WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal field guides

  1. International Buyers' guide 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A guide is presented of manufactures, consultants, architect engineers and specialist service companies in the nuclear industry. The guide which is in three sections, supplies the following information: addresses of principal national and international agencies and nuclear organisations; addresses etc of companies in all major countries serving the nuclear industry; a list classified in terms of products and services and grouped according to country showing in which fields the companies operate. (author)

  2. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current technical and economical events in the nuclear field. Twelve papers have been abstracted and input to the data base. The ''international nuclear energy guide'' gives a general directory of the name, the address and the telephone number of the companies and bodies quoted in this guide; a chronology of the main events 1982. The administrative and professional organization, the nuclear courses and research centers in France are presented, as also the organization of protection and safety, and of nuclear fuel cycle. The firms concerned by the design and the construction of NSSS and the allied nuclear firms are also presented. The last part of this guide deals with the nuclear energy in the world: descriptive list of international organizations, and, the nuclear activities throughout the world (alphabetical order by countries) [fr

  3. INFX GUIDE: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BILATERAL AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (INFX: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.; Leigh, I. W.; Jeffs, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    As the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have increased the magnitude and scope of their cooperative activities with other nations in the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management field, a need has developed for ready sources of information concerning foreign waste management programs, DOE technology exchange policies, bilateral fuel cycle and waste management agreements and plans and activities to implement those agreements. The INFX (International InLormation E~change) Guide is one of a series of documents that have been prepared to provide that information. The INFX Guide has been compiled under the charter of PNL's International Support Office (IPSO) to maintain for DOE a center to collect, organize, evaluate and disseminate information on foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. Because the information in this document is constantly subject to change, the document is assembled in loose-leaf form to accommodate frequent updates.

  4. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  5. Field Guide to Radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Written from a systems engineering perspective, this SPIE Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

  6. A Guide to the Field Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a compilation of recommended field guides which deal with birds, mammals, trees, and wildflowers. Each recommended volume is described, noting its distinguishing features and evaluating its organization, photography, and text. Includes the author, publisher, and suggested retail price. (TW)

  7. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  8. New librarianship field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a guide for librarians who see their profession as a chance to make a positive difference in their communities -- librarians who recognize that it is no longer enough to stand behind a desk waiting to serve. R. David Lankes, author of "The Atlas of New Librarianship," reminds librarians of their mission: to improve society by facilitating knowledge creation in their communities. In this book, he provides tools, arguments, resources, and ideas for fulfilling this mission. Librarians will be prepared to become radical positive change agents in their communities, and other readers will learn to understand libraries in a new way. The librarians of Ferguson, Missouri, famously became positive change agents in August 2014 when they opened library doors when schools were closed because of civil unrest after the shooting of an unarmed teen by police. Working with other local organizations, they provided children and their parents a space for learning, lunch, and peace. But other libraries serve othe...

  9. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  10. The Astrobiology Field Guide in World Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    In collaboration with the Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), and NASA Learning Technologies (NLT), and utilizing the powerful visualization capabilities of their "World Wind" software, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is crafting a prototype "Astrobiology Field Guide" to bring the field experiences and stories of astrobiology science to the public and classrooms around the world. The prototype focuses on one region in particular - The Pilbara in Western Australia. This first Field Guide "hotspot" is an internationally recognized area hosting the best known example of the earliest evidence of life on Earth - a stromatolitic chert precipitation in the 3.45 Ga Warrawoona Group. The goal of the Astrobiology Field Guide is to engage students of all ages with the ongoing field expeditions of today's astrobiologists as they explore the ends of the Earth searching for clues to life's origin, evolution, and distribution in the Universe. The NAI hopes to expand this Field Guide to include many more astrobiologically relevant areas across the globe such as Cuatro Cienegas in Mexico, the Rio Tinto in Spain, Yellowstone National Park in the US, and the Lost City hydrothermal vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge - and possibly sites on Mars. To that end, we will be conducting feasibility studies and evaluations with informal and formal education contacts. The Astrobiology Field Guide is also serving as a cornerstone to educational materials being developed focused on the Pilbara region for use in classrooms in Australia, the UK, and potentially the US. These materials are being developed by the Australian Centre for Astrobiology, and the ICT Innovations Centre at Macquarie University in Sydney, in collaboration with the NAI and the Centre for Astronomy and Science Education at the University of Glamorgan in the UK.

  11. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  12. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  13. INFX guide: summary of US DOE plans and policies for international cooperation in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide, in one source, an overview and summary of major international cooperative activities such as long-term personnel exchanges, planning of complementary R and D programs, and testing programs like the one at Stripa for use by DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning such programs. The contents are as follows: waste management-general, high-level waste immobilization; transuranic wastes; low-level radioactive waste; airborne wastes; waste isolation in geologic repositories; marine disposal; spent fuel storage; transportation; uranium mill tailings; decontamination and decommissioning; and appendices which are for bilaterial waste management agreements; INFX policies and procedures, DOE contractor personnel and international agencies

  14. Field guide to geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Greivenkamp, John E

    2004-01-01

    This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

  15. Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalised Nutrition: Part 1 - Fields of Precision Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; De Caterina, Raffaele; Görman, Ulf; Allayee, Hooman; Kohlmeier, Martin; Prasad, Chandan; Choi, Myung Sook; Curi, Rui; de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Gil, Ángel; Kang, Jing X; Martin, Ron L; Milagro, Fermin I; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Parslow, Virginia R; Portillo, María P; Santos, José Luis; Serhan, Charles N; Simopoulos, Artemis P; Velázquez-Arellano, Antonio; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in the genetic profile between individuals and specific ethnic groups affects nutrient requirements, metabolism and response to nutritional and dietary interventions. Indeed, individuals respond differently to lifestyle interventions (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.). The sequencing of the human genome and subsequent increased knowledge regarding human genetic variation is contributing to the emergence of personalized nutrition. These advances in genetic science are raising numerous questions regarding the mode that precision nutrition can contribute solutions to emerging problems in public health, by reducing the risk and prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. Current views on personalized nutrition encompass omics technologies (nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, foodomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, etc.), functional food development and challenges related to legal and ethical aspects, application in clinical practice, and population scope, in terms of guidelines and epidemiological factors. In this context, precision nutrition can be considered as occurring at three levels: (1) conventional nutrition based on general guidelines for population groups by age, gender and social determinants; (2) individualized nutrition that adds phenotypic information about the person's current nutritional status (e.g. anthropometry, biochemical and metabolic analysis, physical activity, among others), and (3) genotype-directed nutrition based on rare or common gene variation. Research and appropriate translation into medical practice and dietary recommendations must be based on a solid foundation of knowledge derived from studies on nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. A scientific society, such as the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics (ISNN), internationally devoted to the study of nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics, can indeed serve the commendable roles of (1) promoting science and favoring scientific communication and (2) permanently

  16. Nuclear reactor internals with control elements guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, J.; Chevereau, G.

    1991-01-01

    The internals have a lower plate, a superior plate, support columns and guide tubes for the control rods displacements. The lower section of the control rod guide tube have a base that fits into a bevelled seat in the lower plate. The guide tube is held into the seat by a spring, compressed between the base of the upper section of the tube and the lower plate

  17. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  18. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  19. International guide to the circus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huey, R.; Albrecht, E.; Belbahri, N.; Brunsdale, M.; Christian, J.; Garcia, J.; Giarola, A.; Jando, D.; Lehmann, R.; Marier, F.; Nieminen, K.; Parkinson, G.; Pierce, R.D.; Revolledo Cárdenas, J.; Rodenhuis, W.; Serena, A.; Schlotfeldt, A.; Shaina, C.; Shrake, P.; Simon, M.; St. Leon, M.; Stone, C.; Cooper, J.; Tamaoki, V.; Winkler, G.

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-read publication defining 100 key circus terms translated in nine languages. The 24-page full color Guide (A4 size) is categorized by aerial acts, acrobatics, balancing, juggling, daredevil and specialty acts, clowning and performing animals. Terms are illustrated by photographs supplied

  20. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  1. Surface multipole guide field for plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Rael, B.H.; Wong, A.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Described here is a surface guide field system which is useful for injection of plasmas into confinement devices. Experimental results are given for 5--25-eV hydrogen plasmas produced by a coaxial discharge (Marshall) gun. It is found that better than 90% of the plasma produced by the gun is delivered to the end of the guide 180 cm away, while the neutral component falls by more than an order of magnitude. For these results the rod current providing the magnetic field had to be large enough to provide at least 1.5-ion gyroradii from the center of the guide to the surface of the inner rod

  2. Ontario hydro radioactive material transportation field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.

    1987-01-01

    The recent introduction of both the AECB Transport Packaging of Radioactive Material Regulations and Transport Canada's Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations have significantly altered the requirements for transporting radioactive material in Canada. Extensive additional training as well as certification of several hundred Ontario Hydro employees has been necessary to ensure compliance with the additional and revised regulatory requirements. To assist in the training of personnel, an 'active' corporate Ontario Hydro Field Guide for Radioactive Material Transport document has been developed and published. The contents of this Field Guide identify current Ontario Hydro equipment and procedures as well as the updated relevant regulatory requirements within Canada. In addition, to satisfying Ontario Hydro requirements for this type of information over two thousand of these Field Guides have been provided to key emergency response personnel throughout the province of Ontario to assist in their transportation accident response training

  3. Personal security a guide for international travelers

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Personal Security: A Guide for International Travelers provides the perfect mix of lessons-learned, tools, and recommendations from experts so that readers can personalize their own approach to managing travel risks. If followed, the information provided will allow readers to get out and experience the local culture while still traveling safely.-Bernie Sullivan, Director Global Security, Hanesbrands Inc....a must-have for any traveler. Having worked in South and Southeast Asia, I know the advice provided in the book holds the key to keeping safe, avoiding dangerous situations, and managing threats when they occur. The book's methodological framework, combined with the author's extensive experience and hands-on knowledge, provide very practical and useful advice.-Kathrine Alexandrowiz, Independent consultant at Kathalyst, former coordinator for the "Regional Risk Management Project for NGOs in Asia Pacific" (ECHO)... a go-to guide for all travelers irrespective of mission or purpose. An excellent piece of work...

  4. Night sky a falcon field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nigro, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.

  5. Beyond the International Year of Astronomy: The Universe Discovery Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, B.; Berendsen, M.; Gurton, S.; Smith, D.; NASA SMD Astrophysics EPO Community

    2014-07-01

    Developed for informal educators and their audiences, the 12 Universe Discovery Guides (UDGs, one per month) are adapted from the Discovery Guides that were developed for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The UDGs showcase education and public outreach resources from across more than 30 NASA astrophysics missions and programs. Via collaboration through scientist and educator partnerships, the UDGs aim to increase the impact of individual missions and programs, put their efforts into context, and extend their reach to new audiences. Each of the UDGs has a science topic, an interpretive story, a sky object to view with finding charts, hands-on activities, and connections to recent NASA science discoveries. The UDGs are modular; informal educators can take resources from the guides that they find most useful for their audiences. Attention is being given to audience needs, and field-testing is ongoing. The UDGs are available via downloadable PDFs.

