ground waters appear to be complex ones. The karst may attenuate surface floods by absorbing water or contribute to the surface flood by direct contribution of karst waters in the rivers (perennial and overflowing springs and by diffuse resurgence along the hillslopes. If it is possible to monitor each known outlet of a karst system, the diffuse contribution is yet difficult to assess. Furthermore, all these connections vary over time according to several factors such as the water content of the soil and underground, the rainfall characteristics, the runoff pathways. Therefore, the contribution of each compartment is generally difficult to assess, and flood dynamics are not fully understood. To face these misunderstandings and difficulties, we analysed surface waters during six recent flood events in the Lirou watershed (a karst tributary of the Lez, in South of France. Because of the specific chemical signature of karst waters, chemical analyses can supply information about water pathways and flood dynamics. Then, we used the dilution law to combine chemical results, flow data and field observations to assess the dynamics of the karst component of the flood. To end, we discussed the surface or karst origin of the waters responsible for the apparent runoff coefficient rise during flash karst flood.

  2. Internal flood analysis at Fermi 2 using a component-based frequency calculation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Hou, Y.M.; Ramirez, J.V.; Page, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis to identify potential accident sequences involving internal floods at Fermi Unit 2 was completed to fulfill the individual plant examination requirements. Floods can be significant core damage scenarios if they cause an initiating event and a common mode failure of critical systems. (author)

  3. Analysing the vulnerability of buildings to climate change: Summer heat and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Nikolowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The REGKLAM project (Development and Testing of an Integrated Regional Climate Change Adaption Programme for the Model Region Dresden forms part of the KLIMZUG programme (Managing Climate Change in the Regions for the Future funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is concerned with the adaptation of important sectors of the Dresden region to climate change. One aim is to investigate and where necessary reduce the vulnerability of buildings and settlement structures to changing climatic conditions. This paper looks at flood damage as an example for the potential of climate change impacts on buildings. In ex-post analyses and projections, the article presents the results of regional climatological studies. Interfaces between meteorology and civil engineering are discussed. On the basis of a typology of building stock in the region, the vulnerability of given building types to given impacts was analysed in the form of impact models. The examples of environmental causes chosen were summer heat and flooding. The paper concludes with a discussion of how buildings can be adapted to cope with the impacts described.

  4. Analysing the vulnerability of buildings to climate change. Summer heat and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolowski, Johannes; Zimm, Jakob; Naumann, Thomas [Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, Dresden (Germany); Goldberg, Valeri [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Chair of Meteorology

    2013-04-15

    The REGKLAM project (Development and Testing of an Integrated Regional Climate Change Adaption Programme for the Model Region Dresden) forms part of the KLIMZUG programme (Managing Climate Change in the Regions for the Future) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is concerned with the adaptation of important sectors of the Dresden region to climate change. One aim is to investigate and where necessary reduce the vulnerability of buildings and settlement structures to changing climatic conditions. This paper looks at flood damage as an example for the potential of climate change impacts on buildings. In ex-post analyses and projections, the article presents the results of regional climatological studies. Interfaces between meteorology and civil engineering are discussed. On the basis of a typology of building stock in the region, the vulnerability of given building types to given impacts was analysed in the form of impact models. The examples of environmental causes chosen were summer heat and flooding. The paper concludes with a discussion of how buildings can be adapted to cope with the impacts described. (orig.)

  5. Preparing for floods on Argentina's Pampas | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Climate change is expected to bring more frequent extreme weather events to the region. ... improve the prediction and management of floods on the Pampas. This article, featured in the May 2011 issue of Ecohydrology, ...

  6. Insights from Guideline for Performance of Internal Flooding Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IFPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joo Eon

    2009-01-01

    An internal flooding (IF) risk assessment refers to the quantitative probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) treatment of flooding as a result of pipe and tank breaks inside the plants, as well as from other recognized flood sources. The industry consensus standard for Internal Events Probabilistic Risk Assessment (ASME-RA-Sb-2005) includes high-level and supporting technical requirements for developing internal flooding probabilistic risk assessment (IFPRA). This industry standard is endorsed in Regulatory Guide 1.200, Revision 1 as an acceptable approach for addressing the risk contribution from IF events for risk informed applications that require U.S. Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) approval. In 2006, EPRI published a draft report for IFPRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME PRA consensus standard and have made efforts to refine and update the final EPRI IFPRA guideline. Westinghouse has performed an IFPRA analysis for several nuclear power plants (NPPs), such as Watts Bar and Fort Calhoun, using the draft EPRI guidelines for development of an IFPRA. Proprietary methodologies have been developed to apply the EPRI guidelines. The objectives of the draft report for IFPRA guideline are to: · Provide guidance for PSA practitioners in the performance of the elements of a PRA associated with internal flooding events consistent with the current state of the art for internal flooding PRA · Provide guidance regarding acceptable approaches that is sufficient to meeting the requirements of the ASME PRA Standard associated with internal flooding · Incorporate lessons learned in the performance of internal flooding PRAs including those identified as pilot applications of earlier drafts of this procedures guide The purpose of this paper is to present a vision for domestic nuclear power plants' IFPRA by comparing the method of the draft EPRI guidelines with the existing IFPRA method for domestic NPPs

  7. Insights from Guideline for Performance of Internal Flooding Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IFPRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joo Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    An internal flooding (IF) risk assessment refers to the quantitative probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) treatment of flooding as a result of pipe and tank breaks inside the plants, as well as from other recognized flood sources. The industry consensus standard for Internal Events Probabilistic Risk Assessment (ASME-RA-Sb-2005) includes high-level and supporting technical requirements for developing internal flooding probabilistic risk assessment (IFPRA). This industry standard is endorsed in Regulatory Guide 1.200, Revision 1 as an acceptable approach for addressing the risk contribution from IF events for risk informed applications that require U.S. Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) approval. In 2006, EPRI published a draft report for IFPRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME PRA consensus standard and have made efforts to refine and update the final EPRI IFPRA guideline. Westinghouse has performed an IFPRA analysis for several nuclear power plants (NPPs), such as Watts Bar and Fort Calhoun, using the draft EPRI guidelines for development of an IFPRA. Proprietary methodologies have been developed to apply the EPRI guidelines. The objectives of the draft report for IFPRA guideline are to: {center_dot} Provide guidance for PSA practitioners in the performance of the elements of a PRA associated with internal flooding events consistent with the current state of the art for internal flooding PRA {center_dot} Provide guidance regarding acceptable approaches that is sufficient to meeting the requirements of the ASME PRA Standard associated with internal flooding {center_dot} Incorporate lessons learned in the performance of internal flooding PRAs including those identified as pilot applications of earlier drafts of this procedures guide The purpose of this paper is to present a vision for domestic nuclear power plants' IFPRA by comparing the method of the draft EPRI guidelines with the existing IFPRA method for domestic NPPs.

  8. Internal Flooding Probabilistic Safety Assessment of an OPR-1000 Plant during Low Power and Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the electric power research institute (EPRI) published a guideline for the development of IF-PRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME/ANS RASa-2009 PRA consensus standard. The EPRI guideline delineates a level of detail and assessment complexity that has been significantly increased with respect to the guidance for IF assessment performed for the individual plant examination (IPE) to address Generic Letter 88- 20. The main differences include: A more systematic approach to the definition of flood area. The identification, screening and analysis of flooding sources and scenarios. The calculation of the initiating-event frequency (IEF) based on the actual length and characteristics of the piping. The inclusion of spatial effects such as spray from pipe leaks. The specific documentation associated with the plant walkdowns. Among these differences, this research focused on the third and fourth items when performing the internal flooding PSA. This is done by identifying the pipe and fluid characteristics, assessing the pipe pressure, characterizing the pipe (i.e., pipe diameter, length, etc.) and determining the pressure boundary failure frequency. The results were summed for the various piping systems within a given flood area to arrive at an overall internal flood initiating frequency for a given flood mode (i.e., spray, general flood, or major flood) for that particular area by each POS (Plant Operational State). In this initiating event frequency evaluations, the POS duration time is especially considered to get the real values for LPSD state. Characterizations of spray scenarios were evaluated to determine their impact on plant risk caused by internal flooding events.

  9. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of soybean root tips under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nakamura, Takuji; Sugimoto, Yurie; Sakamoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the serious problems for soybean plants because it inhibits growth. Proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used to determine whether proteins and metabolites are altered in the root tips of soybeans under flooding stress. Two-day-old soybean plants were flooded for 2 days, and proteins and metabolites were extracted from root tips. Flooding-responsive proteins were identified using two-dimensional- or SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis- based proteomics techniques. Using both techniques, 172 proteins increased and 105 proteins decreased in abundance in the root tips of flood-stressed soybean. The abundance of methionine synthase, heat shock cognate protein, urease, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase was significantly increased by flooding stress. Furthermore, 73 flooding-responsive metabolites were identified using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, NADH2, and phosphoenol pyruvate were increased by flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that synthesis of phosphoenol pyruvate by way of oxaloacetate produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is activated in soybean root tips in response to flooding stress, and that flooding stress also leads to modulation of the urea cycle in the root tips.

  10. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Historical changes in annual peak flows in Maine and implications for flood-frequency analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses use statistical methods to compute peak streamflows for selected recurrence intervals— the average number of years between peak flows that are equal to or greater than a specified peak flow. Analyses are based on annual peak flows at a stream. It has long been assumed that the annual peak streamflows used in these computations were stationary (non-changing) over very long periods of time, except in river basins subject to direct effects of human activities, such as urbanization and regulation. Because of the potential effects of global warming on peak flows, the assumption of peak-flow stationarity has recently been questioned. Maine has many streamgages with 50 to 105 years of recorded annual peak streamflows. In this study, this long-term record has been tested for historical flood-frequency stationarity, to provide some insight into future flood frequency. Changes over time in annual instantaneous peak streamflows at 28 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages with long-term data (50 or more years) and relatively complete records were investigated by examining linear trends for each streamgage’s period of record. None of the 28 streamgages had more than 5 years of missing data. Eight streamgages have substantial streamflow regulation. Because previous studies have suggested that changes over time may have occurred as a step change around 1970, step changes between each streamgage’s older record (start year to 1970) and newer record (1971 to 2006) also were computed. The median change over time for all 28 streamgages is an increase of 15.9 percent based on a linear change and an increase of 12.4 percent based on a step change. The median change for the 20 unregulated streamgages is slightly higher than for all 28 streamgages; it is 18.4 percent based on a linear change and 15.0 percent based on a step change. Peak flows with 100- and 5-year recurrence intervals were computed for the 28 streamgages using the full annual peak-flow record

  12. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood

  13. Criticality-safety analyses of compacted and water-flooded. SP-100 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, D.I.; Sapir, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reactivity calculations were performed to determine the sensitivity of three liquid metal-cooled, fast reactor designs to various accident environments. The concepts, proposed for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program, included one thermionic and two fuel-pin designs. Numerous models of each core were developed to analyze the effect of core compaction and of water-flooded lattice spreading. Results indicate that those designs incorporating in-core control are least affected by core compaction and that the thermonic concept can best withstand expansion of the flooded fuel element array

  14. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  15. International intercalibration as a method for control of radiochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, A.; Totseva, R.; Karaivanova, R.; Dandulova, Z.; Botsova, L.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of the Radioecology Section at the National Centre for Radiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) in the International Interlaboratory Comparison of radiochemical analyses organized by WHO is reported. The method of evaluating accuracy of the results from inter calibrations concerning radionuclide determination of environmental samples is outlined. The data from analysis of cesium 137, strontium 90 and radium 226 in milk, sediments, soil and seaweed made by 21 laboratories are presented. They show a good accuracy values of the results from NCRRP. 1 tab. 2 figs., 6 refs

  16. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, G H

    1995-06-01

    A survey was undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1986 to explore the composition and patterns of rural population movements. 230 villages were selected from 84 townships in 59 counties scattered across 11 regions. Because of incomplete information, only data for 222 villages were used. Population flows were classified into: 1) intramigration or intraflow within the boundaries of their own townships; 2) out-migration, emigration, or outflow involving those who left the townships; and 3) in-migration, immigration, or inflow that affected those who moved into the 222 villages from outside. Age, sex, education, postmigration occupation, and duration of stay details were obtained for every migrant. Some 43,223 persons were involved in intraflows and 26,993 emigrated from the surveyed townships in 1986. The volume of internal migration in China seemed to be related to the distance between the origins and destinations of migrants. Among 70,216 migrants, about 74% were males and only 26% were females. Over 57.38% of the migrants from 222 villages shifted into industrial (34.31%) and construction (23.07%) activities. The service sector (food providers, stall holders, door-to-door retailers, barbers, and small shops) attracted 9.73%. Only 565 were engaged in cropping and 1614 in forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, and fishery. As to age groups, 1688 (2.4%) were aged 17 years or under, 61,530 (88%) were aged 18-45, and 6999 (9.9%) were 46 years old or older. In 1986 seasonal migrants accounted for some 80% of all emigrants from the surveyed villages. Education did not play a significant role in promoting migration in the mid-1980s. 39% of the labor force had received primary education and the same percentage of out-migrants had acquired primary school education. The younger the age group, the more of them tended to move away from home: for those aged 17 or under if 100 persons migrated within the township, 113 moved out of town. A nationwide network

  17. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  18. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of four reservoirs in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive information about the construction of dams or potential downstream hazards in the event of a dam breach is not available for many small reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest. In 2009, the U.S. Forest Service identified the need for reconnaissance-level dam-breach assessments for four of these reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest (Iron Creek, Horsethief, Lakota, and Mitchell Lakes) with the potential to flood downstream structures. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses for the four selected reservoirs were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Forest service to estimate the areal extent of downstream inundation. Three high-flow breach scenarios were considered for cases when the dam is in place (overtopped) and when a dam break (failure) occurs: the 100-year recurrence 24-hour precipitation, 500-year recurrence peak flow, and the probable maximum precipitation. Inundation maps were developed that show the estimated extent of downstream floodwaters from simulated scenarios. Simulation results were used to determine the hazard classification of a dam break (high, significant, or low), based primarily on the potential for loss of life or property damage resulting from downstream inundation because of the flood surge.The inflow design floods resulting from the two simulated storm events (100-year 24-hour and probable maximum precipitation) were determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). The inflow design flood for the 500-year recurrence peak flow was determined by using regional regression equations developed for streamflow-gaging stations with similar watershed characteristics. The step-backwater hydraulic analysis model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), was used to determine water-surface profiles of in-place and dam-break scenarios for the three inflow design floods that were

  19. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  20. First Announcement and Call for Papers SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FLOOD DEFENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Beijing, Sep. 10-13, 2002 Organized by: Tsinghua University of China & International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES)Sponsored by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Kassel University of Germany Chinese Hydraulic Engineering Society (CHES) German-Sino Unsteady Sediment Transport (GESINOS) http://vww.irtces.org http://www. Tsinghua.edu.cn INTRODUCTION In the past decade frequently occurring floods claimed thousands of lives and caused economic loss of billions of US dollars. Among them the Mississippi River flood in 1993, the Rhine River flood in 1995, the Yangtze River flood in 1998, the Haihe River flood in 1996, and the storm surges in Bangladesh in 1991 are the most devastating. It is evident that both the frequency and intensity of flooding are increasing. The Dirst International Symposium on Flood Defence in Sep. 2000, initiated by Profs. Toensmann and Koch,attracted more than 200 scientists and engineers gathering in Kassel University discussing the ever-increasing concerned problems and sharing experiences and strategies for flood defence. Many scientists suggested to continue the technical forum and the Tsinghua University (one of the top universities of China) and the International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES) are organizing the Second International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD'2002) scheduled on Sep. 10-13, 2002. The purpose of the conference is to review the state-of-the-art of the studies on flooding and engineering and non-engineering strategies. The symposium will focus on a better understanding laws of flooding and environmental problems involved, different perspectives evolved,climate change and its impact on extreme hydrological events, and reporting new approaches to the

  1. Review: Dominik Schrage (Ed. (2005. Die Flut. Diskursanalysen zum Dresdner Hochwasser im August 2002 [The Flood. Discourse Analyses on the Dresden Flood in August 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mattissek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume edited by Dominik SCHRAGE documents the results of a research seminar held by the editor at the Department of Sociology, Technical University of Dresden, in the spring term of 2004 and fall term of 2004/05. The contributions are based mainly on discourse analysis of print media coverage of the Elbe flood in the summer of 2002. Topics include a reflection on the possibilities of implementing FOUCAULTian discourse theory within empirical research projects, as well as formal characteristics of the flood discourse, the mutual interference between the reports on the election campaigns for the Bundestag and on the flood, and finally the image of nature emerging within the flood discourse. The volume shows the potential of FOUCAULT's discourse analysis for current social events and outlines possible methodological implementations. Moreover, it is a recommended reading for those who are interested in changes in discursive structures within exceptional social circumstances in general and in the social framing of natural disaster in particular. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070252

  2. Main results of the analysis of internal flooding in the reactor building of Kozloduy NPP Unit 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, E.; Goranov, S.; Horstmann, R.

    2004-01-01

    For modernization of Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP, a comprehensive analysis of internal flooding scenarios has been carried out for the reactor building outside the containment and for the turbine hall by FRAMATOME ANP and ENPRO Consult. The objective of the presentation is to provide information on the main results obtained in the flooding analysis of the reactor building (outside containment). The flooding analysis is being performed under application of the 'Methodology and boundary conditions'. Flooding calculations are provided for all of the rooms in the reactor building outside the containment in which the fluid systems, having the capacity for flooding, are mounted. The performed functional analysis shows whether the consequences of a postulated initial event are within the NPP design or could lead to situations which are not taken into account in the design. The proposals for overcoming of identified unacceptable situations and the possible strategy of room draining are also given. Several cases of leaks inside the sealed rooms in the restricted area lead to the situation that the rooms will get totally flooded. Even if this should be acceptable from the point of view of loss of system function, the water pressure effect on the structural elements, as walls and doors, does not allow such complete filling-up. The second relevant identified effect was spreading of humidity and high temperatures to adjacent rooms. Long-lasting effects of this type have to be avoided, in order to prevent potential common cause effects on safety system equipment (authors)

  3. Analysed with Shanghai international fashion the development of creative industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of economy, and promote people to enter the era of knowledge economy. Under this background, the global economy especially the economic model of developed countries began to industrial restructuring and structural adjustment, and fashion creative industry economy is the product of the change. It embodies a nation in such aspects as culture, science and technology and creative design of soft power, to some extent, also represents a national industry's international competitiveness, is one of the most important industry in the development of leading industry. In the globalization trend of strengthening, today, the increasingly fierce competition in the international fashion scale and degree, the development of creative industry has become a measure of a country or a city comprehensive competitiveness of one of the important symbol. Therefore, many countries and regions all over the industry as a strategic industry and pillar industry to develop. Along with the rapid economic and social development as well as the consumer demand is rising, fashion creative industry gradually become Shanghai currently one of the most promising new industries. Especially in the face of the global economic downturn, China's transformation of the mode of development environment, development fashion creative industry will help speed up the Shanghai industrial structure transformation, beneficial to stimulate consumer demand, to improve the Shanghai international influence, for the Shanghai a new round of development, the construction of "four centers" and one of the breach of the international metropolis.

  4. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  5. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  6. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  7. Methodology and boundary conditions applied to the analysis on internal flooding for Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, E.; Goranov, S.; Horstmann, R.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Modernization Program of Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP a comprehensive analysis of internal flooding has been carried out for the reactor building outside the containment and for the turbine hall by FRAMATOME ANP and ENPRO Consult. The objective of this presentation is to provide information on the applied methodology and boundary conditions. A separate report called 'Methodology and boundary conditions' has been elaborated in order to provide the fundament for the study. The methodology report provides definitions and advice for the following topics: scope of the study; safety objectives; basic assumptions and postulates (plant conditions, grace periods for manual actions, single failure postulate, etc.); sources of flooding (postulated piping leaks and ruptures, malfunctions and personnel error); main activities of the flooding analysis; study conclusions and suggestions of remedial measures. (authors)

  8. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  9. How context affects international projects : the cases of Dutch-Romanian cooperation on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne; Teodosiu, Carmen; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries around the world are confronted with a considerable increase of floods and flood risks. The exchange of knowledge may be beneficial but requires careful consideration of contextual factors. This paper explores the relation between contextual factors and the effectiveness of

  10. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  11. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    Two major disasters in Pakistan and innumerable lesser disasters throughout the Himalaya-Karakoram region in 2010 highlight geologic events and extreme weather (perhaps climate change) in affecting the well being of whole nations and commerce and relations between nations. Two chief events in Pakistan include the Jan. 4 rockslide into the Hunza River and the subsequent formation of a natural dam lake (Lake Gojal); and the monsoon precipitation-fed flooding across the Indus Basin. The first event severed Pakistan’s major land link with China. The second event devastated Pakistan’s national land-based transportation infrastructure and agriculture and displaced millions of people. In a country plagued by monsoon-driven floods, the lack of catastrophic breakout of Lake Gojal is welcome. Satellite-based monitoring shows the spillway to be eroding more rapidly (but not alarmingly) under August’s monsoon peak flow. Similar events have occurred before in the region and will occur again. These mega-events in Pakistan should be an alert for all of South Asia, as climate change increases or shifts the hazard environment, encroaching development and urbanization increases the vulnerabilities, and as improved capacity for trans-national commerce breaks down the Himalayan barrier and both promotes new opportunities and possible conflicts. 2010's natural mega-calamities in Pakistan and widespread landsliding and flooding elsewhere in South Asia underscores the subcontinent’s need for a thorough field-, remote sensing-, and modeling-based assessment of the disaster potential related to landslides, glacier surges, extreme monsoon precipitation events, natural glacier and landslide dam lake outbursts, and unseasonal snow melting. The Himalayan-Karakoram region is remarkable for its heterogeneous responses to climate change. For instance, some areas are undergoing rapid glacier recession and stagnation; others are undergoing glacier growth. We take the instance of the

  12. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  13. Why the 2010 Indus floods hit Pakistan so hard | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to help reduce their vulnerability to future extreme weather events. ... phase of the project, researchers reviewed numerous situation reports, media articles, and ... Irrigation management and flood control is defined by power relationships: in ...

  14. El Niño-Southern Oscillation-based index insurance for floods: Statistical risk analyses and application to Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Abedalrazq F.; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Lall, Upmanu; Miranda, Mario J.; Skees, Jerry

    2007-10-01

    Index insurance has recently been advocated as a useful risk transfer tool for disaster management situations where rapid fiscal relief is desirable and where estimating insured losses may be difficult, time consuming, or subject to manipulation and falsification. For climate-related hazards, a rainfall or temperature index may be proposed. However, rainfall may be highly spatially variable relative to the gauge network, and in many locations, data are inadequate to develop an index because of short time series and the spatial dispersion of stations. In such cases, it may be helpful to consider a climate proxy index as a regional rainfall index. This is particularly useful if a long record is available for the climate index through an independent source and it is well correlated with the regional rainfall hazard. Here El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate indices are explored for use as a proxy to extreme rainfall in one of the districts of Peru, Piura. The ENSO index insurance product may be purchased by banks or microfinance institutions to aid agricultural damage relief in Peru. Crop losses in the region are highly correlated with floods but are difficult to assess directly. Beyond agriculture, many other sectors suffer as well. Basic infrastructure is destroyed during the most severe events. This disrupts trade for many microenterprises. The reliability and quality of the local rainfall data are variable. Averaging the financial risk across the region is desirable. Some issues with the implementation of the proxy ENSO index are identified and discussed. Specifically, we explore (1) the reliability of the index at different levels of probability of exceedance of maximum seasonal rainfall, (2) the effect of sampling uncertainties and the strength of the proxy's association to local outcome, (3) the potential for clustering of payoffs, (4) the potential that the index could be predicted with some lead time prior to the flood season, and (5) evidence

  15. Integration of rainfall/runoff and geomorphological analyses flood hazard in small catchments: case studies from the southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Manuela; Ascione, Alessandra; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of an analysis of flood hazard in ungauged mountain catchments that are associated with intensely urbanized alluvial fans. Assessment of hydrological hazard has been based on the integration of rainfall/runoff modelling of drainage basins with geomorphological analysis and mapping. Some small and steep, ungauged mountain catchments located in various areas of the southern Apennines, in southern Italy, have been chosen as test sites. In the last centuries, the selected basins have been subject to heavy and intense precipitation events, which have caused flash floods with serious damages in the correlated alluvial fan areas. Available spatial information (regional technical maps, DEMs, land use maps, geological/lithological maps, orthophotos) and an automated GIS-based procedure (ArcGis tools and ArcHydro tools) have been used to extract morphological, hydrological and hydraulic parameters. Such parameters have been used to run the HEC (Hydrologic Engineering Center of the US Army Corps of Engineers) software (GeoHMS, GeoRAS, HMS and RAS) based on rainfall-runoff models, which have allowed the hydrological and hydraulic simulations. As the floods occurred in the studied catchments have been debris flows dominated, the solid load simulation has been also performed. In order to validate the simulations, we have compared results of the modelling with the effects produced by past floods. Such effects have been quantified through estimations of both the sediment volumes within each catchment that have the potential to be mobilised (pre-event) during a sediment transfer event, and the volume of sediments delivered by the debris flows at basins' outlets (post-event). The post-event sediment volume has been quantified through post-event surveys and Lidar data. Evaluation of the pre-event sediment volumes in single catchments has been based on mapping of sediment storages that may constitute source zones of bed load transport and debris flows. For

  16. An Open-Book Modular Watershed Modeling Framework for Rapid Prototyping of GPM- based Flood Forecasting in International River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, N.; Hossain, F.

    2006-05-01

    Floods have always been disastrous for human life. It accounts for about 15 % of the total death related to natural disasters. There are around 263 transboundary river basins listed by UNESCO, wherein at least 30 countries have more than 95% of their territory locked in one or more such transboundary basins. For flood forecasting in the lower riparian nations of these International River Basins (IRBs), real-time rainfall data from upstream nations is naturally the most critical factor governing the forecasting effectiveness. However, many upstream nations fail to provide data to the lower riparian nations due to a lack of in-situ rainfall measurement infrastructure or a lack of a treaty for real-time sharing of rainfall data. A potential solution is therefore to use satellites that inherently measure rainfall across political boundaries. NASA's proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission appears very promising in providing this vital rainfall information under the data- limited scenario that will continue to prevail in most IRBs. However, satellite rainfall is associated with uncertainty and hence, proper characterization of the satellite rainfall error propagation in hydrologic models for flood forecasting is a critical priority that should be resolved in the coming years in anticipation of GPM. In this study, we assess an open book modular watershed modeling approach for estimating the expected error in flood forecasting related to GPM rainfall data. Our motivation stems from the critical challenge in identifying the specific IRBs that would benefit from a pre-programmed satellite-based forecasting system in anticipation of GPM. As the number of flood-prone IRBs is large, conventional data-intensive implementation of existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models on case-by-case IRBs is considered time-consuming for completing such a global assessment. A more parsimonious approach is justified at the expense of a tolerable loss of detail and

  17. Enhancing resilience to coastal flooding from severe storms in the USA: international lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbroso, Darren M.; Suckall, Natalie R.; Nicholls, Robert J.; White, Kathleen D.

    2017-08-01

    Recent events in the USA have highlighted a lack of resilience in the coastal population to coastal flooding, especially amongst disadvantaged and isolated communities. Some low-income countries, such as Cuba and Bangladesh, have made significant progress towards transformed societies that are more resilient to the impacts of cyclones and coastal flooding. To understand how this has come about, a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature related to resilience of communities to coastal flooding was undertaken in both countries. In both Cuba and Bangladesh the trust between national and local authorities, community leaders and civil society is high. As a consequence evacuation warnings are generally followed and communities are well prepared. As a result over the past 25 years in Bangladesh the number of deaths directly related to cyclones and coastal flooding has decreased, despite an increase of almost 50 % in the number of people exposed to these hazards. In Cuba, over the course of eight hurricanes between 2003 and 2011, the normalized number of deaths related to cyclones and coastal floods was an order of magnitude less than in the USA. In low-income countries, warning systems and effective shelter/evacuation systems, combined with high levels of disaster risk-reduction education and social cohesion, coupled with trust between government authorities and vulnerable communities can help to increase resilience to coastal hazards and tropical cyclones. In the USA, transferable lessons include improving communication and the awareness of the risk posed by coastal surges, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the education system and building trusted community networks to help isolated and disadvantaged communities, and improve community resilience.

  18. Enhancing resilience to coastal flooding from severe storms in the USA: international lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lumbroso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent events in the USA have highlighted a lack of resilience in the coastal population to coastal flooding, especially amongst disadvantaged and isolated communities. Some low-income countries, such as Cuba and Bangladesh, have made significant progress towards transformed societies that are more resilient to the impacts of cyclones and coastal flooding. To understand how this has come about, a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature related to resilience of communities to coastal flooding was undertaken in both countries. In both Cuba and Bangladesh the trust between national and local authorities, community leaders and civil society is high. As a consequence evacuation warnings are generally followed and communities are well prepared. As a result over the past 25 years in Bangladesh the number of deaths directly related to cyclones and coastal flooding has decreased, despite an increase of almost 50 % in the number of people exposed to these hazards. In Cuba, over the course of eight hurricanes between 2003 and 2011, the normalized number of deaths related to cyclones and coastal floods was an order of magnitude less than in the USA. In low-income countries, warning systems and effective shelter/evacuation systems, combined with high levels of disaster risk-reduction education and social cohesion, coupled with trust between government authorities and vulnerable communities can help to increase resilience to coastal hazards and tropical cyclones. In the USA, transferable lessons include improving communication and the awareness of the risk posed by coastal surges, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the education system and building trusted community networks to help isolated and disadvantaged communities, and improve community resilience.

  19. International validation of safety analyses for nuclear power plants; Mednarodno preverjanje varnostnih analiz za jedrske elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoric, N; Mavko, B [Institut ' Jozef Stefan' Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Paper describes the participation of 'J.Stefan' Institute in international standard problems for validation of modeling and programs for safety analysis. Listed are main international experimental facilities for collecting data basic for understanding of physical phenomena, code development and validation of modelling and programs. Since the results of international standard problem analyses are published in a joint final report, it is simple to asses the conformance of the results of a particular group with the experiment. Good results from three international exercises done so far, have encouraged the group to currently participate in OECD-ISP-22 which is a model of the Italian three loop PWR. (author)

  20. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  1. Volcanically-Induced Nile Flood Failure Promotes Internal Revolt and Suppresses Interstate Conflict in Hellenistic Egypt, 305-30 BCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Francis; Manning, Joseph; Stine, Alexander; Boos, William; Storelvmo, Trude; Sigl, Michael; Marlon, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are a primary driver of abrupt short-term climatic changes. State-of-the-art revisions to polar ice-core chronologies now allow us to track the impacts of a sequence of major and closely-recurring volcanic eruptions on the great Ptolemaic kingdom centred in Egypt, between 305-30 BCE. This was a formidable Mediterranean cultural and economic power in the efflorescent Hellenistic era of the first four centuries BCE, a period bracketed by Alexander the Great on one end and Cleopatra on the other, and known for its considerable advancement in science and material culture. In this paper we show a link between major volcanic eruptions that register through elevated sulphate deposition in the polar ice, and a suppression of the agriculturally-critical Nile summer flood, identifiable in annual Nilometer measurements from Rhoda, Cairo, between 641 and 1469 CE. This likely relates to a volcanic perturbation of the East African monsoon, responsible for the rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands that drives the annual summer flood, and the effect can also be identified in ancient papyri that indicate the quality of the Nile flood in the first several centuries BCE. Volcanic eruptions in this period are also shown to correspond in timing with the initiation of a series of hitherto poorly understood internal revolts against Ptolemaic rule in Egypt, while also corresponding in timing to the cessation of major interstate conflicts (the nine "Syrian Wars", running 274-96 BCE) between the Ptolemaic kingdom and their powerful Near Eastern rival, the Seleukid empire. Subsistence crises driven by volcanically-induced suppression of the Nile flood are likely to have played a key causal role in these events, an understanding that helps to advance our knowledge of the major historical events of the formative Hellenistic era, which set the scene for the rise of the Roman Empire. Our findings also suggest the potential of integrating human and natural archives to

  2. Internationally coordinated multi-mission planning is now critical to sustain the space-based rainfall observations needed for managing floods globally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Patrick M; Herman, Jonathan D; Chaney, Nathaniel W; Wood, Eric F; Ferringer, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    At present 4 of 10 dedicated rainfall observing satellite systems have exceeded their design life, some by more than a decade. Here, we show operational implications for flood management of a ‘collapse’ of space-based rainfall observing infrastructure as well as the high-value opportunities for a globally coordinated portfolio of satellite missions and data services. Results show that the current portfolio of rainfall missions fails to meet operational data needs for flood management, even when assuming a perfectly coordinated data product from all current rainfall-focused missions (i.e., the full portfolio). In the full portfolio, satellite-based rainfall data deficits vary across the globe and may preclude climate adaptation in locations vulnerable to increasing flood risks. Moreover, removing satellites that are currently beyond their design life (i.e., the reduced portfolio) dramatically increases data deficits globally and could cause entire high intensity flood events to be unobserved. Recovery from the reduced portfolio is possible with internationally coordinated replenishment of as few as 2 of the 4 satellite systems beyond their design life, yielding rainfall data coverages that outperform the current full portfolio (i.e., an optimized portfolio of eight satellites can outperform ten satellites). This work demonstrates the potential for internationally coordinated satellite replenishment and data services to substantially enhance the cost-effectiveness, sustainability and operational value of space-based rainfall observations in managing evolving flood risks. (letter)

  3. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  4. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (74-90 mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments. Under severe accident loading conditions, the steel containment vessel in a typical Mark-I or Mark-II plant may deform under internal pressurization such that it contacts the inner surface of a shield building wall. (Thermal expansion from increasing accident temperatures would also close the gap between the SCV and the shield building, but temperature effects are not considered in these analyses.) The amount and location of contact and the pressure at which it occurs all affect how the combined structure behaves. A preliminary finite element model has been developed to analyze a model of a typical steel containment vessel con-ling into contact with an outer structure. Both the steel containment vessel and the outer contact structure were modelled with axisymmetric shell finite elements. Of particular interest are the influence that the contact structure has on deformation and potential failure modes of the containment vessel. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction between the two structures was varied to study its effects on the behavior of the containment vessel and on the uplift loads transmitted to the contact structure. These analyses show that the material properties of an outer contact structure and the amount

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internally induced flooding events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandini, V.; Staple, B.; Kirk, H.; Whitehead, D.; Forester, J.