  6. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Birren, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

  7. Empirical trials of plant field guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, W D; Cable, S; Marshall, C A M

    2014-06-01

    We designed 3 image-based field guides to tropical forest plant species in Ghana, Grenada, and Cameroon and tested them with 1095 local residents and 20 botanists in the United Kingdom. We compared users' identification accuracy with different image formats, including drawings, specimen photos, living plant photos, and paintings. We compared users' accuracy with the guides to their accuracy with only their prior knowledge of the flora. We asked respondents to score each format for usability, beauty, and how much they would pay for it. Prior knowledge of plant names was generally low (<22%). With a few exceptions, identification accuracy did not differ significantly among image formats. In Cameroon, users identifying sterile Cola species achieved 46-56% accuracy across formats; identification was most accurate with living plant photos. Botanists in the United Kingdom accurately identified 82-93% of the same Cameroonian species; identification was most accurate with specimens. In Grenada, users accurately identified 74-82% of plants; drawings yielded significantly less accurate identifications than paintings and photos of living plants. In Ghana, users accurately identified 85% of plants. Digital color photos of living plants ranked high for beauty, usability, and what users would pay. Black and white drawings ranked low. Our results show the potential and limitations of the use of field guides and nonspecialists to identify plants, for example, in conservation applications. We recommend authors of plant field guides use the cheapest or easiest illustration format because image type had limited bearing on accuracy; match the type of illustration to the most likely use of the guide for slight improvements in accuracy; avoid black and white formats unless the audience is experienced at interpreting illustrations or keeping costs low is imperative; discourage false-positive identifications, which were common; and encourage users to ask an expert or use a herbarium for

  8. International Organizations and Organizational Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje; Moschella, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to account for varieties of organizational change. In particular, we contend that in order to explain change in international organizations (IOs) we cannot simply dichotomize between change and the lack thereof. Rather, change is best conceptualized as made up of two...... in the field helps to account for the speed of change (slow vs. rapid), whereas the openness of the organization to the inputs coming from the field helps to explain the scope of change (incremental vs. radical). We illustrate our argument by comparing the changes in the International Monetary Fund's policies...... dimensions: speed and scope. The combination of the two dimensions leads to a taxonomy with four distinct types of policy change. The paper evaluates the emergence of different types of change by focusing on the relationship between IOs and their fields. Specifically, the position of the organization...

  9. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Leden, Edwin van der

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations

  10. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim; van der Leden, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations.

  11. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  12. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  13. A guide to safe field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, D.K.; Yorke, T.H.; Mycyk, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Most functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division (WRD) require employees to participate in numerous field activities ranging from routine meetings with cooperators, other federal and public officials, and private citizens to potentially hazardous assignments, such as making flood measurements and scuba diving to service underwater instruments. It is paramount that each employee be aware of safety procedures and operational policies of the WRD to ensure that (1) their activities avoid or minimize personal injury to the employee, coworkers, or anyone in the vicinity of the field activity, and (2) their conduct does not infringe on the personal or property rights of any individual or organization. The purpose of the guide is to familiarize employees with the operational and safety procedures expected to be followed by each employee as a representative of the WRD. It is also intended as a training tool for all new employees and a document to be reviewed by each employee before undertaking a field assignment. It includes general procedures that are standard and applicable to all field operations, such as communication, vehicle operation, and adequate preparation for anticipated weather conditions. It also includes a discussion of specific procedures and safety considerations for most of the routine field assignments undertaken by hydrologists and hydrologic technicians of the WRD. The guide is not intended to be a technical handbook outlining step-by-step procedures for performing specific tasks or a comprehensive discussion of every possible activity that may be undertaken by a USGS employee. Employees are referred to the Techniques for Water-Resources Investigations (TWRI) series for specific technical procedures and to the U.S. Geological Survey Safety and Environmental Health Handbook 445-1-H (USGS, August 1989), USGS Occupational Hazards and Safety Procedures Handbook 445-2-H (December 1993), the WRD notebook on Safety Policy and

  14. Localization of a sound source in in a guided medium and reverberating field. Contribution to a study on leak localization in the internal wall of containment of a nuclear reactor in the case of a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Basic data necessary for the localization of a leak in the internal wall of the containment are presented by studying the sound generated by gas jets coming out of (leaking fissures) as well as propagation in a guided medium. The results acquired have led us to choose the simple intercorrelation method and the matched filed processing method, both of which are likely to adequately handle our problems. Whereas the intercorrelation method appears to be limited in scope when dealing in the guided medium, the matched field processing is suited to leak localization over a surface of approximately 1000 m 2 (for a total surface of 10 000 m 2 ). Preliminary studies on the leak signal and on replicated signals have led us to limit the frequency band to 2600 - 3000 Hz. We have succeeded in locating a leak situated in an ordinary position with a minimum amount of replicated signals and basic data. We have improved on the estimation of Bartlett and MVDE (minimum variance distortion less filter) rendering them even more effective. Afterwards, we considered the severe accident situation and showed that the system can be installed in situ. (author)

  15. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    OpenAIRE

    Imazio, P. Rodriguez; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure funct...

  16. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  17. Guide to the international financial statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2003-01-01

    Introduction A revised version of this paper has been released in July 2009. The origins of BIS activities in the field of international financial statistics go back to the mid-1960s and the emergence of the so-called eurocurrency markets that had sprung up to circumvent domestic regulations. At that time the key policy concern that gave rise to the joint data collection exercise by the central banks of the G10 countries under the aegis of the BIS was the need to monitor the rapid growth of t...

  18. Internal field probing of translating FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Milroy, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    Magnetic field probes have been employed to study the internal field structure of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) translating past the probes in the FRX-C/T device. Internal closed flux surfaces can be studied in this manner with minimal perturbation because of the rapid transit of the plasma (translation velocity v/sub z/ approx. 10 cm/μs). Data have been taken using a 5-mtorr-D 2 gas-puff mode of operation in the FRC source coil which yields an initial plasma density of approx. 1 x 10 15 cm -3 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.40. FRCs translate from the approx. 25 cm radius source coil into a 20 cm radius metal translation vessel. Of many translation conditions studied, the condition considered here is translation into a weak guide field resulting in expansion of the FRC to conditions of density approx. 3 x 10 14 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.7. The expected reversed B/sub z/ structure is observed. Evidence of island structure is also observed. Fluctuating levels of B/sub THETA/ are observed with amplitudes less than or equal to B 0 /3 and values of flux approx. 4 x the poloidal flux. Values of β on the separatrix of β/sub s/ approx. = 0.3 (indexed to the external field) are implied from the field measurements. This decrease of β/sub s/ with increased x/sub s/ is expected, and desirable for improved plasma confinement

  19. Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems Digital Forensics Field Guides

    CERN Document Server

    Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M

    2010-01-01

    Dissecting the dark side of the Internet with its infectious worms, botnets, rootkits, and Trojan horse programs (known as malware) is a treaterous condition for any forensic investigator or analyst. Written by information security experts with real-world investigative experience, Malware Forensics Field Guide for Windows Systems is a "tool" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. *A condensed hand-held guide complete with on-the-job tasks and checklists *Specific for Windows-based systems, the largest running OS in the world

  20. Field Guides Made Easy. 4-H Leader's Guide L-5-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Diane Held; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This illustrated leader's guide describes activities for teaching children to use field guides to identify trees and birds. Background information for leaders explains the two types of field guides, those that use a series of steps in what is called a key to identify things in nature, such as trees, and those that use groupings based on…

  1. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  2. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  3. Collaboration and Team Science Field Guide - Center for Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaboration and Team Science: A Field Guide provides insight into the practices of conducting collaborative work. Since its 2010 publication, the authors have worked and learned from teams and organizations all over the world. Learn from these experiences in the second edition of the Team Science Field Guide.

  4. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  5. MR image-guided portal verification for brain treatment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fangfang; Gao Qinghuai; Xie Huchen; Nelson, Diana F.; Yu Yan; Kwok, W. Edmund; Totterman, Saara; Schell, Michael C.; Rubin, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a method for the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs directly from MR images (DRR-MRI) to guide a computerized portal verification procedure. Methods and Materials: Several major steps were developed to perform an MR image-guided portal verification procedure. Initially, a wavelet-based multiresolution adaptive thresholding method was used to segment the skin slice-by-slice in MR brain axial images. Some selected anatomical structures, such as target volume and critical organs, were then manually identified and were reassigned to relatively higher intensities. Interslice information was interpolated with a directional method to achieve comparable display resolution in three dimensions. Next, a ray-tracing method was used to generate a DRR-MRI image at the planned treatment position, and the ray tracing was simply performed on summation of voxels along the ray. The skin and its relative positions were also projected to the DRR-MRI and were used to guide the search of similar features in the portal image. A Canny edge detector was used to enhance the brain contour in both portal and simulation images. The skin in the brain portal image was then extracted using a knowledge-based searching technique. Finally, a Chamfer matching technique was used to correlate features between DRR-MRI and portal image. Results: The MR image-guided portal verification method was evaluated using a brain phantom case and a clinical patient case. Both DRR-CT and DRR-MRI were generated using CT and MR phantom images with the same beam orientation and then compared. The matching result indicated that the maximum deviation of internal structures was less than 1 mm. The segmented results for brain MR slice images indicated that a wavelet-based image segmentation technique provided a reasonable estimation for the brain skin. For the clinical patient case with a given portal field, the MR image-guided verification method provided an excellent match between

  6. Electron wind in strong wave guide fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.

  7. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  8. Sampling a guide for internal auditors

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolou, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    While it is possible to examine 100 percent of an audit customer's data, the time and cost associated with such a study are often prohibitive. To obtain sufficient, reliable, and relevant information with a limited data set, sampling is an efficient and effective tool. It can help you evaluate the customer's assertions, as well as reach audit conclusions and provide reasonable assurance to your organization. This handbook will help you understand sampling. It also serves as a guide for auditors and students preparing for certification. Topics include: An overview of sampling. Statistical and nonstatistical sampling issues. Sampling selection methods and risks. The pros and cons of popular sampling plans.

  9. Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)

  10. Geologic field-trip guide to Long Valley Caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2017-07-26

    This guide to the geology of Long Valley Caldera is presented in four parts: (1) An overview of the volcanic geology; (2) a chronological summary of the principal geologic events; (3) a road log with directions and descriptions for 38 field-trip stops; and (4) a summary of the geophysical unrest since 1978 and discussion of its causes. The sequence of stops is arranged as a four-day excursion for the quadrennial General Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), centered in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. Most stops, however, are written freestanding, with directions that allow each one to be visited independently, in any order selected.

  11. Influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Usami, Shunsuke; Ohtani, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a guide field on collisionless driven reconnection is investigated by means of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation in an open system. In a quasi-steady state when reconnection electric field evolves fully, a current layer evolves locally in a narrow kinetic region and its scale decreases in proportion to an electron meandering scale as the guide field is intensified. Here, the meandering scale stands for an average spatial scale of nongyrotropic motions in the vicinity of the reconnection point. Force terms associated with off-diagonal components of electron and ion pressure tensors, which are originating from nongyrotropic motions of charged particles, becomes dominant at the reconnection point and sustain the reconnection electric field even when the guide field is strong. It is also found that thermalization of both ions and electrons is suppressed by the guide field. For the weak guide field, an electron nonthermal component is significantly created through a fast outburst from the kinetic region, while for the strong guide field, an ion nonthermal component is generated through the acceleration by an in-plane electric field near the magnetic separatrix. (author)

  12. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Imazio, P.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure functions and probability density functions. In the magnetohydrodynamic limit, we recover the usual results with the magnetic field being more intermittent than the velocity field. In the presence of the Hall effect, field fluctuations at scales smaller than the ion skin depth show a substantial decrease in the level of intermittency, with close to monofractal scaling

  13. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig

  14. Magnetic Field Analysis of Plasma Guide in Galathea Trimyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xianji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You Galathea Trimyx is a kind of small size, multipole magnetic confinement devices in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Plasma guide is one of important part in Galathea Trimyx which is responsible for transporting fast and slow plasma bunches ejected from plasma gun. The distribution and uniformity of magnetic field in completed plasma guide is analyzed in detail, including in x -axis direction and in z-axis direction. On the basis, the motion of plasma in the guide is discussed.

  15. Field trip guide to the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report is designed to provide a guide to the key geologic and hydrologic features of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site located in south-central Washington. The guide is divided into two parts. The first part is a general introduction to the geology of the Hanford Site and its relation to the regional framework of south-central Washington. The second part is a road log that provides directions to important geologic features on the Hanford Site and descriptions of the locality. The exposures described were chosen for their accessibility and importance to the geologic history of the Hanford Site and to understanding the geohydrology of the Site

  16. Internal medicine. An illustrated radiological guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tubaikh, Jarrah Ali; Sabah Hospital, Kuwait

    2010-01-01

    This book explains how radiology can be a powerful tool for establishing the diagnosis of many internal medicine diseases that are usually diagnosed on the basis of their laboratory or clinical presentation. It is organized in the classic fashion for internal medicine books, with eleven chapters covering the different internal medicine specialties. Within these chapters, more than 450 diseases are considered, some of which are rarely encountered but are nonetheless significant. For each disease, radiological and clinical features are displayed in images and high-quality digital medical illustrations, and those differential diagnoses are identified that can be ruled out by imaging alone. In addition, the pathophysiology underlying the radiological features is described, enabling the reader to understand why a particular sign is seen on MR images, CT scans, or plain radiographs. The book will serve as an excellent radiological atlas for internal medicine practitioners and family physicians, showing disease presentations that may be hard to find in standard medical textbooks and explaining which imaging modalities are likely to be most informative in particular patients. (orig.)

  17. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  18. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  19. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  20. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  1. Internal magnetic field measurements in a translating field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic field probes have been employed to study the internal field structure of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) translating past the probes in the FRX-C/T device. Internal closed flux surfaces can be studied in this manner with minimal perturbation because of the rapid transit of the plasma (translational velocity v/sub z/ approx. 10 cm/μs). Data have been taken using a low-field (5 kG), 5-mtorr-D 2 gas-puff mode of operation in the FRC source coil which yields an initial plasma density of approx. 1 x 10 15 cm -3 and x/sub s/ approx. 0.04. FRCs translate from the approx. 25 cm radius source coil into a 20 cm radius metal translation vessel. Two translation conditions are studied: (1) translation into a 4 kG guide field (matched guide-field case), resulting in similar plasma parameters but with x/sub s/ approx. .45, and (2) translation into a 1 kG guide field (reduced guide-field case), resulting in expansion of the FRC to conditions of density approx. 3 x 10 14 , external field B 0 approx. 2 kG and x/sub s/ approx. 0.7. The expected reversed B/sub z/ structure is observed in both cases. However, the field measurements indicate a possible sideways offset of the FRC from the machine axis in the matched case. There is also evidence of island structure in the reduced guide-field case. Fluctuating levels of B/sub theta/ are ovserved with amplitudes less than or equal to B 0 /3 in both cases. Field measurements on the FRC symmetry axis in the reduced guide-field case indicate β on the separatrix of β/sub s/ approx. = 0.3 (indexed to the external field) has been achieved. This decrease of β/sub s/ with increased x/sub s/ is expected, and desirable for improved plasma confinement

  2. Numerical simulation of flow field in the China advanced research reactor flow-guide tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Changjiang

    2002-01-01

    The flow-guide tank in China advanced research reactor (CARR) acts as a reactor inlet coolant distributor and play an important role in reducing the flow-induced vibration of the internal components of the reactor core. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the flow-guide tank under different conceptual designing configurations are carried out using the PHOENICS3.2. It is seen that the inlet coolant is well distributed circumferentially into the flow-guide tank with the inlet buffer plate and the flow distributor barrel. The maximum cross-flow velocity within the flow-guide tank is reduced significantly, and the reduction of flow-induced vibration of reactor internals is expected

  3. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Patterson; Kenneth E. Neiman; Jonalea K. Tonn

    1985-01-01

    This field guide -- designed for use by people with minimal botanical training -- is an identification aid for nearly 200 plant species having ecological indicator value in northern Idaho forest habitat types. It contains line drawings, simplified taxonomic descriptions , characteristics tables, conspectuses, and keys. It emphasizes characteristics useful for field...

  4. The Evolution of the International Business Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesch, Peter W.; Håkanson, Lars; McGaughey, Sara L.

    2011-01-01

    Macro-environmental trends such as technological changes, declining trade and investment barriers, and globalizing forces impacting both markets and production worldwide point to the heightened importance of international business (IB) and the relevance of IB research today. Despite this, a leading...... scholar has expressed concerns that the IB research agenda could be ‘running out of steam’ (Buckley, Journal of International Business Studies 33(2):365–373, 2002), prompting on-going introspection within the IB field. We contribute to this debate by investigating the evolution of the IB field through...... a scientometric examination of articles published in its premier journal, the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) from 1970 until 2008. We introduce a new analytical tool, Leximancer, to the fields of international business and scientometry. We show an evolution from an initial and extended emphasis...

  5. Field Guide for Evaluating Cottonwood Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Broadfoot

    1960-01-01

    Two field methods have been developed at the Stoneville Research Center for estimating the capability of Midsouth soils to grow eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Data for establishing the procedures were collected from 155 plots* at the locations indicated in Figure 1.The methods give site index-that is, tree-growing...

  6. Field Guide to Meteors and Meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, O. Richard

    2008-01-01

    Imagine the unique experience of being the very first person to hold a newly-found meteorite in your hand – a rock from space, older than Earth! "Weekend meteorite hunting" with magnets and metal detectors is becoming ever more popular as a pastime, but of course you can’t just walk around and pick up meteorites in the same way that you can pick up seashells on the beach. Those fragments that survived the intense heat of re-entry tend to disguise themselves as natural rocks over time, and it takes a trained eye – along with the information in this book – to recognize them. Just as amateur astronomers are familiar with the telescopes and accessories needed to study a celestial object, amateur meteoriticists have to use equipment ranging from simple hand lenses to microscopes to study a specimen, to identify its type and origins. Equipment and techniques are covered in detail here of course, along with a complete and fully illustrated guide to what you might find and where you might find it. In fact, th...

  7. Faculty staff-guided versus self-guided ultrasound training for internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, George A; Kelmenson, Daniel A; Noble, Vicki E; Murray, Alice F; Currier, Paul F

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasonography is of growing importance within internal medicine (IM), but the optimal method of training doctors to use it is uncertain. In this study, the authors provide the first objective comparison of two approaches to training IM residents in ultrasonography. In this randomised trial, a simulation-based ultrasound training curriculum was implemented during IM intern orientation at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All 72 incoming interns attended a lecture and were given access to online modules. Interns were then randomly assigned to a 4-hour faculty-guided (FG) or self-guided (SG) ultrasound training session in a simulation laboratory with both human and manikin models. Interns were asked to self-assess their competence in ultrasonography and underwent an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess their competence in basic and procedurally oriented ultrasound tasks. The primary outcome was the score on the OSCE. Faculty-guided training was superior to self-guided training based on the OSCE scores. Subjects in the FG training group achieved significantly higher OSCE scores on the two subsets of task completion (0.9-point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-1.54; p = 0.008) and ultrasound image quality (2.43-point difference, 95% CI 1.5-3.36; p training groups demonstrated an increase in self-assessed competence after their respective training sessions and there was little difference between the groups. Subjects rated the FG training group much more favourably than the SG training group. Both FG and SG ultrasound training curricula can improve the self-reported competence of IM interns in ultrasonography. However, FG training was superior to SG training in both skills acquisition and intern preference. Incorporating mandatory ultrasound training into IM residencies can address the perceived need for ultrasound training, improve confidence and procedural skills, and may enhance patient safety. However, the optimal training method

  8. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of International Background Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…

  9. Guiding-center equations for electrons in ultraintense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.E.; Fisch, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The guiding-center equations are derived for electrons in arbitrarily intense laser fields also subject to external fields and ponderomotive forces. Exhibiting the relativistic mass increase of the oscillating electrons, a simple frame-invariant equation is shown to govern the behavior of the electrons for sufficiently weak background fields and ponderomotive forces. The parameter regime for which such a formulation is valid is made precise, and some predictions of the equation are checked by numerical simulation

  10. The wireshark field guide analyzing and troubleshooting network traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Wireshark Field Guide provides hackers, pen testers, and network administrators with practical guidance on capturing and interactively browsing computer network traffic. Wireshark is the world's foremost network protocol analyzer, with a rich feature set that includes deep inspection of hundreds of protocols, live capture, offline analysis and many other features. The Wireshark Field Guide covers the installation, configuration and use of this powerful multi-platform tool. The book give readers the hands-on skills to be more productive with Wireshark as they drill

  11. Good practice guide to internal flexibility policies in companies

    OpenAIRE

    Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors concerning the potential benefits of developing more flexible internal workplace policies. Equally, it has been developed to assist practitioners and social partners wishing to review and/or learn...

  12. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  13. Development of a fast-water field guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    There are several manuals for oil spill response, but few have information on fast-water conditions. Between 1992 and 1997, approximately 58 per cent of all the oil spilled by volume in the United States happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot, and the Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. The resulting field guide can be used for training or responding to spills in fast-water. The user must rely on other manuals for issues on toxicity and shoreline cleanup as well as local contingency and site safety plans. The fast-water guide allows on-scene commanders and area supervisors the ability to define techniques and terminology for the responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. The current version of the guide that is under review by the working group contains 9 chapters and 9 appendices. The guide includes a decision-matrix that identifies various fat-water scenarios and provides recommended strategies. It then links to other sections of the document that contain details about the necessary equipment configurations. Photographs are provided to reinforce the concepts. The guide includes a checklist of the issues that must be addressed in any spill, such as weather and nature of the spill with some fast water issues added. Links to appropriate Internet sites are also included in the guide. Information within the guide can be condensed to one sheet for use in the field. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  14. International cooperation in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, O. von

    1983-01-01

    Following a definition of the concept of international cooperation, this paper discusses existing and possible legal and institutional arrangements in the reprocessing field, with particular reference to the legal framework set up for the European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels (Eurochemic). (NEA) [fr

  15. A field guide for well site geologists: Cable tool drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Liikala, T.L.

    1987-12-01

    This field is intended for use by Pacific Northwest Laboratory well site geologists who are responsible for data collection during the drilling and construction of monitoring wells on the Hanford Site. This guide presents standardized methods for geologic sample collection and description, and well construction documentation. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  17. International standardization in the field of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, K.

    1991-01-01

    The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an international federation of national standards bodies. Its activities increasingly take health and environmental effects into account; in the future, standardization will also focus on identification systems that could facilitate recycling and proper disposal. Three technical committees in particular are concerned with standardization as it relates to air, water and soil quality. Other ISO work concerns product-oriented standardization, e.g. in the fields of fire protection equipment, refrigeration, thermal insulation, fibre-reinforced cement, and material and equipment used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. (author)

  18. Endogenous electric fields as guiding cue for cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H. W.

    2015-01-01

    This review covers two topics: (1) “membrane potential of low magnitude and related electric fields (bioelectricity)” and (2) “cell migration under the guiding cue of electric fields (EF).”Membrane potentials for this “bioelectricity” arise from the segregation of charges by special molecular machines (pumps, transporters, ion channels) situated within the plasma membrane of each cell type (including eukaryotic non-neural animal cells). The arising patterns of ion gradients direct many cell- and molecular biological processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, regeneration. Furthermore, EF are important as guiding cues for cell migration and are often overriding chemical or topographic cues. In osteoblasts, for instance, the directional information of EF is captured by charged transporters on the cell membrane and transferred into signaling mechanisms that modulate the cytoskeleton and motor proteins. This results in a persistent directional migration along an EF guiding cue. As an outlook, we discuss questions concerning the fluctuation of EF and the frequencies and mapping of the “electric” interior of the cell. Another exciting topic for further research is the modeling of field concepts for such distant, non-chemical cellular interactions. PMID:26029113

  19. A Field Guide to Constructivism in the College Science Classroom: Four Essential Criteria and a Guide to Their Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. Todd; Baviskar, Sandhya; Smith, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This field guide provides four essential criteria for constructivism as well as a guide for using these criteria to identify and assess the level of constructivism being used in an educational experience. The criteria include: 1) prior knowledge, 2) cognitive dissonance, 3) application with feedback, and 4) metacognition. This guide provides…

  20. Localized Electron Heating by Strong Guide-Field Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuehan; Sugawara, Takumichi; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamasaki, Kotaro; Ono, Yasushi; UTST Team

    2015-11-01

    Localized electron heating of magnetic reconnection was studied under strong guide-field (typically Bt 15Bp) using two merging spherical tokamak plasmas in Univ. Tokyo Spherical Tokamak (UTST) experiment. Our new slide-type two-dimensional Thomson scattering system documented for the first time the electron heating localized around the X-point. The region of high electron temperature, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field, was found to have a round shape with radius of 2 [cm]. Also, it was localized around the X-point and does not agree with that of energy dissipation term Et .jt . When we include a guide-field effect term Bt / (Bp + αBt) for Et .jt where α =√{ (vin2 +vout2) /v∥2 } , the energy dissipation area becomes localized around the X-point, suggesting that the electrons are accelerated by the reconnection electric field parallel to the magnetic field and thermalized around the X-point. This work was supported by JSPS A3 Foresight Program ``Innovative Tokamak Plasma Startup and Current Drive in Spherical Torus,'' a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  1. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  2. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  3. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  4. Forest pests in central America: Field guide. Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In Central America, plant health problems have grown to an unprecedented level during the past few years along with the establishment of extensive homogeneous forest plantations, at times leading to the such drastic solutions as widespread felling of trees or massive use of pesticides. This field guide on forest pests was commissioned by the Multipurpose Tree Crop Dissemination (MADELENA) project and focuses on pests found in Costa Rica, home of PIROF (Programa Interinstitucional de Proteccion Forestal), a pioneer in forest pest research. The guide offers fast identification of forest pests and some general information on their biology and epidemiology. It consists of two sections: (1) lists of the specific pests (insects, vertebrates, pathogens, and parasites) of 18 priority forest tree species, and lists of the specific tree part or developmental stage they afflict.