    1994-07-01

    An estimate of the contribution of internal flooding to the mean core damage frequency at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station was calculated for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Pursuant to this objective, flood zones and sources were identified and flood volumes were calculated. Equipment necessary for the maintenance of plant safety was identified and its vulnerability to flooding was determined. Event trees and fault trees were modified or developed as required, and PRA quantification was performed using the IRRAS code. The mean core damage frequency estimate for GGNS during POS 5 was found to be 2.3 E-8 per year

  6. Analyses of internal tides generation and propagation over a Gaussian ridge in laboratory and numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Floor, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    test the dynamics and energetics of the numerical model, but also to advance the analysis based on combined wavelet and empirical orthogonal function. In particular, we focus on the study of the transient regime of internal wave generation near the ridge. Our analyses of the experimental fields show that, for fixed background stratification and topography, the evolution of the stratification anomaly strongly depends on the forcing frequency. The duration of the transient regime, as well as the amplitude reached in the stationary state vary significantly with the parameter ω/N (where ω is the forcing frequency, and N is the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency). We also observe that, for particular forcing frequencies, for which the ridge slope matches the critical slope of the first harmonic mode, internal waves are excited both at the fundamental and the first harmonic frequency. Associated energy transfers are finally evaluated both experimentally and numerically, enabling us to highlight the similarities and discrepancies between the laboratory experiments and the numerical simulations. References [1] Munk W. and C. Wunsch (1998): Abyssal recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing Deep-Sea Res. 45, 1977-2010 [2] Tailleux R. (2009): On the energetics of stratified turbulent mixing, irreversible thermodynamics, Boussinesq models and the ocean heat engine controversy, J. Fluid Mech. 638, 339-382 [3] Knigge C., D. Etling, A. Paci and O. Eiff (2010): Laboratory experiments on mountain-induced rotors, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, in press. [4] Auclair F., C. Estournel, J. Floor, C. N'Guyen and P. Marsaleix, (2009): A non-hydrostatic, energy conserving algorithm for regional ocean modelling. Under revision. [5] Wunsch, C. & R. Ferrari (2004): Vertical mixing, energy and the general circulation of the oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 36:281-314.

  7. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (50--90mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments

  8. A robust internal control for high-precision DNA methylation analyses by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Heidi D; Andresen, Kim; Berg, Kaja C G; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Jeanmougin, Marine; Lind, Guro E

    2018-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids and has potential for improved non-invasive detection of DNA methylation. For increased precision of the methylation analysis, we aimed to develop a robust internal control for use in methylation-specific ddPCR. Two control design approaches were tested: (a) targeting a genomic region shared across members of a gene family and (b) combining multiple assays targeting different pericentromeric loci on different chromosomes. Through analyses of 34 colorectal cancer cell lines, the performance of the control assay candidates was optimized and evaluated, both individually and in various combinations, using the QX200™ droplet digital PCR platform (Bio-Rad). The best-performing control was tested in combination with assays targeting methylated CDO1 , SEPT9 , and VIM . A 4Plex panel consisting of EPHA3 , KBTBD4 , PLEKHF1 , and SYT10 was identified as the best-performing control. The use of the 4Plex for normalization reduced the variability in methylation values, corrected for differences in template amount, and diminished the effect of chromosomal aberrations. Positive Droplet Calling (PoDCall), an R-based algorithm for standardized threshold determination, was developed, ensuring consistency of the ddPCR results. Implementation of a robust internal control, i.e., the 4Plex, and an algorithm for automated threshold determination, PoDCall, in methylation-specific ddPCR increase the precision of DNA methylation analysis.

  9. Identifying the Research Process to Analyse the Adoption of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outhwaite, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the flow-line around the methodology used inside an educational research process that was originally established to examine the expansion of the International Baccalaureate's Diploma Programme (IBDP) in England. This article analyses the research question, then assesses the research focus, aims and objectives. The article…

  10. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%

  12. Red River flooding, short-term measures : interim report to the International Red River Basin Task Force to the International Joint Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 flood of the Red River Basin was one of the worst in recorded history. The basin covers 45,000 square miles and includes portions of South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota and Manitoba. This report of a special task force provides an overview of the environmental impacts of the 1997 flood and recommends a series of strategies to prevent or reduce future flood damage in the Basin. For example, within Manitoba, more than 550 containers that held hazardous materials were retrieved from the Red River. The contents of the containers which included propane, heating fuel, petroleum products, fire-fighting foam, tar, alcohol, solvents, corrosive liquids, polyester resin, paint, and pesticides, made their way into the floodwaters. Estimates of the amount of fuel oil that spilled in Manitoba are not available, but some 15,000 gallons of gasoline spilled from service stations in Breckenridge, Minnesota. The precursors that lead to the severe flooding in 1997 included heavy precipitation and higher than average temperatures that created less than ideal melt conditions. Since 1989, weekly maps of snow and water in the Canadian prairies have been produced because knowledge of the spatial distribution and amount of snow cover during the winter is important for forecasting spring water supply conditions. The Task Force made 40 recommendations that should be initiated within the short term. One of the recommendations was to remove or secure hazardous materials stored in the flood plain. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Mapping flood hazards under uncertainty through probabilistic flood inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.

  14. 78 FR 52955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... community that the Deputy Associate Administrator for Mitigation reconsider the changes. The flood hazard...; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1349] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or...

  15. Numerical simulation of flood barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srb, Pavel; Petrů, Michal; Kulhavý, Petr

    This paper deals with testing and numerical simulating of flood barriers. The Czech Republic has been hit by several very devastating floods in past years. These floods caused several dozens of causalities and property damage reached billions of Euros. The development of flood measures is very important, especially for the reduction the number of casualties and the amount of property damage. The aim of flood control measures is the detention of water outside populated areas and drainage of water from populated areas as soon as possible. For new flood barrier design it is very important to know its behaviour in case of a real flood. During the development of the barrier several standardized tests have to be carried out. Based on the results from these tests numerical simulation was compiled using Abaqus software and some analyses were carried out. Based on these numerical simulations it will be possible to predict the behaviour of barriers and thus improve their design.

  16. International Severe Weather and Flash Flood Hazard Early Warning Systems—Leveraging Coordination, Cooperation, and Partnerships through a Hydrometeorological Project in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jubach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate, weather and water hazards do not recognize national boundaries. Transboundary/regional programs and cooperation are essential to reduce the loss of lives and damage to livelihoods when facing these hazards. The development and implementation of systems to provide early warnings for severe weather events such as cyclones and flash floods requires data and information sharing in real time, and coordination among the government agencies at all levels. Within a country, this includes local, municipal, provincial-to-national levels as well as regional and international entities involved in hydrometeorological services and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR. Of key importance are the National Meteorological and Hydrologic Services (NMHSs. The NMHS is generally the authority solely responsible for issuing warnings for these hazards. However, in many regions of the world, the linkages and interfaces between the NMHS and other agencies are weak or non-existent. Therefore, there is a critical need to assess, strengthen, and formalize collaborations when addressing the concept of reducing risk and impacts from severe weather and floods. The U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance; the United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO; the WMO Southern Africa Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, hosted by the South African Weather Service; the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service and the Hydrologic Research Center (a non-profit corporation are currently implementing a project working with Southern Africa NMHSs on addressing this gap. The project aims to strengthen coordination and collaboration mechanisms from national to local levels. The project partners are working with the NMHSs to apply and implement appropriate tools and infrastructure to enhance currently operational severe weather and flash flood early warning systems in each country in support of

  17. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis.

  18. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  19. A conceptual framework for analysing sports policy factors leading to international sporting success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul de Knop; Veerle de Bosscher; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg; Simon Shibli

    2006-01-01

    Although an increasing number of nations invest large amounts of money in sport in order to compete against other nations, there is no clear evidence that demonstrates how sports policies can influence international sporting success. This paper provides an overview of important determinants that can

  20. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  1. International workshop on multimodal analyses enabling artificial agents in human-machine interaction (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böck, Ronald; Bonin, Francesca; Campbell, Nick; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the third workshop on Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction. The paper is focussing on the main aspects intended to be discussed in the workshop reflecting the main scope of the papers presented during the meeting. The MA3HMI

  2. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. A critical study on Various Frameworks used to analyse International Business and its Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    The objective of any business organization is profit and sustainability. To attain this objective majority of business organizations follow a strategy to identify and encash all possible opportunities which include low-cost, product differentiation, high-tech products & services, international expansion, continuous value addition to products & services, and so on. As a result, many business organizations started in a given country, expanded their business to almost entire world and became glo...

  4. ANALYSING ROMANIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS REGARDING THE RECENT DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL TRADE BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The industry remains the most important sector of the national economy, although in the other member states the services have a more important share of GDP. In this context, the level of industrial competitiveness is essential for the national competitiveness. This is a characteristic feature for Romania, where the industry has an important share in the GDP, in comparison with the other member states. The international trade balance is an important indicator for measuring the economic competi...

  5. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year-1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.

  6. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  7. The Autism Simplex Collection : an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brownfeld, Jessica M.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Bender, Patrick; Bernier, Raphael; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Freitag, Christine M.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods: In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection ...

  8. Analyse of the international recommendations on the calculation of absorbed dose in the biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the recommendations of ICRP which has as objective the environmental radioprotection. It was analysed the recommendations 26, 60, 91, 103 and 108 of the ICRP. The ICRP-103 defined the concept of animal and plant of reference (APR) to be used in the RAP based on the calculation of absorbed dose based on APR concept. This last view allows to build a legal framework of environmental protection with a etic, moral and scientific visualization, more defensible than the anthropomorphic concept

  9. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses for reducers with constant-depth internal circumferential surface cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Tsai, Bor-Jiun; Chen, Jien-Jong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a 3-D automatic elastic-plastic finite element mesh generator is established to accurately predict the J-integral value of an arbitrary reducer with a constant-depth internal circumferential surface crack under bending and axial force. The contact pairs are used on the crack surfaces to simulate the actual contact behaviors of the crack model under loadings. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed elastic-plastic finite element model for a reducer with a surface crack, the cracked straight pipe models are generated according to a special modeling procedure for a flawed reducer. The J-integral values along the crack front of surface crack are calculated and compared with the straight pipe models which have been verified in the previous published studies. Based on the comparison of computed results, good agreements are obtained to show the accuracy of present numerical models. More confidence on using the 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis for reducers with internal circumferential surface cracks can be thus established in this work

  10. International competence and knowledge studies and attitudes of the Brazilian Management accountant: analyses and reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to understand what the competences of the Management accountant are, compare to international studies and assess the existence of competences to be prioritized. This questioning has as motivation the placements of Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997, IMA (1996 e 1999 and IFAC (2003. The theoretical basis about competences is related to McClelland study (1973, 1998, Boyatzis (1982 and Spencer and Spencer (1993. This research is based on the study of 18 competences about knowledge, skills and attitudes obtained in accountant literature and that have been submitted to 200 Management accountants. Data collection instrument presented a 0.884 Cronbach Alpha. From a factorial analysis and after Kruskal-Wallis test 12 competences were obtained as the most relevant segregated in 3 factors, in comparison to international studies of nine common competences 4 were not considered relevant in statistical tests and only one must be prioritized. Results demonstrate differences between competences required from Brazilian Management accountants and from other countries, being that their reasons is an open-ended question up to the moment.

  11. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  12. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  13. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method

  14. Top flooding modeling with MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet-Thibault, E.; Marguet, S.

    2006-01-01

    An engineering top flooding model was developed in MAAP4.04d.4, the severe accident code used in EDF, to simulate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that should take place if emergency core cooling (ECC) water was injected in hot leg during quenching. In the framework of the ISTC (International Science and Technology Centre), a top flooding test was proposed in the PARAMETER facility (Podolsk, Russia). The MAAP calculation of the PARAMETER top flooding test is presented in this paper. A comparison between top and bottom flooding was made on the bundle test geometry. According to this study, top flooding appears to cool quickly and effectively the upper plenum internals. (author)

  15. The determinants of private flood mitigation measures in Germany - evidence from a nationwide survey

    OpenAIRE

    Osberghaus, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public flood protection cannot totally eliminate the risk of flooding. Hence, private mitigation measures which proactively protect homes from being flooded or reduce flood damage are an essential part of modern flood risk management. This study analyses private flood mitigation measures among German households. The dataset covers more than 6000 households from all parts of the country, including flood plains as well as areas which are typically not at a high risk of riverine flooding. The re...

  16. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  17. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA's) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG

  18. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  19. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency`s (NEA`s) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG.

  20. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  1. RANS Analyses of Turbofan Nozzles with Internal Wedge Deflectors for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the flow field and thrust performance of a promising concept for reducing the noise at take-off of dual-stream turbofan nozzles. The concept, offset stream technology, reduces the jet noise observed on the ground by diverting (offsetting) a portion of the fan flow below the core flow, thickening and lengthening this layer between the high-velocity core flow and the ground observers. In this study a wedge placed in the internal fan stream is used as the diverter. Wind, a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code, was used to analyze the flow field of the exhaust plume and to calculate nozzle performance. Results showed that the wedge diverts all of the fan flow to the lower side of the nozzle, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the observer side of the nozzle is reduced. This reduction in turbulent kinetic energy should correspond to a reduction in noise. However, because all of the fan flow is diverted, the upper portion of the core flow is exposed to the freestream, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the upper side of the nozzle is increased, creating an unintended noise source. The blockage due to the wedge reduces the fan mass flow proportional to its blockage, and the overall thrust is consequently reduced. The CFD predictions are in very good agreement with experimental flow field data, demonstrating that RANS CFD can accurately predict the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy fields. While this initial design of a large scale wedge nozzle did not meet noise reduction or thrust goals, this study identified areas for improvement and demonstrated that RANS CFD can be used to improve the concept.

  2. Analysing the Demography and Migration Related Challenges within the Internal Periphery of South-Heves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Bogardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my study is to perform an analysis with the application of regional statistical data, in order to understand the changes within the number of the population at South-Heves in the past period, and to the reveal its special characteristics compared to regional, national trends. The examined area is a classic internal periphery, a region “hit severely by social, economic and environmental crisis” (according to the draft proposal of Heves county’s regional development concept (2014-2020. Considering such regions, besides the examination of the intention to migrate, it is also important to see who will remain in the region. Experiences show that in case of regions with a more disadvantageous situation than average, generally classes of lower social statuses will become dominant, while as it is described by Győri-Nagy (2003, “the escape of competent classes of the population” can be observed. It results in a contra-selected local society which is unable to retain the young and ambitious. The future of the affected regions, settlements is largely determined by the perspectives perceived by young people who live there, and who shall start their families and careers there in the near future. I have conducted an empirical research amongst high-school students living and studying at South-Heves, focusing on issues such as whether the high-school age-group of this classic periphery is considering migration; if so, then what are the reasons, destinations, and as an important question from the aspect of the national strategy as well, how could these young people who are longing to go elsewhere manage their lives here, and how could we make them stay in their homeland (in a narrow sense. By investigating the intention to migrate, we also receive indirect answers for questions such as how could significant regional differences be reduced, and how could we close the gap in case of the most disadvantageous regions.

  3. Analyses on interaction of internal and external surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder by hybrid boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Guozhong; Fang Zhimin; Jiang Xianfeng; Li Gan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive range of analyses on the interaction of two identical semi-elliptical surface cracks at the internal and external surfaces of a pressurized cylinder. The considered ratios of the crack depth to crack length are b/a=0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0; the ratios of the crack depth to wall thickness of the cylinder are 2b/t=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8. Forty crack configurations are analyzed and the stress intensity factors along the crack front are presented. The numerical results show that for 2b/t<0.7, the interaction leads to a decrease in the stress intensity factors for both internal and external surface cracks, compared with a single internal or external surface crack. Thus for fracture analysis of a practical pressurized cylinder with two identical semi-elliptical surface cracks at its internal and external surfaces, a conservative result is obtained by ignoring the interaction

  4. Proceedings of the international workshop on structural analyses bridging over between amorphous and crystalline materials (SABAC2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki

    2008-07-01

    International workshop entitled 'Structural Analyses Bridging over between Amorphous and Crystalline Materials' (SABAC2008) was held on January 10 and 11, 2007 at Techno Community Square 'RICOTTI' in Tokai. Amorphous and crystalline materials are studied historically by various approaches. Recent industrial functional materials such as optical memory material, thermoelectric material, hydrogen storage material, and ionic conductor have intrinsic atomic disorders in their lattices. These local lattice disorders cannot be studied by conventional crystal structure analyses such as Rietveld analysis. Similar difficulty also exists in the structure analysis of nanomaterials. In the workshop, new approaches to the structural analysis on these materials were discussed. This report includes abstracts and materials of the presentations in the workshop. (author)

  5. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  6. International trends in solid-state lighting : analyses of the article and patent literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Huey, Mark C. (Strategic Perspectives, Incorporated, McLean, VA); Boyack, Kevin W.; Miksovic, Ann E. (Strategic Perspectives, Incorporated, McLean, VA)

    2008-07-01

    We present an analysis of the literature of solid-state lighting, based on a comprehensive dataset of 35,851 English-language articles and 12,420 U.S. patents published or issued during the years 1977-2004 in the foundational knowledge domain of electroluminescent materials and phenomena. The dataset was created using a complex, iteratively developed search string. The records in the dataset were then partitioned according to: whether they are articles or patents, their publication or issue date, their national or continental origin, whether the active electroluminescent material was inorganic or organic, and which of a number of emergent knowledge sub-domains they aggregate into on the basis of bibliographic coupling. From these partitionings, we performed a number of analyses, including: identification of knowledge sub-domains of historical and recent importance, and trends over time of the contributions of various nations and continents to the knowledge domain and its sub-domains. Among the key results: (1) The knowledge domain as a whole has been growing quickly: the average growth rates of the inorganic and organic knowledge sub-domains have been 8%/yr and 25%/yr, respectively, compared to average growth rates less than 5%/yr for English-language articles and U.S. patents in other knowledge domains. The growth rate of the organic knowledge sub-domain is so high that its historical dominance by the inorganic knowledge sub-domain will, at current trajectories, be reversed in the coming decade. (2) Amongst nations, the U.S. is the largest contributor to the overall knowledge domain, but Japan is on a trajectory to become the largest contributor within the coming half-decade. Amongst continents, Asia became the largest contributor during the past half-decade, overwhelmingly so for the organic knowledge sub-domain. (3) The relative contributions to the article and patent datasets differ for the major continents: North America contributing relatively more patents

  7. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  8. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  9. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  10. Forensic analyses of explosion debris from the January 2, 1992 Pd/D2O electrochemistry incident at SRI International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Whipple, R.; Vandervoort, D.; Grant, P.

    1992-01-01

    The January 2, 1992 explosion in an electrochemistry laboratory at SRI International (SRI) resulted in the death of scientist Andrew Riley, and gained some notoriety due to its association with experimental work in the controversial field of cold fusion research. Selected components of explosion debris were subjected to forensic analyses at LLNL to elucidate potential causes of, or contributing factors to, the explosion. Interrogation of the debris by LLNL encompassed nuclear, chemical, physical, and materials investigations. Nuclear studies for the determination of tritium and neutron-activation products in stainless steel and brass were negative. No evidence of signature species indicative of orthodox nuclear events was detected. The inorganic and particulate analyses were likewise negative with respect to residues of unexpected chemical species. Such target compounds included conventional explosives, accelerants, propellants, or any exceptional industrial chemicals. The GC-MS analyses of trace organic components in the explosion debris provided perhaps the most interesting results obtained at LLNL. Although no evidence of organic explosives, oxidizers, or other unusual compounds was detected, the presence of a hydrocarbon oil in the interior of the electrochemical cell was established. It is likely that its source was lubricating fluid from the machining of the metal cell components. If residues of organic oils are present during electrolysis experiments, the potential exists for an explosive reaction in the increasingly enriched oxygen atmosphere within the headspace of a metal cell

  11. Climate-driven trends in the occurrence of major floods across North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Renard, Benjamin; Stahl, Kerstin; Fleig, Anne K.; Madsen, Henrik; Mediero, Luis; Korhonen, Johanna; Murphy, Conor; Crochet, Philippe; Wilson, Donna

    2016-04-01

    long-term variability in the number of major floods, annual exceedances of 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods during the last 50 - 80 years are estimated for all study gauges across North America and Europe, and for smaller groups of gauges defined by catchment size, location, climate, flood threshold, and period of record. Trends are computed using logistic regression techniques, supported by a suite of methods used to test the assumptions used in the analysis. We also analyse relationships between major flood occurrence and atmosphere/ocean indices (the AMO, NAO, PDO and SOI). Our analysis finds no compelling evidence for consistent changes over time in major-flood occurrence across North America and Europe, indicating that generalizations about major-flood occurrence trends across large domains or a diversity of catchment types are ungrounded. There are in fact more significant relationships between major-flood occurrence and the AMO than between flood occurrence and time. Flood occurrence overall (based on data from all 1204 gauges in our study) increased from 1961 to 2010 but not significantly, driven primarily by European increases. Non-significant increases were also found overall from 1931 to 2010 (322 gauges) but driven primarily by North American increases. Flood occurrence increased and decreased (including some significant changes) for the various sub-groups of gauges. Overall this study demonstrates that past changes in major-flood occurrence are highly complex and future changes will be likewise. International hydrologic networks containing minimally altered catchments will play a key role in understanding these complexities.

  12. The Enhancement of Regional Disaster Management Agencies (BPBD of Sumbawa Regency’s Capability in Flash Flood Management Through Aid Assistance of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudia Vebina Ayumahani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for enhancing capability has a very important significance in effective disaster management activities. Regional Disaster Management Agencies (BPBD of Sumbawa Regency established cooperation with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA in enhancing the capability of flash flood management. The purpose of this research was to review and evaluate the JICA’s aid assistance programs toward BPBD of Sumbawa Regency, hereafter analyze the impact of the programs. Evaluation and analysis of this research were measured by three indicators of capability which is resources, leadership and policy implementation. This research used a qualitative descriptive method and proceed through the source and method triangulation. The researcher used purposive sampling technique in choosing seven informants from BPBD of Sumbawa Regency’s staff. The results showed that JICA’s aid assistance programs towards BPBD of Sumbawa Regency had been achieved by the targets and goals that have been determined. This program has impacted on enhancing the capability of resources that leads to the ability in Mapping, Technical Guidelines (JUKNIS and Disaster Management Plan (RPB. Increasing the capability of Human Resources (HR gives the effect of increasing capability in other fields such as financial resource capability, technical resource capability, leadership capability and policy implementation capability. The main factors in the success of the capability enhancement are the discipline factor of BPBD staff, high willingness to improve capability by BPBD staff, capability- enhancing programs, and clear direction from JICA.

  13. Proceedings of the international conference on mathematics and computations, reactor physics, and environmental analyses. Volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The International Conference on Mathematics and Computations, Reactor Physics, and Environmental Analyses marks the sixteenth biennial topical meeting of the Mathematics and Computation (M ampersand C) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). This conference combines many traditional features of M ampersand C conferences with several new aspects. The meeting is, for the first time, being held in Portland, Oregon and sponsored by the ANS Eastern Washington Section. Three of the cosponsors - the ANS Reactor Physics Division, the European Nuclear Society, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan - have participated in a series of such meetings, with very successful results. The fourth cosponsor, the ANS Environmental Science Division, is participating for the first time as a cosponsor of a M ampersand C topical meeting, as a result of the M ampersand C Division's decision to formally include the area of environmental analyses as a major focus of the conference, another 'first.' Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for contributions to this conference

  14. Strengthening insurance partnerships in the face of climate change - Insights from an agent-based model of flood insurance in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Florence; Jenkins, Katie; Surminski, Swenja

    2018-04-25

    Multisectoral partnerships are increasingly cited as a mechanism to deliver and improve disaster risk management. Yet, partnerships are not a panacea and more research is required to understand the role that they can play in disaster risk management and particularly disaster risk reduction. This paper investigates how partnerships can incentivise flood risk reduction by focusing on the UK public-private partnership on flood insurance. Developing the right flood insurance arrangements to incentivise flood risk reduction and adaptation to climate change is a key challenge. In the face of rising flood risks due to climate change and socio-economic development insurance partnerships can no longer afford to focus only on the risk transfer function. However, while expectations of the insurance industry have traditionally been high when it comes to flood risk management, the insurance industry alone will not provide the solution to the challenge of rising risks. The case of flood insurance in the UK illustrates this: even national government and industry together cannot fully address these risks and other actors need to be involved to create strong incentives for risk reduction. Using an agent-based model focused on surface water flood risk in London we analyse how other partners could strengthen the insurance partnership by reducing flood risk and thus helping to maintain affordable insurance premiums. Our findings are relevant for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and also internationally. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hydrological and meteorological aspects of floods in the Alps: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Bacchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This introductory paper presents and summarises recent research on meteorological and hydrological aspects of floods in the Alps. The research activities were part of the international research project RAPHAEL (Runoff and Atmospheric Processes for flood HAzard forEcasting and controL together with experiments within the Special Observing Period-SOP conducted in autumn 1999 for the Mesoscale Alpine Programme —MAP. The investigations were based on both field experiments and numerical simulations, using meteorological and hydrological models, of ten major floods that occurred in the past decade in the European Alps. The two basins investigated were the Ticino (6599 km2 at the Lago Maggiore outlet on the southern side of the Alps and the Ammer catchment (709 km2 in the Bavarian Alps. These catchments and their sub-catchments cover an appropriate range of spatial scales with which to investigate and test in an operational context the potential of both mesoscale meteorological and distributed hydrological models for flood forecasting. From the data analyses and model simulations described in this Special Issue, the major sources of uncertainties for flood forecasts in mid-size mountain basins are outlined and the accuracy flood forecasts is assessed. Keywords: floods, mountain hydrology, meteorological models, Alps

  16. Evaluating the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of hospital anxiety and depression scale in Iranian infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a common screening tool designed to measure the level of anxiety and depression in different factor structures and has been extensively used in non-psychiatric populations and individuals experiencing fertility problems. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of HADS in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 651 infertile patients (248 men and 403 women referred to a referral infertility Center in Tehran, Iran between January 2014 and January 2015. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure of the HADS among one, two, and threefactor models. Several goodness of fit indices were utilized such as comparative, normed and goodness of fit indices, Akaike information criterion, and the root mean squared error of approximation. In addition to HADS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaires as well as demographic and clinical information were administered to all patients. Results: The goodness of fit indices through CFAs exposed that three and onefactor model provided the best and worst fit to the total, male and female datasets compared to the other factor structure models for the infertile patients. The Cronbach’s alpha for anxiety and depression subscales were 0.866 and 0.753 respectively. The HADS subscales significantly correlated with SWLS, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Conclusion: The HADS was found to be a three-factor structure screening instrument in the field of infertility.

  17. Falsire: CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments (Phase 1). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE) is presented. Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear vessel components. The aim of the Project FALSIRE was to assess various fracture methodologies through interpretive analyses of selected large-scale fracture experiments. The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included engineering and finite-element methods, which were combined with Jr fracture methodology and the French local approach. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading, are given, and recommendations for future development of fracture methodologies are made

  18. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    , educational level, morphological significance of the syllable closed by the liquid phoneme, position of the syllable closed by the liquid phoneme relative to stress placement, voicing specification, manner of articulation, and place of articulation of the surface realization of the immediately-following onset. Qualitative acoustic analyses of the 1,895 tokens of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ (n=469) and /[Special character omitted]/ (n=1,426) extracted from the corpus of informal data demonstrated seven allophones for the lateral liquid phoneme (O, [l], [d[Special character omitted

  19. Floods and droughts on the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzenna Sztobryn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses floods and droughts on the lower Vistula based on the data (water levels and flow rates recorded in stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB in Warsaw, Kępa Polska, Toruń and Tczew. It also includes the causes of flooding and drought in the lower Vistula with the hydrological characteristics from the years 1951–2010. The variability in maximum and minimum annual and monthly flow rates has been analysed for the aforementioned period as well. In addition, the authors have analysed changes in the shape of the flood wave after passing through the reservoir and cascade in Włocławek based on the hydrograph of May and June 2010. It has been found that the flood wave is flattened and extended. This phenomenon is favourable from the point of view of flood actions.

  20. RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

  1. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  2. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  3. Return period assessment of urban pluvial floods through modelling of rainfall–flood response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuyls, Damian Murla; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2018-01-01

    Intense rainfall in urban areas can often generate severe flood impacts. Consequently, it is crucial to design systems to minimize potential flood damages. Traditional, simple design of urban drainage systems assumes agreement between rainfall return period and its consequent flood return period......; however, this does not always apply. Hydraulic infrastructures found in urban drainage systems can increase system heterogeneity and perturb the impact of severe rainfall response. In this study, a surface flood return period assessment was carried out at Lystrup (Denmark), which has received the impact...... of flooding in recent years. A 35 years' rainfall dataset together with a coupled 1D/2D surface and network model was used to analyse and assess flood return period response. Results show an ambiguous relation between rainfall and flood return periods indicating that linear rainfall–runoff relationships will...

  4. Evaluation of Flood Level under Main Feedwater Line Break Accident using GOTHIC Computer Code and Analytical Calculation by ANSI 56.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Jae Won; Jeon, Woo Jae [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The design basis internal flooding is caused by postulated pipe ruptures or component failures. The flooding can cause failure of safety-related equipment and affect the integrity of the structure. Though large diameter pipe rupture is significant in flooding analysis, split breaks should also be considered with consideration of a spectrum of pipe break size and power level. The pipe rupture analysis should be based on the most severe single active failure. For enveloping spectrum of pipe break condition, flood relief paths are necessary and passive flood protection without operating action, basically, shall be applied. In this study, the evaluation of flood level in case of Main Feedwater Line Break (MFLB) was performed by using GOTHIC computer program and hand calculation. The flooding analyses were performed by hand calculation and GOTHIC analysis for an assumed MFLB condition. The calculated flood levels were 0.823m and 0.691m for hand calculation and GOTHIC analysis, respectively. In comparison to the GOTHIC analysis, hand calculation showed conservative results. However, in actual flood protection design, margin for uncertainty shall be considered, in order to reflect the outflow reducing effect due to vortex and intake of air.