  5. Field Guide to Nonindigenous Marine Fishes of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Morris, Jr., James A.; Akins, Lad

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this field guide is to provide information on nonindigenous (i.e., non-native) fishes that have been observed in Florida’s marine waters. Introductions of non-native marine fishes into Florida’s waters could be intentional or unintentional, and are likely from a variety of sources, including aquarium releases, escape from aquaculture, loss due to extreme weather events (e.g., flooding from hurricanes), and possibly transfer with ballast water or hull-fouling. Presently the lion...

  6. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas

  7. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  8. Localization of a sound source in in a guided medium and reverberating field. Contribution to a study on leak localization in the internal wall of containment of a nuclear reactor in the case of a severe reactor accident; Localisation d`une source acoustique en milieu guide et champ reverberant. Contribution a l`etude sur la localisation de fuite de l`enceinte de confinement d`une centrale nucleaire en situation accidentelle grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomann, F

    1996-11-28

    Basic data necessary for the localization of a leak in the internal wall of the containment are presented by studying the sound generated by gas jets coming out of (leaking fissures) as well as propagation in a guided medium. The results acquired have led us to choose the simple intercorrelation method and the matched filed processing method, both of which are likely to adequately handle our problems. Whereas the intercorrelation method appears to be limited in scope when dealing in the guided medium, the matched field processing is suited to leak localization over a surface of approximately 1000 m{sup 2} (for a total surface of 10 000 m{sup 2}). Preliminary studies on the leak signal and on replicated signals have led us to limit the frequency band to 2600 - 3000 Hz. We have succeeded in locating a leak situated in an ordinary position with a minimum amount of replicated signals and basic data. We have improved on the estimation of Bartlett and MVDE (minimum variance distortion less filter) rendering them even more effective. Afterwards, we considered the severe accident situation and showed that the system can be installed in situ. (author) 88 refs.

  9. Internal bias field in glycine phosphite crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayeem, Jannatul; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Kikuta, Toshio; Yamazaki, Toshinari; Nakatani, Noriyuki

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of internal bias field E b have been investigated under the carbon-powder pattern and mercury electrode techniques in GPI ferroelectric crystals. Polarity and intensity of E b are distributed depending on crystal growth sectors. Crystal symmetry 2/m is observed obviously in the distribution of E b . The polarities of E b are head-to-head manner in those growth sectors where a surface is growing parallel to the crystallographic a-axis and tail-to-tail manner in the other growth sectors in the crystal. The maximum intensity of E b is found in the sectors (010) where the growing surfaces are perpendicular to the ferroelectric b-axis

  10. Practical guide to organic field effect transistor circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Sou, Antony

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic electronics spans a very wide range of disciplines from physics and chemistry to hardware and software engineering. This makes the field of organic circuit design a daunting prospect full of intimidating complexities, yet to be exploited to its true potential. Small focussed research groups also find it difficult to move beyond their usual boundaries and create systems-on-foil that are comparable with the established silicon world.This book has been written to address these issues, intended for two main audiences; firstly, physics or materials researchers who have thus far designed circuits using only basic drawing software; and secondly, experienced silicon CMOS VLSI design engineers who are already knowledgeable in the design of full custom transistor level circuits but are not familiar with organic devices or thin film transistor (TFT) devices.In guiding the reader through the disparate and broad subject matters, a concise text has been written covering the physics and chemistry of the...

  11. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  12. Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of quantum field theory is developed that gives a description of the internal dynamics of dressed elementary particles and predicts their masses. The fermionic and bosonic quantum fields are treated as interdependent fields...

  13. Cone-guided fast ignition with no imposed magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strozzi D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulations are presented of ignition-scale fast ignition targets with the integrated Zuma-Hydra PIC-hydrodynamic capability. We consider a spherical DT fuel assembly with a carbon cone, and an artificially-collimated fast electron source. We study the role of E and B fields and the fast electron energy spectrum. For mono-energetic 1.5 MeV fast electrons, without E and B fields, ignition can be achieved with fast electron energy Efig = 30kJ. This is 3.5× the minimal deposited ignition energy of 8.7 kJ for our fuel density of 450 g/cm3. Including E and B fields with the resistive Ohm's law E = ηJb gives Efig = 20kJ, while using the full Ohm's law gives Efig > 40 kJ. This is due to magnetic self-guiding in the former case, and ∇n ×∇T magnetic fields in the latter. Using a realistic, quasi two-temperature energy spectrum derived from PIC laser-plasma simulations increases Efig to (102, 81, 162 kJ for (no E/B, E = ηJb, full Ohm's law. Such electrons are too energetic to stop in the optimal hot spot depth.

  14. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  15. The Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internally and Externally Guided Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M.; Banich, Marie T.

    2013-01-01

    While some prior work suggests that medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) regions mediate freely chosen actions, other work suggests that the lateral frontal pole (LFP) is responsible for control of abstract, internal goals. The present study uses fMRI to determine whether the voluntary selection of a task in pursuit of an overall goal relies on MFC regions or the LFP. To do so, we used a modified voluntary task switching (VTS) paradigm, in which participants choose an individual task to perform on each trial (i.e., a subgoal), under instructions to perform the tasks equally often and in a random order (i.e. the overall goal). In conjunction, we examined patterns of activation in the face of irrelevant, but task-related external stimuli that might nonetheless influence task selection. While there was some evidence that the MFC was involved in voluntary task selection, we found that the LFP and anterior insula (AI) were crucial to task selection in the pursuit of an overall goal. In addition, activation of the LFP and AI increased in the face of environmental stimuli that might serve as an interfering or conflicting external bias on voluntary task choice. These findings suggest that the LFP supports task selection according to abstract, internal goals, and leaves open the possibility that MFC may guide action selection in situations lacking in such top-down biases. As such, the current study represents a critical step towards understanding the neural underpinnings of how tasks are selected voluntarily to enable an overarching goal. PMID:23994316

  16. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to Mount Mazama, Crater Lake Caldera, and Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-16

    These field-trip guides were written for the occasion of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial scientific assembly in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. The guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera is an updated and expanded version of the guide (Bacon, 1989) for part of an earlier IAVCEI trip to the southern Cascade Range. The guide to Newberry Volcano describes the stops included in the 2017 field trip. Crater Lake and Newberry are the two best-preserved and most recent calderas in the Cascades Volcanic Arc. Although located in different settings in the arc, with Crater Lake on the arc axis and Newberry in the rear-arc, both volcanoes are located at the intersection of the arc and the northwest corner region of the extensional Basin and Range Province.

  17. Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.

    2017-02-01

    Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic

  18. Standard guide for data fields for computerized transfer of digital radiological examination data

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a listing and description of the fields that are recommended for inclusion in a digital radiological examination data base to facilitate the transfer of such data. This guide sets guidelines for the format of data fields for computerized transfer of digital image files obtained from radiographic, radioscopic, computed radiographic, or other radiological examination systems. The field listing includes those fields regarded as necessary for inclusion in the data base: (1) regardless of the radiological examination method (as indicated by Footnote C in Table 1), (2) for radioscopic examination (as indicated by Footnote E in Table 1), and (3) for radiographic examination (as indicated by Footnote D in Table 1). In addition, other optional fields are listed as a reminder of the types of information that may be useful for additional understanding of the data or applicable to a limited number of applications. 1.2 It is recognized that organizations may have in place an internal format for the...

  19. Neural field model of memory-guided search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P; Poll, Daniel B

    2017-12-01

    Many organisms can remember locations they have previously visited during a search. Visual search experiments have shown exploration is guided away from these locations, reducing redundancies in the search path before finding a hidden target. We develop and analyze a two-layer neural field model that encodes positional information during a search task. A position-encoding layer sustains a bump attractor corresponding to the searching agent's current location, and search is modeled by velocity input that propagates the bump. A memory layer sustains persistent activity bounded by a wave front, whose edges expand in response to excitatory input from the position layer. Search can then be biased in response to remembered locations, influencing velocity inputs to the position layer. Asymptotic techniques are used to reduce the dynamics of our model to a low-dimensional system of equations that track the bump position and front boundary. Performance is compared for different target-finding tasks.

  20. Scales of guide field reconnection at the hydrogen mass ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.; Divin, A.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the signatures of component reconnection for a Harris current sheet with a guide field using the physical mass ratio of hydrogen. The study uses the fully kinetic particle in cell code IPIC3D to investigate the scaling with mass ratio of the following three main component reconnection features: electron density cavities along the separatrices, channels of fast electron flow within the cavities, and electron phase space holes due to the Buneman instability in the electron high speed channels. The width and strength of the electron holes and of the electron cavities are studied up the mass ratio proper of hydrogen, considering the effect of the simulation box size, and of the boundary conditions. The results compare favorably with the existing data from the Cluster and Themis missions and provide quantitative predictions for realistic conditions to be encountered by the planned magnetospheric multiscale mission.

  1. Neural field model of memory-guided search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Poll, Daniel B.

    2017-12-01

    Many organisms can remember locations they have previously visited during a search. Visual search experiments have shown exploration is guided away from these locations, reducing redundancies in the search path before finding a hidden target. We develop and analyze a two-layer neural field model that encodes positional information during a search task. A position-encoding layer sustains a bump attractor corresponding to the searching agent's current location, and search is modeled by velocity input that propagates the bump. A memory layer sustains persistent activity bounded by a wave front, whose edges expand in response to excitatory input from the position layer. Search can then be biased in response to remembered locations, influencing velocity inputs to the position layer. Asymptotic techniques are used to reduce the dynamics of our model to a low-dimensional system of equations that track the bump position and front boundary. Performance is compared for different target-finding tasks.

  2. Sociology of International Education--An Emerging Field of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article points to international education in elementary and post-elementary schools as an emerging and promising field of enquiry. It describes the state of art of this new field and sets out the nature of the research. The rapid development of international networks in recent decades; the contribution of international education policies to…

  3. Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, S.G.; O'Neil, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The ApparaTus for High precision Experiment on Neutral Antimatter and antihydrogen TRAP collaborations have produced antihydrogen atoms by recombination in a cryogenic antiproton-positron plasma. This paper discusses the motion of the weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic field of the plasma and trap. The effective electric field in the moving frame of the atom polarizes the atom, and then gradients in the field exert a force on the atom. An approximate equation of motion for the atom center of mass is obtained by averaging over the rapid internal dynamics of the atom. The only remnant of the atom internal dynamics that enters this equation is the polarizability for the atom. This coefficient is evaluated for the weakly bound and strongly magnetized (guiding center drift) atoms understood to be produced in the antihydrogen experiments. Application of the approximate equation of motion shows that the atoms can be trapped radially in the large space charge field near the edge of the positron column. Also, an example is presented for which there is full three-dimensional trapping, not just radial trapping. Even untrapped atoms follow curved trajectories, and such trajectories are discussed for the important class of atoms that reach a field ionization diagnostic. Finally, the critical field for ionization is determined as an upper bound on the range of applicability of the theory

  4. A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

    Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

  5. MR image-guided portal verification for brain treatment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, F.-F.; Gao, Q.H.; Xie, H.; Nelson, D.F.; Yu, Y.; Kwok, W.E.; Totterman, S.; Schell, M.C.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    and marrow information within the skull. Next, a ray-tracing method is used to generate a projection (pseudo-portal) image at the planned treatment position. In this situation, the ray-tracing is simply performed on pixels rather than attenuation coefficients. The skull and its relative positions are also projected to the pseudo-portal image and are used as 'hint' for the search of similar features in the portal images. A Canny edge detector is applied to the region of treatment field and is used to enhance brain contour and skull. The skull in the brain is then identified using a snake technique which is guided by the ''hint'', the projected features from MR images. Finally, a Chamfer matching technique is used to correlate features between the MR projection and portal images. Results: MR image-guided portal verification technique is evaluated using a clinical patient case who has an astrocytoma brain tumor and is treated by radiation therapy. The segmented results for brain MR slice images indicate that a wavelet-based image segmentation technique provides a reasonable estimation for the brain skull. Compared to the brain portal image, the method developed in this study for the generation of brain projection images provides skull structure about 3 mm differences. However, overall matching results are within 2 mm compared to the results between portal and simulation images. In addition, tumor volume can be accurately visualized in the projection image and be mapped over to portal images for treatment verification with this approach. Conclusions: A method for MR image-guided portal verification of brain treatment field is being developed. Although the projection image from MR images dose not have the similar radiographic appearance as portal images, it provides certain essential anatomical features (landmarks and gross tumor) as well as their relative locations to be used as references for computerized portal verification

  6. Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI in strong magnetic guide field reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is

  7. Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI) in strong magnetic guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales) electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR) in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects) involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is of particular

  8. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  9. A Guide to Field Notes for Qualitative Research: Context and Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia; Lauderdale, Jana

    2018-02-01

    Field notes are widely recommended in qualitative research as a means of documenting needed contextual information. With growing use of data sharing, secondary analysis, and metasynthesis, field notes ensure rich context persists beyond the original research team. However, while widely regarded as essential, there is not a guide to field note collection within the literature to guide researchers. Using the qualitative literature and previous research experience, we provide a concise guide to collection, incorporation, and dissemination of field notes. We provide a description of field note content for contextualization of an entire study as well as individual interviews and focus groups. In addition, we provide two "sketch note" guides, one for study context and one for individual interviews or focus groups for use in the field. Our guides are congruent with many qualitative and mixed methodologies and ensure contextual information is collected, stored, and disseminated as an essential component of ethical, rigorous qualitative research.

  10. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2015-01-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch ...

  11. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic vein for varicocele through an open ended guide wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, G.; Oyen, R.; Casselman, J.; Baert, A.L.

    1987-08-01

    Percutaneous sclerotherapy of the internal spermatic vein through an open ended guide wire was performed in 50 patients with left sided variocele. The procedure was successful in 47 patients, without major complications. Percutaneous sclerotherapy through an open ended guide wire offers the advantage of very distal and superselective catheterization with complete embolization of the internal spermatic vein, its side branches and parallel collateral channels. Further follow-up hopefully will confirm the reduction of recurrence rate in our patients.

  12. Book review: Peeters, H. 2007. Field guide to owls of California and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Forsman

    2010-01-01

    Field Guide to Owls of California and the West. Written primarily for nonprofessionals,this little field guide is a treasure trove of published and unpublished information on the natural history and distribution of owls in the western United States. It covers just about everything you could want to know about owls, from why they take dust baths, to facultative...

  13. Invasive Plants Field and Reference Guide: An Ecological Perspective of Plant Invaders of Forests and Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Cassandra Olson; Heather C. Smith; Heather C. Smith

    2005-01-01

    There are many field guides available about invasive plants and their identification. The purpose of this particular field guide is to give a scientific synthesis of what is known about the behavior of such species in managed, disturbed, and pristine forested systems in addition to key information for accurate identification.

  14. Variation-Aware Design of Custom Integrated Circuits A Hands-on Field Guide A Hands-on Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    McConaghy, Trent; Dyck, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This book targets custom IC designers who are encountering variation issues in their designs, especially for modern process nodes at 45nm and below, such as statistical process variations, environmental variations, and layout effects.  The authors have created a field guide to show how to handle variation proactively, and to understand the benefits of doing so. Readers facing variation challenges in their memory, standard cell, analog/RF, and custom digital designs will find easy-to-read, pragmatic solutions.   Reviews the most important concepts in variation-aware design, including types of variables and variation, useful variation-aware design terminology, and an overview and comparison of high-level design flows. Describes and compares a suite of approaches and flows for PVT corner-driven design and verification. Presents Fast PVT, a novel, confidence-driven global optimization technique for PVT corner extraction and verification that is both rapid and reliable. Presents a visually-oriented overview of ...

  15. A guide to innovation in informal settings | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... Innovation in Informal Settings: A Research Agenda by Susan Cozzens and Judith Sutz presents a framework that can be used by researchers, ... will find this theoretical guide useful as it explores the five criteria of innovation: ...

  16. Good practice guide to internal flexibility policies in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors

  17. Teaching Guide on International Terrorism: Definitions, Causes, and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Inst. of Peace, Washington, DC.

    Dealing with terrorism has become the centerpiece of United States foreign policy today. Yet terrorism--its definition, causes, and methods of dealing with it--has rarely been dealt with in high school courses. The United States Institute of Peace has developed this 3-lesson plan (for 45-minute class periods) teaching guide, aimed at grades 11 and…

  18. Environmental protection appraisals: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy field organization. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Surles, T.; Habegger, L.; Anderson, D.; Opelka, J.; Frangos, T.

    1985-03-01

    This manual has been prepared to assist DOE field organizations in conducting environmental protection appraisals of activities at DOE operating-level facilities. Its primary use will be by DOE operations offices in their appraisal of facilities operating under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act. However, the manual can also be used by other DOE field organizations. This manual is organized in modules that parallel those in the internal environmental audit checklist. It is assumed that the contractor is using the guide previously described (Internal Environmental Protection Audits) and that operations office staff members will have the opportunity to review or be cognizant of the contractor's completed internal audit, and other material generated within the facility, in preparation for the appraisal. This manual was developed to facilitate the appraisal process by providing operations office staff with a choice of modules that can be used independently or as a unit. The manual gives guidelines for reviewing information submitted to the operations office before the site visit and for conducting an on-site operating-level appraisal

  19. Ulysses Observations of Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbations Across Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report observations from 15 solar wind reconnection exhausts encountered along the Ulysses orbit beyond 4 AU in 1996-1999 and 2002-2005. The events, which lasted between 17 and 45 min, were found at heliospheric latitudes between -36o and 21o with one event detected as high as 58o. All events shared a common characteristic of a tripolar guide-magnetic field perturbation being detected across the observed exhausts. The signature consists of an enhanced guide field magnitude within the exhaust center and two regions of significantly depressed guide-fields adjacent to the center region. The events displayed magnetic field shear angles as low as 37o with a mean of 89o. This corresponds to a strong external guide field relative to the anti-parallel reconnecting component of the magnetic field with a mean ratio of 1.3 and a maximum ratio of 3.1. A 2-D kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions reveals that tripolar guide fields form at current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as two magnetic islands interact with one another for such strong guide fields. The Ulysses observations are also compared with the results of a 3-D kinetic simulation of multiple flux ropes in a strong guide field.

  20. Detection of internal fields in double-metal terahertz resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Han, Zhanghua; Ding, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) double-metal plasmonic resonators enable enhanced light-matter coupling by exploiting strong field confinement. The double-metal design however restricts access to the internal fields. We propose and demonstrate a method for spatial mapping and spectroscopic analysis of the internal...... electromagnetic fields in double-metal plasmonic resonators. We use the concept of image charges and aperture-type scanning near-field THz time-domain microscopy to probe the fields confined within the closed resonator. The experimental method opens doors to studies of light-matter coupling in deeply sub...

  1. Students excel in international field robot event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, J.W.; Tang, L.

    2005-01-01

    The third annual field robot event was organized by Wageningen University in which the main task of robots was to follow straight and curved rows in a corn crop, make a turn at the headland, and continue on to the next row. Tracked robots demonstrated the advantages of better tractions most robots

  2. 16. International oil field chemistry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The symposium deals with topics on well chemicals, petrochemicals, well injection fluids, reservoir describing methods, reservoir exploitation enhancing chemicals, corrosion inhibitors, production methods and chemical aspects of maintenance, multiphase flow and reservoir geochemistry. The environmental effects of the chemicals and preservation of the environment is also focussed on. Some aspects of decommissioning of oil fields are dealt with

  3. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Study in Mathematics or TEDS-M is a study conducted under the aegis of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The lead research center for the study is the International Study Center at Michigan State University (ISC/MSU). The ISC/MSU worked from 2006 to 2011 with the International…

  4. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault , Erwan; Finlay , Christopher ,; Beggan , Ciarán ,; Alken , Patrick; Aubert , Julien ,; Barrois , Olivier; Bertrand , François; Bondar , Tatiana; Boness , Axel; Brocco , Laura; Canet , Elisabeth ,; Chambodut , Aude; Chulliat , Arnaud ,; Coïsson , Pierdavide ,; Civet , François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, p...

  5. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Malakit, Kittipat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Techonology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Shay, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Cassak, Paul A., E-mail: kmalakit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  6. Effects of a Guide Field on the Larmor Electric Field and Upstream Electron Temperature Anisotropy in Collisionless Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek-In, Surapat; Ruffolo, David; Malakit, Kittipat; Shay, Michael A.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first study of the properties of the Larmor electric field (LEF) in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the presence of an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field for different sets of representative upstream parameters at Earth’s dayside magnetopause with an ion temperature greater than the electron temperature (the ion-to-electron temperature ratio fixed at 2) using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We show that the LEF does persist in the presence of a guide field. We study how the LEF thickness and strength change as a function of guide field and the magnetospheric temperature and reconnecting magnetic field strength. We find that the thickness of the LEF structure decreases, while its magnitude increases when a guide field is added to the reconnecting magnetic field. The added guide field makes the Larmor radius smaller, so the scaling with the magnetospheric ion Larmor radius is similar to that reported for the case without a guide field. Note, however, that the physics causing the LEF is not well understood, so future work in other parameter regimes is needed to fully predict the LEF for arbitrary conditions. We also find that a previously reported upstream electron temperature anisotropy arises in the vicinity of the LEF region both with and without a guide field. We argue that the generation of the anisotropy is linked to the existence of the LEF. The LEF can be used in combination with the electron temperature anisotropy as a signature to effectively identify dayside reconnection sites in observations.

  7. Pleural radio guide exploration of the internal mammary chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, R. del; Clavijo, J.C.; Garello, N.C.; Pierotti, E.; Castillo, S. del

    2003-01-01

    Sentinel node technique permits to observe the compromise axillary and the internal mammary chain. The patients were marked with Technetium 99 peritumoral. The ganglion state of the mammary chain provides information of the estate of the breast cancer [es

  8. International cooperation in the field of radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Bilateral and multilateral research cooperations have been implemented at TRCRE, JAERI, producing favourable results in the field of radiation application. Frameworks and some achievements are described and the significance of the international cooperation is discussed. (Author)

  9. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, William

    1990-01-01

    This guide has been produced to help foresters identify trees in Ghanaian rain forest. The range and definition of forest types covered are the same as those described by Hall and Swaine (1981). Although the guide is designed primarily for use by Technical Officers in the Forestry Department, it is hoped that other interested parties will find it useful as well: technical jargon has been kept to a minimum and the leaves of most species are illustrated. It is designed to be used in conjunction...

  10. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...

  11. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-ell. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz

  12. Subsolar magnetopause observation and kinetic simulation of a tripolar guide magnetic field perturbation consistent with a magnetic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Cassak, P. A.; Retinò, A.; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-04-01

    The Polar satellite recorded two reconnection exhausts within 6 min on 1 April 2001 across a subsolar magnetopause that displayed a symmetric plasma density, but different out-of-plane magnetic field signatures for similar solar wind conditions. The first magnetopause crossing displayed a bipolar guide field variation in a weak external guide field consistent with a symmetric Hall field from a single X line. The subsequent crossing represents the first observation of a tripolar guide field perturbation at Earth's magnetopause in a strong guide field. This perturbation consists of a significant guide field enhancement between two narrow guide field depressions. A particle-in-cell simulation for the prevailing conditions across this second event resulted in a magnetic island between two simulated X lines across which a tripolar guide field developed consistent with the observation. The simulated island supports a scenario whereby Polar encountered the asymmetric quadrupole Hall magnetic fields between two X lines for symmetric conditions across the magnetopause.