  5. Evaluation of Flood Level under Main Feedwater Line Break Accident using GOTHIC Computer Code and Analytical Calculation by ANSI 56.11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Jae Won; Jeon, Woo Jae

    2016-01-01

    The design basis internal flooding is caused by postulated pipe ruptures or component failures. The flooding can cause failure of safety-related equipment and affect the integrity of the structure. Though large diameter pipe rupture is significant in flooding analysis, split breaks should also be considered with consideration of a spectrum of pipe break size and power level. The pipe rupture analysis should be based on the most severe single active failure. For enveloping spectrum of pipe break condition, flood relief paths are necessary and passive flood protection without operating action, basically, shall be applied. In this study, the evaluation of flood level in case of Main Feedwater Line Break (MFLB) was performed by using GOTHIC computer program and hand calculation. The flooding analyses were performed by hand calculation and GOTHIC analysis for an assumed MFLB condition. The calculated flood levels were 0.823m and 0.691m for hand calculation and GOTHIC analysis, respectively. In comparison to the GOTHIC analysis, hand calculation showed conservative results. However, in actual flood protection design, margin for uncertainty shall be considered, in order to reflect the outflow reducing effect due to vortex and intake of air

  6. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study

  7. Extreme precipitation and floods in the Iberian Peninsula and its socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Pereira, S.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula can induce floods and landslides that have often major socio-economic impacts. The DISASTER database gathered the basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015. This database was built under the assumption that social consequences of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported by newspapers, that provide the data source. Three extreme historical events were analysed in detail taking into account their associated wide socio-economic impacts. The December 1876 record precipitation and flood event leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers (Tagus and Guadiana). As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. The 20-28 December 1909 event recorded the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2015, having triggered the highest floods in 200 years at the Douro river's mouth and causing 89 fatalities in both Portugal and Spain northern regions. More recently the deadliest flash-flooding event affecting Portugal since, at least, the early 19th century, took place on the 25 and 26 November 1967 causing more than 500 fatalities in the Lisbon region. We provide a detailed analysis of each of these events, including their human impacts, precipitation analyses based on historical datasets and the associated atmospheric circulation conditions from reanalysis datasets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces and application for land use planning [PTDC / ATPGEO / 1660/2014] funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/ SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). The financial support for attending

  8. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  9. Estimation of initiating event frequency for external flood events by extreme value theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sourajyoti; Ganguly, Rimpi; Hari, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    External flood is an important common cause initiating event in nuclear power plants (NPPs). It may potentially lead to severe core damage (SCD) by first causing the failure of the systems required for maintaining the heat sinks and then by contributing to failures of engineered systems designed to mitigate such failures. The sample NPP taken here is twin 220 MWe Indian standard pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) situated inland. A comprehensive in-house Level-1 internal event PSA for full power had already been performed. External flood assessment was further conducted in area of external hazard risk assessment in response to post-Fukushima measures taken in nuclear industries. The present paper describes the methodology to calculate initiating event (IE) frequency for external flood events for the sample inland Indian NPP. General extreme value (GEV) theory based on maximum likelihood method (MLM) and order statistics approach (OSA) is used to analyse the rainfall data for the site. Thousand-year return level and necessary return periods for extreme rainfall are evaluated. These results along with plant-specific topographical calculations quantitatively establish that external flooding resulting from upstream dam break, river flooding and heavy rainfall (flash flood) would be unlikely for the sample NPP in consideration.

  10. Proposal for the establishment of an international project to analyse the safety of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The discussion of the basic principles underlying waste disposal and the analysis of associated long-term risks appears to be areas where international co-operation offers great promise and meets with almost universal interest. An authoritative analysis and the development of an internationally agreed philosophy about waste disposal might even go a long way towards easing the apprehension expressed by part of the public in regard to nuclear energy

  11. Differences in reporting of analyses in internal company documents versus published trial reports: comparisons in industry-sponsored trials in off-label uses of gabapentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Swaroop Vedula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Details about the type of analysis (e.g., intent to treat [ITT] and definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in the analysis are necessary for interpreting a clinical trial's findings. Our objective was to compare the description of types of analyses and criteria for including participants in the publication (i.e., what was reported with descriptions in the corresponding internal company documents (i.e., what was planned and what was done. Trials were for off-label uses of gabapentin sponsored by Pfizer and Parke-Davis, and documents were obtained through litigation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each trial, we compared internal company documents (protocols, statistical analysis plans, and research reports, all unpublished, with publications. One author extracted data and another verified, with a third person verifying discordant items and a sample of the rest. Extracted data included the number of participants randomized and analyzed for efficacy, and types of analyses for efficacy and safety and their definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in each type of analysis. We identified 21 trials, 11 of which were published randomized controlled trials, and that provided the documents needed for planned comparisons. For three trials, there was disagreement on the number of randomized participants between the research report and publication. Seven types of efficacy analyses were described in the protocols, statistical analysis plans, and publications, including ITT and six others. The protocol or publication described ITT using six different definitions, resulting in frequent disagreements between the two documents (i.e., different numbers of participants were included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptions of analyses conducted did not agree between internal company documents and what was publicly reported. Internal company documents provide extensive documentation of methods planned and used, and trial

  12. Simulating Catchment Scale Afforestation for Mitigating Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. S.; Bathurst, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.; Birkinshaw, S.

    2016-12-01

    After the 2013-14, and the more recent 2015-16, winter floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management practice remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. This project aims to improve the understanding of the impacts of upland afforestation on flood risk at the sub-catchment and full catchment scales. This will be achieved through an integrated fieldwork and modelling approach, with the use of a series of process based hydrological models to scale up and examine the effects forestry can have on flooding. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, catchment system engineering and the installation of runoff attenuation features (RAFs), such as engineered log jams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. Additionally, the proportion of a catchment or riparian reach that would need to be forested in order to achieve a significant impact on reducing downstream flooding will be defined. The consequential impacts of a corresponding reduction in agriculturally productive farmland and the potential decline of water resource availability will also be considered in order to safeguard the UK's food security and satisfy the global demand on water resources.

  13. Parental Flooding During Conflict: A Psychometric Evaluation of a New Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; Lorber, Michael F; Slep, Amy M Smith; Malik, Jill; Heyman, Richard E; Foran, Heather M

    2016-11-01

    Parents who are overwhelmed by the intensity and aversive nature of child negative affect - those who are experiencing flooding - may be less likely to react effectively and instead may focus on escaping the aversive situation, disciplining either overly permissively or punitively to escape quickly from child negative affect. However, there are no validated self-report measures of the degree to which parents experience flooding, impeding the exploration of these relations. Thus, we created and evaluated the Parent Flooding scale (PFS), assessing the extent to which parents believe their children's negative affect during parent-child conflicts is unexpected, overwhelming and distressing. We studied its factorial validity, reliability, and concurrent validity in a community sample of 453 couples with 3- to 7-year-old children (51.9 % girls) recruited via random digit dialing. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated a one-factor solution with excellent internal consistency. Test-retest stability over an average of 5.6 months was high. Concurrent validity was suggested by the associations of flooding with parents' aggression toward their children, overreactive and lax discipline, parenting satisfaction, and parents' anger, as well as with child externalizing behavior and negative affect. Incrementally concurrent validity analyses indicated that flooding was a unique predictor of mothers' and fathers' overreactive discipline and fathers' parent-child aggression and lax discipline, over and above the contributions of parents' anger and children's negative affect. The present results support the psychometric validity of the PFS.

  14. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; CFD RSRM Full-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.

  15. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  16. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  17. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  18. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  19. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  20. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Lindbergh, S.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Zaragoza, A.

    2009-09-01

    A database with information about the social impact produced by all the flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. Original information comes from the INUNGAMA database (1900-2000) presented by Barnolas and Llasat (2007), the PRESSGAMA database (1982-2007) (Llasat et al., in rev.) and information from different published works (Barriendos et al, 2003; Barriendos and Pomés, 1993). Social impact has been obtained systematically in basis to news press data and, occasionally, in basis to insurance data. Flood events have been classified in ordinary floods, extraordinary floods and catastrophic ones, following the proposal of Llasat et al (2005). However, having in mind the flash floods effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damages have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analysed. Results have been compared with those obtained for the period 1900-2000 (Barnolas and Llasat, 2007) and 1350-2000 (Barrera et al, 2006). In order to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability some indicators have been defined and analyzed for some specific cases and a specific region. Besides the indicators applied in the INUNCAT Plan to obtain a cartography of flood risk in Catalonia, other ones like the number of cars affected or the number of request received by the meteorological service, has been also taken into account. These indicators allow analyzing global and temporal trends as well as characterizing the events. The selected region has been the Maresme, which is a flood prone region with a great density of population and that experiences every year one or more flash floods. The annual number of floods shows a positive trend that cannot be justified by the rainfall trend. Both vulnerability and hazard components have been considered and a discussion about the flood prevention measures is presented. The third part of this work has been centred in the analysis and

  1. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  3. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  4. Keurbooms Estuary floods and sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart H. Schumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Keurbooms Estuary at Plettenberg Bay lies on a wave-dominated, microtidal coast. It has a dune-topped sandy barrier, or barrier dune, almost 4 km long, with a narrow back-barrier lagoon connected to its source rivers, the Keurbooms and Bitou. The estuary exits to the sea through this barrier dune, and it is the geomorphology and mouth position in relation to floods, which is the subject of this paper. Measurements of rainfall, water level, waves and high- and low-tide water lines were used to analyse the mouth variability over the years 2006–2012. Two major floods occurred during this time, with the first in November 2007 eroding away more than 500 000 m3 of sediment. The new mouth was established at the Lookout Rocks limit – the first time since 1915. The second flood occurred in July 2012 and opened up a new mouth about 1 km to the north-east; high waves also affected the position of the breach. The mouth has a tendency to migrate southwards against the longshore drift, but at any stage this movement can be augmented or reversed. The effectiveness of floods in breaching a new mouth through the barrier dune depends on the flood size and the nature of the exit channel in the back-barrier lagoon. Other factors such as ocean waves, sea level, vegetative state of the dune and duration of the flood are also important and can determine where the breach occurs, and if the new mouth will dominate the old mouth.

  5. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences : Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Jonkman, S.N.; Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an

  6. JC2Sat-FF : An International Collaboration Nano-Sat Project Overview of the System Analyses and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, K.; van Mierlo, M.; Ng, A.; Shankar Kumar, B.; De Ruiter, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Horiguchi, H.; Hashimoto, H.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces the Japan Canada Joint Collaboration Satellites - Formation Flying (JC2Sat-FF) project. JC2Sat-FF is a joint project between the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) with the end goal of building, launching and operating two 20kg- class nanosatellites for technical demonstration of formation flight (FF) using differential drag technique, relative navigation using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) dual band GPS receivers and far infra-red radiance measurement. A unique aspect of this project is that the two JC2Sats are developed by a united small team consisting of engineers and researchers from both agencies. Technical exchange in this international team gives stimulation to the members and generates a synergistic effect for the project.

  7. ISP 22 OECD/NEA/CSNI International standard problem n. 22. Evaluation of post-test analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The present report deals with the open re-evaluation of the originally double-blind CSNI International Standard Problem 22 based on the test SP-FW-02 performed in the SPES facility. The SPES apparatus is an experimental simulator of the Westinghouse PWR-PUN plant. The test SP-FW-02 (ISP22) simulates a complete loss of feedwater with delayed injection of auxiliary feedwater. The main parts of the report are: outline of the test facility and of the SP-FW-02 experiment; overview of pre-test activities; overview of input models used by post-test participants; evaluation of participant predictions; evaluation of qualitative and quantitative code accuracy of pre-test and post-test calculations

  8. [The most cited themes in the research in the field of Mental Health: analyses of six international nursing and medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, Laura; Fredo, Susanna; Bernini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The review aimed to identify and analyse the future development on the topic by analysing the main themes discussed in number of scientific journal focused on Mental Health both by nurses and physicians.. 4 international journals focused on Mental health and psychiatry International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, American Journal of Psychiatry, Australian and New Zeland Journal of Psychiatry as well as two journal focused generically on health, Journal of Advanced Nursing and Lancet were scrutinized. We have analysed the papers of 2012-2015 for the specialised journals and last and first 6 months of 2012 and 2013 and 2014-2015 for the generic. Editorials, comments and contributions regarding theoretical models were exluded. From the analysis we identified 9 themes and for each theme the pertinent category. For the diagnostic grouping we used the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision. A trend in research about mood disorders, schizophrenia and addictions and comorbidity emerged according to the 2099 abstracts analysed. Within medical research antidepressants were the most studied psychotropic medication and cognitive behaviour therapy was the most studied psychotherapy. Within nursing research: the nurse-patient relationship, adherence and monitoring of pharmacological therapy, the treatment planning and the working environment, the nursing training and its efficacy. The clinical research trials were twice as frequent in the medical versus nursing research where qualitative research prevails. The research challenge will be to find a new paradigm fit for the future psychiatry having at its disposition the patient's genoma, and needing to routinely use biomarkers for a personalised therapy. A further challenge might be the promotion of interprofessional research between doctors and nurses and the acquisition of new competences of health professionals needed to tackle the

  9. Round-robin pretest analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model subject to static internal pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1987-05-01

    Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test

  10. Energy management as a factor of success. International comparative analysis of energy management systems standards; Energiemanagement als Erfolgsfaktor. International vergleichende Analyse von Energiemanagementnormen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenborn, Walter; Knopf, Jutta; Richter, Ina [adelphi research, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    This report outlines the current state of standardised energy management systems (EnMSs) worldwide whose aim is to promote energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The core intention of the study is to identify the potential of EnMSs for German energy efficiency policy. The study examines the experiences of countries that can be defined as front runners in this context, such as the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland and the USA. Further input was taken from recently completed, and still ongoing, development processes of national standards. Data were generated from an intensive literature review as well as interviews with experts. Central to the analysis are questions of characteristics as well as the effectiveness of national energy management standards. In addition, political frameworks (i.e. voluntary agreements), financial tools (i.e. subsidies) and other measures of assistance (i.e. capacity building) supporting the implementation of an EnMS were analysed. The study concludes with a comparison of findings from the country-by-country analysis and provides recommendations for the effective implementation of EnMS in Germany. As part of the entire project adelphi produced a manual on the use of EN 16001 which has been published by BMU/UBA. (orig.)

  11. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  12. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  13. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  15. FLOOD MENACE IN KADUNA METROPOLIS: IMPACTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    damage, causes of flooding, human response to flooding and severity of ... from moving out. Source of ... Man responds to flood hazards through adjustment, flood abatement ... action to minimize or ameliorate flood hazards; flood abatement.

  16. Analyses of the internal structure of the oscillating vibro-packed fuels by the micro focus X-rays CT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Yasutoshi

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to support the development of vibro-packed fuel technology at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. 3-dimensional (3-D) data was built from the multi-cross sectional images obtained by the micro focus X-rays CT method in the vibro-packed fuel models. The structural analyses were carried out about the obtained 3-D CT images. The packing-rate distribution and the density distribution were measured as well as the number distribution of particles, etc. Consequently, it is obtained that vibrate conditions and a vibrating state have strong correlation, and it is also shown that the 3-D analyses of the internal structure by the micro focus X-rays CT method are effective in performance evaluation of vibro-packed fuels. (author)

  17. Radiotoxicological analyses of 239+240Pu and 241Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M.

    2006-01-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium

  18. Two-dimensional Model of Ciliwung River Flood in DKI Jakarta for Development of the Regional Flood Index Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Formánek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present a sophisticated method of developing supporting material for flood control implementation in DKI Jakarta. High flow rates in the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta regularly causes extensive flooding in the rainy season. The affected area comprises highly densely populated villages. For developing an efficient early warning system in view of decreasing the vulnerability of the locations a flood index map has to be available. This study analyses the development of a flood risk map of the inundation area based on a two-dimensional modeling using FESWMS. The reference event used for the model was the most recent significant flood in 2007. The resulting solution represents flood characteristics such as inundation area, inundation depth and flow velocity. Model verification was performed by confrontation of the results with survey data. The model solution was overlaid with a street map of Jakarta. Finally, alternatives for flood mitigation measures are discussed.

  19. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  20. Flood maps in Europe - methods, availability and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, H.; van Alphen, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2009-03-01

    To support the transition from traditional flood defence strategies to a flood risk management approach at the basin scale in Europe, the EU has adopted a new Directive (2007/60/EC) at the end of 2007. One of the major tasks which member states must carry out in order to comply with this Directive is to map flood hazards and risks in their territory, which will form the basis of future flood risk management plans. This paper gives an overview of existing flood mapping practices in 29 countries in Europe and shows what maps are already available and how such maps are used. Roughly half of the countries considered have maps covering as good as their entire territory, and another third have maps covering significant parts of their territory. Only five countries have very limited or no flood maps available yet. Of the different flood maps distinguished, it appears that flood extent maps are the most commonly produced floods maps (in 23 countries), but flood depth maps are also regularly created (in seven countries). Very few countries have developed flood risk maps that include information on the consequences of flooding. The available flood maps are mostly developed by governmental organizations and primarily used for emergency planning, spatial planning, and awareness raising. In spatial planning, flood zones delimited on flood maps mainly serve as guidelines and are not binding. Even in the few countries (e.g. France, Poland) where there is a legal basis to regulate floodplain developments using flood zones, practical problems are often faced which reduce the mitigating effect of such binding legislation. Flood maps, also mainly extent maps, are also created by the insurance industry in Europe and used to determine insurability, differentiate premiums, or to assess long-term financial solvency. Finally, flood maps are also produced by international river commissions. With respect to the EU Flood Directive, many countries already have a good starting point to map

  1. Flood maps in Europe – methods, availability and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. J. H. Aerts

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To support the transition from traditional flood defence strategies to a flood risk management approach at the basin scale in Europe, the EU has adopted a new Directive (2007/60/EC at the end of 2007. One of the major tasks which member states must carry out in order to comply with this Directive is to map flood hazards and risks in their territory, which will form the basis of future flood risk management plans. This paper gives an overview of existing flood mapping practices in 29 countries in Europe and shows what maps are already available and how such maps are used. Roughly half of the countries considered have maps covering as good as their entire territory, and another third have maps covering significant parts of their territory. Only five countries have very limited or no flood maps available yet. Of the different flood maps distinguished, it appears that flood extent maps are the most commonly produced floods maps (in 23 countries, but flood depth maps are also regularly created (in seven countries. Very few countries have developed flood risk maps that include information on the consequences of flooding. The available flood maps are mostly developed by governmental organizations and primarily used for emergency planning, spatial planning, and awareness raising. In spatial planning, flood zones delimited on flood maps mainly serve as guidelines and are not binding. Even in the few countries (e.g. France, Poland where there is a legal basis to regulate floodplain developments using flood zones, practical problems are often faced which reduce the mitigating effect of such binding legislation. Flood maps, also mainly extent maps, are also created by the insurance industry in Europe and used to determine insurability, differentiate premiums, or to assess long-term financial solvency. Finally, flood maps are also produced by international river commissions. With respect to the EU Flood Directive, many countries already have a good starting

  2. Risk-trading in flood management: An economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung Ting

    2017-09-15

    Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence. This article explores how internalization of externalities as well as the realization of integrated river basin management can be encouraged via the use of a market-based approach, namely a flood risk trading program. In addition to maintaining efficiency of optimal resource allocation, a flood risk trading program may also provide a more equitable distribution of benefits by facilitating decentralization. This article employs a graphical analysis to show how flood risk trading can be implemented to encourage mitigation measures that increase infiltration and storage capacity. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate the economic conditions necessary for flood risk trading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolutionary leap in large-scale flood risk assessment needed

    OpenAIRE

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Bates, Paul D.; de Bruijn, Karin; Castellarin, Attilio; Kreibich, Heidi; Priest, Sally J.; Schröter, Kai; Bagli, Stefano; Blöschl, Günter; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Gouldby, Ben; Klijn, Frans; Lammersen, Rita; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Ridder, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems and socio-economic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. However, reliable risk estimates are required for prioritizing national investments in flood risk mitigation or for appraisal and management of insura...

  4. Flood Risk Characterization for the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J. A.; Ntelekos, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical cyclones landfalling in the eastern United States pose a major risk for insured property and can lead to extensive damage through storm surge flooding, inland flooding or extreme windspeeds. Current hurricane cat-models do not include calculations of inland flooding from the outer rainfall bands of tropical cyclones but the issue is becoming increasingly important for commercial insurance risk assessment. The results of this study could be used to feed into the next generation of hurricane cat-models and assist in the calculation of damages from inland hurricane flood damage. Annual maximum peak discharge records from more than 400 stations in the eastern United States with at least 75 years of record to examine the role of landfalling tropical cyclones in controlling the upper tail of inland flood risk for the eastern United States. In addition to examining tropical cyclone inland flood risk at specific locations, the spatial extent of extreme flooding from lanfalling tropical cyclones is analyzed. Analyses of temporal trends and abrupt changes in the mean and variance of annual flood peaks are performed. Change-point analysis is performed using the non-parametric Pettitt test. Two non-parametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests and one parametric (Pearson) test are applied to detect the presence of temporal trends. Flood risk characterization centers on assessments of the spatial variation in "upper tail" properties of annual flood peak distributions. The modeling framework for flood frequency analysis is provided by the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS).

  5. Spatiotemporal aspects of flood exposure in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röthlisberger Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While flood hazard mapping in Switzerland is close to completion, only a limited number of studies have been specifically conducted on exposure and vulnerability. We fill this knowledge gap by conducting a nation-wide study of flood exposure of buildings in Switzerland. Therefore, we generate a country-wide comprehensive and homogenous data set of polygons of residential buildings and their period of construction and overlay these building polygons with compiled and harmonized flood hazard maps provided by the Swiss cantons. In this paper we present first results of spatiotemporal analyses, namely the evolution of exposure from 1919 to 2012. Surprising is the increase in the share of exposure of new constructed buildings since the 1980s which contradicts the indented effects of the Swiss flood risk management strategies and calls for further investigations.

  6. Psychometric analyses and internal consistency of the PHEEM questionnaire to measure the clinical learning environment in the clerkship of a Medical School in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Arnoldo; Herrera, Cristian; Aranis, Carolina; Oporto, Jorge; Padilla, Oslando

    2009-06-01

    The Spanish version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) was evaluated in this study to determine its psychometric properties, validity and internal consistency to measure the clinical learning environment in the hospital setting of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Medical School's Internship. The 40-item PHEEM questionnaire was translated from English to Spanish and retranslated to English. Content validity was tested by a focus group and minor differences in meaning were adjusted. The PHEEM was administered to clerks in years 6 and 7. Construct validity was carried out using exploratory factor analysis followed by a Varimax rotation. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. A total of 125 out of 220 students responded to the PHEEM. The overall response rate was 56.8% and compliances with each item ranged from 99.2% to 100%. Analyses indicate that five factors instrument accounting for 58% of the variance and internal consistency of the 40-item questionnaire is 0.955 (Cronbach's alpha). The 40-item questionnaire had a mean score of 98.21 +/- 21.2 (maximum score of 160). The Spanish version of PHEEM is a multidimensional, valid and highly reliable instrument measuring the educational environment among undergraduate medical students working in hospital-based clerkships.

  7. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  8. Design flood hydrographs from the relationship between flood peak and volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mediero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological frequency analyses are usually focused on flood peaks. Flood volumes and durations have not been studied as extensively, although there are many practical situations, such as when designing a dam, in which the full hydrograph is of interest. A flood hydrograph may be described by a multivariate function of the peak, volume and duration. Most standard bivariate and trivariate functions do not produce univariate three-parameter functions as marginal distributions, however, three-parameter functions are required to fit highly skewed data, such as flood peak and flood volume series. In this paper, the relationship between flood peak and hydrograph volume is analysed to overcome this problem. A Monte Carlo experiment was conducted to generate an ensemble of hydrographs that maintain the statistical properties of marginal distributions of the peaks, volumes and durations. This ensemble can be applied to determine the Design Flood Hydrograph (DFH for a reservoir, which is not a unique hydrograph, but rather a curve in the peak-volume space. All hydrographs on that curve have the same return period, which can be understood as the inverse of the probability to exceed a certain water level in the reservoir in any given year. The procedure can also be applied to design the length of the spillway crest in terms of the risk of exceeding a given water level in the reservoir.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Flood modeling of upper Citarum River under Extreme Flood Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on how to approach the numerical method and computation to analyse flood parameters. Water level and flood discharge are the flood parameters solved by numerical methods approach. Numerical method performed on this paper for unsteady flow conditions have strengths and weaknesses, among others easily applied to the following cases in which the boundary irregular flow. The study area is in upper Citarum Watershed, Bandung, West Java. This paper uses computation approach with Force2 programming and HEC-RAS to solve the flow problem in upper Citarum River, to investigate and forecast extreme flood condition. Numerical analysis based on extreme flood events that have occurred in the upper Citarum watershed. The result of water level parameter modeling and extreme flood discharge compared with measurement data to analyse validation. The inundation area about flood that happened in 2010 is about 75.26 square kilometres. Comparing two-method show that the FEM analysis with Force2 programs has the best approach to validation data with Nash Index is 0.84 and HEC-RAS that is 0.76 for water level. For discharge data Nash Index obtained the result analysis use Force2 is 0.80 and with use HEC-RAS is 0.79.

  10. The flood risk management plan: towards spatial water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Driessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    The flood risk management plan challenges both water engineers and spatial planners. It calls for a new mode of governance for flood risk management. This contribution analyses how this mode of governance distinguishes from prevalent approaches. Spatial planning and water management in Europe are

  11. Periodic flooding restrains local succession of microphytobenthos in floodplain lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grinten, E.; Admiraal, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic flooding of river floodplains and connectivity of floodplain lakes and rivers is suggested to interfere with the succession of microphytobenthos. To analyse this we: 1. studied the impact of flooding on the relationship between irradiance level (depth) and microphytobenthic community

  12. Towards the Development of Clinical Measures for Spinal Cord Injury Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health With Rasch Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2014-01-01

    item dependency was observed between ICF categories of the same chapters. Group effects for age and sex were observed only to a small extent. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of ICF categories to develop measures of functioning in SCI for clinical practice and research is to some extent supported. Model......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) can be integrated in clinical measures and to obtain insights to guide their future operationalization. Specific aims are to find out whether...... in specialized centers within 15 countries from 2006 through 2008. SETTING: Secondary data analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N=1048) with SCI from the early postacute and long-term living context. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two unidimensional Rasch analyses: one for the ICF categories...

  13. Flood risk analysis for flood control and sediment transportation in sandy regions: A case study in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijun; Chang, Jianxia; Wang, Yimin; Huang, Qiang; Zhou, Shuai

    2018-05-01

    Traditional flood risk analysis focuses on the probability of flood events exceeding the design flood of downstream hydraulic structures while neglecting the influence of sedimentation in river channels on regional flood control systems. This work advances traditional flood risk analysis by proposing a univariate and copula-based bivariate hydrological risk framework which incorporates both flood control and sediment transport. In developing the framework, the conditional probabilities of different flood events under various extreme precipitation scenarios are estimated by exploiting the copula-based model. Moreover, a Monte Carlo-based algorithm is designed to quantify the sampling uncertainty associated with univariate and bivariate hydrological risk analyses. Two catchments located on the Loess plateau are selected as study regions: the upper catchments of the Xianyang and Huaxian stations (denoted as UCX and UCH, respectively). The univariate and bivariate return periods, risk and reliability in the context of uncertainty for the purposes of flood control and sediment transport are assessed for the study regions. The results indicate that sedimentation triggers higher risks of damaging the safety of local flood control systems compared with the event that AMF exceeds the design flood of downstream hydraulic structures in the UCX and UCH. Moreover, there is considerable sampling uncertainty affecting the univariate and bivariate hydrologic risk evaluation, which greatly challenges measures of future flood mitigation. In addition, results also confirm that the developed framework can estimate conditional probabilities associated with different flood events under various extreme precipitation scenarios aiming for flood control and sediment transport. The proposed hydrological risk framework offers a promising technical reference for flood risk analysis in sandy regions worldwide.

  14. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  15. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  16. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...-2013-0002; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1147] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All... Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or will be issuing a Revised Preliminary Flood Insurance...

  17. Secondary structure analyses of the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacers and assessment of its phylogenetic utility across the Brassicaceae (mustards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Edger

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, termed ITS1 and ITS2, are the most frequently used nuclear markers for phylogenetic analyses across many eukaryotic groups including most plant families. The reasons for the popularity of these markers include: 1. Ease of amplification due to high copy number of the gene clusters, 2. Available cost-effective methods and highly conserved primers, 3. Rapidly evolving markers (i.e. variable between closely related species, and 4. The assumption (and/or treatment that these sequences are non-functional, neutrally evolving phylogenetic markers. Here, our analyses of ITS1 and ITS2 for 50 species suggest that both sequences are instead under selective constraints to preserve proper secondary structure, likely to maintain complete self-splicing functions, and thus are not neutrally-evolving phylogenetic markers. Our results indicate the majority of sequence sites are co-evolving with other positions to form proper secondary structure, which has implications for phylogenetic inference. We also found that the lowest energy state and total number of possible alternate secondary structures are highly significantly different between ITS regions and random sequences with an identical overall length and Guanine-Cytosine (GC content. Lastly, we review recent evidence highlighting some additional problematic issues with using these regions as the sole markers for phylogenetic studies, and thus strongly recommend additional markers and cost-effective approaches for future studies to estimate phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Flood action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Safe operating procedures developed by TransAlta Utilities for dealing with flooding, resulting from upstream dam failures or extreme rainfalls, were presented. Several operating curves developed by Monenco AGRA were described, among them the No Overtopping Curve (NOC), the Safe Filling Curve (SFC), the No Spill Curve (NSC) and the Guaranteed Fill Curve (GFC). The concept of an operational comfort zone was developed and defined. A flood action plan for all operating staff was created as a guide in case of a flooding incident. Staging of a flood action plan workshop was described. Dam break scenarios pertinent to the Bow River were developed for subsequent incorporation into a Flood Action Plan Manual. Evaluation of the technical presentations made during workshops were found them to have been effective in providing operating staff with a better understanding of the procedures that they would perform in an emergency. 8 figs

  19. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  20. FLOOD VULNERABILITY IN BODVA RIVER BASIN IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELENAKOVA MARTINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to generate a composite map for decision makers using selected factors, mainly of natural character, causing floods. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a catchment area are taken into account, such as soil type, precipitation, land use, size of catchment and basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Bodva river basin in eastern Slovakia is employed to illustrate the different approaches. A geographical information system (GIS is integrated with multicriteria analysis (MCA in the paper. The identification of flood vulnerability consists of two basic phases. Firstly, the effective factors causing floods are identified. Secondly several approaches to MCA in a GIS environment are applied and these approaches are evaluated in order to prepared flood vulnerability map.

  1. Outburst flood evolution at Russell Glacier, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Turner, Andy G.D.; Russell, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods have produced a distinctive and widespread Quaternary record both onshore and offshore via widespread and intense geomorphological impacts, yet these impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of modern analogues. This study therefore makes a systematic quantifica...... of including intermediary lakes. Modern hazard mitigation studies could usefully note the potential use of reservoirs as an outburst flood alleviation resource.......Glacial lake outburst floods have produced a distinctive and widespread Quaternary record both onshore and offshore via widespread and intense geomorphological impacts, yet these impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of modern analogues. This study therefore makes a systematic...... quantification of the evolution of a bedrock-channelled outburst flood. Channel topography was obtained from digitised aerial photographs, a 5 m grid resolution DEM and bathymetric surveys. Flood inundation was measured in the field from dGPS measurements. Flood evolution was analysed with application...

  2. Analysis and GIS Mapping of Flooding Hazards on 10 May 2016, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Min Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 10 May 2016, Guangdong Province, China, suffered a heavy rainstorm. This rainstorm flooded the whole city of Guangzhou. More than 100,000 people were affected by the flooding, in which eight people lost their lives. Subway stations, cars, and buses were submerged. In order to analyse the influential factors of this flooding, topographical characteristics were mapped using Digital Elevation Model (DEM by the Geographical Information System (GIS and meteorological conditions were statistically summarised at both the whole city level and the district level. To analyse the relationship between flood risk and urbanization, GIS was also adopted to map the effect of the subway system using the Multiple Buffer operator over the flooding distribution area. Based on the analyses, one of the significant influential factors of flooding was identified as the urbanization degree, e.g., construction of a subway system, which forms along flood-prone areas. The total economic loss due to flooding in city centers with high urbanization has become very serious. Based on the analyses, the traditional standard of severity of flooding hazards (rainfall intensity grade was modified. Rainfall intensity for severity flooding was decreased from 50 mm to 30 mm in urbanized city centers. In order to protect cities from flooding, a “Sponge City” planning approach is recommended to increase the temporary water storage capacity during heavy rainstorms. In addition, for future city management, the combined use of GIS and Building Information Modelling (BIM is recommended to evaluate flooding hazards.

  3. Improving flood risk mapping in Italy: the FloodRisk open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Raffaele; Mancusi, Leonardo; Craciun, Iulia; Sole, Aurelia; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Time and again, floods around the world illustrate the devastating impact they can have on societies. Furthermore, the expectation that the flood damages can increase over time with climate, land-use change and social growth in flood prone-areas has raised the public and other stakeholders' (governments, international organization, re-insurance companies and emergency responders) awareness for the need to manage risks in order to mitigate their causes and consequences. In this light, the choice of appropriate measures, the assessment of the costs and effects of such measures, and their prioritization are crucial for decision makers. As a result, a priori flood risk assessment has become a key part of flood management practices with the aim of minimizing the total costs related to the risk management cycle. In this context, The EU Flood Directive 2007/60 requires the delineation of flood risk maps on the bases of most appropriate and advanced tools, with particular attention on limiting required economic efforts. The main aim of these risk maps is to provide the required knowledge for the development of flood risk management plans (FRMPs) by considering both costs and benefits of alternatives and results from consultation with all interested parties. In this context, this research project developed a free and open-source (FOSS) GIS software, called FloodRisk, to operatively support stakeholders in their compliance with the FRMPs. FloodRisk aims to facilitate the development of risk maps and the evaluation and management of current and future flood risk for multi-purpose applications. This new approach overcomes the limits of the expert-drive qualitative (EDQ) approach currently adopted in several European countries, such as Italy, which does not permit a suitable evaluation of the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies, because the vulnerability component cannot be properly assessed. Moreover, FloodRisk is also able to involve the citizens in the flood

  4. A European Flood Database: facilitating comprehensive flood research beyond administrative boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work addresses one of the key building blocks towards an improved understanding of flood processes and associated changes in flood characteristics and regimes in Europe: the development of a comprehensive, extensive European flood database. The presented work results from ongoing cross-border research collaborations initiated with data collection and joint interpretation in mind. A detailed account of the current state, characteristics and spatial and temporal coverage of the European Flood Database, is presented. At this stage, the hydrological data collection is still growing and consists at this time of annual maximum and daily mean discharge series, from over 7000 hydrometric stations of various data series lengths. Moreover, the database currently comprises data from over 50 different data sources. The time series have been obtained from different national and regional data sources in a collaborative effort of a joint European flood research agreement based on the exchange of data, models and expertise, and from existing international data collections and open source websites. These ongoing efforts are contributing to advancing the understanding of regional flood processes beyond individual country boundaries and to a more coherent flood research in Europe.