  13. Suitability for field service in 4 breeds of guide dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik, E.; Liinamo, A.E.; Leighton, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of a longer than normal 4-month training period, or being ¿passed back¿ from the original training class to join a class in which dogs are at an earlier stage of their training, on the overall probability that a dog entering guide dog training will

  14. On Multiple Reconnection X-lines and Tripolar Perturbations of Strong Guide Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Phan, T. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Carr, C. M.; Markidis, S.; Goldman, M. V.

    2015-05-01

    We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field BM which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field BL. The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed BM, with an observed 7%-14% ΔBM magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced BM within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each BM depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated ΔBM/ΔXN over the normal width ΔXN between a BM minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field.

  15. ON MULTIPLE RECONNECTION X-LINES AND TRIPOLAR PERTURBATIONS OF STRONG GUIDE MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, S.; Gosling, J. T.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.; Phan, T. D.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Carr, C. M.; Markidis, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field B M   which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field B L . The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed B M , with an observed 7%–14% ΔB M magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced B M within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each B M depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated ΔB M /ΔX N over the normal width ΔX N between a B M minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field

  16. ON MULTIPLE RECONNECTION X-LINES AND TRIPOLAR PERTURBATIONS OF STRONG GUIDE MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S.; Gosling, J. T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lapenta, G. [Center for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Khotyaintsev, Yu. V. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Carr, C. M. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Markidis, S., E-mail: eriksson@lasp.colorado.edu [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-05-20

    We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field B{sub M} {sub  }which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field B{sub L}. The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed B{sub M}, with an observed 7%–14% ΔB{sub M} magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced B{sub M} within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each B{sub M} depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated ΔB{sub M}/ΔX{sub N} over the normal width ΔX{sub N} between a B{sub M} minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field.

  17. Interaction between Gaming and Multistage Guiding Strategies on Students' Field Trip Mobile Learning Performance and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…

  18. Mastering the International Phonetic Alphabet; Guide and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Donald M.

    The present volume, containing lessons with practice and review exercises, offers a systematic presentation of the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) most widely used as a simplified means of representing the pronunciation of General American English. The transcription symbols presented are those primarily employed by Kenyon and…

  19. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  20. Coaxial guiding assembly for internal through-passing probe for eddy current testing of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Holec, P.

    1989-01-01

    The device features guiding cases mounted on springs provided on the peripheries with two rows of radial openings into which are wound flexible fibres parallel with the case axis. The advantage of the design is that active elements which provide the coaxial guiding of the probe are oriented in the direction of the probe movement. This significantly reduces friction between the probe and the internal wall of the tube and thereby also wear of the guide parts of the probe. (J.B.). 2 figs

  1. Performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z M; Choi, Y D

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle. In order to improve the performance of a cross flow turbine, the paper presents a numerical investigation of the turbine with air supply and discusses the influence of variable guide vane angle on the internal flow. A newly developed air supply from air suction Hole is adopted. To investigate the performance and internal flow of the cross-flow turbine, the CFD software based on the two-phase flow model is utilized. The numerical grids are made in two-dimensional geometry in order to shorten the time of two-phase calculations. Then a series of CFD analysis has been conducted in the range of different guide vane angle. Moreover, local output power is divided at different stages and the effect of air layer in each stage is examined

  2. Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Helm Field Guides — Birds of Chile including the Antarctic Peninsula, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia by Albaro Jaramillo with illustrations by Peter Burke and David Beadle (2003)

  3. Creating Your Own Case Studies: A Guide for Early Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    1990-01-01

    A guide for creating case studies is provided for teacher educators to share with students. Suggestions are offered for becoming a participant observer in a classroom. The appendix contains sample appropriate and inappropriate field notes. (SM)

  4. Aerobic Biodegradation of Oily Wastes: A Field Guide For Federal On-scene Coordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intentionally limited in scope to best serve the requirements of the Region 6 Oil Program, this field guide consists of three parts complemented by appendices. Helps evaluate environment and consider factors, existing regulations/policies, operation issues

  5. Electronic Field Guides and User Communities in the Eco-informatics Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Stevenson

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that taxonomy is central to the conservation of biodiversity has reestablished the critical role of taxonomy in biology. However, many of the tools taxonomists produce for the identification and characterization of species, e.g., dichotomous keys, have been difficult to use and largely ignored by the general public in favor of field guides, which are essentially browsable picture guides. We review the role of field guides in species identification and discuss the application of a host of digital technologies to produce user-friendly tools for identification that are likely to greatly enhance species identification in the field by nonspecialists. We suggest that wider adoption of the citizen science model and the use of electronic field guides will enhance public understanding and participation in biodiversity monitoring.

  6. Guide for International Peer Reviews of Decommissioning Cost Studies for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, Thomas S.; Pescatore, Claudio; )

    2014-01-01

    Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has developed a proven methodology for conducting peer reviews in radioactive waste management and nuclear R and D. Using this methodology, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee's Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) developed the present guide as a framework for decommissioning cost reviewers and reviewees to prepare for and conduct international peer reviews of decommissioning cost estimate studies for nuclear facilities. It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews. The remainder of this guide is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 2 describes gathering the cost estimate study and underpinning documents, reviewing the study and writing a final report. Chapter 3 provides a detailed checklist approach for the review of the cost study report. Chapter 4 provides checklists to assist in reviewing benchmarked information. Chapter 5 provides comments on the approach and recommendations for use of this guide. Chapters 6 and 7 provide the background material used in developing this guide and Chapter 8 provides a list of the abbreviations and acronyms used in this guide

  7. Field Guide to Marine Ecology of Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This guide introduces you to a model of Kenyan coast: from sandy shore across a lagoon of shallow water with sea grass and coral garden, out to the flinging reef where the waves break and the coral rises like a wall from the depths of the ocean. The beach and lagoon are in a marine park where shells, plants, fish and other marine life is protected. In the marine ecosystem here there are 6 habitats, which have their own plants and animals that adapted to the particular environment.

  8. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  9. Energy Dissipation and Dynamics in Large Guide Field Turbulence Driven Reconnection at the Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBarge, J. M.; Shay, M. A.; Sharma, P.; Juno, J.; Haggerty, C. C.; Drake, J. F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hakim, A.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence and magnetic reconnection are the primary mechanisms responsible for the conversion of stored magnetic energy into particle energy in many space and astrophysical plasmas. The magnetospheric multiscale mission (MMS) has given us unprecedented access to high cadence particle and field data of turbulence and magnetic reconnection at earth's magnetopause. The observations include large guide field reconnection events generated within the turbulent magnetopause. Motivated by these observations, we present a study of large guide reconnection using the fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell component of the Gkeyll simulation framework, and we also employ and compare with gyrokinetics to explore the asymptotically large guide field limit. In addition to studying the configuration space dynamics, we leverage the recently developed field-particle correlations to diagnose the dominant sources of dissipation and compare the results of the field-particle correlation to other energy dissipation measures.

  10. Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Harrison, M. G.; Hesse, M.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.

  11. THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AS A STUDY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amatucci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of International Business lies at a crossroads of analytical levels, themes and theoretical traditions, and it will probably remain at this point in the near future. This work follows five years (2001-2006 of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS to analyse the scope and evolution of themes, methodologies and theoretical traditions in 199 articles. After this phase, it discusses, with the help of colleagues gathered in two workshops, the future of the area in terms of two hypotheses: the convergence hypothesis of the dominance of a theoretical and thematic mainstream, and the divergence hypothesis of a “theoretical quilt” configuration of the field. It concludes that the editorial preferences of JIBS favour traditional approaches to the field and that the second “future” is the most likely to occur, leading International Business to evolve as a social reference more than an epistemological entity.

  12. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  13. Quantum field theory a tourist guide for mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    2008-01-01

    Quantum field theory has been a great success for physics, but it is difficult for mathematicians to learn because it is mathematically incomplete. Folland, who is a mathematician, has spent considerable time digesting the physical theory and sorting out the mathematical issues in it. Fortunately for mathematicians, Folland is a gifted expositor. The purpose of this book is to present the elements of quantum field theory, with the goal of understanding the behavior of elementary particles rather than building formal mathematical structures, in a form that will be comprehensible to mathematicians. Rigorous definitions and arguments are presented as far as they are available, but the text proceeds on a more informal level when necessary, with due care in identifying the difficulties. The book begins with a review of classical physics and quantum mechanics, then proceeds through the construction of free quantum fields to the perturbation-theoretic development of interacting field theory and renormalization theor...

  14. Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for conducting corrosion tests in plant equipment or systems under operating conditions to evaluate the corrosion resistance of engineering materials. It does not cover electrochemical methods for determining corrosion rates. 1.1.1 While intended primarily for immersion tests, general guidelines provided can be applicable for exposure of test specimens in plant atmospheres, provided that placement and orientation of the test specimens is non-restrictive to air circulation. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also 10.4.2.

  15. Three-dimensional modeling of electron quasiviscous dissipation in guide-field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Schindler, Karl; Birn, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    A numerical study of guide-field magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional model is presented. Starting from an initial, perturbed, force-free current sheet, it is shown that reconnection develops to an almost translationally invariant state, where magnetic perturbations are aligned primarily along the main current flow direction. An analysis of guide-field and electron flow signatures indicates behavior that is very similar to earlier, albeit not three-dimensional, simulations. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of electron pressure nongyrotropies in the central diffusion region confirms the major role the associated dissipation process plays in establishing the reconnection electric field

  16. The Effect of a Guide Field on the Structures of Magnetic Islands: 2D PIC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Lu, Q.; Lu, S.; Wang, P.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic island plays an important role in magnetic reconnection. Using a series of 2D PIC simulations, we investigate the magnetic structures of a magnetic island formed during multiple X-line magnetic reconnection, considering the effects of the guide field in symmetric and asymmetric current sheets. In a symmetric current sheet, the current in the direction forms a tripolar structure inside a magnetic island during anti-parallel reconnection, which results in a quadrupole structure of the out-of-plane magnetic field. With the increase of the guide field, the symmetry of both the current system and out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island is distorted. When the guide field is sufficiently strong, the current forms a ring along the magnetic field lines inside magnetic island. At the same time, the current carried by the energetic electrons accelerated in the vicinity of the X lines forms another ring at the edge of the magnetic island. Such a dual-ring current system enhance the out-of-plane magnetic field inside the magnetic island with a dip in the center of the magnetic island. In an asymmetric current sheet, when there is no guide field, electrons flows toward the X lines along the separatrices from the side with a higher density, and are then directed away from the X lines along the separatrices to the side with a lower density. The formed current results in the enhancement of the out-of-plane magnetic field at one end of the magnetic island, and the attenuation at the other end. With the increase of the guide field, the structures of both the current system and the out-of-plane magnetic field are distorted.

  17. Magneto-radiotherapy: using magnetic fields to guide dose deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettelbeck, H.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.; Rosenfeld, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Magneto-radiotherapy is the application of magnetic fields during radiotherapy procedures. It aims to improve the quality of cancer treatment by using magnetic fields to 1 g uide the dose-deposition of electrons in tissue. Monte Carlo (MC) studies have investigated magneto-radiotherapy applied to conventional photon and electron linac beams. In this study, a combination of MC PENELOPE simulations and physical experiments were done to investigate magneto-radiotherapy applied to MRT (Microbeam Radiation Therapy) and conventional linac radiotherapy.