  5. On the importance of analyzing flood defense failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Işıl Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood defense failures are rare events but when they do occur lead to significant amounts of damage. The defenses are usually designed for rather low-frequency hydraulic loading and as such typically at least high enough to prevent overflow. When they fail, flood defenses like levees built with modern design codes usually either fail due to wave overtopping or geotechnical failure mechanisms such as instability or internal erosion. Subsequently geotechnical failures could trigger an overflow leading for the breach to grow in size Not only the conditions relevant for these failure mechanisms are highly uncertain, also the model uncertainty in geomechanical, internal erosion models, or breach models are high compared to other structural models. Hence, there is a need for better validation and calibration of models or, in other words, better insight in model uncertainty. As scale effects typically play an important role and full-scale testing is challenging and costly, historic flood defense failures can be used to provide insights into the real failure processes and conditions. The recently initiated SAFElevee project at Delft University of Technology aims to exploit this source of information by performing back analysis of levee failures at different level of detail. Besides detailed process based analyses, the project aims to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in deformation as a function of the hydrodynamic loading using satellite radar interferometry (i.e. PS-InSAR in order to examine its relation with levee failure mechanisms. The project aims to combine probabilistic approaches with the mechanics of the various relevant failure mechanisms to reduce model uncertainty and propose improvements to assessment and design models. This paper describes the approach of the study to levee breach analysis and the use of satellites for breach initiation analysis, both adopted within the SAFElevee project.

  6. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  7. Estimating design flood and HEC-RAS modelling approach for flood analysis in Bojonegoro city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastica, R. M. S.; Maitri, C.; Hermawan, A.; Nugroho, P. C.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Anggraheni, E.

    2018-03-01

    Bojonegoro faces flood every year with less advanced prevention development. Bojonegoro city development could not peak because the flood results material losses. It affects every sectors in Bojonegoro: education, politics, economy, social, and infrastructure development. This research aims to analyse and to ensure that river capacity has high probability to be the main factor of flood in Bojonegoro. Flood discharge analysis uses Nakayasu synthetic unit hydrograph for period of 5 years, 10 years, 25 years, 50 years, and 100 years. They would be compared to the water maximum capacity that could be loaded by downstream part of Bengawan Solo River in Bojonegoro. According to analysis result, Bengawan Solo River in Bojonegoro could not able to load flood discharges. Another method used is HEC-RAS analysis. The conclusion that shown by HEC-RAS analysis has the same view. It could be observed that flood water loading is more than full bank capacity elevation in the river. To conclude, the main factor that should be noticed by government to solve flood problem is river capacity.

  8. Iowa Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  9. Frequency and seasonality of flash floods in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobec Tajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess and analyse the dynamics of flash flooding events in Slovenia. The paper examines in particular the frequency of flash floods and their seasonal distribution. The methodology is based on the analysis of historical records and modern flood data. The results of a long-term frequency analysis of 138 flash floods that occurred between 1550 and 2015 are presented. Because of the lack of adequate historical flood data prior to 1950 the main analysis is based on data for the periodbetween1951 and2015, while the analysis of data for the period between1550 and1950 is added as a supplement to the main analysis. Analysis of data for the period after 1950 shows that on average 1.3 flash floods occur each year in Slovenia. The linear trend for the number of flash floods is increasing but is not statistically significant. Despite the fact that the majority of Slovenian rivers have one of the peaks in spring and one of the lows in summer, 90% of flash floods actually occur during meteorological summer or autumn - i.e. between June and November, which shows that discharge regimes and flood regimes are not necessarily related. Because of the lack of flood records from the more distant past as well as the large variability of flash flood events in the last several decades, we cannot provide a definitive answer to the question about possible changes in their frequency and seasonality by relying solely on the detected trends. Nevertheless, considering the results of analysis and future climate change scenarios the frequency of flash floods in Slovenia could increase while the period of flash flood occurrence could be extended.

  10. Framework for probabilistic flood risk assessment in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Huttenlau, Matthias; Steinberger, Thomas; Achleitner, Stefan; Stötter, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Flooding is among the natural hazards that regularly cause significant losses to property and human lives. The assessment of flood risk delivers crucial information for all participants involved in flood risk management and especially for local authorities and insurance companies in order to estimate the possible flood losses. Therefore a framework for assessing flood risk has been developed and is introduced with the presented contribution. Flood risk is thereby defined as combination of the probability of flood events and of potential flood damages. The probability of occurrence is described through the spatial and temporal characterisation of flood. The potential flood damages are determined in the course of vulnerability assessment, whereas, the exposure and the vulnerability of the elements at risks are considered. Direct costs caused by flooding with the focus on residential building are analysed. The innovative part of this contribution lies on the development of a framework which takes the probability of flood events and their spatio-temporal characteristic into account. Usually the probability of flooding will be determined by means of recurrence intervals for an entire catchment without any spatial variation. This may lead to a misinterpretation of the flood risk. Within the presented framework the probabilistic flood risk assessment is based on analysis of a large number of spatial correlated flood events. Since the number of historic flood events is relatively small additional events have to be generated synthetically. This temporal extrapolation is realised by means of the method proposed by Heffernan and Tawn (2004). It is used to generate a large number of possible spatial correlated flood events within a larger catchment. The approach is based on the modelling of multivariate extremes considering the spatial dependence structure of flood events. The input for this approach are time series derived from river gauging stations. In a next step the

  11. Pluvial, urban flood mechanisms and characteristics - Assessment based on insurance claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Mobini, Shifteh

    2017-12-01

    Pluvial flooding is a problem in many cities and for city planning purpose the mechanisms behind pluvial flooding are of interest. Previous studies seldom use insurance claim data to analyse city scale characteristics that lead to flooding. In the present study, two long time series (∼20 years) of flood claims from property owners have been collected and analysed in detail to investigate the mechanisms and characteristics leading to urban flooding. The flood claim data come from the municipal water utility company and property owners with insurance that covers property loss from overland flooding, groundwater intrusion through basement walls and flooding from the drainage system. These data are used as a proxy for flood severity for several events in the Swedish city of Malmö. It is discussed which rainfall characteristics give most flooding and why some rainfall events do not lead to severe flooding, how city scale topography and sewerage system type influence spatial distribution of flood claims, and which impact high sea level has on flooding in Malmö. Three severe flood events are described in detail and compared with a number of smaller flood events. It was found that the main mechanisms and characteristics of flood extent and its spatial distribution in Malmö are intensity and spatial distribution of rainfall, distance to the main sewer system as well as overland flow paths, and type of drainage system, while high sea level has little impact on the flood extent. Finally, measures that could be taken to lower the flood risk in Malmö, and other cities with similar characteristics, are discussed.

  12. Proteomic analysis of soybean hypocotyl during recovery after flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-21

    Soybean is a nutritionally important crop, but exhibits reduced growth and yields under flooding stress. To investigate soybean responses during post-flooding recovery, a gel-free proteomic technique was used to examine the protein profile in the hypocotyl. Two-day-old soybeans were flooded for 2 days and hypocotyl was collected under flooding and during the post-flooding recovery period. A total of 498 and 70 proteins were significantly changed in control and post-flooding recovering soybeans, respectively. Based on proteomic and clustering analyses, three proteins were selected for mRNA expression and enzyme activity assays. Pyruvate kinase was increased under flooding, but gradually decreased during post-flooding recovery period at protein abundance, mRNA, and enzyme activity levels. Nucleotidylyl transferase was decreased under flooding and increased during post-flooding recovery at both mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels. Beta-ketoacyl reductase 1 was increased under flooding and decreased during recovery at protein abundance and mRNA expression levels, but its enzyme activity gradually increased during the post-flooding recovery period. These results suggest that pyruvate kinase, nucleotidylyl transferase, and beta-ketoacyl reductase play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean hypocotyl by promoting glycolysis for the generation of ATP and regulation of secondary metabolic pathways. This study analyzed post-flooding recovery response mechanisms in soybean hypocotyl, which is a model organ for studying secondary growth, using a gel-free proteomic technique. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins extracted from soybean hypocotyls identified 20 common proteins between control and flooding-stressed soybeans that changed significantly in abundance over time. The hypocotyl proteins that changed during post-flooding recovery were assigned to protein, development, secondary metabolism, and glycolysis categories. The analysis revealed that three

  13. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  14. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  15. Characterization of a Mediterranean flash flood event using rain gauges, radar, GIS and lightning data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barnolas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flash flood events are very common in Catalonia, generating a high impact on society, including losses in life almost every year. They are produced by the overflowing of ephemeral rivers in narrow and steep basins close to the sea. This kind of floods is associated with convective events producing high rainfall intensities. The aim of the present study is to analyse the 12–14 September 2006 flash flood event within the framework of the characteristics of flood events in the Internal Basins of Catalonia (IBC. To achieve this purpose all flood events occurred between 1996 and 2005 have been analysed. Rainfall and radar data have been introduced into a GIS, and a classification of the events has been done. A distinction of episodes has been made considering the spatial coverage of accumulated rainfall in 24 h, and the degree of the convective precipitation registered. The study case can be considered as a highly convective one, with rainfalls covering all the IBC on the 13th of September. In that day 215.9 mm/24 h were recorded with maximum intensities above 130 mm/h. A complete meteorological study of this event is also presented. In addition, as this is an episode with a high lightning activity it has been chosen to be studied into the framework of the FLASH project. In this way, a comparison between this information and raingauge data has been developed. All with the goal in mind of finding a relation between lightning density, radar echoes and amounts of precipitation. Furthermore, these studies improve our knowledge about thunderstorms systems.

  16. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  17. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  18. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  19. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  20. Legitimizing differentiated flood protection levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2016-01-01

    The European flood risk management plan is a new instrument introduced by the Floods Directive. It introduces a spatial turn and a scenario approach in flood risk management, ultimately leading to differentiated flood protection levels on a catchment basis. This challenges the traditional sources of

  1. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  2. The Calculation of Flooding Level using CFX Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Kim, Keon Yeop; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The plant design should consider internal flooding by postulated pipe ruptures, component failures, actuation of spray systems, and improper system alignment. The flooding causes failure of safety-related equipment and affects the integrity of the structure. The safety-related equipment should be installed above the flood level for protection against flooding effects. Conservative estimates of the flood level are important when a DBA occurs. The flooding level can be calculated simply applying Bernoulli's equation. However, in this study, a realistic calculation is performed with ANSYS CFX code. In calculation with CFX, air-core vortex phenomena, and turbulent flow can be simulated, which cannot be calculated analytically. The flooding level is evaluated by analytical calculation and CFX analysis for an assumed condition. The flood level is calculated as 0.71m and 1.1m analytically and with CFX simulation, respectively. Comparing the analytical calculation and simulation, they are similar, but the analytical calculation is not conservative. There are many factors reducing the drainage capacity such as air-core vortex, intake of air, and turbulent flow. Therefore, in case of flood level evaluation by analytical calculation, a sufficient safety margin should be considered

  3. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  4. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  5. Flood-proof motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Marcus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  6. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  7. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  9. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  10. Living on a farm, contact with farm animals and pets, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: pooled and meta-analyses from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Laurent; Magnani, Corrado; Petridou, Eleni T; Dockerty, John D; Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Bailey, Helen D; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y; Wesseling, Catharina; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Mora, Ana M; Spector, Logan G; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2018-04-16

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Contact with livestock in the first year of life was inversely associated with ALL (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Inverse associations were also observed for contact with dogs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and cats (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) in the first year of life. There was no evidence of a significant association with farm residence in the first year of life. The findings of these large pooled and meta-analyses add additional evidence to the hypothesis that regular contact with animals in early childhood is inversely associated with childhood ALL occurrence which is consistent with Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Towards the development of clinical measures for spinal cord injury based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health with Rasch analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) can be integrated in clinical measures and to obtain insights to guide their future operationalization. Specific aims are to find out whether the ICF categories relevant to SCI fit a Rasch model taking into consideration the dimensionality found in previous investigations, local item dependencies, or differential item functioning. All second-level ICF categories collected in the Development of ICF Core Sets for SCI project in specialized centers within 15 countries from 2006 through 2008. Secondary data analysis. Adults (N=1048) with SCI from the early postacute and long-term living context. Not applicable. Two unidimensional Rasch analyses: one for the ICF categories from body functions and body structures components and another for the ICF categories from the activities and participation component. Results support good reliability and targeting of the ICF categories in both dimensions. In each dimension, few ICF categories were subject to misfit. Local item dependency was observed between ICF categories of the same chapters. Group effects for age and sex were observed only to a small extent. The validity of ICF categories to develop measures of functioning in SCI for clinical practice and research is to some extent supported. Model adjustments were suggested to further improve their operationalization and psychometrics. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysing data from patient-reported outcome and quality of life endpoints for cancer clinical trials: a start in setting international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Andrew; Pe, Madeline; Sloan, Jeff; Basch, Ethan; Bonnetain, Franck; Calvert, Melanie; Campbell, Alicyn; Cleeland, Charles; Cocks, Kim; Collette, Laurence; Dueck, Amylou C; Devlin, Nancy; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Gotay, Carolyn; Greimel, Eva; Griebsch, Ingolf; Groenvold, Mogens; Hamel, Jean-Francois; King, Madeleine; Kluetz, Paul G; Koller, Michael; Malone, Daniel C; Martinelli, Francesca; Mitchell, Sandra A; Moinpour, Carol M; Musoro, Jammbe; O'Connor, Daniel; Oliver, Kathy; Piault-Louis, Elisabeth; Piccart, Martine; Pimentel, Francisco L; Quinten, Chantal; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Schürmann, Christoph; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Soltys, Katherine M; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Velikova, Galina; Coens, Corneel

    2016-11-01

    Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and other patient-reported outcomes generate important data in cancer randomised trials to assist in assessing the risks and benefits of cancer therapies and fostering patient-centred cancer care. However, the various ways these measures are analysed and interpreted make it difficult to compare results across trials, and hinders the application of research findings to inform publications, product labelling, clinical guidelines, and health policy. To address these problems, the Setting International Standards in Analyzing Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life Endpoints Data (SISAQOL) initiative has been established. This consortium, directed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), was convened to provide recommendations on how to standardise the analysis of HRQOL and other patient-reported outcomes data in cancer randomised trials. This Personal View discusses the reasons why this project was initiated, the rationale for the planned work, and the expected benefits to cancer research, patient and provider decision making, care delivery, and policy making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

  14. Linking events, science and media for flood and drought management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M.; Wei, Y.; Zheng, H.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, floods and droughts have been closely related to the development of human riparian civilization. The socio-economic damage caused by floods/droughts appears to be on the rise and the frequency of floods/droughts increases due to global climate change. In this paper, we take a fresh perspective to examine the (dis)connection between events (floods and droughts), research papers and media reports in globally 42 river basins between 1990 and 2012 for better solutions in floods and droughts management. We collected hydrological data from NOAA/ESPL Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), all relevant scientific papers from Web of Science (WOS) and media records from Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) during the study period, presented the temporal variability at annual level of these three groups of data, and analysed the (connection) among these three groups of data in typical river basins. We found that 1) the number of flood related reports on both media and research is much more than those on droughts; 2) the concerns of media reports just focused on partial topics (death, severity and damage) and partial catchments (Mediterranean Sea and Nile River); 3) the scientific contribution on floods and droughts were limited within some river basins such as Nile River Basin, Parana River Basin, Savannah River Basin and Murray-Darling River Basin; 4) the scientific contribution on floods and droughts were limited within only a few of disciplines such as Geology, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Agriculture, Engineering and Forestry. It is recommended that multiple disciplinary contribution and collaboration should be promoted to achieve comprehensive flood/drought management, and science and media should interactively play their valuable roles and in flood/drought issues. Keywords: Floods, droughts, events, science, media, flood and drought management

  15. Promoting adaptive flood risk management: the role and potential of flood recovery mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priest Sally J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high potential for recovery mechanisms to be used to incentivise the uptake of flood mitigation and loss reduction measures, undertake adaptation and promote community resilience. Indeed, creating a resilient response to flooding requires flood risk management approaches to be aligned and it needs to be ensured that recovery mechanisms to not provide disincentives for individuals and business to take proactive action to reduce risk. However, the degree to which it is desirable and effective for insurers and governments providing compensation to promote resilience and risk reduction depends upon how the cover or compensation is organised and the premiums which are charged. A review of international flood recovery mechanisms has been undertaken to identify firstly the types of schemes that exist and their characteristics. Analysis of existing instruments highlights that there are various potential approaches to encourage or require the uptake of flood mitigation and also discourage the construction of new development in high flood risk. However despite the presence of these instruments, those organising recovery mechanisms could be doing much more to incentivise increased resilience.

  16. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Terzer-Wassmuth, S; Douence, C; Araguas-Araguas, L; Aggarwal, P K; Coplen, T B

    2018-03-15

    Water stable isotope ratios (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test. Eight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies. For the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ 18 O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ 2 H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected. Analysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that laboratories include 1-2 'known

  17. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  18. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  19. Impact of Austrian hydropower plants on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsuffa, I.

    1999-01-01

    Statistical analysis of daily water level data from four gauging stations along the Hungarian Danube reach has been carried out with the purpose of analysing the impact of the Austrian hydropower plants on the floods of the river. Conditional probability distribution functions of annual flood load maxima and annual number of floods were generated for the periods 1957-1976 and 1977-1996. By comparing these distribution functions, it could be shown that the flood load maxima have decreased, while the number of small and medium floods have increased during the past forty years. These changes indicate a decreased rate of flood superposition resulting from the barrages constructed in this period. The significantly decreased flood load maxima indicate that the Austrian barrage system has positive impact on the flood control safety of the Hungarian Danube reach

  20. A new methodology for modelling of health risk from urban flooding exemplified by cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Jørgensen, Claus; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and health risk caused by direct human contact with the flood water and hence gives...... and mortality, especially during floods. At present, there are no software tools capable of combining hydrodynamic modelling and health risk analyses, and the links between urban flooding and the health risk for the population due to direct contact with the flood water are poorly understood. The present paper...... an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population by use of intelligent urban flood risk management. The model linking urban flooding and health risk is applied to Dhaka City in Bangladesh, where waterborne diseases including cholera are endemic. The application to Dhaka City is supported...

  1. HISTORICAL FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT: SPATIAL EXPANSION OF GHERGHIȚA VILLAGE (LOWER PRAHOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA-TOROIMAC GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses settlements expansion in flood zones during historical time. We focused on the example of Gherghiţa village on Lower Prahova River by using a diachronic study in GIS. It revealed three major periods of extension of Gherghița village and flood risk management: (1 from Middle Age to the end of the 19th century – prevention against floods by expansion outside the flood-prone area; (2 during the major part of the 20th – flood negligence by expansion inside the flood-prone area; (3 at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21th century – protection against floods by extension inside the flood-prone area with structural measures (i.e. levees. As a consequence, human pressure on Lower Prahova River grew since the beginning of the 20th century, especially for agricultural purposes.

  2. Ethylene-Mediated Acclimations to Flooding Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is detrimental for plants, primarily because of restricted gas exchange underwater, which leads to an energy and carbohydrate deficit. Impeded gas exchange also causes rapid accumulation of the volatile ethylene in all flooded plant cells. Although several internal changes in the plant can signal the flooded status, it is the pervasive and rapid accumulation of ethylene that makes it an early and reliable flooding signal. Not surprisingly, it is a major regulator of several flood-adaptive plant traits. Here, we discuss these major ethylene-mediated traits, their functional relevance, and the recent progress in identifying the molecular and signaling events underlying these traits downstream of ethylene. We also speculate on the role of ethylene in postsubmergence recovery and identify several questions for future investigations. PMID:25897003

  3. 3D GIS FOR FLOOD MODELLING IN RIVER VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tymkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is implementation of system architecture for collecting and analysing data as well as visualizing results for hydrodynamic modelling of flood flows in river valleys using remote sensing methods, tree-dimensional geometry of spatial objects and GPU multithread processing. The proposed solution includes: spatial data acquisition segment, data processing and transformation, mathematical modelling of flow phenomena and results visualization. Data acquisition segment was based on aerial laser scanning supplemented by images in visible range. Vector data creation was based on automatic and semiautomatic algorithms of DTM and 3D spatial features modelling. Algorithms for buildings and vegetation geometry modelling were proposed or adopted from literature. The implementation of the framework was designed as modular software using open specifications and partially reusing open source projects. The database structure for gathering and sharing vector data, including flood modelling results, was created using PostgreSQL. For the internal structure of feature classes of spatial objects in a database, the CityGML standard was used. For the hydrodynamic modelling the solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional version was implemented. Visualization of geospatial data and flow model results was transferred to the client side application. This gave the independence from server hardware platform. A real-world case in Poland, which is a part of Widawa River valley near Wroclaw city, was selected to demonstrate the applicability of proposed system.

  4. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  6. The Third Currency War as an Effect of Post-Crisis Changes in the International Currency System. The Risk Aspect - the Case Analyses of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The objectives of the paper include: identification of factors that influence the directions of fluctuations of foreign exchange rates seen as manifestations of currency wars; description of the most important forms of currency wars conducted in the contemporary global economy (including in particular the currently observed third currency war; analysis of risks to contemporary financial markets and national economies posed by the third currency war. Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses the method of critical analysis of the literature on the subject, as well as US-China and Brazil case analyses. The Propensity Score Matching method was used in the study. Findings - The research findings confirmed the following hypotheses: contemporary fluctuations of foreign exchange rates in the largest economies of the world confirm that the third currency war is ongoing; the risk of consequences of the currency war destabilises the international and local financial markets and trade transactions among them. Research implications/limitations - The limited scope of the research performed is due to the fact that emerging economies have no control of devaluation or revaluation processes in their respective countries. However, large economies, such as China or Japan, are able to create the value of their respective currencies, thus artificially controlling the competitiveness of their products and services. These differences between small and large economies limit and distort the scope of the research done. Originality/value/contribution - Identification, analysis and results of the risks to contemporary financial markets and national economies posed by the third currency war(original abstract

  7. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  8. Spatial coherence of flood-rich and flood-poor periods across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Apel, Heiko; Gerlitz, Lars; Schröter, Kai; Steirou, Eva; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2018-04-01

    Despite its societal relevance, the question whether fluctuations in flood occurrence or magnitude are coherent in space has hardly been addressed in quantitative terms. We investigate this question for Germany by analysing fluctuations in annual maximum series (AMS) values at 68 discharge gauges for the common time period 1932-2005. We find remarkable spatial coherence across Germany given its different flood regimes. For example, there is a tendency that flood-rich/-poor years in sub-catchments of the Rhine basin, which are dominated by winter floods, coincide with flood-rich/-poor years in the southern sub-catchments of the Danube basin, which have their dominant flood season in summer. Our findings indicate that coherence is caused rather by persistence in catchment wetness than by persistent periods of higher/lower event precipitation. Further, we propose to differentiate between event-type and non-event-type coherence. There are quite a number of hydrological years with considerable non-event-type coherence, i.e. AMS values of the 68 gauges are spread out through the year but in the same magnitude range. Years with extreme flooding tend to be of event-type and non-coherent, i.e. there is at least one precipitation event that affects many catchments to various degree. Although spatial coherence is a remarkable phenomenon, and large-scale flooding across Germany can lead to severe situations, extreme magnitudes across the whole country within one event or within one year were not observed in the investigated period.

  9. High-resolution flood modeling of urban areas using MSN_Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartnett

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although existing hydraulic models have been used to simulate and predict urban flooding, most of these models are inadequate due to the high spatial resolution required to simulate flows in urban floodplains. Nesting high-resolution subdomains within coarser-resolution models is an efficient solution for enabling simultaneous calculation of flooding due to tides, surges, and high river flows. MSN_Flood has been developed to incorporate moving boundaries around nested domains, permitting alternate flooding and drying along the boundary and in the interior of the domain. Ghost cells adjacent to open boundary cells convert open boundaries, in effect, into internal boundaries. The moving boundary may be multi-segmented and non-continuous, with recirculating flow across the boundary. When combined with a bespoke adaptive interpolation scheme, this approach facilitates a dynamic internal boundary. Based on an alternating-direction semi-implicit finite difference scheme, MSN_Flood was used to hindcast a major flood event in Cork City resulting from the combined pressures of fluvial, tidal, and storm surge processes. The results show that the model is computationally efficient, as the 2-m high-resolution nest is used only in the urban flooded region. Elsewhere, lower-resolution nests are used. The results also show that the model is highly accurate when compared with measured data. The model is capable of incorporating nested sub-domains when the nested boundary is multi-segmented and highly complex with lateral gradients of elevation and velocities. This is a major benefit when modelling urban floodplains at very high resolution.

  10. Outburst flood evolution at Russell Glacier, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan; Russell, Andrew; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of the evolution of a bedrockchannelled outburst flood. Channel topography was obtained from digitised aerial photographs, a 5m grid resolution DEM and bathymetric surveys. Flood inundation was measured in the field from dGPS measurements. Flood evolution was analysed with application of a numerical model. Novel...... to considerable flow recirculation during the rising stage of the flood, and after overtopping of the outlet are moderated in terms of peak discharge; (ii) may have a limited geomorphological impact if sediment supply due to antecedent geomorphological activity is limited; (iii) can have kinematic waves...... that are introduced to a flood via hydraulic ponding and these waves most likely account for distinctive ‘hydropeaking’, (iv) can have a hydrograph that evolves in shape down channel and through time in a complex manner dependant on channel topography, and (v) may develop a partitioning of flow regimes...

  11. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  12. Floods in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood

  13. Ac and dc motor flooding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.A.; Hinton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor safety studies, such as the emergency cooling system (ECS) limits analyses and the probabilistic risk assessment, require that the flood-out times be calculated for the ac and dc motors at the -40 foot level. New calculations are needed because dams of an improved design have been installed between the pump room and motor room, and because updated leak rate calculations have shown that the maximum possible leak rate is larger than that which had been previously calculated. The methodology for calculating the motor flood-out times has also been improved. A computer program has been written to calculate flood-out times for various leak rates and sump pump operabilities. For ECS limits analyses, the worst case dc motor flood-out times are 161 and 297 seconds in LKC and P-areas, respectively. These times are for a 135,468 gpm leak that first flows to the motor room and all of the sump pumps are off

  14. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  15. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  16. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; Van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to create deterministic and probabilistic flood maps from

  17. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; Van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, creates a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. This research focussed on creating flood maps using user generated content from Twitter. Twitter data has

  18. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  19. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  20. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  1. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  2. Une analyse empirique de l'information volontaire sur le contrôle interne diffusée par les entreprises françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel Escaffre

    2007-01-01

    National audience; The recent financial crisis has generated a law about the production of a internal control report writen by management directory. This law is issued from Sarbanes-Oxley act which want develop more transparency in fiancial informations. Internal controle is founded on two items : Protection of the assets and Performance. For ten Years, many companies discloses informations on internal control in the intellectuel capital information. We propose a study on the voluntary inform...

  3. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  4. Camp Marmal Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    was simulated by means of a broad - crested weir built into the topography of the mesh. There is 0.5 m of freeboard and the width of the weir is 30 m...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2- 5 Camp Marmal Flood Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott...Camp Marmal Flood Study Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott, Mark R. Jourdan, and Gaurav Savant Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  5. Lessons Learned from Missing Flooding Barriers Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Veira, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding hazard is highly significant for nuclear power plant safety because of its potential for common cause impact on safety related systems, and because operating experience reviews regularly identify flooding as a cause of concern. Source of the flooding could be external (location) or internal (plant design). The amount of flooding water could vary but even small amount might suffice to affect redundant trains of safety related systems for power supply and cooling. The protection from the flooding is related to the design-basis flood level (DBFL) and it consists of three elements: structural, organizational and accessibility. Determination of the DBFL is critical, as Fukushima Daiichi accident terribly proved. However, as the topic of flooding is very broad, the scope of this paper is focused only on the issues related to the missing flood barriers. Structural measures are physically preventing flooding water to reach or damage safety related system, and they could be permanent or temporary. For temporary measures it is important to have necessary material, equipment and organizational capacity for the timely implementation. Maintenance is important for permanent protection and periodical review is important for assuring readiness and feasibility of temporary flooding protection. Final flooding protection element is assured accessibility to safety related systems during the flooding. Appropriate flooding protection is based on the right implementation of design requirements, proper maintenance and periodic reviews. Operating experience is constantly proving how numerous water sources and systems interactions make flooding protection challenging. This paper is presenting recent related operating experience feedback involving equipment, procedures and analysis. Most frequent deficiencies are: inadequate, degraded or missing seals that would allow floodwaters into safety related spaces. Procedures are inadequate typically because they underestimate necessary

  6. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  7. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  9. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  10. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  11. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  12. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  14. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  15. Valuing the reduction of floods: Public officials’ versus citizens’ preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Spegel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the preferences of public officials and citizens related to the impacts of floods in the Gothenburg region in Sweden. Citizens and public officials in the flood-prone region answered identical choice-experiment surveys characterized by the negative impacts of floods: property damage, traffic disturbances, and water supply security. By having citizens and public officials respond to identical surveys, it was possible to analyse whether and, if so, how priorities and monetary valuation differed in respect of the different negative effects of floods. The overall finding is that public officials’ and citizens’ preferences seem to converge, and that both citizens and public officials are willing to pay to reduce flood-related costs. Public officials have similar priorities to citizens, in that security of drinking water provision was given priority over property damage, while traffic disturbances were ranked lowest. In terms of their respective willingness to pay to avoid the negative impact of floods, public officials were willing to pay more than citizens to pay for securing the drinking water supply and for restoring damaged property, though these differences were not substantial. There are, however, some differences in preference between citizens and public officials: the latter preferred not to spend anything to reduce traffic disturbances caused by floods, whilst citizens were willing to do so. These results imply that decisions made within the public sector will not come to differ substantially from citizens’ preferences.

  16. 26 CFR 1.832-6 - Policyholders of mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policyholders of mutual fire or flood insurance... Insurance Companies § 1.832-6 Policyholders of mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the... taxpayer insured by a mutual fire or flood insurance company under a policy for which the premium deposit...

  17. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  18. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  19. Danish risk management plans of the EU Floods Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebens, Martin; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Piontkowitz, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the impact and effect of the EU Flood’s Directive (2007/60/EC) in Denmark and the flood risk management plans that are the result of the national implementation. In a qualitative research approach, the flood risk management plans published by 22 Danish municipalities are reviewed...... and analyzed regarding main objectives and structural and non-structural mitigation measures. From the analyses conclusions are drawn on the non-structural risk management measures still to be improved to obtain the full benefits from the Directive. Conclusions point to the need of introducing better decision...... and cross-sectorial working platform for dealing with risks from floods....

  20. Burmese nuclear ambitions and their international implications: a look to the future; Ambitions nucleaires du Myanmar et implications internationales: une analyse prospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, I. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The prospect of a nuclear-capable Burma merits debate within the scientific and international strategic communities. Irving Lewis looks at the effect it would have on South-East Asia, and Asia in general, the major security problems that would arise and the considerable impact it would have upon international security

  1. Floods in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa K. Andersen; Marshall J. Shepherd

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. Climate models and hydrological models have the ability to integrate various contributing factors and assess potential changes to hydrology at global to local scales through the century. This survey of floods in a changing climate reviews flood...

  2. The Incidence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Floods: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims, between different flood intensities, and between different time points after a flood. A search of several electronic literature databases was conducted to collect data on the incidence of PTSD after a flood. Loney criteria for research quality were used to evaluate the quality of selected search results. The combined incidence of PTSD was estimated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation method. Subgroup analyses were conducted on different trauma intensities and different time points after a flood. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of research quality. Fourteen articles were included in this meta-analysis, including a total of 40 600 flood victims; 3862 victims were diagnosed with PTSD. The combined incidence of PTSD was 15.74%. The subgroup analyses showed that the incidence of PTSD in victims who experienced severe and moderate flood intensity was higher than that in victims who experienced mild flood intensity. The incidence of PTSD was lower at 6 or more months after a flood (11.45%) than within 6 months (16.01%) of a flood. In conclusion, the incidence of PTSD among floods of different trauma intensities was statistically significant.

  3. Math Fights Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, Niels; Bokhove, Onno; Kolechkina, Alla; Molenaar, Jaap; van Nooyen, Ronald; Rottschäfer, Vivi; Stein, Alfred; Stoorvogel, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Due to climate changes that are expected in the coming years, the characteristics of the rainfall will change. This can potentially cause flooding or have negative influences on agriculture and nature. In this research, we study the effects of this change in rainfall and investigate what can be done

  4. The relationship between precipitation and insurance data for floods in a Mediterranean region (northeast Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès, Maria; Turco, Marco; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria Carmen

    2018-03-01

    Floods in the Mediterranean region are often surface water floods, in which intense precipitation is usually the main driver. Determining the link between the causes and impacts of floods can make it easier to calculate the level of flood risk. However, up until now, the limitations in quantitative observations for flood-related damages have been a major obstacle when attempting to analyse flood risk in the Mediterranean. Flood-related insurance damage claims for the last 20 years could provide a proxy for flood impact, and this information is now available in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia, in northeast Spain. This means a comprehensive analysis of the links between flood drivers and impacts is now possible. The objective of this paper is to develop and evaluate a methodology to estimate flood damages from heavy precipitation in a Mediterranean region. Results show that our model is able to simulate the probability of a damaging event as a function of precipitation. The relationship between precipitation and damage provides insights into flood risk in the Mediterranean and is also promising for supporting flood management strategies.

  5. Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area

    OpenAIRE

    Chia Lin Chan; Yi Ju Yang; Chih Chin Yang

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall freque...

  6. River flood seasonality in the Northeast United States and trends in annual timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The New England and Mid-Atlantic regions of the Northeast United States have experienced climate-associated increases in both the magnitude and frequency of floods. However, a detailed understanding of flood seasonality across these regions, and how flood seasonality may have changed over the instrumental record, has not been established. The annual timing of river floods reflects the flood-generating mechanisms operating in a basin and many aquatic and riparian organisms are adapted to flood seasonality, as are human uses of river channels and floodplains. Changes in flood seasonality may indicate changes in flood-generating mechanisms, and their interactions, with important implications for habitats, floodplain infrastructure, and human communities. For example, changes in spring or fall flood timing may negatively or positively affect a vulnerable life stage for a migratory fish (e.g., egg setting) depending on whether floods occur more frequently before or after the life history event. In this study I apply an objective, probabilistic method for identifying flood seasons at a monthly resolution for 90 climate-sensitive watersheds in New England and the Mid-Atlantic (Hydrologic Unit Codes 01 and 02). Historical trends in flood timing during the year are also investigated. The analyses are based on partial duration flood series that are an average of 85 years long. The seasonality of flooding in these regions, and any historical changes, are considered in the context of other ongoing or expected phenological changes in the Northeast U.S. environment that affect flood generation—e.g., the timing of leaf-off/leaf-out for deciduous plants. How these factors interact will affect whether and how flood magnitudes and frequencies change in the future and associated impacts.

  7. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209

  8. Floods characterization: from impact data to quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Marcos, Raül; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the following flood databases from Catalonia: INUNGAMA (1900-2010) which considers 372 floods (Llasat et al, 2014), PRESSGAMA (1981-2010) and HISTOGAMA (from XIV Century on) - built as part of SPHERE project and recently updated. These databases store information about flood impacts (among others) and classify them by their severity (catastrophic, extraordinary and ordinary) by means of an indicators matrix based on other studies (i.e. Petrucci et al, 2013; Llasat et al, 2013). On this research we present a comparison between flood impacts, flow data and rainfall data on a Catalan scale and particularly for the basins of Segre, Muga, Ter and Llobregat (Western Mediterranean). From a bottom-up approach, a statistical methodology has been built (trend analysis, measures of position, cumulative distribution functions and geostatistics) in order to identify quantitative thresholds that will make possible to classify the floods. The purpose of this study is to establish generic thresholds for the whole Catalan region, for this we have selected rainfall maximums of flooding episodes stored at INUNGAMA and they have been related to flood categories by boxplot diagrams. Regarding the stream flow, we have established a relation between impacts and return periods at the day when the flow is maximum. The aim is to homogenize and compare the different drainage basins and to obtain general thresholds. It is also presented detailed analyses of relations between flooding episodes, flood classification and weather typing schemes - based in Jenkinson and Collison classification (applied to the Iberian Peninsula by Spellmann, 2000). In this way it could be analyzed whether patterns for the different types of floods exist or not. Finally, this work has pointed out the need of defining a new category for the most severe episodes.

  9. Wellbeing in the aftermath of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Butler, Catherine; Adger, W Neil

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between flood events, their aftermath, and recovery leading to health and wellbeing outcomes for individuals are complex, and the pathways and mechanisms through which wellbeing is affected are often hidden and remain under-researched. This study analyses the diverse processes that explain changes in wellbeing for those experiencing flooding. It identifies key pathways to wellbeing outcomes that concern perceptions of lack of agency, dislocation from home, and disrupted futures inducing negative impacts, with offsetting positive effects through community networks and interactions. The mixed method study is based on data from repeated qualitative semi-structured interviews (n=60) and a structured survey (n=1000) with individuals that experienced flooding directly during winter 2013/14 in two UK regions. The results show for the first time the diversity and intersection of pathways to wellbeing outcomes in the aftermath of floods. The findings suggest that enhanced public health planning and interventions could focus on the precise practices and mechanisms that intersect to produce anxiety, stress, and their amelioration at individual and community levels. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  11. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Sadan Ozgur Kirca, Veysel; Burgan, Halil Ibrahim; Kellecioglu, Dorukhan

    2016-05-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS) software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  12. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  13. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...

  14. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2017-10-01

    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  15. Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbar, Joseph B; Llopis, Jose L; Sills, George L; Smith, Eric W; Miller, Rick D; Ivanov, Julian; Corwin, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    In November 2004, a team from the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center conducted a ponding test on a reach of the Retamal levee in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to simulate performance of the levee during a flood event...

  16. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  17. 'Are you prepared?' Representations and management of floods in Lomanikoro, Rewa (Fiji).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Emilie

    2016-10-01

    The islands of Fiji, in the Western Pacific, are exposed to a wide range of natural hazards. Tropical storms and associated floods are recurring natural phenomena, but it has been regularly alleged that Fijians lack preparation, over-rely on state assistance in post-disaster situations or engage in risky behaviours that aggravate the negative impact of floods. Risk reduction strategies, which are now implemented by government authorities and international organisations, heavily promote the principle of 'community preparedness'. Both community awareness programmes and capacity-building programmes are conducted throughout the country in the most vulnerable communities. This paper analyses how the inhabitants of Lomanikoro village, in the low areas of the Rewa Delta, perceive and manage existing flood risks. It examines social and cultural factors that contribute to shape risk response locally-in particular, why villagers may be reluctant to adopt some recommended preparedness measures and resettle in higher, safer zones. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  18. Flood Impacts on People: from Hazard to Risk Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, C.; Castelli, F.

    2017-12-01

    The mitigation of adverse consequences of floods on people is crucial for civil protection and public authorities. According to several studies, in the developed countries the majority of flood-related fatalities occurs due to inappropriate high risk behaviours such as driving and walking in floodwaters. In this work both the loss of stability of vehicles and pedestrians in floodwaters are analysed. Flood hazard is evaluated, based on (i) a 2D inundation model of an urban area, (ii) 3D hydrodynamic simulations of water flows around vehicles and human body and (iii) a dimensional analysis of experimental activity. Exposure and vulnerability of vehicles and population are assessed exploiting several sources of open GIS data in order to produce risk maps for a testing case study. The results show that a significant hazard to vehicles and pedestrians exists in the study area. Particularly high is the hazard to vehicles, which are likely to be swept away by flood flow, possibly aggravate damages to structures and infrastructures and locally alter the flood propagation. Exposure and vulnerability analysis identifies some structures such as schools and public facilities, which may attract several people. Moreover, some shopping facilities in the area, which attract both vehicular and pedestrians' circulation are located in the highest flood hazard zone.The application of the method demonstrates that, at municipal level, such risk maps can support civil defence strategies and education to active citizenship, thus contributing to flood impact reduction to population.

  19. Creating Flood Inundation Maps For Lower Sakarya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sönmez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sakarya River Basin in Turkey frequently floods. The allure of riverside settlement and of nutrient-rich riverbank soil has led to extensive residential and agricultural development in flood plains. In this study, the 100 years return period possible flood carrying capacites of last 113 km of the Lower Sakarya Riverbed were investigated, also dam break and risk analyses were performed by applying different scenarios for the floods likely to occur. Flooding scenarios and water depth within the floodplain during these scenarios were calculated with the HEC-RAS software program and results were converted into a map in HEC-GeoRAS,ArcGIS 9x and ArcView 3.2 programs. As a result, it was observed that the Lower Sakarya River is susceptible to flooding. Recent observations of the study area confirm the study findings. This study tries to underscore the importance of taking into account the different scenarios regarding flood prevention and reduction studies.

  20. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  1. Floods and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

  2. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  3. The influence of climate change on flood risks in France ­- first estimates and uncertainty analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas , Patrice; Hallegatte , Sréphane; Quintana-Seguí , Pere; Martin , Eric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Abstract. This paper proposes a methodology to project the possible evolution of river flood damages due to climate change, and applies it to mainland France. Its main contributions are (i) to demonstrate a methodology to investigate the full causal chain from global climate change to local economic flood losses; (ii) to show that future flood losses may change in a very significant manner over France; (iii) to show that a very large uncertainty arises from the climate...

  4. Rapid Flood Map Generation from Spaceborne SAR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Jung, J.; Gurrola, E. M.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team has responded to the January 2016 US Midwest Floods along the Mississippi River. Daily teleconferences with FEMA, NOAA, NGA, and USGS, provided information on precipitation and flood crest migration, based on which we coordinated with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) through NASA headquarters for JAXA's ALOS-2 timely tasking over two paths. We produced flood extent maps using ALOS-2 SM3 mode Level 1.5 data that were provided through the International Charter and stored at the US Geological Survey's Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) archive. On January 6, the first four frames (70 km x 240 km) were acquired, which included the City of Memphis. We registered post-event SAR images to pre-event images, applied radiometric calibration, took a logarithm of the ratio of the two images. Two thresholds were applied to represent flooded areas that became open water (colored in blue) and flooded areas with tall vegetation (colored in red). The second path was acquired on January 11 further down along the Mississippi River. Seven frames (70 km x 420 km) were acquired and flood maps were created in the similar fashion. The maps were delivered to the FEMA as well as posted on ARIA's public website. The FEMA stated that SAR provides inspection priority for optical imagery and ground response. The ALOS-2 data and the products have been a very important source of information during this response as the flood crest has moved down stream. The SAR data continue to be an important resource during times when optical observations are often not useful. In close collaboration with FEMA and USGS, we also work on other flood events including June 2016 China Floods using European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentienl-1 data, to produce flood extent maps and identify algorithmic needs and ARIA system's requirements to automate and rapidly produce and deliver flood maps for future events. With the addition of Sentinel-1B

  5. Surface water flood risk and management strategies for London: An Agent-Based Model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Katie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is recognised as one of the most common and costliest natural disasters in England. Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall is known as ‘surface water flooding’, considered to be the most likely cause of flood events and one of the greatest short-term climate risks for London. In this paper we present results from a novel Agent-Based Model designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options, different agents, and the role of flood insurance and the flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The model illustrates how investment in adaptation options could reduce London’s surface water flood risk, today and in the future. However, benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, it offers no additional benefits in terms of overall risk reduction, and will face increasing pressure due to rising surface water flood risk in the future. The modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for reviewing the proposed Flood Re scheme, as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes, and broader multi-sectoral partnerships, to incentivise flood risk management in the UK and internationally.

  6. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    image processing. Flood-FINDER aims to pre-empt this process and to provide preliminary analyses where no field data is available. In the early 2015, the Flood-FINDER's forecast along the Shire River has been used to guide the rapid mapping activities in Southern Malawi and Northern Mozambique. It proved efficient support providing timely information about the evolution of the flood event over an area lacking of field data. Regarding in-country capacity building, Flood-FINDER allowed UNOSAT to set up in middle 2015 a flood early warning system in Chad along the Chari River basin with the collaboration of Chadian Ministry of hydraulics and livestock. Weekly flood bulletins have been shared with local authorities and UN agencies over the entire rainy season. Finally, an experimental version of the global web alerting platform has been recently developed for supporting the El Nino flood preparedness in the Horn of Africa. Flood-FINDEŔs mission is to support decision makers throughout all the disaster management cycle with flood alerts, modelled scenarios, EO-based impact assessments and with direct support at country level to implement disaster mitigation strategies. The aim for the future is to seek funding for having the global system fully operational using CERN's supercomputing facilities and to establish new in-country projects with local authorities.

  7. EU Floods Directive implementation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhold Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods have the potential to cause fatalities, displacement of people and damage to the environment, to severely compromise economic development and to undermine the economic activities of the Community. The EU Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks [2007/60/EC] was adopted on 23 October 2007. Its aim is to reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity. The paper reflects on how the requirements of the FD had been achieved in Austria and how the nationwide comparability and transferability of results as well as the international coordination had been obtained. Austria as a federal state has its competences structured in different departments as well as administrational levels. Besides administrational characteristics there is also a high diversity in topographical boundary conditions from Alpine areas to lowland areas emphasising different approaches and foci of flood risk management. To harmonise the related interests a discussion and decision committee had been established. The resolutions of this committee then defined the basis for a national coordination procedure where the Federal Ministry provided a “federal blueprint” to the federal provinces. The federal provinces then incorporated their regional and local information and data. Based on this response the coordinated and nationwide comparable FRMP had been set up and had been forwarded to public information and consultation. Complementary stakeholder involvement has been ensured by information and discussion workshops throughout the entire process. The administrational and topographical characteristics to be considered in the frame of FD implementation strengthened the coordination and harmonisation across all sectors and stakeholders related to flood risk management. The FD implementation, therefore, is a holistic attempt to outline the needs for action for all sectors related to risk

  8. The development of flood map in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Fairus; Zin, Rosli Mohamad; Mohamad, Ismail; Balubaid, Saeed; Mydin, Shaik Hussein; MDR, E. M. Roodienyanto

    2017-11-01

    In Malaysia, flash floods are common occurrences throughout the year in flood prone areas. In terms of flood extent, flash floods affect smaller areas but because of its tendency to occur in densely urbanized areas, the value of damaged property is high and disruption to traffic flow and businesses are substantial. However, in river floods especially the river floods of Kelantan and Pahang, the flood extent is widespread and can extend over 1,000 square kilometers. Although the value of property and density of affected population is lower, the damage inflicted by these floods can also be high because the area affected is large. In order to combat these floods, various flood mitigation measures have been carried out. Structural flood mitigation alone can only provide protection levels from 10 to 100 years Average Recurrence Intervals (ARI). One of the economically effective non-structural approaches in flood mitigation and flood management is using a geospatial technology which involves flood forecasting and warning services to the flood prone areas. This approach which involves the use of Geographical Information Flood Forecasting system also includes the generation of a series of flood maps. There are three types of flood maps namely Flood Hazard Map, Flood Risk Map and Flood Evacuation Map. Flood Hazard Map is used to determine areas susceptible to flooding when discharge from a stream exceeds the bank-full stage. Early warnings of incoming flood events will enable the flood victims to prepare themselves before flooding occurs. Properties and life's can be saved by keeping their movable properties above the flood levels and if necessary, an early evacuation from the area. With respect to flood fighting, an early warning with reference through a series of flood maps including flood hazard map, flood risk map and flood evacuation map of the approaching flood should be able to alert the organization in charge of the flood fighting actions and the authority to

  9. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  10. Demand analysis of flood insurance by using logistic regression model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, P.; Mamat, M. B.; Sukono; Supian, S.; Putra, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Citarum River floods in the area of South Bandung Indonesia, often resulting damage to some buildings belonging to the people living in the vicinity. One effort to alleviate the risk of building damage is to have flood insurance. The main obstacle is not all people in the Citarum basin decide to buy flood insurance. In this paper, we intend to analyse the decision to buy flood insurance. It is assumed that there are eight variables that influence the decision of purchasing flood assurance, include: income level, education level, house distance with river, building election with road, flood frequency experience, flood prediction, perception on insurance company, and perception towards government effort in handling flood. The analysis was done by using logistic regression model, and to estimate model parameters, it is done with genetic algorithm. The results of the analysis shows that eight variables analysed significantly influence the demand of flood insurance. These results are expected to be considered for insurance companies, to influence the decision of the community to be willing to buy flood insurance.

  11. From EFL to English as an International and Scientific Language: Analysing Taiwan's High-School English Textbooks in the Period 1952-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, I-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Using both quantitative and qualitative content analysis of Taiwan's high-school English textbooks, this study aimed to investigate the projected roles of English in Taiwan's high-school English textbooks over the past 50 years. A total of 1072 lessons from 14 textbook versions dating from 1952 to 2009 were analysed. The results show that the…

  12. Quantifying riverine and storm-surge flood risk by single-family residence: application to Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2013-12-01

    The development of catastrophe models in recent years allows for assessment of the flood hazard much more effectively than when the federally run National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968. We propose and then demonstrate a methodological approach to determine pure premiums based on the entire distribution of possible flood events. We apply hazard, exposure, and vulnerability analyses to a sample of 300,000 single-family residences in two counties in Texas (Travis and Galveston) using state-of-the-art flood catastrophe models. Even in zones of similar flood risk classification by FEMA there is substantial variation in exposure between coastal and inland flood risk. For instance, homes in the designated moderate-risk X500/B zones in Galveston are exposed to a flood risk on average 2.5 times greater than residences in X500/B zones in Travis. The results also show very similar average annual loss (corrected for exposure) for a number of residences despite their being in different FEMA flood zones. We also find significant storm-surge exposure outside of the FEMA designated storm-surge risk zones. Taken together these findings highlight the importance of a microanalysis of flood exposure. The process of aggregating risk at a flood zone level-as currently undertaken by FEMA-provides a false sense of uniformity. As our analysis indicates, the technology to delineate the flood risks exists today. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Effects of variability in probable maximum precipitation patterns on flood losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Felder, Guido; Weingartner, Rolf; Quinn, Niall; Coxon, Gemma; Neal, Jeffrey; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of the impacts of extreme floods is important for dealing with residual risk, particularly for critical infrastructure management and for insurance purposes. Thus, modelling of the probable maximum flood (PMF) from probable maximum precipitation (PMP) by coupling hydrological and hydraulic models has gained interest in recent years. Herein, we examine whether variability in precipitation patterns exceeds or is below selected uncertainty factors in flood loss estimation and if the flood losses within a river basin are related to the probable maximum discharge at the basin outlet. We developed a model experiment with an ensemble of probable maximum precipitation scenarios created by Monte Carlo simulations. For each rainfall pattern, we computed the flood losses with a model chain and benchmarked the effects of variability in rainfall distribution with other model uncertainties. The results show that flood losses vary considerably within the river basin and depend on the timing and superimposition of the flood peaks from the basin's sub-catchments. In addition to the flood hazard component, the other components of flood risk, exposure, and vulnerability contribute remarkably to the overall variability. This leads to the conclusion that the estimation of the probable maximum expectable flood losses in a river basin should not be based exclusively on the PMF. Consequently, the basin-specific sensitivities to different precipitation patterns and the spatial organization of the settlements within the river basin need to be considered in the analyses of probable maximum flood losses.

  14. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brilly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  15. The Semantic Network of Flood Hydrological Data for Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Aziyati; Din, Norashidah Md; Yussof, Salman; Ullah Khan, Samee

    2016-03-01

    Every year, authorities in Malaysia are putting efforts on disaster management mechanisms including the flood incidence that might hit the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This includes the state of Kelantan of which it was reported that flood is just a normal event occurred annually. However, the aftermath was always unmanageable and had left the state to struggle for its own recoveries. Though it was expected that flood occurred every year, among the worst were in 1967, 1974, 1982 and recently in December 2014. This study is proposing a semantic network as an approach to the method of utilising big data analytics in analysing the huge data from the state’s flood reading stations. It is expected that by using current computing edge can also facilitate mitigating this particular disaster.

  16. International Standard problem ISP 14: behaviour of a fuel bundle simulator during a specified heatup and flooding period (Rebeka experiment): results of post-test analyses: final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1985-02-01

    The test consisted in investigating the non-steady material behaviour of a bundle of electrically heated fuel rod simulators with respect to local fuel temperatures, cladding strain, time to burst and local strain at location of burst, together with the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions. The original aim has not been fully achievable. The applied codes for mechanical fuel behaviour largely demonstrated their capabilities for pretest predictions when certain local fluid dynamic parameters are well known to the code users. The difficulties expected with proper analysis of thermal hydraulics of the test were confirmed, caused by the coupling between pin cooling conditions, rod upper plenum calculations and the feedback to clad deformation and burst simulation

  17. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  18. Geological setting control of flood dynamics in lowland rivers (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Grzegorz; Ostrowski, Piotr; Falkowski, Tomasz; Mazgajski, Michał

    2018-04-27

    We aim to answer a question: how does the geological setting affect flood dynamics in lowland alluvial rivers? The study area covers three river reaches: not trained, relatively large on the European scale, flowing in broad valleys cut in the landscape of old glacial plains. We focus on the locations where levees [both: a) natural or b) artificial] were breached during flood. In these locations we identify (1) the erosional traces of flood (crevasse channels) on the floodplain displayed on DEM derived from ALS LIDAR. In the main river channel, we perform drillings in order to measure the depth of the suballuvial surface and to locate (2) the protrusions of bedrock resistant to erosion. We juxtapose on one map: (1) the floodplain geomorphology with (2) the geological data from the river channel. The results from each of the three study reaches are presented on maps prepared in the same manner in order to enable a comparison of the regularities of fluvial processes written in (1) the landscape and driven by (2) the geological setting. These processes act in different river reaches: (a) not embanked and dominated by ice jam floods, (b) embanked and dominated by rainfall and ice jam floods. We also analyse hydrological data to present hydrodynamic descriptions of the flood. Our principal results indicate similarity of (1) distinctive erosional patterns and (2) specific geological features in all three study reaches. We draw the conclusion: protrusions of suballuvial bedrock control the flood dynamics in alluvial rivers. It happens in both types of rivers. In areas where the floodplain remains natural, the river inundates freely during every flood. In other areas the floodplain has been reclaimed by humans who constructed an artificial levee system, which protects the flood-prone area from inundation, until levee breach occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.

  20. Flooding correlations in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Chang, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer in narrow gap is considered as important phenomena in severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Also in heat removal of electric chip. Critical heat flux(CHF) in narrow gap limits the maximum heat transfer rate in narrow channel. In case of closed bottom channel, flooding limited CHF occurrence is observed. Flooding correlations will be helpful to predict the CHF in closed bottom channel. In present study, flooding data for narrow channel geometry were collected and the work to recognize the effect of the span, w and gap size, s were performed. And new flooding correlations were suggested for high-aspect-ratio geometry. Also, flooding correlation was applied to flooding limited CHF data

  1. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  2. Flood loss modelling with FLF-IT: a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, Roozbeh; Amadio, Mattia; Ngo, Tuan; Mysiak, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT), on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA), which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth-damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error), especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.

  3. Flood loss modelling with FLF-IT: a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hasanzadeh Nafari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT, on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA, which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth–damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error, especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.

  4. The Implications of Transnational Cyber Threats in International Humanitarian Law: Analysing the Distinction Between Cybercrime, Cyber Attack, and Cyber Warfare in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faga Hemen Philip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and the implications of targeting non-state perpetrators under IHL. It concludes that current international law constructs are inadequate to address the implications of transnational cyber threats; the author recommends consequential amendments to the laws of war in order to address the challenges posed by transnational cyber threats.

  5. The implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law: analysing the distinction between cybercrime, cyber attack, and cyber warfare in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Faga, Hemen Philip

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to draw distinctive lines between the concepts of cybercrime, cyber-attack, and cyber warfare in the current information age, in which it has become difficult to separate the activities of transnational criminals from acts of belligerents using cyberspace. The paper considers the implications of transnational cyber threats in international humanitarian law (IHL) with a particular focus on cyber-attacks by non-state actors, the principles of state responsibility, and t...

  6. External and Internal Citation Analyses Can Provide Insight into Serial/Monograph Ratios when Refining Collection Development Strategies in Selected STEM Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Krueger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Kelly, M. (2015. Citation patterns of engineering, statistics, and computer science researchers: An internal and external citation analysis across multiple engineering subfields. College and Research Libraries, 76(7, 859-882. http://doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.859 Objective – To determine internal and external citation analysis methods and their potential applicability to the refinement of collection development strategies at both the institutional and cross-institutional levels for selected science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM subfields. Design – Multidimensional citation analysis; specifically, analysis of citations from 1 key scholarly journals in selected STEM subfields (external analysis compared to those from 2 local doctoral dissertations in similar subfields (internal analysis. Setting – Medium-sized, STEM-dominant public research university in the United States of America. Subjects – Two citation datasets: 1 14,149 external citations from16 journals (i.e., 2 journals per subfield; citations from 2012 volumes representing bioengineering, civil engineering, computer science (CS, electrical engineering, environmental engineering, operations research, statistics (STAT, and systems engineering; and 2 8,494 internal citations from 99 doctoral dissertations (18-22 per subfield published between 2008-–2012 from CS, electrical and computer engineering (ECE, and applied information technology (AIT and published between 2005-–2012 for systems engineering and operations research (SEOR and STAT. Methods – Citations, including titles and publication dates, were harvested from source materials and stored in Excel and then manually categorized according to format (book, book chapter, journal, conference proceeding, website, and several others. To analyze citations, percentages of occurrence by subfield were calculated for variables including format, age (years since date cited, journal distribution, and the

  7. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to

  8. Analyse of the international recommendations on the calculation of absorbed dose in the biota; Analise das recomendacoes internacionais sobre calculo de dose absorvida na biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the recommendations of ICRP which has as objective the environmental radioprotection. It was analysed the recommendations 26, 60, 91, 103 and 108 of the ICRP. The ICRP-103 defined the concept of animal and plant of reference (APR) to be used in the RAP based on the calculation of absorbed dose based on APR concept. This last view allows to build a legal framework of environmental protection with a etic, moral and scientific visualization, more defensible than the anthropomorphic concept

  9. Near Real-Time Flood Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systems. Chapter 6; [Case Study: 2011 Flooding in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin; Fayne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the costliest natural disaster, causing approximately 6.8 million deaths in the twentieth century alone. Worldwide economic flood damage estimates in 2012 exceed $19 Billion USD. Extended duration floods also pose longer term threats to food security, water, sanitation, hygiene, and community livelihoods, particularly in developing countries. Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that precipitation extremes, rainfall intensity, storm intensity, and variability are increasing due to climate change. Increasing hydrologic uncertainty will likely lead to unprecedented extreme flood events. As such, there is a vital need to enhance and further develop traditional techniques used to rapidly assess flooding and extend analytical methods to estimate impacted population and infrastructure. Measuring flood extent in situ is generally impractical, time consuming, and can be inaccurate. Remotely sensed imagery acquired from space-borne and airborne sensors provides a viable platform for consistent and rapid wall-to-wall monitoring of large flood events through time. Terabytes of freely available satellite imagery are made available online each day by NASA, ESA, and other international space research institutions. Advances in cloud computing and data storage technologies allow researchers to leverage these satellite data and apply analytical methods at scale. Repeat-survey earth observations help provide insight about how natural phenomena change through time, including the progression and recession of floodwaters. In recent years, cloud-penetrating radar remote sensing techniques (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar) and high temporal resolution imagery platforms (e.g., MODIS and its 1-day return period), along with high performance computing infrastructure, have enabled significant advances in software systems that provide flood warning, assessments, and hazard reduction potential. By incorporating social and economic data

  10. Socio-economic Impact Analysis for Near Real-Time Flood Detection in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, P.; Ahamed, A.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood events pose a severe threat to communities in the Lower Mekong River Basin. The combination of population growth, urbanization, and economic development exacerbate the impacts of these flood events. Flood damage assessments are frequently used to quantify the economic losses in the wake of storms. These assessments are critical for understanding the effects of flooding on the local population, and for informing decision-makers about future risks. Remote sensing systems provide a valuable tool for monitoring flood conditions and assessing their severity more rapidly than traditional post-event evaluations. The frequency and severity of extreme flood events are projected to increase, further illustrating the need for improved flood monitoring and impact analysis. In this study we implement a socio-economic damage model into a decision support tool with near real-time flood detection capabilities (NASA's Project Mekong). Surface water extent for current and historical floods is found using multispectral Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter imagery and the spectral Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) signatures of permanent water bodies (MOD44W). Direct and indirect damages to populations, infrastructure, and agriculture are assessed using the 2011 Southeast Asian flood as a case study. Improved land cover and flood depth assessments result in a more refined understanding of losses throughout the Mekong River Basin. Results suggest that rapid initial estimates of flood impacts can provide valuable information to governments, international agencies, and disaster responders in the wake of extreme flood events.

  11. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  13. Detecting Flood Variations in Shanghai over 1949–2009 with Mann-Kendall Tests and a Newspaper-Based Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A valuable aid to assessing and managing flood risk lies in a reliable database of historical floods. In this study, a newspaper-based flood database for Shanghai (NFDS for the period 1949–2009 was developed through a systematic scanning of newspapers. After calibration and validation of the database, Mann-Kendall tests and correlation analysis were applied to detect possible changes in flood frequencies. The analysis was carried out for three different flood types: overbank flood, agricultural waterlogging, and urban waterlogging. The compiled NFDS registered 146 floods and 92% of them occurred in the flood-prone season from June to September. The statistical analyses showed that both the annual flood and the floods in June–August increased significantly. Urban waterlogging showed a very strong increasing trend, probably because of insufficient capacity of urban drainage system and impacts of rapid urbanization. By contrast, the decrease in overbank flooding and the slight increase in agricultural waterlogging were likely because of the construction of river levees and seawalls and the upgrade of agricultural drainage systems, respectively. This study demonstrated the usefulness of local newspapers in building a historical flood database and in assessing flood characterization.

  14. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios waters have lost up to 70% of their Ca (average ∼ 50%) to precipitation of secondary calcite which is abundant as a diagenetic cement in the flood plain sediments. 31% of the Sr, 8% of the Ca and 45% of the Mg are calculated to be derived from silicate minerals. Because of significant evaporative loss of water across the flood plain, and in the absence of hydrological data for flood plain tributaries, chemical weathering fluxes from the

  15. Flooding PSA by considering the operating experience data of Korean PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon

    2007-01-01

    The existing flooding Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) was updated to reflect the Korean plant specific operating experience data into the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. Both the Nuclear Power Experience (NPE) database and the Korea Nuclear PIPE Failure Database (NuPIPE) databases were used in this study, and from these databases, only the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) data were used for the flooding frequencies of the flooding areas in the primary auxiliary building. With these databases and a Bayesian method, the flooding frequencies for the flooding areas were estimated. Subsequently, the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) for the flooding PSA of the UlChiN (UCN) unit 3 and 4 plants based on the Korean Standard Nuclear power Plant (KSNP) internal full-power PSA model was recalculated. The evaluation results showed that sixteen flooding events are potentially significant according to the screening criterion, while there were two flooding events exceeding the screening criterion of the existing UCN 3 and 4 flooding PSA. The result was compared with two kinds of cases: 1) the flooding frequency and CDF from the method of the existing flooding PSA with the PWR and Boiled Water Reactor (BWR) data of the NPE database and the Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) method and 2) the flooding frequency and CDF with the NPE database (PWR and BWR data), NuPIPE database, and a Bayesian method. From the comparison, a difference in CDF results was revealed more clearly between the CDF from this study and case 2) than between case 1) and case 2). That is, the number of flooding events exceeding the screen criterion further increased when only the PWR data were used for the primary auxiliary building than when the Korean specific data were used

  16. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  17. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-2013-0002; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-7748] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and... sources in Pierce County, Washington. On April 16, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 77 FR...