  18. Saturn's Internal Magnetic Field Revealed by Cassini Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Khurana, K. K.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.; Kellock, S.; Burton, M. E.; Burk, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Saturn's internal magnetic field has been puzzling since the first in-situ measurements during the Pioneer 11 Saturn flyby. Cassini magnetometer measurements prior to the Grand Finale phase established 1) the highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's internal magnetic field with a dipole tilt smaller than 0.06 degrees, 2) at least an order of magnitude slower secular variation rate compared to that of the current geomagnetic field, and 3) expulsion of magnetic fluxes from the equatorial region towards high latitude. The highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's intrinsic magnetic field not only challenges dynamo theory but also makes an accurate determination of the interior rotation rate of Saturn extremely difficult. The Cassini spacecraft entered the Grand Finale phase in April 2017, during which time the spacecraft dived through the gap between Saturn's atmosphere and the inner edge of the D-ring 22 times before descending into the deep atmosphere of Saturn. The unprecedented proximity to Saturn (reaching 2500 km above the cloud deck) and the highly inclined nature of the Grand Finale orbits provided an ideal opportunity to decode Saturn's internal magnetic field. The fluxgate magnetometer onboard Cassini made precise vector measurements during the Grand Finale phase. Magnetic signals from the interior of the planet, the magnetospheric ring current, the high-latitude field-aligned current (FAC) modulated by the 10.7 hour planetary period oscillation, and low-latitude FACs were observed during the Grand Finale phase. Here we report the magnetometer measurements during the Cassini Grand Finale phase, new features of Saturn's internal magnetic field revealed by these measurements (e.g., the high degree magnetic moments of Saturn, the level of axisymmetry beyond dipole), and implications for the deep interior of Saturn.

  19. British Isles Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    The British Isles Field Experience (BIFE) program was initiated at Williamsport Area Community College (WACC) to provide a group of WACC faculty and staff members with individual and group activities of a personal, professional, and cultural nature in order to promote an international perspective that can be infused into student, collegiate, and…

  20. Internal and external Field of View: computer games and cybersickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.C. de; Bos, J.E.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Groen, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    In an experiment with a computer game environment, we studied the effect of Field-of-View (FOV) on cybersickness. In particular, we examined the effect of differences between the internal FOV (IFOV, the FOV which the graphics generator is using to render its images) and the external FOV (EFOV, the

  1. Field theory of the spinning electron: Internal motions

    OpenAIRE

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo

    1996-01-01

    We present here a field theory of the spinning electron, by writing down a new equation for the 4-velocity field v^mu (different from that of Dirac theory), which allows a classically intelligible description of the electron. Moreover, we make explicit the noticeable kinematical properties of such velocity field (which also result different from the ordinary ones). At last, we analyze the internal zitterbewegung (zbw) motions, for both time-like and light-like speeds. We adopt in this paper t...

  2. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  3. Water harvesting and soil moisture retention: A study guide for farmer field schools

    OpenAIRE

    Duveskog, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record Since a majority of individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on rainfed agriculture, it is necessary to provide tools that will better equip these individuals to increase their yields and improve their farming techniques. This study guide is intended to assist farmers in learning and experimenting on improved soil and water management. The target groups for the study guide are Farmer Field Schools, village farmers groups and local agricultural extension staff. Avail...

  4. Moonwalk with Your Eyes A Pocket Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Plotner, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Are you ready to take a quarter of a million mile journey with just your eyes? Then welcome to "Moon Walk with Your Eyes"! We often take the beauty of our nearest astronomical neighbor for granted. How often do we really stop to think about why it looks the way it does or what a closer look will reveal? In this book, written in easy-to-understand language by one backyard astronomer to another, we'll explore the Moon night by night, as it goes through a full cycle. Every lunar day has something new to learn! And along your journey, you will be reading about the history, mystery, poetry, and legends that are associated with our Moon. Charts will help guide you to specific lunar features, as well as annotated photographic maps that pinpoint important or unusual craters. You'll soon learn to identify major features at just a glance and be able to create your own world-class images. You'll have right at hand the times and dates for every lunar day, phase, and eclipse for years to come. Imagine yourself at the tele...

  5. Field Encapsulation Library The FEL 2.2 User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Henze, Chris; Ellsworth, David

    1999-01-01

    This document describes version 2.2 of the Field Encapsulation Library (FEL), a library of mesh and field classes. FEL is a library for programmers - it is a "building block" enabling the rapid development of applications by a user. Since FEL is a library intended for code development, it is essential that enough technical detail be provided so that one can make full use of the code. Providing such detail requires some assumptions with respect to the reader's familiarity with the library implementation language, C++, particularly C++ with templates. We have done our best to make the explanations accessible to those who may not be completely C++ literate. Nevertheless, familiarity with the language will certainly help one's understanding of how and why things work the way they do. One consolation is that the level of understanding essential for using the library is significantly less than the level that one should have in order to modify or extend the library. One more remark on C++ templates: Templates have been a source of both joy and frustration for us. The frustration stems from the lack of mature or complete implementations that one has to work with. Template problems rear their ugly head particularly when porting. When porting C code, successfully compiling to a set of object files typically means that one is almost done. With templated C++ and the current state of the compilers and linkers, generating the object files is often only the beginning of the fun. On the other hand, templates are quite powerful. Used judiciously, templates enable more succinct designs and more efficient code. Templates also help with code maintenance. Designers can avoid creating objects that are the same in many respects, but not exactly the same. For example, FEL fields are templated by node type, thus the code for scalar fields and vector fields is shared. Furthermore, node type templating allows the library user to instantiate fields with data types not provided by the FEL

  6. Internal Stresses in Wires for High Field Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.; Lawson, A.C.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Wood, J.T.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The codeformation of Cu-Ag or Cu-Nb composite wires used for high field magnets has a number of important microstructural consequences, including the production of very fine scale structures, the development of very high internal surface area to volume ratios during the drawing and the storage of defects at interphase interfaces. In addition, the fabrication and codeformation of phases which differ in crystal structure, thermal expansion, elastic modulus and lattice parameter lead to the development of short wavelength internal stresses. These internal stresses are measured by neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy as a function of the imposed drawing strain. The internal stresses lead to important changes in elastic plastic response which can be related to both magnet design and service life and these aspects will be described in detail

  7. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  9. Field guide to Muddy Formation outcrops, Crook County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this research program are to (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline bamer reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. This report contains the data and analyses collected from outcrop exposures of the Muddy Formation, located in Crook County, Wyoming, 40 miles south of Bell Creek oil field. The outcrop data set contains permeability, porosity, petrographic, grain size and geologic data from 1-inch-diameter core plugs chilled from the outcrop face, as well as geological descriptions and sedimentological interpretations of the outcrop exposures. The outcrop data set provides information about facies characteristics and geometries and the spatial distribution of permeability and porosity on interwell scales. Appendices within this report include a micropaleontological analyses of selected outcrop samples, an annotated bibliography of papers on the Muddy Formation in the Powder River Basin, and over 950 permeability and porosity values measured from 1-inch-diameter core plugs drilled from the outcrop. All data contained in this resort are available in electronic format upon request. The core plugs drilled from the outcrop are available for measurement.

  10. Investigation of the free electron laser with a guide magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The free electron laser with a static guide magnetic field has been investigated theoretically and by computer simulation using a fully relativistic electromagnetic particle code which has one spatial and three velocity dimensions. By passing a relativistic electron beam through a helical magnetic field, high frequency electromagnetic radiation is generated by its coupling to the negative energy electrostatic beam modes through the helical magnetic field. In the regime of strong guide field where Ω/sub c/e/γ>>k 0 v/sub 0z/, the dispersion relation is obtained by using a fluid model for the electron beam and the growth rates are solved for numerically. Reasonable agreement between the theory and the simulations has been obtained. It was found that the growth rate increases linearly with magnetic ripple strength but decreases with the strength of the guide field. In addition, the growth rates also increase slightly with the beam energy. For a reasonably strong guide field (e.g., Ω/sub c/e=6.0ω/sub p/e), the growth rate can be on the order of 0.1ω/sub p/e and the efficiency of radiation production has been found to be as high as 16%. However, the efficiency decreases with the strength of the guide field. A theory for the saturation level is developed which relates the efficiency to the continued growth of the electromagnetic wave after the onset of trapping by the electrostatic field. It is found that the growth continues for about one bounce time and the observed saturation levels are reasonably well explained

  11. A Visual Astronomer's Photographic Guide to the Deep Sky A Pocket Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rumistrzewicz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    How many times have you ‘found’ a deep sky object (DSO), ticked it off the list, and moved on, or used the ‘Tour’ function on your GO-TO ‘scope and said, ‘Oh that’s a just a smudge’ or ‘Can’t see it – I’ll move on to the next one.’ If this has happened to you, then this book is for you. It will challenge you to go back to the ‘smudge’ and really look. Can you see the faint wisp or the detail in the southeastern corner? Can you see the small cluster within the cluster? Try to classify the open cluster for yourself. Compare it to the ‘accepted’ Trumpler classification. Whether you have a GO-TO ‘scope or not, this book gets you to rediscover one of the great things that got you into this hobby in the first place – looking through the eyepiece of a telescope. So pack away the DSLR, CCD camera, the guide ‘scope, and laptop and open your pencil case! You’re in for some fun!

  12. Linux malware incident response an excerpt from malware forensic field guide for Linux systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malin, Cameron H; Aquilina, James M

    2013-01-01

    Linux Malware Incident Response is a ""first look"" at the Malware Forensics Field Guide for Linux Systems, exhibiting the first steps in investigating Linux-based incidents. The Syngress Digital Forensics Field Guides series includes companions for any digital and computer forensic investigator and analyst. Each book is a ""toolkit"" with checklists for specific tasks, case studies of difficult situations, and expert analyst tips. This compendium of tools for computer forensics analysts and investigators is presented in a succinct outline format with cross-references to suppleme

  13. Convergent transmission of RNAi guide-target mismatch information across Argonaute internal allosteric network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Thomas T; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand "seed region" have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative effects of

  14. Convergent transmission of RNAi guide-target mismatch information across Argonaute internal allosteric network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T Joseph

    Full Text Available In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand "seed region" have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the

  15. On the Electron Diffusion Region in Asymmetric Reconnection with a Guide Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim; Burch, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations in a 2.5-D geometry and analytical theory are employed to study the electron diffusion region in asymmetric reconnection with a guide magnetic field. The analysis presented here demonstrates that similar to the case without guide field, in-plane flow stagnation and null of the in-plane magnetic field are well separated. In addition, it is shown that the electric field at the local magnetic X point is again dominated by inertial effects, whereas it remains dominated by nongyrotropic pressure effects at the in-plane flow stagnation point. A comparison between local electron Larmor radii and the magnetic gradient scale lengths predicts that distribution should become nongyrotropic in a region enveloping both field reversal and flow stagnation points. This prediction is verified by an analysis of modeled electron distributions, which show clear evidence of mixing in the critical region.

  16. Simulation and experimental study on transportation of dual-beam guided by confining magnetic-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xianchen; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Using external longitudinal magnetic-field to guide dual-beam out of the dual-shift tubes is a key step for the practicality of synchronizing dual-beam produced by a single accelerator. On the basis of the simulation of the confining magnetic-field for the solid dual-beam, the experiment of magnetic-field guiding annular dual-beam was presented. When the diode voltage was 380 kV, dual-beam currents of 5.10 kA and 4.92 kA were obtained. The experimental results indicate that the designed magnetic-field system could confine the annular dual-beam effectively, and the critical confining magnetic-field is about 0.5 T. (authors)

  17. Experimental verification of the role of electron pressure in fast magnetic reconnection with a guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, W.; Sciortino, F.; Stechow, A. von; Jara-Almonte, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report detailed laboratory observations of the structure of a reconnection current sheet in a two-fluid plasma regime with a guide magnetic field. We observe and quantitatively analyze the quadrupolar electron pressure variation in the ion-diffusion region, as originally predicted by extended magnetohydrodynamics simulations. The projection of the electron pressure gradient parallel to the magnetic field contributes significantly to balancing the parallel electric field, and the resulting cross-field electron jets in the reconnection layer are diamagnetic in origin. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how parallel and perpendicular force balance are coupled in guide field reconnection and confirm basic theoretical models of the importance of electron pressure gradients for obtaining fast magnetic reconnection.

  18. Asymmetry of the Ion Diffusion Region Hall Electric and Magnetic Fields during Guide Field Reconnection: Observations and Comparison with Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Shay, M. A.; Phan, T. D.; Oieroset, M.