  18. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  19. RURAL FLASH-FLOOD BEHAVIOR IN GOUYAVE WATERSHED, GRENADA, CARIBBEAN ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Aris Pratomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash-flood is considered as one of the most common natural disasters in Grenada, a tropical small state island in Caribbean Island. Grenada has several areas which are susceptible to flooding. One of them is Gouyave town which is located in the north-west of Grenada. Its land-use types are highly dominated by green areas, especially in the upper-part of the region. The built-up areas can only be found in the lower-part of Gouyave watershed, near the coastal area. However, there were many land conversions from natural land-use types into built-up areas in the upper-part region. They affected the decrease of water infiltration and the increase of potential run-off, making these areas susceptible to flash-flood. In addition, it is also influenced by the phenomenon of climate change. Changes in extreme temperature increase higher potential of hurricanes or wind-storm, directly related to the potential escalation of flash-flood. To develop effective mitigation strategies, understanding the behavior of flash-flood is required. The purpose of this paper was to observe the behavior of flash-flood in Gouyave watershed in various return periods using OpenLISEM software. It was used to develop and analyse the flash-flood characteristics. The result showed that the climatic condition (rainfall intensity and land-use are influential to the flash-flood event. Flash-flood occurs in 35 and 100 years return period. Flash-flood inundates Gouyave’s area in long duration, with below 1 m flood depth. The flood propagation time is slow. This condition is also influenced by the narrower and longer of Gouyave basin shape. To develop flash-flood reduction strategies, the overall understanding of flash-flood behavior is important. If the mitigation strategy is adapted to their behavior, the implementation will be more optimum.

  20. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  1. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  2. Using Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Guide Disaster Management: The Red Cross Experience during the 2008 West Africa Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arame Tall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the seasonal forecast issued at the Seasonal Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa (PRESAO announced a high risk of above-normal rainfall for the July–September rainy season. With probabilities for above-normal rainfall of 0.45, this forecast indicated noteworthy increases in the risk of heavy rainfall. When this information reached the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC West and Central Africa Office, it led to significant changes in the organization’s flood response operations. The IFRC regional office requested funds in advance of anticipated floods, prepositioned disaster relief items in strategic locations across West Africa to benefit up to 9,500 families, updated its flood contingency plans, and alerted vulnerable communities and decision-makers across the region. This forecast-based preparedness resulted in a decrease in the number of lives, property, and livelihoods lost to floods, compared to just one year prior in 2007 when similar floods claimed above 300 lives in the region. This article demonstrates how a science-based early warning informed decisions and saved lives by triggering action in anticipation of forecast events. It analyses what it took to move decision-makers to action, based on seasonal climate information, and to overcome traditional barriers to the uptake of seasonal climate information in the region, providing evidence that these barriers can be overcome. While some institutional, communication and technical barriers were addressed in 2008, many challenges remain. Scientists and humanitarians need to build more common ground.

  3. Assessment of the Change Detection Procedure Dedicated to Flood Monitoring Using Envisat Wide Swath Mode Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiren; Yesou, Herve; Malosti, Rita; Andreoli, Remi; Huang, Shifeng; Xin, Jingfeng; Cattaneo, Fabrizia

    2008-04-01

    The Flood Dragon project enhances the Envisat contribution for natural disaster monitoring. Flood DFRAGON project had much more exploited the ENVISAT resource for crisis management than the International Charter Space and major Disasters since 2002. Indeed, during the 2005, 2006 and 2007 Chinese flood seasons, over the 27 attempted NRT exploitations of Envisat, 23 were successful. Obtained results over floods, affecting Yangtze and Songua, Huaihe watersheds as pollution events on Taihue lake and Nen River are illustrated. Lessons are discussed in terms of programming, downloading, processing, and images type and format. Recommendations for the background mission of the future Sentinel 1 constellation are given.

  4. Reserve Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  5. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  6. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  7. Moving out or living on a mound? Jointly planning a Dutch flood adaptation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Winnubst, M.

    2014-01-01

    All over the world spatial flood risk management policies are on the rise. This paper analyses the planning process for the Overdiepse polder, a so-called “Room for the River” project in the Netherlands. After high water in the 1990s, the Dutch government changed its flood risk management policy.

  8. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  9. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  10. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Flood-Exposure Is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Child Undernutrition in Rural Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    alternative adjusted models and in propensity score matching analyses. For similar analyses, no significant associations were found for child stunting, and more moderate effects were observed in the case of child underweight. Conclusions: Particularly in low-resource or subsistence-farming rural settings, long-lasting nutritional response in the aftermath of floods should be seriously considered to counteract the long-term nutritional effects on children, particularly infants, and include their mothers on whom they are dependent. The systematic monitoring of nutritional status in these groups might help to tailor efficient responses in each particular context. PMID:26861372

  12. Cross-section analyses of attitudes towards science and nature from the International Social Survey Programme 1993, 2000, and 2010 surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Joseph Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores public attitudes towards science and nature in twelve countries using data from the International Social Survey Programme environment modules of 1993, 2000, and 2010. Analysis of attitude items indicates technocentric and pessimistic dimensions broadly related to the Dominant Social Paradigm and New Environmental Paradigm. A bi-axial dimension scale is utilized to classify respondents among four environmental knowledge orientations. Discernible and significant patterns are found among countries and their populations. Relationships with other substantial variables in the surveys are discussed and findings show that the majority of industrialized countries are clustered in the rational ecologist categorization with respondents possessing stronger ecological consciousness and optimism towards the role of modern institutions, science, and technology in solving environmental problems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  14. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms--preliminary analyses of SRL 165/TDS waste glass and metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Lodding, A.R.; Macedo, P.B.; Molecke, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The first in-situ tests involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms conducted in the United States were started on July 22, 1986. This effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), comprises the largest, most cooperative field testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by seven countries. Also included are almost 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples of 11 different metals along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are a total of 1926 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  15. Floods in the Saguenay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, R.; Michaud, E.; Tousignant, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Footage of a natural disaster that occurred between July 20 and 25 1996, in the Saguenay region of Quebec was documented. A heavy downpour of rain raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity. This created huge pressure on its dam that upset the fragile balance between nature and rock. The dam raptured, resulting in a flood of previously unseen proportions. The Riviere au Sable in Jonquiere became an overwhelming body of water. The video showed how the shores of the river were eroded and how apartment buildings were engulfed by the torrent of water. A newly constructed electricity power plant had to be decommissioned, roads were washed away and entire neighborhoods were devastated. The devastation suffered by the cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquiere, Ville de la Baie, Ferland-Boileau, and L'Anse St-Jean was recorded. Thousands of victims of the disaster were evacuated with the help of the Canadian Armed Forces. Some of the work of reconstruction, begun even before the total retreat of the flood, involved restoration of roads, bridges and communication networks, was also shown

  16. Flood risk in a changing world - a coupled transdisciplinary modelling framework for flood risk assessment in an Alpine study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Schneeberger, Klaus; Winter, Benjamin; Pazur, Robert; Förster, Kristian; Achleitner, Stefan; Bolliger, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Devastating flood events have caused substantial economic damage across Europe during past decades. Flood risk management has therefore become a topic of crucial interest across state agencies, research communities and the public sector including insurances. There is consensus that mitigating flood risk relies on impact assessments which quantitatively account for a broad range of aspects in a (changing) environment. Flood risk assessments which take into account the interaction between the drivers climate change, land-use change and socio-economic change might bring new insights to the understanding of the magnitude and spatial characteristic of flood risks. Furthermore, the comparative assessment of different adaptation measures can give valuable information for decision-making. With this contribution we present an inter- and transdisciplinary research project aiming at developing and applying such an impact assessment relying on a coupled modelling framework for the Province of Vorarlberg in Austria. Stakeholder engagement ensures that the final outcomes of our study are accepted and successfully implemented in flood management practice. The study addresses three key questions: (i) What are scenarios of land- use and climate change for the study area? (ii) How will the magnitude and spatial characteristic of future flood risk change as a result of changes in climate and land use? (iii) Are there spatial planning and building-protection measures which effectively reduce future flood risk? The modelling framework has a modular structure comprising modules (i) climate change, (ii) land-use change, (iii) hydrologic modelling, (iv) flood risk analysis, and (v) adaptation measures. Meteorological time series are coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of land-use change to model runoff time series. The runoff time series are combined with impact indicators such as building damages and results are statistically assessed to analyse flood risk scenarios. Thus, the

  17. Flood Forecasting Based on TIGGE Precipitation Ensemble Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TIGGE (THORPEX International Grand Global Ensemble was a major part of the THORPEX (Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment. It integrates ensemble precipitation products from all the major forecast centers in the world and provides systematic evaluation on the multimodel ensemble prediction system. Development of meteorologic-hydrologic coupled flood forecasting model and early warning model based on the TIGGE precipitation ensemble forecast can provide flood probability forecast, extend the lead time of the flood forecast, and gain more time for decision-makers to make the right decision. In this study, precipitation ensemble forecast products from ECMWF, NCEP, and CMA are used to drive distributed hydrologic model TOPX. We focus on Yi River catchment and aim to build a flood forecast and early warning system. The results show that the meteorologic-hydrologic coupled model can satisfactorily predict the flow-process of four flood events. The predicted occurrence time of peak discharges is close to the observations. However, the magnitude of the peak discharges is significantly different due to various performances of the ensemble prediction systems. The coupled forecasting model can accurately predict occurrence of the peak time and the corresponding risk probability of peak discharge based on the probability distribution of peak time and flood warning, which can provide users a strong theoretical foundation and valuable information as a promising new approach.

  18. Usefulness and limitations of global flood risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip; Jongman, Brenden; Salamon, Peter; Simpson, Alanna; Bates, Paul; De Groeve, Tom; Muis, Sanne; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Rudari, Roberto; Mark, Trigg; Winsemius, Hessel

    2016-04-01

    Global flood risk models are now a reality. Initially, their development was driven by a demand from users for first-order global assessments to identify risk hotspots. Relentless upward trends in flood damage over the last decade have enhanced interest in such assessments. The adoption of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts have made these efforts even more essential. As a result, global flood risk models are being used more and more in practice, by an increasingly large number of practitioners and decision-makers. However, they clearly have their limits compared to local models. To address these issues, a team of scientists and practitioners recently came together at the Global Flood Partnership meeting to critically assess the question 'What can('t) we do with global flood risk models?'. The results of this dialogue (Ward et al., 2013) will be presented, opening a discussion on similar broader initiatives at the science-policy interface in other natural hazards. In this contribution, examples are provided of successful applications of global flood risk models in practice (for example together with the World Bank, Red Cross, and UNISDR), and limitations and gaps between user 'wish-lists' and model capabilities are discussed. Finally, a research agenda is presented for addressing these limitations and reducing the gaps. Ward et al., 2015. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2742

  19. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships Due to Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented of the roll motion of damaged RoRo vessels which couples the internal cross-flooding flow and the air action in the equalizing compartment. The cross flooding flow and the air motion are modelled by a modified Bernoulli equation, where artificial damping is introduced...... to avoid modal instability based on the original Bernoulli equation. The fluid action of the flooded water on the ship is expressed by its influence on the moment of inertia of the ship and the heeling moment, which is a couple created by the gravitational force of the flooded water and the change...... of buoyancy of the ship.Two limiting flooding cases are examined in the present analysis: The sudden ingress of a certain amount of water to the damaged compartment with no further water exchange between the sea and the flooded compartment during the roll motion, and the continuous ingress of water through...

  20. Flood risk management in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina...

  1. Estimated flood-inundation maps for Cowskin Creek in western Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studley, Seth E.

    2003-01-01

    The October 31, 1998, flood on Cowskin Creek in western Wichita, Kansas, caused millions of dollars in damages. Emergency management personnel and flood mitigation teams had difficulty in efficiently identifying areas affected by the flooding, and no warning was given to residents because flood-inundation information was not available. To provide detailed information about future flooding on Cowskin Creek, high-resolution estimated flood-inundation maps were developed using geographic information system technology and advanced hydraulic analysis. Two-foot-interval land-surface elevation data from a 1996 flood insurance study were used to create a three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area for hydraulic analysis. The data computed from the hydraulic analyses were converted into geographic information system format with software from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center. The results were overlaid on the three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area to produce maps of estimated flood-inundation areas and estimated depths of water in the inundated areas for 1-foot increments on the basis of stream stage at an index streamflow-gaging station. A Web site (http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/cowskin.floodwatch) was developed to provide the public with information pertaining to flooding in the study area. The Web site shows graphs of the real-time streamflow data for U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations in the area and monitors the National Weather Service Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center for Cowskin Creek flood-forecast information. When a flood is forecast for the Cowskin Creek Basin, an estimated flood-inundation map is displayed for the stream stage closest to the National Weather Service's forecasted peak stage. Users of the Web site are able to view the estimated flood-inundation maps for selected stages at any time and to access information about this report and about flooding in general. Flood

  2. The European Union approach to flood risk management and improving societal resilience: lessons from the implementation of the Floods Directive in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J. Priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in flood risk management approaches is often considered to be a strength. However, in some national settings, and especially for transboundary rivers, variability and incompatibility of approaches can reduce the effectiveness of flood risk management. Placed in the context of increasing flood risks, as well as the potential for flooding to undermine the European Union's sustainable development goals, a desire to increase societal resilience to flooding has prompted the introduction of a common European Framework. We provide a legal and policy analysis of the implementation of the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC in six countries: Belgium (Flemish region, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Evaluation criteria from existing legal and policy literature frame the study of the Directive and its effect on enhancing or constraining societal resilience by using an adaptive governance approach. These criteria are initially used to analyze the key components of the EU approach, before providing insight of the implementation of the Directive at a national level. Similarities and differences in the legal translation of European goals into existing flood risk management are analyzed alongside their relative influence on policy and practice. The research highlights that the effect of the Floods Directive on increasing societal resilience has been nationally variable, in part because of its focus on procedural obligations, rather than on more substantive requirements. Analysis shows that despite a focus on transboundary river basin management, existing traditions of flood risk management have overridden objectives to harmonize flood risk management in some cases. The Directive could be strengthened by requiring more stringent cooperation and providing the competent authorities in international river basin districts with more power. Despite some shortcomings in directly affecting flood risk outcomes, the Directive has positively

  3. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff

  4. Adaptation to floods in future climate: a practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata; Radon, Radoslaw; Hisdal, Hege

    2016-04-01

    In this study some aspects of the application of the 1D hydraulic model are discussed with a focus on its suitability for flood adaptation under future climate conditions. The Biała Tarnowska catchment is used as a case study. A 1D hydraulic model is developed for the evaluation of inundation extent and risk maps in future climatic conditions. We analyse the following flood indices: (i) extent of inundation area; (ii) depth of water on flooded land; (iii) the flood wave duration; (iv) the volume of a flood wave over the threshold value. In this study we derive a model cross-section geometry following the results of primary research based on a 500-year flood inundation extent. We compare two methods of localisation of cross-sections from the point of view of their suitability to the derivation of the most precise inundation outlines. The aim is to specify embankment heights along the river channel that would protect the river valley in the most vulnerable locations under future climatic conditions. We present an experimental design for scenario analysis studies and uncertainty reduction options for future climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes), carried out in the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, funded by Norway Grants (contract No. Pol-Nor/196243/80/2013). The hydro-meteorological observations were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

  5. Proteomic Techniques and Management of Flooding Tolerance in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Tougou, Makoto; Nanjo, Yohei

    2015-09-04

    Climate change is considered a major threat to world agriculture and food security. To improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, the development of high-yielding stress-tolerant, and climate-resilient crops is essential. Of the abiotic stresses, flooding stress is a very serious hazard because it markedly reduces plant growth and grain yield. Proteomic analyses indicate that the effects of flooding stress are not limited to oxygen deprivation but include many other factors. Although many flooding response mechanisms have been reported, flooding tolerance mechanisms have not been fully clarified for soybean. There were limitations in soybean materials, such as mutants and varieties, while they were abundant in rice and Arabidopsis. In this review, plant proteomic technologies are introduced and flooding tolerance mechanisms of soybeans are summarized to assist in the improvement of flooding tolerance in soybeans. This work will expedite transgenic or marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in crops for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant lines or varieties under abiotic stress.

  6. Assessment of flood potential for eight buildings at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffe, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, P-SQUARED Technologies, Inc., (P2T) was tasked with defining the flood potential for seven buildings at the Y-12 Plant (Buildings 9204-2, 9204-2E, 9206, 9212, 9215, 9720-5, and 9995) in the assumed event of a design storm with a recurrence interval of 10,000 years. At the conclusion of the study, P2T prepared and submitted a report summarizing the flood potential for those seven buildings. In November of 1997, P2T was tasked with (1) defining flood potential for the same seven buildings listed above for design storms with recurrence intervals of 500 years and 2000 years, and (2) defining flood potential for Building 9720-38 for design storms with recurrence intervals of 500 years, 2000 years, and 10,000 years. This report presents the results of the analyses conducted to define flood potential at these locations and for these recurrence intervals. None of the buildings investigated are completely safe from flooding during the storms considered. Runoff from rooftops may cause limited flooding in any areas where water is allowed to pond next to doors, vents, windows, or other openings. Flooding depths inside buildings in these areas should be limited to 1 ft or less. Buildings with openings below the grade of adjacent roads are also subject to flooding, with flood levels dependent upon the topography in that location

  7. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bischiniotis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most flood early warning systems have predominantly focused on forecasting floods with lead times of hours or days. However, physical processes during longer timescales can also contribute to flood generation. In this study, we follow a pragmatic approach to analyse the hydro-meteorological pre-conditions of 501 historical damaging floods from 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa. These are separated into (a weather timescale (0–6 days and (b seasonal timescale conditions (up to 6 months before the event. The 7-day precipitation preceding a flood event (PRE7 and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI are analysed for the two timescale domains, respectively. Results indicate that high PRE7 does not always generate floods by itself. Seasonal SPEIs, which are not directly correlated with PRE7, exhibit positive (wet values prior to most flood events across different averaging times, indicating a relationship with flooding. This paper provides evidence that bringing together weather and seasonal conditions can lead to improved flood risk preparedness.

  8. The influence of antecedent conditions on flood risk in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van den Hurk, Bart; Jongman, Brenden; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Veldkamp, Ted; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Most flood early warning systems have predominantly focused on forecasting floods with lead times of hours or days. However, physical processes during longer timescales can also contribute to flood generation. In this study, we follow a pragmatic approach to analyse the hydro-meteorological pre-conditions of 501 historical damaging floods from 1980 to 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa. These are separated into (a) weather timescale (0-6 days) and (b) seasonal timescale conditions (up to 6 months) before the event. The 7-day precipitation preceding a flood event (PRE7) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) are analysed for the two timescale domains, respectively. Results indicate that high PRE7 does not always generate floods by itself. Seasonal SPEIs, which are not directly correlated with PRE7, exhibit positive (wet) values prior to most flood events across different averaging times, indicating a relationship with flooding. This paper provides evidence that bringing together weather and seasonal conditions can lead to improved flood risk preparedness.

  9. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Sto Domingo, Nina

    Flood risk in cities is strongly affected by the development of the city itself. Many studies focus on changes in the flood hazard as a result of, for example, changed degrees of sealing in the catchment or climatic changes. However, urban developments in flood prone areas can affect the exposure...... to the hazard and thus have large impacts on flood risk. Different urban socio-economic development scenarios, rainfall inputs and options for the mitigation of flood risk, quickly lead to a large number of scenarios that need to be considered in the planning of the development of a city. This calls...... for automated analyses that allow the planner to quickly identify if, when and how infrastructure should be modified. Such analysis, which accounts for the two-way interactions between city development and flood risk, is possible only to a limited extent in existing tools. We have developed a software framework...

  10. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break; Determinacion de los tiempos maximos de aislamiento en caso de inundacion interna por rotura de tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  11. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  12. Rapid-response flood mapping during Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria by the Global Flood Partnership (GFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.; Alfieri, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coughlan, E.; Galantowicz, J. F.; Hong, Y.; Kettner, A.; Nghiem, S. V.; Prados, A. I.; Rudari, R.; Salamon, P.; Trigg, M.; Weerts, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Flood Partnership (GFP; https://gfp.jrc.ec.europa.eu) is a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, operational agencies and flood risk managers focused on developing efficient and effective global flood management tools. Launched in 2014, its aim is to establish a partnership for global flood forecasting, monitoring and impact assessment to strengthen preparedness and response and to reduce global disaster losses. International organizations, the private sector, national authorities, universities and research agencies contribute to the GFP on a voluntary basis and benefit from a global network focused on flood risk reduction. At the onset of Hurricane Harvey, GFP was `activated' using email requests via its mailing service. Soon after, flood inundation maps, based on remote sensing analysis and modeling, were shared by different agencies, institutions, and individuals. These products were disseminated, to varying degrees of effectiveness, to federal, state and local agencies via emails and data-sharing services. This generated a broad data-sharing network which was utilized at the early stages of Hurricane Irma's impact, just two weeks after Harvey. In this presentation, we will describe the extent and chronology of the GFP response to both Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. We will assess the potential usefulness of this effort for event managers in various types of organizations and discuss future improvements to be implemented.

  13. [Climate change, floods and health intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Peter; Tellier, Siri; Vestergaard, Lasse S

    2017-05-15

    Climate change and variability are considered some of the biggest threats to human health in the 21st century. Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are examples of natural hazards resulting in highest number of disasters and with considerable mortality and morbidity among vulnerable communities. A coordinated, well-planned management of health interventions must be taken for timely action in the response, recovery, prevention and preparedness phases of disasters. Roles and responsibilities of international as well as national organizations and authorities are discussed.

  14. Texas floods of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Floods occurred in Texas during, June, July, and November 1940 that exceeded known stages on many small streams and at a few places on the larger streams. Stages at several stream-gaging stations exceeded the maximum known at those places since the collection of daily records began. A storm, haying its axis generally on a north-south line from Cameron to Victoria and extending across the Brazos, Colorado, Lavaca, and Guadalupe River Basins, caused heavy rainfall over a large part of south-central Texas. The maximum recorded rain of 22.7 inches for the 2-day period June 29-30 occurred at Engle. Of this amount, 17.5 inches fell in the 12-hour period between 8 p.m. June 29, and 8 a.m. June 30. Light rains fell at a number of places on June 28, and additional light rains fell at many places within the area from July 1 to 4. During the period June 28 to July 4 more than 20 inches of rain fell over an area of 300 square miles, more than 15 inches over 1,920 square miles, and more than 10 inches over 5,100 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area experiencing the heaviest rainfall during this storm is about 35 inches. Farming is largely confined to the fertile flood plains in much of the area subjected to the record-breaking floods in June and July. Therefore these floods, coming at the height of the growing season, caused severe losses to crops. Much damage was done also to highways and railways. The city of Hallettsville suffered the greatest damage of any urban area. The Lavaca River at that place reached a stage 8 feet higher than ever known before, drowned several people, destroyed many homes, and submerged almost the entire business district. The maximum discharge there was 93,100 second-feet from a drainage area of 101 square miles. Dry Creek near Smithville produced a maximum discharge of 1,879 second-feet from an area of 1.48 square miles and a runoff of 11.3 inches in a 2-day period from a rainfall of 19.5 inches. The area in the Colorado River

  15. Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Clare R; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Murphy, Rinki; Braithwaite, Irene; Beasley, Richard; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2018-03-07

    Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m² lower than the never group ( p BMI of -0.079 kg/m². In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6-7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.

  16. Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI across countries in adolescents (13–14 years and children (6–7 years. Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children’s parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m2 lower than the never group (p < 0.001. Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of −0.079 kg/m2. In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6–7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small.

  17. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  18. Taming global flood disasters. Lessons learned from Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Herk, S.; Rijke, J.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing international recognition that flood risk management in optima forma should be a programmed and flexible process of continuously improving management practices by active learning about the outcome of earlier and ongoing interventions and drivers of change. In the Netherlands, such

  19. Taming global flood disasters : lessons learned from Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Van Herk, S.; Rijke, J.S.; Kabat, P.; Bloemen, P.; Ashley, R.; Speers, A.; Gersonius, B.; Veenbeek, W.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing international recognition that flood risk management in optima forma should be a programmed and flexible process of continuously improving management practices by active learning about the outcome of earlier and ongoing interventions and drivers of change. In the Netherlands, such

  20. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  1. Assessing surface water flood risk and management strategies under future climate change: Insights from an Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K; Surminski, S; Hall, J; Crick, F

    2017-10-01

    Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The analysis highlights that while combined investment in property-level flood protection and sustainable urban drainage systems reduce surface water flood risk, the benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. In our simulations, Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, the scheme does face increasing financial pressure due to rising surface water flood damages. If the intended transition to risk-based pricing is to take place then a determined and coordinated strategy will be needed to manage flood risk, which utilises insurance incentives, limits new development, and supports resilience measures. Our modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for the ongoing regulatory and political approval process for Flood Re as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  3. The analysis on the flood property of Weihe River in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Longqing; Jiang Xinhui

    2004-01-01

    From the end of Aug to Oct in 2003, it occurred a serious rainfall in the Weihe River --the largest tributary of Yellow River. The rainfall is rare in the history with long duration in the Weihe River valley so that 5 successive floods have formed at the controlling hydrological station-Huaxian station. Those floods overflow the beach, broke the dykes and flood the big area of Lower Weihe River. The natural adversity made near 200.000 populations leave their homeland the serious economic losses. The durations of the floods are long, the water levels are high and the volume of floods is largeness, which is rare in the history to a large extent. The flood peak at Huaxian station is up to 3570 m 3 /s, which is the first biggest peak since 1992. In recent years, owing to the fact that probability of the big flood on Weihe River was rare, the main river was withered clearly, propagation time of flood is lengthened and the discharge flowing over the floodplain was only 800-1000 m 3 /s. The water producing areas of those floods were in the area with little sediment production and the sediment content of the river is lower. As a result, the main river is eroded, the discharge ability of the river course becomes big gradually and the discharge flowing over the floodplain recovers above 2000 m 3 /s. From the analyses of flood components and flood progress, the conclusion is: the sediment deposit and the rising of channel bed, the withering of the main river, the decreasing of the discharge flowing over the floodplain, the increasing of the large peak whittling rate and the prolonging of the propagation duration, all have become the universal appearance of the rivers in arid and half arid districts. The appearance is extremely easily to create the serious calamity in the big flood and the flood law in local area should be researched further.(Author)

  4. The Complex Relationship Between Heavy Storms and Floods: Implication on Stormwater Drainage design and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y.; Mortuza, M. R.; Moges, E.; Yan, E.; Li, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the lack of historical and future streamflow data for flood frequency analysis at or near most drainage sites, it is a common practice to directly estimate the design flood (maximum discharge or volume of stream for a given return period) based on storm frequency analysis and the resulted Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. Such analysis assumes a direct relationship between storms and floods with, for example, the 10-year rainfall expected to produce the 10-year flood. However, in reality, a storm is just one factor among the many other hydrological and metrological factors that can affect the peak flow and hydrograph. Consequently, a heavy storm does not necessarily always lead to flooding or a flood events with the same frequency. This is evident by the observed difference in the seasonality of heavy storms and floods in most regions. In order to understand site specific causal-effect relationship between heavy storms and floods and improve the flood analysis for stormwater drainage design and management, we have examined the contributions of various factors that affect floods using statistical and information theory methods. Based on the identified dominant causal-effect relationships, hydrologic and probability analyses were conducted to develop the runoff IDF curves taking into consideration the snowmelt and rain-on-snow effect, the difference in the storm and flood seasonality, soil moisture conditions, and catchment potential for flash and riverine flooding. The approach was demonstrated using data from military installations located in different parts of the United States. The accuracy of the flood frequency analysis and the resulted runoff IDF curves were evaluated based on the runoff IDF curves developed from streamflow measurements.

  5. Large Scale Flood Risk Analysis using a New Hyper-resolution Population Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.; Quinn, N.; Wing, O.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present the first national scale flood risk analyses, using high resolution Facebook Connectivity Lab population data and data from a hyper resolution flood hazard model. In recent years the field of large scale hydraulic modelling has been transformed by new remotely sensed datasets, improved process representation, highly efficient flow algorithms and increases in computational power. These developments have allowed flood risk analysis to be undertaken in previously unmodeled territories and from continental to global scales. Flood risk analyses are typically conducted via the integration of modelled water depths with an exposure dataset. Over large scales and in data poor areas, these exposure data typically take the form of a gridded population dataset, estimating population density using remotely sensed data and/or locally available census data. The local nature of flooding dictates that for robust flood risk analysis to be undertaken both hazard and exposure data should sufficiently resolve local scale features. Global flood frameworks are enabling flood hazard data to produced at 90m resolution, resulting in a mis-match with available population datasets which are typically more coarsely resolved. Moreover, these exposure data are typically focused on urban areas and struggle to represent rural populations. In this study we integrate a new population dataset with a global flood hazard model. The population dataset was produced by the Connectivity Lab at Facebook, providing gridded population data at 5m resolution, representing a resolution increase over previous countrywide data sets of multiple orders of magnitude. Flood risk analysis undertaken over a number of developing countries are presented, along with a comparison of flood risk analyses undertaken using pre-existing population datasets.

  6. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  7. Evaluation of flooding tolerance in cuttings of Populus clones used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed the responses to flooding of 14 poplar clones used for forestation at the Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Some are commercial clones planted in the area, and others belong to a poplar breeding program from the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. Potted plants of 60 cm high ...

  8. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  9. Challenges in estimating the health impact of Hurricane Sandy using macro-level flood data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Liu, B.; Schneider, S.; Schwartz, R.; Taioli, E.

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage but the long-term health impacts are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. This study assesses concordance in Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) and self-reported flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy to elucidate discrepancies in flood exposure assessments. Methods: Three meter resolution New York State flood data was obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. FEMA data was compared to self-reported flood data obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents following Sandy. Flooding was defined as both dichotomous and continuous variables and analyses were performed in SAS v9.4 and ArcGIS 10.3.1. Results: There was a moderate agreement between FEMA and self-reported flooding (Kappa statistic 0.46) and continuous (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.50) measures of flood exposure. Flooding was self-reported and recorded by FEMA in 23.6% of cases, while agreement between the two measures on no flooding was 51.1%. Flooding was self-reported but not recorded by FEMA in 8.5% of cases, while flooding was not self-reported but indicated by FEMA in 16.8% of cases. In this last instance, 84% of people (173/207; 83.6%) resided in an apartment (no flooding reported). Spatially, the most concordance resided in the interior of New York City / Long Island, while the greatest areas of discordance were concentrated in the Rockaway Peninsula and Long Beach, especially among those living in apartments. Conclusions: There were significant discrepancies between FEMA and self-reported flood data. While macro-level FEMA flood data is a relatively less expensive and faster way to provide exposure estimates spanning larger geographic areas affected by Hurricane Sandy than micro-level estimates from cohort studies, macro

  10. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: international collaborative study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per thousand, and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per thousand. As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (delta13C and delta18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and

  11. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2 H/ 1 H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13 C/ 12 C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18 O/ 16 O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring δ 13 C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2 H/ 1 H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (δ 13 C and δ 18 O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring δ 18 O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and

  12. Radiotoxicological analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Research Centre of Saluggia, Radiation Protection Institute, Saluggia, VC (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of {sup 239{sup +}}{sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium.

  13. Development of method for evaluating estimated inundation area by using river flood analysis based on multiple flood scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural mitigation measures such as flood hazard map based on estimated inundation area have been more important because heavy rains exceeding the design rainfall frequently occur in recent years. However, conventional method may lead to an underestimation of the area because assumed locations of dike breach in river flood analysis are limited to the cases exceeding the high-water level. The objective of this study is to consider the uncertainty of estimated inundation area with difference of the location of dike breach in river flood analysis. This study proposed multiple flood scenarios which can set automatically multiple locations of dike breach in river flood analysis. The major premise of adopting this method is not to be able to predict the location of dike breach correctly. The proposed method utilized interval of dike breach which is distance of dike breaches placed next to each other. That is, multiple locations of dike breach were set every interval of dike breach. The 2D shallow water equations was adopted as the governing equation of river flood analysis, and the leap-frog scheme with staggered grid was used. The river flood analysis was verified by applying for the 2015 Kinugawa river flooding, and the proposed multiple flood scenarios was applied for the Akutagawa river in Takatsuki city. As the result of computation in the Akutagawa river, a comparison with each computed maximum inundation depth of dike breaches placed next to each other proved that the proposed method enabled to prevent underestimation of estimated inundation area. Further, the analyses on spatial distribution of inundation class and maximum inundation depth in each of the measurement points also proved that the optimum interval of dike breach which can evaluate the maximum inundation area using the minimum assumed locations of dike breach. In brief, this study found the optimum interval of dike breach in the Akutagawa river, which enabled estimated maximum inundation area

  14. Flooding Fragility Experiments and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tahhan, Antonio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Muchmore, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, Larinda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the work that has been performed on flooding fragility, both the experimental tests being carried out and the probabilistic fragility predictive models being produced in order to use the text results. Flooding experiments involving full-scale doors have commenced in the Portal Evaluation Tank. The goal of these experiments is to develop a full-scale component flooding experiment protocol and to acquire data that can be used to create Bayesian regression models representing the fragility of these components. This work is in support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluation research and development.

  15. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  16. Adjustable Robust Strategies for Flood Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, Krzysztof; den Hertog, Dick; Kind, J.; Pustjens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection is of major importance to many flood-prone regions and involves substantial investment and maintenance costs. Modern flood risk management requires often to determine a cost-efficient protection strategy, i.e., one with lowest possible long run cost and satisfying flood protection

  17. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    information that we will gather in the future) and on the formulation of the optimization problem (risk-based vs. rule-based approach). The application of the framework is demonstrated on catchments in Germany. References: DWA (Deutsche Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft Abwasser und Abfall eV.) 2011. Merkblatt DWA-M 507-1: Deiche an Fließgewässern. (A. Bieberstein, Ed.). Hennef: DWA Deutsche Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e. V. Hall, J., & Solomatine, D. 2008. A framework for uncertainty analysis in flood risk management decisions. International Journal of River Basin Management, 6(2), 85-98. http://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2008.9635339 Špačková, O. & Straub, D. 2017. Long-term adaption decisions via fully and partially observable Markov decision processes. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. In print.

  18. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  19. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  20. Vacating the Floodplain: Urban Property, Engineering, and Floods in Brisbane (1974-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Cook

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the dominant socio-economic and political values that shaped flood management between 1974 and 2011 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. By the 1970s, international hazard scholarship advocated regulating land use as an effective flood mitigation tool. In 1974, floods devastated Southeast Queensland and highlighted the hazards of building on floodplains. Drawing on scholarship that frames floods as a cultural, rather than natural event, this paper shows that the state government of Queensland prioritised property development and continued to rely on dam building as a way of controlling floods. Dams were built with the aim of providing immunity from flooding, but tensions between State and local governments allowed both to evade responsibility for the growing hazard arising from continuing development in the floodplain. When legislation and regulations were introduced to control floodplain development, they reflected popular sentiment against land use restrictions and hence were limited in scope, non-mandatory, and riddled with loopholes. The results of these inadequate land use regulations and continued residential development below the 100-year flood level were fully exposed in 2011 when a substantial increase in damages accompanied flooding of the Brisbane River. Despite evidence and predictions of increased risk of more frequent and larger floods from a warming climate, both state and local governments have continued to promote development in the Brisbane River floodplain, and appear willing to subject the city and its residents to increased hazards and vulnerability.

  1. Flood Hazard Areas - High Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The S_Fld_Haz_Ar table contains information about the flood hazards within the study area. A spatial file with locational information also corresponds with this data...

  2. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  3. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  4. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  5. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ... people are estimated to be at such risk by 2080 .... SCS-CN method is based on the water balance .... and psychological burden of flood hazard often fall.

  6. What Is Driving the Observed Changes in Flooding in the Turkey River in Iowa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.; Yu, G.; Wright, D.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding can have severe societal, economic, and environmental consequences. In the United States-and worldwide-flooding causes fatalities and billions of dollars in economic loss. Recent research has pointed to changing flood risks in the Midwestern United States. However, we have a limited understanding of what natural and human factors are driving these changes. Researchers have proposed several possible explanations. Increasing intensity of short-duration summertime rainfall, reduced snow cover and earlier snow and soil thaw, changes in land surface evapotranspiration, and the effects of urbanization and agricultural management practices may all play roles in the shifts seen in the hydrologic cycle and flooding in Midwest. This study intends to look at the changes in the region on a smaller scale, whereas most previous research has examined at broad regional trends. Our focus will be on the agricultural Turkey River watershed in northeastern Iowa, where the flood hydroclimatology shows an abrupt shift around the year 1990 toward lower mean annual floods and dramatic increases in the magnitude and frequency of the largest floods. Analyses of land use, temperature, rainfall, river flow, and atmospheric properties, as well as simple continuous hydrologic simulations will aid in our understanding of the flood behavior of Turkey River and its drivers. In doing so, we hope to shed light on the causes of the changes in flooding and hydrology more generally that are taking place throughout the region.

  7. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainullotfi, A A; Ibrahim, A L; Masron, T

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area

  8. Comparison between changes in flood hazard and risk in Spain using historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis; Gilabert, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the COST Action ES0901 "European procedures for flood frequency estimation (FloodFreq)" had as objective "the comparison and evaluation of methods for flood frequency estimation under the various climatologic and geographic conditions found in Europe". It was highlighted the improvement of regional analyses on at-site estimates, in terms of the uncertainty of quantile estimates. In the case of Spain, a regional analysis was carried out at a national scale, which allows identifying the flow threshold corresponding to a given return period from the observed flow series recorded at a gauging station. In addition, Mediero et al. (2014) studied the possible influence of non-stationarity on flood series for the period 1942-2009. In parallel, Barnolas and Llasat (2007), among others, collected documentary information of catastrophic flood events in Spain for the last centuries. Traditionally, the first approach ("top-down") usually identifies a flood as catastrophic, when its exceeds the 500-year return period flood. However, the second one ("bottom-up approach") accounts for flood damages (Llasat et al, 2005). This study presents a comparison between both approaches, discussing the potential factors that can lead to discrepancies between them, as well as accounting for information about major changes experienced in the catchment that could lead to changes in flood hazard and risk.

  9. Collaborative modelling for active involvement of stakeholders in urban flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to enhance the role of local stakeholders in dealing with urban floods. The concept is based on the DIANE-CM project (Decentralised Integrated Analysis and Enhancement of Awareness through Collaborative Modelling and Management of Flood Risk of the 2nd ERANET CRUE funding initiative. The main objective of the project was to develop and test an advanced methodology for enhancing the resilience of local communities to flooding. Through collaborative modelling, a social learning process was initiated that enhances the social capacity of the stakeholders due to the interaction process. The other aim of the project was to better understand how data from hazard and vulnerability analyses and improved maps, as well as from the near real-time flood prediction, can be used to initiate a public dialogue (i.e. collaborative mapping and planning activities in order to carry out more informed and shared decision-making processes and to enhance flood risk awareness. The concept of collaborative modelling was applied in two case studies: (1 the Cranbrook catchment in the UK, with focus on pluvial flooding; and (2 the Alster catchment in Germany, with focus on fluvial flooding. As a result of the interactive and social learning process, supported by sociotechnical instruments, an understanding of flood risk was developed amongst the stakeholders and alternatives for flood risk management for the respective case study area were jointly developed and ranked as a basis for further planning and management.

  10. The efficiency of asset management strategies to reduce urban flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three asset management strategies were compared with respect to their efficiency to reduce flood risk. Data from call centres at two municipalities were used to quantify urban flood risks associated with three causes of urban flooding: gully pot blockage, sewer pipe blockage and sewer overloading. The efficiency of three flood reduction strategies was assessed based on their effect on the causes contributing to flood risk. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in the data source, citizens' calls, was analysed through incorporation of uncertainty ranges taken from customer complaint literature. Based on the available data it could be shown that increasing gully pot blockage is the most efficient action to reduce flood risk, given data uncertainty. If differences between cause incidences are large, as in the presented case study, call data are sufficient to decide how flood risk can be most efficiently reduced. According to the results of this analysis, enlargement of sewer pipes is not an efficient strategy to reduce flood risk, because flood risk associated with sewer overloading is small compared to other failure mechanisms.

  11. Modeling Flood & Drought Scenario for Water Management in Porali River Basin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali river basin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF and HEC-river analysis system (HEC-RAS are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 109 m3 of water available due to immense flooding that is sufficient for the survival for one drought year, as the volume of water for latter scenario is 2.9 × 108m3.

  12. Best Statistical Distribution of flood variables for Johor River in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarpour Goodarzi, M.; Yusop, Z.; Yusof, F.

    2012-12-01

    A complex flood event is always characterized by a few characteristics such as flood peak, flood volume, and flood duration, which might be mutually correlated. This study explored the statistical distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume at Rantau Panjang gauging station on the Johor River in Malaysia. Hourly data were recorded for 45 years. The data were analysed based on water year (July - June). Five distributions namely, Log Normal, Generalize Pareto, Log Pearson, Normal and Generalize Extreme Value (GEV) were used to model the distribution of all the three variables. Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume. However, Generalize Pareto distribution is found to be the most suitable model when tested with the Anderson-Darling test and the, Kolmogorov-Smirnov suggested that GEV is the best for peakflow. The result of this research can be used to improve flood frequency analysis. Comparison between Generalized Extreme Value, Generalized Pareto and Log Pearson distributions in the Cumulative Distribution Function of peakflow

  13. Identification of Flood Reactivity Regions via the Functional Clustering of Hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Manuela I.; Viviroli, Daniel; Furrer, Reinhard; Seibert, Jan; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2018-03-01

    Flood hydrograph shapes contain valuable information on the flood-generation mechanisms of a catchment. To make good use of this information, we express flood hydrograph shapes as continuous functions using a functional data approach. We propose a clustering approach based on functional data for flood hydrograph shapes to identify a set of representative hydrograph shapes on a catchment scale and use these catchment-specific sets of representative hydrographs to establish regions of catchments with similar flood reactivity on a regional scale. We applied this approach to flood samples of 163 medium-size Swiss catchments. The results indicate that three representative hydrograph shapes sufficiently describe the hydrograph shape variability within a catchment and therefore can be used as a proxy for the flood behavior of a catchment. These catchment-specific sets of three hydrographs were used to group the catchments into three reactivity regions of similar flood behavior. These regions were not only characterized by similar hydrograph shapes and reactivity but also by event magnitudes and triggering event conditions. We envision these regions to be useful in regionalization studies, regional flood frequency analyses, and to allow for the construction of synthetic design hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The clustering approach based on functional data which establish these regions is very flexible and has the potential to be extended to other geographical regions or toward the use in climate impact studies.

  14. Introduction to flood control science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong U; Ha, Jin Uk; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Hong Ryeol; Song, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jin Gyu; Moon, Heon Cheol

    2003-01-01

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  15. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  16. A software tool for rapid flood inundation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, James; Verdin, Kristine; Mathis, Melissa L.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Kabuchanga, Eric; Woodbury, Mark; Gadain, Hussein

    2016-06-02

    The GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance to provide a means for production of reconnaissance-level flood inundation mapping for data-sparse and resource-limited areas of the world. The GFT has also attracted interest as a tool for rapid assessment flood inundation mapping for the Flood Inundation Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The GFT can fill an important gap for communities that lack flood inundation mapping by providing a first-estimate of inundation zones, pending availability of resources to complete an engineering study. The tool can also help identify priority areas for application of scarce flood inundation mapping resources. The technical basis of the GFT is an application of the Manning equation for steady flow in an open channel, operating on specially processed digital elevation data. The GFT is implemented as a software extension in ArcGIS. Output maps from the GFT were validated at 11 sites with inundation maps produced previously by the Flood Inundation Mapping Program using standard one-dimensional hydraulic modeling techniques. In 80 percent of the cases, the GFT inundation patterns matched 75 percent or more of the one-dimensional hydraulic model inundation patterns. Lower rates of pattern agreement were seen at sites with low relief and subtle surface water divides. Although the GFT is simple to use, it should be applied with the oversight or review of a qualified hydraulic engineer who understands the simplifying assumptions of the approach.

  17. Flood Risk Assessment Based On Security Deficit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J.; Metzger, R.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    Risk is a human perception: a given risk may be considered as acceptable or unac- ceptable depending on the group that has to face that risk. Flood risk analysis of- ten estimates economic losses from damages, but neglects the question of accept- able/unacceptable risk. With input from land use managers, politicians and other stakeholders, risk assessment based on security deficit analysis determines objects with unacceptable risk and their degree of security deficit. Such a risk assessment methodology, initially developed by the Swiss federal authorities, is illustrated by its application on a reach of the Alzette River (Luxembourg) in the framework of the IRMA-SPONGE FRHYMAP project. Flood risk assessment always involves a flood hazard analysis, an exposed object vulnerability analysis, and an analysis combing the results of these two previous analyses. The flood hazard analysis was done with the quasi-2D hydraulic model FldPln to produce flood intensity maps. Flood intensity was determined by the water height and velocity. Object data for the vulnerability analysis, provided by the Luxembourg government, were classified according to their potential damage. Potential damage is expressed in terms of direct, human life and secondary losses. A thematic map was produced to show the object classification. Protection goals were then attributed to the object classes. Protection goals are assigned in terms of an acceptable flood intensity for a certain flood frequency. This is where input from land use managers and politicians comes into play. The perception of risk in the re- gion or country influences the protection goal assignment. Protection goals as used in Switzerland were used in this project. Thematic maps showing the protection goals of each object in the case study area for a given flood frequency were produced. Com- parison between an object's protection goal and the intensity of the flood that touched the object determine the acceptability of the risk and the

  18. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  19. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  20. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  1. Long-term effects of flooding on mortality in England and Wales, 1994-2005: controlled interrupted time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardi Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence suggests that being flooded may increase mortality and morbidity among affected householders not just at the time of the flood but for months afterwards. The objective of this study is to explore the methods for quantifying such long-term health effects of flooding by analysis of routine mortality registrations in England and Wales. Methods Mortality data, geo-referenced by postcode of residence, were linked to a national database of flood events for 1994 to 2005. The ratio of mortality in the post-flood year to that in the pre-flood year within flooded postcodes was compared with that in non-flooded boundary areas (within 5 km of a flood. Further analyses compared the observed number of flood-area deaths in the year after flooding with the number expected from analysis of mortality trends stratified by region, age-group, sex, deprivation group and urban-rural status. Results Among the 319 recorded floods, there were 771 deaths in the year before flooding and 693 deaths in the year after (post-/pre-flood ratio of 0.90, 95% CI 0.82, 1.00. This ratio did not vary substantially by age, sex, population density or deprivation. A similar post-flood 'deficit' of deaths was suggested by the analyses based on observed/expected deaths. Conclusions The observed post-flood 'deficit' of deaths is counter-intuitive and difficult to interpret because of the possible influence of population displacement caused by flooding. The bias that might arise from such displacement remains unquantified but has important implications for future studies that use place of residence as a marker of exposure.

  2. Long-term effects of flooding on mortality in England and Wales, 1994-2005: controlled interrupted time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited evidence suggests that being flooded may increase mortality and morbidity among affected householders not just at the time of the flood but for months afterwards. The objective of this study is to explore the methods for quantifying such long-term health effects of flooding by analysis of routine mortality registrations in England and Wales. Methods Mortality data, geo-referenced by postcode of residence, were linked to a national database of flood events for 1994 to 2005. The ratio of mortality in the post-flood year to that in the pre-flood year within flooded postcodes was compared with that in non-flooded boundary areas (within 5 km of a flood). Further analyses compared the observed number of flood-area deaths in the year after flooding with the number expected from analysis of mortality trends stratified by region, age-group, sex, deprivation group and urban-rural status. Results Among the 319 recorded floods, there were 771 deaths in the year before flooding and 693 deaths in the year after (post-/pre-flood ratio of 0.90, 95% CI 0.82, 1.00). This ratio did not vary substantially by age, sex, population density or deprivation. A similar post-flood 'deficit' of deaths was suggested by the analyses based on observed/expected deaths. Conclusions The observed post-flood 'deficit' of deaths is counter-intuitive and difficult to interpret because of the possible influence of population displacement caused by flooding. The bias that might arise from such displacement remains unquantified but has important implications for future studies that use place of residence as a marker of exposure. PMID:21288358

  3. 2010-2011 Queensland floods: using Haddon's Matrix to define and categorise public safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yu-Li; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    The 2010-2011 Queensland floods resulted in the most deaths from a single flood event in Australia since 1916. This article analyses the information on these deaths for comparison with those from previous floods in modern Australia in an attempt to identify factors that have contributed to those deaths. Haddon's Matrix, originally designed for prevention of road trauma, offers a framework for understanding the interplay between contributing factors and helps facilitate a clearer understanding of the varied strategies required to ensure people's safety for particular flood types. Public reports and flood relevant literature were searched using key words 'flood', 'fatality', 'mortality', 'death', 'injury' and 'victim' through Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Data relating to reported deaths during the 2010-2011 Queensland floods, and relevant data of previous Australian flood fatality (1997-2009) were collected from these available sources. These sources were also used to identify contributing factors. There were 33 deaths directly attributed to the event, of which 54.5% were swept away in a flash flood on 10 January 2011. A further 15.1% of fatalities were caused by inappropriate behaviours. This is different to floods in modern Australia where over 90% of deaths are related to the choices made by individuals. There is no single reason why people drown in floods, but rather a complex interplay of factors. The present study and its integration of research findings and conceptual frameworks might assist governments and communities to develop policies and strategies to prevent flood injury and fatalities. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Danish risk management plans of the EU Floods Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebens Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the impact and effect of the EU Flood’s Directive (2007/60/EC in Denmark and the flood risk management plans that are the result of the national implementation. In a qualitative research approach, the flood risk management plans published by 22 Danish municipalities are reviewed and analyzed regarding main objectives and structural and non-structural mitigation measures. From the analyses conclusions are drawn on the non-structural risk management measures still to be improved to obtain the full benefits from the Directive. Conclusions point to the need of introducing better decision support systems, a need to define acceptable risks, and a need to enhance coordi-nation between municipal and cross-sectorial actors as well as an increased effort to involve civil society is necessary. In general, the implementation of the Directive has significantly advanced the national scientific and cross-sectorial working platform for dealing with risks from floods.

  5. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  6. Constructing risks – Internalisation of flood risks in the flood risk management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Matthijs; Hartmann, T.; Spit, T.J.M.; Johann, Georg

    Traditional flood protection methods have focused efforts on different measures to keep water out of floodplains. However, the European Flood Directive challenges this paradigm (Hartmann and Driessen, 2013). Accordingly, flood risk management plans should incorporate measures brought about by

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Flooding in Southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Truhetz, Heimo; Reszler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Floods in southeastern Austria can cause significant damage to life, property and infrastructure. These flood events are often the result of extreme precipitation from small-scale convective storms. In order to more accurately model the changes to flood magnitude and frequency, Regional Climate Models (RCMs) must be able to simulate small-scale convective storms similar to those that have been observed. Even as computational resources have increased, RCMs are just now achieving the high spatial and temporal scales necessary to physically resolve the processes that govern small-scale convection. With increased resolution, RCMs can rely on their internal physics to model convective precipitation and need not depend on parameterization. This study uses historical and future scenarios of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) run at a spatial scale of 3 km and temporal scale of 1 hr. In order to subsequently force a hydrological flood model, the sub-daily precipitation and temperature data from the RCMs are first bias corrected. A newly proposed bias correction method is presented and compared to the commonly used quantile mapping. The proposed bias correction method performs better in its ability to preserve the model projected climate change signal (measured by changes in mean and variance). Lastly, the changes in the quantity and frequency of projected extreme precipitation, at the watershed level, are analyzed with respect to the historic time period. With these improvements in dynamical modeling and bias correction methods, a clearer picture emerges revealing the more likely impacts climate change will have on floods in southeastern Austria.

  8. An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    discharges that were estimated by an inappropriate method (slope-area) (Big Creek near Waynesville, North Carolina; Day Creek near Etiwanda, California). Original field notes and records could not be found for three of the floods, however, some data (copies of original materials, records of reviews) were available for two of these floods. A rating was assigned to each of seven peak discharges that had no rating. Errors identified in the reviews include misidentified flow processes, incorrect drainage areas for very small basins, incorrect latitude and longitude, improper field methods, arithmetic mistakes in hand calculations, omission of measured high flows when developing rating curves, and typographical errors. Common problems include use of two-section slope-area measurements, poor site selection, uncertainties in Manning's n-values, inadequate review, lost data files, and insufficient and inadequately described high-water marks. These floods also highlight the extreme difficulty in making indirect discharge measurements following extraordinary floods. Significantly, none of the indirect measurements are rated better than fair, which indicates the need to improve methodology to estimate peak discharge. Highly unsteady flow and resulting transient hydraulic phenomena, two-dimensional flow patterns, debris flows at streamflow-gaging stations, and the possibility of disconnected flow surfaces are examples of unresolved problems not well handled by current indirect discharge methodology. On the basis of a comprehensive review of 50,000 annual peak discharges and miscellaneous floods in California, problems with individual flood peak discharges would be expected to require a revision of discharge or rating curves at a rate no greater than about 0.10 percent of all floods. Many extraordinary floods create complex flow patterns and processes that cannot be adequately documented with quasi-steady, uniform one-dimensional analyses. These floods are most accura

  9. Attribution of floods in the Okavango basin, Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Piotr; Stone, Dáithí; Tadross, Mark; Wehner, Michael; Hewitson, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    In the charismatic wetlands of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, the annual floods of 2009-2011 reached magnitudes last seen 20-30 years ago, considerably affecting life of local populations and the economically important tourism industry. In this study, we analyse results from an attribution modelling system designed to examine how anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have contributed to weather and flood risk in our current climate. The system is based on comparison of real world climate and hydrological simulations with parallel counterfactual simulations of the climate and hydrological responses under conditions that might have been had human activities not emitted greenhouse gases. The analyses allow us to address the question of whether anthropogenic climate change contributed to increasing the risk of these high flood events in the Okavango system. Results show that the probability of occurrence of high floods during 2009-2011 in the current climate is likely lower than it would have been in a climate without anthropogenic greenhouse gases. This result is robust across the two climate models and various data processing procedures, although the exact figures for the associated decrease in risk differ. Results also differ between the three years examined, indicating that the “time-slice” method used here needs to be applied to multiple years in order to accurately estimate the contribution of emissions to current risk. Simple sensitivity analyses indicate that the reduction in flood risk is attributed to higher temperatures (and thus evaporation) in the current world, with little difference in the analysed domain's rainfall simulated in the two scenarios.

  10. Integrating Local Experiential and Hydrometeorological Data to Understand Knowledge Uncertainties and to Build Resilience to Flooding in Two Puerto Rican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M.; Nytch, C. J.; Branoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Socio-hydrological studies that explore feedbacks between social and biophysical processes related to flood risk can help managers identify strategies that increase a community's freshwater security. However, knowledge uncertainty due to coarse spatio-temporal coverage of hydrological monitoring data, missing riverine discharge and precipitation records, assumptions of flood risk models, and effects of urbanization, can limit the ability of these studies to isolate hydrological responses to social drivers of flooding and a changing climate. Local experiential knowledge can provide much needed information about 1) actual flood spatio-temporal patterns, 2) human impacts and perceptions of flood events, and 3) mechanisms to validate flood risk studies and understand key social elements of the system. We addressed these knowledge gaps by comparing the location and timing of flood events described in resident interviews and resident drawn maps (total = 97) from two San Juan communities with NOAA and USGS precipitation and riverine discharge data archives, and FEMA flood maps. Analyses of five focal flood events revealed 1) riverine monitoring data failed to record a major flood event caused by localized blockage of the river, 2) residents did not mention multiple extreme riverine discharge events, 3) resident and FEMA flood maps matched closely but resident maps provided finer spatial information about frequency of flooding, and 4) only a small percentage of residents remembered the dates of flood events. Local knowledge provided valuable social data about flood impacts on human economic and physical/psychological wellbeing, perceptions about factors causing flooding, and what residents use as sources of flood information. A simple mechanism or tool for residents to record their flood experiences in real-time will address the uncertainties in local knowledge and improve social memory. The integration of local experiential knowledge with simulated and empirical hydro

  11. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  12. Flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure in Cork, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent flood events in Ireland and particularly in County Cork have caused significant disruption to health service provisions, interruption of water and power supplies, and damage to roads and other transportation infrastructure, affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people over a prolonged period of weeks. These events clearly reveal- the vulnerability of the critical infrastructure to flooding and the dependence of society on critical infrastructure. In order to reduce the flood vulnerability and increase the resilience of the critical infrastructure networks in the future, detailed evidence-based analysis and assessment is essential. To this end a case study has been carried out on Cork City which analyses this vulnerability as it was in 2009, and as it is currently, and identifies adaptation options to reduce the future vulnerability of critical infrastructure to flooding and to build a more resilient society. This paper describes the storyline approach and CIrcle tool and their application to Cork City which focused on the analysis of the flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the impacts of failure of the infrastructure for other critical functions and on society.

  13. Flood Inundation Mapping and Emergency Operations during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N. Z.; Cotter, J.; Gao, S.; Bedient, P. B.; Yung, A.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Gulf Coast as Category 4 on August 25, 2017 with devastating and life-threatening floods in Texas. Harris County received up to 49 inches of rainfall over a 5-day period and experienced flooding level and impacts beyond any previous storm in Houston's history. The depth-duration-frequency analysis reveals that the areal average rainfall for Brays Bayou surpasses the 500-year rainfall in both 24 and 48 hours. To cope with this unprecedented event, the researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington and Rice University worked closely with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the National Weather Service (NWS), the Texas Division of Emergency Management (TDEM), Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc. and Halff Associates, to conduct a series of meteorological, hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to delineate flood inundation maps. Up to eight major watersheds in Harris County were delineated based the available QPE data from WGRFC. The inundation map over Brays Bayou with their impacts from Hurricane Harvey was delineated in comparison with those of 100-, 500-year, and Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) design storms. This presentation will provide insights for both engineers and planners to re-evaluate the existing flood infrastructure and policy, which will help build Houston stronger for future extreme storms. The collaborative effort among the federal, academic, and private entities clearly demonstrates an effective approach for flood inundation mapping initiatives for the nation.

  14. Dissolved Carbon Fluxes During the 2017 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, J. H.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River drains approximately 3.2 million square kilometres of land and discharges about 680 cubic kilometres of water into the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, acting as a significant medium for carbon transport from land to the ocean. A few studies have documented annual carbon fluxes in the river, however it is unclear whether floods can create riverine carbon pulses. Such information is critical in understanding the effects that extreme precipitation events may have on carbon transport under the changing climate. We hypothesize that carbon concentration and mass loading will increase in response to an increase in river discharge, creating a carbon pulse, and that the source of carbon varies from river rising to falling due to terrestrial runoff processes. This study investigated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) loadings during the 2017 Mississippi River early-summer flood. Water samples were taken from the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge on the rising limb, crest, and falling limb of the flood. All samples were analysed for concentrations of DOC, DIC, and their respective isotopic signature (δ13C). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was also recorded in the field at each sampling trip. Additionally, the water samples were analysed for nutrients, dissolved metals, and suspended solids, and in-situ measurements were made on water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The preliminary findings suggest that carbon species responded differently to the flood event and that δ13C values were dependent on river flood stage. This single flood event transported a large quantity of carbon, indicating that frequent large pulses of riverine carbon should be expected in the future as climate change progresses.

  15. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of individuals to undertake flood risk mitigation measures, as well as the public's demand for flood protection, and therefore provide useful insights for flood risk management. This study empirically exa...

  16. Automating the evaluation of flood damages: methodology and potential gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério, Julian; Martinez, Edgar Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The evaluation of flood damage potential consists of three main steps: assessing and processing data, combining data and calculating potential damages. The first step consists of modelling hazard and assessing vulnerability. In general, this step of the evaluation demands more time and investments than the others. The second step of the evaluation consists of combining spatial data on hazard with spatial data on vulnerability. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a fundamental tool in the realization of this step. GIS software allows the simultaneous analysis of spatial and matrix data. The third step of the evaluation consists of calculating potential damages by means of damage-functions or contingent analysis. All steps demand time and expertise. However, the last two steps must be realized several times when comparing different management scenarios. In addition, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity test are made during the second and third steps of the evaluation. The feasibility of these steps could be relevant in the choice of the extent of the evaluation. Low feasibility could lead to choosing not to evaluate uncertainty or to limit the number of scenario comparisons. Several computer models have been developed over time in order to evaluate the flood risk. GIS software is largely used to realise flood risk analysis. The software is used to combine and process different types of data, and to visualise the risk and the evaluation results. The main advantages of using a GIS in these analyses are: the possibility of "easily" realising the analyses several times, in order to compare different scenarios and study uncertainty; the generation of datasets which could be used any time in future to support territorial decision making; the possibility of adding information over time to update the dataset and make other analyses. However, these analyses require personnel specialisation and time. The use of GIS software to evaluate the flood risk requires personnel with

  17. Pan-European stochastic flood event set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Martin; Pinto, Joaquim G.; He, Yi; Punčochář, Petr; Kelemen, Fanni D.; Manful, Desmond; Palán, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    predictands. Finally, the transfer functions are applied to a large ensemble of GCM simulations with forcing corresponding to present day climate conditions to generate highly resolved stochastic time series of precipitation and temperature for several thousand years. These time series form the input for the rainfall-runoff model developed by the UEA team. It is a spatially distributed model adapted from the HBV model and will be calibrated for individual basins using historical discharge data. The calibrated model will be driven by the precipitation time series generated by the KIT team to simulate discharges at a daily time step. The uncertainties in the simulated discharges will be analysed using multiple model parameter sets. A number of statistical methods will be used to assess return periods, changes in the magnitudes, changes in the characteristics of floods such as time base and time to peak, and spatial correlations of large flood events. The Pan-European flood stochastic event set will permit a better view of flood risk for market applications.

  18. International comparative analyses of healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Niuyun; Wang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiu; Li, Youping; Liang, Minghui; Cheng, Lan; Gao, Guangming; Cui, Xiaohui

    2011-02-01

    Interpretation of the growing body of global literature on health care risk is compromised by a lack of common understanding and language. This series of articles aims to comprehensively compare laws and regulations, institutional management, and administration of incidence reporting systems on medical risk management in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Taiwan, so as to provide evidence and recommendations for health care risk management policy in China. We searched the official websites of the healthcare risk management agencies of the four countries and one district for laws, regulatory documents, research reports, reviews and evaluation forms concerned with healthcare risk management and assessment. Descriptive comparative analysis was performed on relevant documents. A total of 146 documents were included in this study, including 2 laws (1.4%), 17 policy documents (11.6%), 41 guidance documents (28.1%), 37 reviews (25.3%), and 49 documents giving general information (33.6%). The United States government implemented one law and one rule of patient safety management, while the United Kingdom and Australia each issued professional guidances on patient safety improvement. The four countries implemented patient safety management policy on four different levels: national, state/province, hospital, and non-governmental organization. The four countries and one district adopted four levels of patient safety management, and the administration modes can be divided into an "NGO-led mode" represented by the United States and Canada and a "government-led mode" represented by the United Kingdom, Australia, and Taiwan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  19. Estimating flood discharge using witness movies in post-flood hydrological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Jérôme; Hauet, Alexandre; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pénard, Lionel; Bonnifait, Laurent; Dramais, Guillaume; Thollet, Fabien; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of streamflow rates based on post-flood surveys is of paramount importance for the investigation of extreme hydrological events. Major uncertainties usually arise from the absence of information on the flow velocities and from the limited spatio-temporal resolution of such surveys. Nowadays, after each flood occuring in populated areas home movies taken from bridges, river banks or even drones are shared by witnesses through Internet platforms like YouTube. Provided that some topography data and additional information are collected, image-based velocimetry techniques can be applied to some of these movie materials, in order to estimate flood discharges. As a contribution to recent post-flood surveys conducted in France, we developed and applied a method for estimating velocities and discharges based on the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. Since the seminal work of Fujita et al. (1998), LSPIV applications to river flows were reported by a number of authors and LSPIV can now be considered a mature technique. However, its application to non-professional movies taken by flood witnesses remains challenging and required some practical developments. The different steps to apply LSPIV analysis to a flood home movie are as follows: (i) select a video of interest; (ii) contact the author for agreement and extra information; (iii) conduct a field topography campaign to georeference Ground Control Points (GCPs), water level and cross-sectional profiles; (iv) preprocess the video before LSPIV analysis: correct lens distortion, align the images, etc.; (v) orthorectify the images to correct perspective effects and know the physical size of pixels; (vi) proceed with the LSPIV analysis to compute the surface velocity field; and (vii) compute discharge according to a user-defined velocity coefficient. Two case studies in French mountainous rivers during extreme floods are presented. The movies were collected on YouTube and field topography

  20. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas.

  1. Looking upstream: enhancers of child nutritional status in post-flood rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background. Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in many developing countries, yet we have little understanding of preventive strategies for effective coping in these circumstances. Education has been recently highlighted as key to reduce the societal impacts of extreme weather events under climate change, but there is a lack of studies assessing to what extent parental education may prevent post-flood child undernutrition. Methods and Materials. One year after large floods in 2008, we conducted a two-stage cluster population-based survey of 6-59 months children inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), and collected anthropometric measurements on children along with child, parental and household level variables through face-to-face interviews. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we examined separately the effect of maternal and paternal education and other risk factors (mainly income, socio-demographic, and child and mother variables) on stunting and wasting in children from households inhabiting recurrently flooded communities (2006 and 2008; n = 299). As a comparison, separate analyses on children in non-flooded communities were carried out (n = 385). All analyses were adjusted by income as additional robustness check. Results. Overall, fathers with at least completed middle education (up to 14 years of age and compulsory in India) had an advantage in protecting their children from child wasting and stunting. For child stunting, the clearest result was a 100-200% lower prevalence associated with at least paternal secondary schooling (compared to no schooling) in flooded-areas. Again, only in flooded communities, an increase in per capita annual household income of 1,000 rupees was associated to a 4.7-4.9% lower prevalence of child stunting. For child wasting in flooded areas, delayed motherhood was associated to better nutritional outcomes (3.4% lower prevalence per

  2. How Confident can we be in Flood Risk Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Flood risk management should be based on risk analyses quantifying the risk and its reduction for different risk reduction strategies. However, validating risk estimates by comparing model simulations with past observations is hardly possible, since the assessment typically encompasses extreme events and their impacts that have not been observed before. Hence, risk analyses are strongly based on assumptions and expert judgement. This situation opens the door for cognitive biases, such as `illusion of certainty', `overconfidence' or `recency bias'. Such biases operate specifically in complex situations with many factors involved, when uncertainty is high and events are probabilistic, or when close learning feedback loops are missing - aspects that all apply to risk analyses. This contribution discusses how confident we can be in flood risk assessments, and reflects about more rigorous approaches towards their validation.

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Skin Diseases Among Army Personnel and Flood Victims During the 2011 Floods in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtaeparak, Wittaya; Pratchyapruit, Walai-Orn; Kotanivong, Settha; Sirithanakit, Nimit; Thunyaharn, Sudaluck; Rangsin, Ram; Chaikaew, Phachara; Wongyongsin, Pitee; Pinyoboon, Pongpak; Sutthiwan, Phatcharaphan; Theethansiri, Witchwaree; Janthayanont, Dusit; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for skin problems among flood victims and army personnel during the 2011 floods in Thailand. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for skin symptoms, standardized questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, current skin symptoms, history of water exposure, and sanitary behaviors. A certified dermatologist evaluated those who presented with skin problems and provided diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess independent risk factors for skin symptoms. The most prevalent skin disease was irritant contact dermatitis. Flood victims showed a higher prevalence of skin symptoms compared with army personnel. Development of skin symptoms after exposure to floodwater was also observed earlier among flood victims. Having a history of skin diseases and delayed skin cleaning after exposure were also significant risk factors for the development of skin symptoms. This information might be used as guidelines for protecting military personnel and to educate the general public regarding flood disaster management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:570-575).

  4. Analysis of the flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 in a small basin in the province of Bari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Bisantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the province of Bari the hydrographic network consists of ephemeral streams called lame. In these watercourses the absence of runoff for long periods contributed to unfounded beliefs concerning the hydraulic safety of the landscape and therefore uncontrolled changes in streambeds and floodplains. In these streams high water discharges can occur during heavy rainfalls, as demonstrated by the floods that hit the city of Bari in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The flooding event of October 22-23, 2005 can be considered catastrophic as it resulted in six deaths, numerous injuries and substantial damage sustained by road and railway infrastructures at the intersection with the hydrographic network. This study aims to analyse the severity of the event in terms of the response of the landscape with reference to the case of the lama Scappagrano basin, where a Eurostar train derailed due to the collapse of the railway embankment. Coupled hydrological and two-dimensional hydraulic modelling was performed to reconstruct the flood hydrograph and water depths on the upstream side of the embankment. The results were used to set the boundary conditions to analyse the internal stability of the embankment using a finite element method.

  5. Flood Damage and Loss Estimation for Iowa on Web-based Systems using HAZUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, E.; Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    Importance of decision support systems for flood emergency response and loss estimation increases with its social and economic impacts. To estimate the damage of the flood, there are several software systems available to researchers and decision makers. HAZUS-MH is one of the most widely used desktop program, developed by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), to estimate economic loss and social impacts of disasters such as earthquake, hurricane and flooding (riverine and coastal). HAZUS used loss estimation methodology and implements through geographic information system (GIS). HAZUS contains structural, demographic, and vehicle information across United States. Thus, it allows decision makers to understand and predict possible casualties and damage of the floods by running flood simulations through GIS application. However, it doesn't represent real time conditions because of using static data. To close this gap, an overview of a web-based infrastructure coupling HAZUS and real time data provided by IFIS (Iowa Flood Information System) is presented by this research. IFIS is developed by the Iowa Flood Center, and a one-stop web-platform to access community-based flood conditions, forecasts, visualizations, inundation maps and flood-related data, information, and applications. Large volume of real-time observational data from a variety of sensors and remote sensing resources (radars, rain gauges, stream sensors, etc.) and flood inundation models are staged on a user-friendly maps environment that is accessible to the general public. Providing cross sectional analyses between HAZUS-MH and IFIS datasets, emergency managers are able to evaluate flood damage during flood events easier and more accessible in real time conditions. With matching data from HAZUS-MH census tract layer and IFC gauges, economical effects of flooding can be observed and evaluated by decision makers. The system will also provide visualization of the data by using augmented reality for

  6. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    regarding participation was not the methods used for participation but the involvement of concerned lay persons not only in the design of the hazard and risk maps or the risk assessments itself but the cooperative elaboration of the risk assessment approach especially for the harbour area. Following these principles, flood risk maps were created in the underlying EU-project DANUBE FLOODRISK. In this ETC SEE project "DANUBE FLOODRISK - Stakeholder Oriented Assessment of the Danube Floodplains" (2009-2012), hazard and risk maps harmonized across borders for the Danube main stream were produced. This way the overall DANUBE FLOODRISK project contributed to Article 6 of the EU Floods Directive, the hazard and risk maps for international river basins, and provides with the involvement of the national and regional stakeholders the first step to the implementation of Article 7, the Flood Risk Management Plans. By testing the involvement of the broad public and local stakeholders, first exemplary steps were taken for local flood risk management planning. A first set of maps was created for an underlying hazard scenario of a 1-in-100 year flood affecting the city of Krems assuming a failure of the temporal flood protection due to the impact of a ship in the area of the pier. Moreover, both, hazard scenarios with and without a second line of defence were visualised. The set of maps includes (a) an evaluative risk map showing the risk qualitatively aggregated for each building exposed and the number of affected citizens, (b) an evaluative risk map showing the risk qualitatively aggregated per square footage for each building exposed and the number of affected citizens, (c) an evaluative risk map showing the risk quantitatively in monetary units per square footage for each building exposed and the number of affected citizens, and (d) as well as (e) risk maps according to (a) and (b) without the second line of defence in order to communicate the effectiveness of temporal flood protection

  7. Assimilation of flood extent data with 2D flood inundation models for localised intense rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. C.; Wood, M.; Bermúdez, M.; Hostache, R.; Freer, J. E.; Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing of flood inundation extent has long been a potential source of data for constraining and correcting simulations of floodplain inundation. Hydrodynamic models and the computing resources to run them have developed to the extent that simulation of flood inundation in two-dimensional space is now feasible over large river basins in near real-time. However, despite substantial evidence that there is useful information content within inundation extent data, even from low resolution SAR such as that gathered by Envisat ASAR in wide swath mode, making use of the information in a data assimilation system has proved difficult. He we review recent applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and Particle Filter for assimilating SAR data, with a focus on the River Severn UK and compare these with complementary research that has looked at the internal error sources and boundary condition errors using detailed terrestrial data that is not available in most locations. Previous applications of the EnKF to this reach have focused on upstream boundary conditions as the source of flow error, however this description of errors was too simplistic for the simulation of summer flood events where localised intense rainfall can be substantial. Therefore, we evaluate the introduction of uncertain lateral inflows to the ensemble. A further limitation of the existing EnKF based methods is the need to convert flood extent to water surface elevations by intersecting the shoreline location with a high quality digital elevation model (e.g. LiDAR). To simplify this data processing step, we evaluate a method to directly assimilate inundation extent as a EnKF model state rather than assimilating water heights, potentially allowing the scheme to be used where high-quality terrain data are sparse.

  8. The Influence of Flooding Risk on Infrastructure Development in Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jeary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data relating to flood events in the west Sydney area of Windsor, have been re-analysed using extreme value statistics, and the analysis has shown that the risk of occurrence of the probable maximum flood is greater than previously assumed using conventional statistical methods.The response of the New South Wales Government to the perceived risk is discussed and the efficacy of their strategy of relying on passing information to local residents has been tested by the use of a survey of residents of the area.The survey of Windsor residents showed that a significant percentage of the population had no knowledge of the flood risk. Of the rest of the population there was little or no knowledge of the effects that a severe flood might have, and there was little appreciation of the yearly risk of floods that would affect the town. Overall, it was concluded that the main mitigation strategy of government has been ineffective.

  9. Visual representation of gender in flood coverage of Pakistani print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarqa S. Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies gender representation in the visual coverage of the 2010 floods in Pakistan. The data were collected from flood visuals published in the most circulated mainstream English newspapers in Pakistan, Dawn and The News. This study analyses how gender has been framed in the flood visuals. It is argued that visual representation of gender reinforces the gender stereotypes and cultural norms of Pakistani society. The gender-oriented flood coverage in both newspapers frequently seemed to take a reductionist approach while confining the representation of women to gender, and gender-specific roles. Though the gender-sensitive coverage displayed has been typical, showing women as helpless victims of flood, it has aroused sentiments of sympathy among readers and donors, inspiring them to give immediate moral and material help to the affected people. This agenda set by media might be to exploit the politics of sympathy but it has the effect of endorsing gender stereotypes.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Emergency Response Operations: Haiti Earthquake in January 2010 and Pakistan’s Flood in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Earthquake, Pakistan, Flood, Emergency Response Operations, International Community, HA/DR, United Nations , FRC, NDMA , ICT 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Registration Authority NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDMA National Disaster and Management Authority NDMC National Disaster Management...complicates relief efforts. 6 NDMA Pakistan, “Pakistan Floods-Summary of Damages,” No Author. Accessed 24

  11. Safety case methodology for decommissioning of research reactors. Assessment of the long term impact of a flooding scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, G.; Banciu, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper contains the assessment methodology of a Safety Case fuel decommissioning of research reactors, taking into account the international approach principles. The paper also includes the assessment of a flooding scenario for a decommissioned research reactor (stage 1 of decommissioning). The scenario presents the flooding of reactor basement, radionuclide migration through environment and long term radiological impact for public. (authors)

  12. The Study of Vibration Processes in Oil Flooded Screw Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2014-01-01

    system with vibration acceleration feedback. Such system implementation will allow us to exclude extremely dangerous regimes of polytrophic boosting during discharge phase when there is mismatch between the internal compression pressure of the oil flooded screw compressor and that of in discharge line.

  13. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  14. Changes in flood risk in Lower Niger–Benue catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Odunuga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floods are devastating natural disasters with a significant impact on human life and the surrounding environment. This paper analyses historical and recent flood (2012 extreme peak flow at strategic locations, land use activities and Floodplain Vulnerability Index analyses of the Niger–Benue River Floodplain. The 2012 peak flow at Jederbode on the Niger River was about 50% above the long term average. At Jebba (Niger, the 2012 peak flow of 1567 m3 s−1 was also far higher than the long term mean annual peak flow of 1159 m3 s−1. The 2012 peak flow at Lokoja was also about 50 % above the historical average. The Benue River at Makurdi had peak flow of 16 387 m3 s−1 which was also unusually higher than the historical average while Wuroboki (Benue had peak flow of 3362 m3 s−1 which was also much higher that the historical average (694 m3 s−1. The mixed land use which supported diverse ecosystem services has the largest cover of 5654 km2 (36.85% of the Niger–Benue floodplain. The flood vulnerability of the various land uses within the floodplain include; medium, high and very high levels. A four levels hierarchical implementation adaptation strategy for sustainable agricultural practices along the rivers flood plain was proposed. The implementation hierarchy includes: Community Concern, Local Authority Concern, State Concern and National Concern.

  15. Effects of Flood Control Strategies on Flood Resilience Under Sociohydrological Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyungmin; Jeong, Hanseok; Sangwan, Nikhil; Yu, David J.

    2018-04-01

    A community capacity to cope with flood hazards, or community flood resilience, emerges from the interplay of hydrological and social processes. This interplay can be significantly influenced by the flood control strategy adopted by a society, i.e., how a society sets its desired flood protection level and strives to achieve this goal. And this interplay can be further complicated by rising land-sea level differences, seasonal water level fluctuations, and economic change. But not much research has been done on how various forms of flood control strategies affect human-flood interactions under these disturbances and therefore flood resilience in the long run. The current study is an effort to address these issues by developing a conceptual model of human-flood interaction mediated by flood control strategies. Our model extends the existing model of Yu et al. (2017), who investigated the flood resilience of a community-based flood protection system in coastal Bangladesh. The major extensions made in this study are inclusions of various forms of flood control strategies (both adaptive and nonadaptive ones), the challenge of rising land-sea level differences, and various high tide level scenarios generated from modifying the statistical variances and averages. Our results show that adaptive forms of flood control strategies tend to outperform nonadaptive ones for maintaining the model community's flood protection system. Adaptive strategies that dynamically adjust target flood protection levels through close monitoring of flood damages and social memories of flood risk can help the model community deal with various disturbances.

  16. Hot wet spots of Swiss buildings - detecting clusters of flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Veronika; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2016-04-01

    Where are the hotspots of flood exposure in Switzerland? There is no single answer but rather a wide range of findings depending on the databases and methods used. In principle, the analysis of flood exposure is the overlay of two spatial datasets, one on flood hazard and one on assets, e.g. buildings. The presented study aims to test a new developed approach which is based on public available Swiss data. On the hazard side, these are two different types of flood hazard maps each representing a similar return period beyond the dimensioning of structural protection systems. When it comes to assets we use nationwide harmonized data on building, namely a complete dataset of building polygons to which we assign features as volume, residents and monetary value. For the latter we apply findings of multivariate analyses of insurance data. By overlaying building polygons with the flood hazard map we identify the exposed buildings. We analyse the resulting spatial distribution of flood exposure at different levels of scales (local to regional) using administrative units (e.g. municipalities) but also artificial grids with a corresponding size (e.g. 5 000 m). The presentation focuses on the identification of hotspots highlighting the influence of the applied data and methods, e.g. local scan statistics testing intensities within and without potential clusters or log relative exposure surfaces based on kernel intensity estimates. We find a major difference of identified hotspots between absolute values and normalized values of exposure. Whereas the hotspots of flood exposure in absolute figures mirrors the underlying distribution of buildings, the hotspots of flood exposure ratios show very different pictures. We conclude that findings on flood exposure vary depending on the data and moreover the methods used and therefore need to be communicated carefully and appropriate to different stakeholders who may use the information for decision making on flood risk management.

  17. Urban Floods Adaptation and Sustainable Drainage Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the drainage capacity of existing pluvial water networks. Several computational simulations were developed for the current scenario of an existing basin in Lisbon. Using CivilStorm software from Bentley Systems (Bentley EMEA, Bentley Systems International Limited, Dublin, Ireland, it enabled the evaluation of the volumes of flood peaks and the hydraulic behavior of a small hydrographic basin in the continuation of an urbanization process, considering the modification of its superficial impervious parts and the growth of the urbanized area. Several measures are suggested to solve the limited capacity of the existing drainage system. This study analyzes the efficiency of the application of constructive measures, pondering the viability of their effectiveness, individually and combined. The option that best minimizes the effects of the urbanization is the combination of different structural measures, in particular retention ponds, storage blocks, ditches and specific drainage interventions in some parts of the network.

  18. Disaster risk, climate change, and poverty : assessing the global exposure of poor people to floods and droughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsemius, Hessel C.; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted I.E.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip J.

    People living in poverty are particularly vulnerable to shocks, including those caused by natural disasters such as floods and droughts. This paper analyses household survey data and hydrological riverine flood and drought data for 52 countries to find out whether poor people are disproportionally

  19. Comparing flood loss models of different complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Any deliberation on flood risk requires the consideration of potential flood losses. In particular, reliable flood loss models are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures, to assess vulnerability, for comparative risk analysis and financial appraisal during and after floods. In recent years, considerable improvements have been made both concerning the data basis and the methodological approaches used for the development of flood loss models. Despite of that, flood loss models remain an important source of uncertainty. Likewise the temporal and spatial transferability of flood loss models is still limited. This contribution investigates the predictive capability of different flood loss models in a split sample cross regional validation approach. For this purpose, flood loss models of different complexity, i.e. based on different numbers of explaining variables, are learned from a set of damage records that was obtained from a survey after the Elbe flood in 2002. The validation of model predictions is carried out for different flood events in the Elbe and Danube river basins in 2002, 2005 and 2006 for which damage records are available from surveys after the flood events. The models investigated are a stage-damage model, the rule based model FLEMOps+r as well as novel model approaches which are derived using data mining techniques of regression trees and Bayesian networks. The Bayesian network approach to flood loss modelling provides attractive additional information concerning the probability distribution of both model predictions and explaining variables.

  20. Flood Water Segmentation from Crowdsourced Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J. K.; Minsker, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, 176 people were killed by flooding in 2015. Along with the loss of human lives is the economic cost which is estimated to be $4.5 billion per flood event. Urban flooding has become a recent concern due to the increase in population, urbanization, and global warming. As more and more people are moving into towns and cities with infrastructure incapable of coping with floods, there is a need for more scalable solutions for urban flood management.The proliferation of camera-equipped mobile devices have led to a new source of information for flood research. In-situ photographs captured by people provide information at the local level that remotely sensed images fail to capture. Applications of crowdsourced images to flood research required understanding the content of the image without the need for user input. This paper addresses the problem of how to automatically segment a flooded and non-flooded region in crowdsourced images. Previous works require two images taken at similar angle and perspective of the location when it is flooded and when it is not flooded. We examine three different algorithms from the computer vision literature that are able to perform segmentation using a single flood image without these assumptions. The performance of each algorithm is evaluated on a collection of labeled crowdsourced flood images. We show that it is possible to achieve a segmentation accuracy of 80% using just a single image.

  1. RANS analyses on erosion behavior of density stratification consisted of helium–air mixture gas by a low momentum vertical buoyant jet in the PANDA test facility, the third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Satoshi, E-mail: abe.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: . • The third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in the reactor containment vessel. • Two types turbulence model modification were applied in order to accurately simulate the turbulence helium transportation in the density stratification. • The analysis result in case with turbulence model modification is good agreement with the experimental data. • There is a major difference of turbulence helium–mass transportation between in case with and without the turbulence model modification. - Abstract: Density stratification in the reactor containment vessel is an important phenomenon on an issue of hydrogen safety. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project on containment thermal hydraulics. As a part of the activity, we participated in the third international CFD benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in containment vessel. This paper shows our approach for the IBE-3, focusing on the turbulence transport phenomena in eroding the density stratification and introducing modified turbulence models for improvement of the CFD analyses. For this analysis, we modified the CFD code OpenFOAM by using two turbulence models; the Kato and Launder modification to estimate turbulent kinetic energy production around a stagnation point, and the Katsuki model to consider turbulence damping in density stratification. As a result, the modified code predicted well the experimental data. The importance of turbulence transport modeling is also discussed using the calculation results.

  2. RANS analyses on erosion behavior of density stratification consisted of helium–air mixture gas by a low momentum vertical buoyant jet in the PANDA test facility, the third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: . • The third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in the reactor containment vessel. • Two types turbulence model modification were applied in order to accurately simulate the turbulence helium transportation in the density stratification. • The analysis result in case with turbulence model modification is good agreement with the experimental data. • There is a major difference of turbulence helium–mass transportation between in case with and without the turbulence model modification. - Abstract: Density stratification in the reactor containment vessel is an important phenomenon on an issue of hydrogen safety. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project on containment thermal hydraulics. As a part of the activity, we participated in the third international CFD benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in containment vessel. This paper shows our approach for the IBE-3, focusing on the turbulence transport phenomena in eroding the density stratification and introducing modified turbulence models for improvement of the CFD analyses. For this analysis, we modified the CFD code OpenFOAM by using two turbulence models; the Kato and Launder modification to estimate turbulent kinetic energy production around a stagnation point, and the Katsuki model to consider turbulence damping in density stratification. As a result, the modified code predicted well the experimental data. The importance of turbulence transport modeling is also discussed using the calculation results

  3. An exhaustive approach for identification of flood risk hotspots in data poor regions enforcing combined geomorphic and socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, M. P.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many countries across the Globe are victims of floods. To monitor them, various sophisticated algorithms and flood models are used by the scientific community. However, there still lies a gap to efficiently mapping flood risk. The limitations being: (i) scarcity of extensive data inputs required for precise flood modeling, (ii) fizzling performance of models in large and complex terrains (iii) high computational cost and time, and (iv) inexpertise in handling model simulations by civic bodies. These factors trigger the necessity of incorporating uncomplicated and inexpensive, yet precise approaches to identify areas at different levels of flood risk. The present study addresses this issue by utilizing various easily available, low cost data in a GIS environment for a large flood prone and data poor region. A set of geomorphic indicators of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are analysed through linear binary classification, and are used to identify the flood hazard. The performance of these indicators is then investigated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, whereas the calibration and validation of the derived flood maps are accomplished through a comparison with dynamically coupled 1-D 2-D flood model outputs. A high degree of similarity on flood inundation proves the reliability of the proposed approach in identifying flood hazard. On the other hand, an extensive list of socio-economic indicators is selected to represent the flood vulnerability at a very finer forward sortation level using multivariate Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A set of bivariate flood risk maps is derived combining the flood hazard and socio-economic vulnerability maps. Given the acute problem of floods in developing countries, the proposed methodology which may be characterized by low computational cost, lesser data requirement and limited flood modeling complexity may facilitate local authorities and planners for deriving effective flood management strategies.

  4. Sea-Level Rise and Flood Potential along the California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, Q.; Leung, C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level rise is becoming an ever-increasing problem in California. Sea-level is expected to rise significantly in the next 100 years, which will raise flood elevations in coastal communities. This will be an issue for private homeowners, businesses, and the state. One study suggests that Venice Beach could lose a total of at least $440 million in tourism spending and tax dollars from flooding and beach erosion if sea level rises 1.4 m by 2100. In addition, several airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, are located in coastal regions that have flooded in the past and will likely be flooded again in the next 30 years, but sea-level rise is expected to worsen the effects of flooding in the coming decades It is vital for coastal communities to understand the risks associated with sea-level rise so that they can plan to adapt to it. By obtaining accurate LiDAR elevation data from the NOAA Digital Coast Website (http://csc.noaa.gov/dataviewer/?keyword=lidar#), we can create flood maps to simulate sea level rise and flooding. The data are uploaded to ArcGIS and contour lines are added for different elevations that represent future coastlines during 100-year flooding. The following variables are used to create the maps: 1. High-resolution land surface elevation data - obtained from NOAA 2. Local mean high water level - from USGS 3. Local 100-year flood water level - from the Pacific Institute 4. Sea-level rise projections for different future dates (2030, 2050, and 2100) - from the National Research Council The values from the last three categories are added to represent sea-level rise plus 100-year flooding. These values are used to make the contour lines that represent the projected flood elevations, which are then exported as KML files, which can be opened in Google Earth. Once these KML files are made available to the public, coastal communities will gain an improved understanding of how flooding and sea-level rise might affect them in the future

  5. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. ICUD-0147 Extreme event statistics of urban pluvial floods – Return period assessment and rainfall variability impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuyls, Damian Murla; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    A return period assessment of urban flood has been performed and its adhered impact of rainfall variability studied over a urban drainage catchment area in Aalborg, Denmark. Recorded rainfall from 7 rain gauges has been used, located in a range of 7.5Km and for a period varying form 18-37 years....... Return period of rainfall and flood at catchment and local scale has been estimated, its derived ambiguities analysed and the variability of rain gauge based rainfall investigated regarding to flood estimation results. Results show a clear contrast between rainfall and flood return period estimates...

  7. Flood damage data gathering: procedures and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D.; Aronica, G. T.; Ballio, F.; Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Damage data represents the basis on which flood risk models, re-founding schemes and mitigation activities are grounded on. Nevertheless damage data have been collected so far mainly at the national-regional scale; few databases exist at the local scale and, even if present, no standard exist for their development. On the contrary, risk analyses and mitigation strategies are usually carried out at local scale. This contribution describes the ongoing activity to collect and analyze local damage data coming from past events with recently hit Umbria an Sicily regions (central and south part of Italy respectively). Data from past events will be discussed from two different perspectives. In Italy, procedures to gather damage data after a flood are defined by law. According to this, authors will first question whether or not collected data are suitable to give an exhaustive representation of the total impact the events had on the affected territories. As regards, suggestions are provided about how gathering procedures can improve. On the other hand, collected data will be discussed with respect to their implementation in the definition of depth-damage curves for the Italian context; literature review highlights indeed that no curves are available for Italy. Starting from the knowledge of observed hazard intensity and damage data, available curves from other countries are validated, the objective being to reduce the uncertainty which currently characterise damage estimation. Indeed, a variety of curves can be found in literature and the choice of one curve in place of another can change damage assessment results of one order of magnitude. The validation procedure will allow, in its turn, to face a secondary but key question for the contribution, being the identification of those hazard and vulnerability features that should be recorded and kept updated in a local GIS database to support risk modelling, funding and management. The two areas under investigation are prone to

  8. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  9. Flood study of the Suncook River in Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown, New Hampshire, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    On May 15, 2006, a breach in the riverbank caused an avulsion in the Suncook River in Epsom, NH. The breach in the riverbank and subsequent avulsion changed the established flood zones along the Suncook River; therefore, a new flood study was needed to reflect this change and aid in flood recovery and restoration. For this flood study, the hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for the Suncook River were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This report presents water-surface elevations and profiles determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System model, also known as HEC-RAS. Steady-state water-surface profiles were developed for the Suncook River from its confluence with the Merrimack River in the Village of Suncook (in Allenstown and Pembroke, NH) to the upstream corporate limit of the town of Epsom, NH (approximately 15.9 river miles). Floods of magnitudes that are expected to be equaled or exceeded once on the average during any 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 500-year period (recurrence interval) were modeled using HEC-RAS. These flood events are referred to as the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods and have a 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent chance, respectively, of being equaled or exceeded during any year. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood events are important for flood-plain management, determination of flood-insurance rates, and design of structures such as bridges and culverts. The analyses in this study reflect flooding potentials that are based on existing conditions in the communities of Epsom, Pembroke, and Allenstown at the time of completion of this study (2009). Changes in the 100-year recurrence-interval flood elevation from the 1979 flood study were typically less than 2 feet with the exception of a location 900 feet upstream from the avulsion that, because of backwater from the dams in the

  10. Risk factors of diarrhoea among flood victims: a controlled epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, N C; Biswas, R; Manna, A

    2001-01-01

    The concept and practice of 'disaster preparedness and response', instead of traditional casualty relief, is relatively new. Vulnerability analysis and health risks assessment of disaster prone communities are important prerequisites of meaningful preparedness and effective response against any calamity. In this community based study, the risk of diarrhoeal disease and its related epidemiological factors were analysed by collecting data from two selected flood prone block of Midnapur district of West Bengal. The information was compared with that of another population living in two non-flood prone blocks of the same district. The study showed that diarrhoeal disease was the commonest morbidity in flood prone population. Some behaviours, like use of pond water for utensil wash and kitchen purpose, hand washing after defecation without soap, improper hand washing before eating, open field defecation, storage of drinking water in wide mouth vessels etc. were found to be associated with high attack rate of diarrhoea, in both study and control population during flood season compared to pre-flood season. Attack rates were also significantly higher in flood prone population than that of population in non-flood prone area during the same season. Necessity of both community education for proper water use behaviour and personal hygiene along with ensuring safe water and sanitation facilities of flood affected communities were emphasized.

  11. Impact of modelling scale on probabilistic flood risk assessment: the Malawi case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudari Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early months of 2015, destructive floods hit Malawi, causing deaths and economic losses. Flood risk assessment outcomes can be used to increase scientific-supported awareness of risk. The recent increase in availability of high resolution data such as TanDEM-X at 12m resolution makes possible the use of detailed physical based flood hazard models in risk assessment. Nonetheless the scale of hazard modelling still remains an issue, which requires a compromise between level of detail and computational efforts. This work presents two different approaches on hazard modelling. Both methods rely on 32-years of numeric weather re-analysis and rainfall-runoff transformation through a fully distributed WFLOW-type hydrological model. The first method, applied at national scale, uses fast post-processing routines, which estimate flood water depth at a resolution of about 1×1km. The second method applies a full 2D hydraulic model to propagate water discharge into the flood plains and best suites for small areas where assets are concentrated. At the 12m resolution, three hot spots with a model area of approximately 10×10 km are analysed. Flood hazard maps obtained with both approaches are combined with flood impact models at the same resolution to generate indicators for flood risk. A quantitative comparison of the two approaches is presented in order to show the effects of modelling scale on both hazard and impact losses.

  12. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw’s flood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magnuszewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s−1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s−1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  13. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are

  14. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE,

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  16. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  17. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  19. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...

  20. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  1. Flash floods in Europe: state of the art and research perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Eric

    2014-05-01

    the possible magnitudes of flood volumes and discharges during flash floods, their spatial distribution and rates of occurrence, as well as the factors that control the hydrological response of watersheds to heavy rainfalls explaining the large spatial variability in flood hazard. Developments in the fields of flood frequency analyses and flood forecasting based on the recently acquired data or adapted for the valuation of this specific data will also be presented. The presentation will end suggesting some perspectives for future research activities on flash floods.

  2. Climate, orography and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Persiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed reference procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national flood frequency models. Our study focuses on Triveneto, a broad geographical region in North-eastern Italy. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which considered Triveneto as a single homogeneous region and developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS of peak discharges that were collected up to the 1980s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for 76 catchments located in Triveneto. All 76 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The objective of our study is threefold: (1 to inspect climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime; (2 to verify the possible presence of changes in flood frequency regime by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3 to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI. Our study leads to the following conclusions: (1 climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2 a single year characterized by extreme floods can have a remarkable influence on regional flood frequency models and analyses for detecting possible changes in flood frequency regime; (3 no significant change was detected in the flood frequency regime, yet an update of the existing reference procedure for design flood estimation is highly recommended and we propose the RoI approach for properly representing climate and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto, which cannot be regarded

  3. Risk-informed local action planning against flooding: lessons learnt and way forward for a case study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Rodríguez J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After 29 years of the largest flood event in modern times (with the highest recorded rainfall rate at the Iberian Peninsula with 817 mm in 24 hours, the municipality of Oliva faces the challenge of mitigating flood risk through the development and implementation of a local action plan, in line with other existent and ongoing structural measures for flood risk reduction. Located 65 km from Valencia, on the South-Eastern coast of Spain, Oliva is affected by pluvial, river and coastal flooding and it is characterized by a complex and wide-ranging geography and high seasonal variation in population. A quantitative flood risk analysis has been performed to support the definition of flood risk management strategies. This paper shows how hazard, exposure and vulnerability analyses provide valuable information for the development of a local action plan against flooding, for example by identifying areas with highest societal and economic risk levels. It is concluded that flood risk management actions, such as flood warning and monitoring or evacuation, should not be applied homogenously at local scale, but instead actions should be adapted based on spatial clustering. Implications about the impact of education and training on flood risk reduction are also addressed and discusse

  4. Flood Label for buildings : a tool for more flood-resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Scheibel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    River floods are among the most expensive natural disasters in Europe. Traditional flood protection methods are not sufficient anymore. It is widely acknowledged in the scholarly debate and in practice of flood risk management that traditional flood protection measures such as dikes need to be

  5. Effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures: Empirical evidence from French flood disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poussin, J.K.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent destructive flood events and projected increases in flood risks as a result of climate change in many regions around the world demonstrate the importance of improving flood risk management. Flood-proofing of buildings is often advocated as an effective strategy for limiting damage caused by

  6. Flooding in imagination vs flooding in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Wessels, Hemmy

    In this investigation of agoraphobic patients, 3 different flooding procedures were compared: (1) prolonged exposure in vivo, (2) flooding in the imagination by a ‘live’ therapist and (3) a combination of flooding in the imagination and flooding in vivo. After an intermediate-test all clients were

  7. Why are decisions in flood disaster management so poorly supported by information from flood models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, Anne; Brugnach, Marcela Fabiana; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Schuurmans, W.

    2014-01-01

    Flood simulation models can provide practitioners of Flood Disaster Management with sophisticated estimates of floods. Despite the advantages that flood simulation modeling may provide, experiences have proven that these models are of limited use. Until now, this problem has mainly been investigated

  8. Review of the turbine-building flooding study of the Oconee PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    A peer review of the Oconee Probabilistic Risk Assessment (OPRA) for Unit no. 3 was conducted at BNL for the NRC. This paper discusses the review of the OPRA turbine-building internal-flooding study, which is one of the dominant contributors, and was performed in great detail. This paper also includes a comparison with other flooding studies performed elsewhere. 5 refs., 1 tab

  9. Use of MLCM3 Software for Flash Flood Modeling and Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Pivovarova; Daria Sokolova; Artur Batyrov; Vadim Kuzmin; Ngoc Anh Tran; DinhKha Dang; Kirill V. Shemanaev

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and timely flash floods forecasting, especially, in ungauged and poorly gauged basins, is one of the most important and challenging problems to be solved by the international hydrological community. In changing climate and variable anthropogenic impact on river basins, as well as due to low density of surface hydrometeorological network, flash flood forecasting based on “traditional” physically based, or conceptual, or statistical hydrological models often becomes inefficient. Unfort...

  10. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  11. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main

  12. Exploring logistics aspects of flood emergency measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Vis, I.F.A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  13. Exploring Logistics Aspects of Flood Emergency Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Sander; Vis, Iris F. A.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  14. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model...

  15. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  16. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues

  17. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...

  18. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat that... survive the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section...

  19. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  20. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.