    2010-01-01

    In situ measurements of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail are presented showing that even a moderate guide field (20% of the reconnecting field) considerably distorts ion diffusion region structure. The Hall magnetic and electric fields are asymmetric and shunted away from the current sheet; an appropriately scaled particle-in-cell simulation is found to be in excellent agreement with the data. The results show the importance of correctly accounting for the effects of the magnetic shear when attempting to identify and study magnetic reconnection diffusion regions in nature.

  19. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  20. Culture Studies in the Field of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Li, Xin; Jakobsen, Michael

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of culture studies within the field of international business research, and to examine how two main paradigms – essentialism and social constructivism – relate to the discourse in this field. We analyze the main points of the two...... in this paper. Practical implications: We encourage practitioners to learn how to switch, both sequentially and spatially, between the two paradigms of culture (fundamentally incommensurable though they are). This involves taking a “both/or” approach to the two paradigms. Originality/Value: We show...

  1. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  2. Concerning the work of the II international field archaeological school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitdikov Ayrat G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The II international field archaeological school was held in Bolgar, 17-30 August, 2015. Basic theoretical lectures were included into syllabus, as well as methodical studies and work of such scientific sections as: History of ancient metallurgy and metal processing; Palaeoanthropology; Archeobiological methods in archaeology; Techniques of field conservation and restoration; Geoinformational systems in archaeology; History of ancient ceramics; Experimental and traseology study of ancient tools; Archaeological glass. The Bolgar school is an example of organisation an academic educational centre which is focused on practical acquisition of contemporary techniques of complex archaeological monuments’ study with wide usage of experimental research methods.

  3. International Scientific Cooperation in the Field of Spatial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the existing structure of international cooperation of scientific organizations in the field of regional studies in different parts of the world. The authors define current major organizations that coordinate the work of scientific subdivisions in the field of regional studies in the whole world and also in Europe, North and South America and the Asia-Pacific region. The researchers offer the new term - ‘public-scientific partnership’ (PSP - and discuss PSP mechanisms and its implementation ways that may strengthen regional scientific research in Russia. The authors also debate the idea of creation of the Russian Association of Regional Science

  4. Success rate and complications of internal jugular vein catheterization with and without ultrasonography guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-12-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications.

  5. Success Rate and Complications of Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization With and Without Ultrasonography Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein ...

  6. Retrospective 5-year analysis of MR-guided biopsies in a low-field MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangos, Stephan; Mueller, C.; Mayer, F.; Naguib, N.N.; Nour-Eldin, N.E.A.; Herzog, C.; Hammerstingl, R.M.; Thalhammer, A.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Eichler, K.; Hansmann, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical value of MR-guided biopsies in an open 0.2 T low-field system. Materials and methods: A total of 322 patients with suspicious lesions of different body regions were biopsied in a low-field MRI system (0.2 T, Concerto, Siemens). The procedures were guided using T1-weighted Flash sequences (TR/TE = 100/9; 70 ). The lesions were repeatedly biopsied using the coaxial technique with a 15-gauge (diameter 2 mm) puncture needle. Complications and biopsy findings were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In all cases the biopsy procedures were successfully performed with MR guidance. In 298 patients diagnosis was able to be confirmed on the basis of the probes. The clinical follow-up showed that in 24 patients the lesions were missed by MR-guided biopsy. From this a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 87% and an accuracy of 93% were calculated. In two patients major complications were observed (morbidity rate 0.6%). Conclusion: MR-guided biopsy can be performed safely and precisely in a low-field MR system and are a supplement to US or CT-guided biopsies. (orig.)

  7. Particle-in-cell simulations of asymmetric guide-field reconnection: quadrupolar structure of Hall magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R. G.; Alves, M. V.; Barbosa, M. V. G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most important processes that occurs in Earth's magnetosphere is known as magnetic reconnection (MR). This process can be symmetric or asymmetric, depending basically on the plasma density and magnetic field in both sides of the current sheet. A good example of symmetric reconnection in terrestrial magnetosphere occurs in the magnetotail, where these quantities are similar on the north and south lobes. In the dayside magnetopause MR is asymmetric, since the plasma regimes and magnetic fields of magnetosheath and magnetosphere are quite different. Symmetric reconnection has some unique signatures. For example, the formation of a quadrupolar structure of Hall magnetic field and a bipolar Hall electric field that points to the center of the current sheet. The different particle motions in the presence of asymmetries change these signatures, causing the quadrupolar pattern to be distorted and forming a bipolar structure. Also, the bipolar Hall electric field is modified and gives rise to a single peak pointing toward the magnetosheat, considering an example of magnetopause reconnection. The presence of a guide-field can also distort the quadrupolar pattern, by giving a shear angle across the current sheet and altering the symmetric patterns, according to previous simulations and observations. Recently, a quadrupolar structure was observed in an asymmetric guide-field MR event using MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale) mission data [Peng et al., JGR, 2017]. This event shows clearly that the density asymmetry and the guide-field were not sufficient to form signatures of asymmetric reconnection. Using the particle-in-cell code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] with the MMS data from this event used to define input parameters, we found a quadrupolar structure of Hall magnetic field and a bipolar pattern of Hall electric field in ion scales, showing that our results are in an excellent agreement with the MMS observations. To our

  8. Calculation of the internal electric field within doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, G J

    2012-01-01

    A detailed model for the calculation of the internal potential and electric field profile within doped semiconductors is developed from a first-principles approach and presented in this paper. The model utilizes Poisson's equation and basic Boltzmann statistics to develop a standard nonlinear Poisson–Boltzmann equation (NPBE) for doped semiconductors. The resultant NPBE links the internal electrostatic potential within the doped semiconductor to the doping concentration profile of the semiconductor device under consideration. The NPBE is solved by the application of numerical methods, is general in formulation, supporting multiple simultaneous dopant configurations, and may be applied to any semiconductor type. Calculated results of the electric field profile for various semiconductor dopant structures derived using the model are additionally presented in this paper. The electric field results predicted by the model are shown to be in excellent agreement with those found by other methods. The model may be expanded to accommodate effects involving internal substrate electron–hole pair generation (gemination) caused by photo-ionization for application to and the modeling of solar cell device structures. (paper)

  9. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. Methods The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Results Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. Discussion This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety. PMID:26406893

  10. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety.

  11. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  12. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  13. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important tree species from Laos and Vietnam enables the user to identify the included taxa with user-friendly keys. It includes scientific names, botanical descriptions of families, genera, and species. Specific information on distribution,

  14. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. E

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    orange coloured segments at the base and end of the abdomen. Male: Eyes: Dark olivaceous ... K.A.Subramanian (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. E-Book of .... Usually perches on dry twigs near streams.

  15. Field guide for the identification of snags and logs in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Evelyn L. Bull; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This field guide contains descriptions and color photographs of snags and logs of 10 coniferous and 3 deciduous tree species found in the interior Columbia River basin. Methods arc described to distinguish among the different species when various amounts of branches, cones, and bark arc missing. Wildlife use of the different species of snags and logs are listed. Snags...

  16. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: a field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, Hoang Van; Nanthavong, Khamseng; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important tree species from Laos and Vietnam enables the user to identify the included taxa with user-friendly keys. It includes scientific names, botanical descriptions of families, genera, and species. Specific information on distribution, habitat, ecology, and uses has been compiled. All specimens examined have been listed.

  17. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  18. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  19. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 2: National Adaptations of the TEDS-M Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement contains all adaptations made by countries to the international version of the TEDS-M questionnaires under careful supervision of and approval by the TEDS-M International Study Center at Michigan State University. This information provides users of the TEDS-M International Database with a guide to evaluate the availability of…

  20. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  1. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. Methods The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion fo...

  2. The international liability funds in the maritime field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This Paper aims to explore the current system of the international liability funds in the maritime field. Through the systematic economical, legal and political analysis of the current and envisaged international, regional and national liability funds connected to the pollution of the seas, an overview of the function, efficiency and critical considerations of the chosen liability funds will be presented. A comparison between the international system of the compensation for the oil pollution damage (and the pending hazardous and noxious substances compensation model, and that of the United States is necessary, in order to determine a difference in approaches these two systems use to tackle the burning issues of oil (and hazardous and noxious substances spills. A special consideration will be devoted to the questions of limited or unlimited liability, scope and strength of the Protection & Indemnity insurance and reinsurance market, problems of the channeling of the liability, moral hazard of the financial caps, and the general lack of the liability funds in the maritime field. Finally, an attempt will be made to consolidate the difference in opinions regarding the previously mentioned issues, and to predict the possible routes of changes awaiting the fund compensation systems.

  3. International Field School on Permafrost, Polar Urals, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V.; Ivanov, M.; Sheinkman, V.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Shmelev, D.

    2012-12-01

    The international field school on permafrost was held in the Polar Urals region from June, 30 to July 9, 2012 right after the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost which was held in Salekhard, Russia. The travel and accommodation support generously provided by government of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region allowed participation of 150 permafrost young research scientists, out of which 35 students from seven countries participated in the field school. The field school was organized under umbrella of International Permafrost Association and Permafrost Young Research Network. The students represented diverse educational backgrounds including hydrologists, engineers, geologists, soil scientists, geocryologists, glaciologists and geomorphologists. The base school camp was located near the Harp settlement in the vicinity of Polar Urals foothills. This unique location presented an opportunity to study a diversity of cryogenic processes and permafrost conditions characteristic for mountain and plain regions as well as transition between glacial and periglacial environments. A series of excursions was organized according to the following topics: structural geology of the Polar Urals and West Siberian Plain (Chromite mine "Centralnaya" and Core Storage in Labitnangy city); quaternary geomorphology (investigation of moraine complexes and glacial conditions of Ronamantikov and Topographov glaciers); principles of construction and maintains of structures built on permafrost (Labitnangy city and Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railroad); methods of temperature and active-layer monitoring in tundra and forest-tundra; cryosols and soil formation in diverse landscape condition; periglacial geomorphology; types of ground ice, etc. Every evening students and professors gave a series of presentations on climate, vegetation, hydrology, soil conditions, permafrost and cryogenic processes of the region as well as on history, economic development, endogenous population of the Siberia and the

  4. A field guide for the protection and treatment of shorelines following an Orimulsion spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E. O.; Sergy, G.

    1997-01-01

    A field guide for use in marine shoreline protection and treatment for Orimulsion was prepared. Orimulsion is a bitumen-based fuel consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water, stabilized by a surfactant. The guide addresses a wide range of issues related to the protection and cleanup of Orimulsion contamination. Topics covered include the fate, behaviour, persistence and natural removal rates, recommended techniques for shoreline protection, terminology for assessment documentation, and response decision guidelines. The manual covers both forms of Orimulsion, i.e. the non-sticky dispersed bitumen, as well as the tarry residue that results from weathering. 13 refs., 8 figs

  5. Review of Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data by Joel Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Swingle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Best, Joel. Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008 144 pp. $19.95. ISBN 1-978-0-520-25746-7.Stat-Spotting is a practical, do-it-yourself manual for detecting questionable claims reported in the media. Using examples drawn mostly from mass media sources, Stat-Spotting provides readers with a number of useful tips for identifying potentially problematic statistics. The author’s skillful analyses and explanations presented in clear and concise prose make Stat-Spotting an ideal guide for anyone who reads a newspaper, watches television, or surfs the Web. In short, everyone.

  6. Collaboration in Education: International Field Class on Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2011-12-01

    Field work is a dominant research component in the earth sciences. Understanding and proper use of field methods can enhance the quality of research, while lack of understanding in acquiring data can lead to misleading interpretation of results. Early involvement in field work helps students to bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical applications and to be better prepared for future jobs. However, many University curriculums lack adequate, required field methods courses. Presented are results of collaboration between the George Washington and Moscow State Universities in organization of field courses on Arctic physical and social environments. The latest field course took place in summer 2011 in the Central Siberian region and is a part of the International Permafrost Association education and outreach effort initiated during International Polar Year. The 25 day course involved fifteen Russian and US students who traveled from Moscow to Krasnoyarsk, and then along Yenisey river to Norilsk. This route was chosen as having diversity of natural conditions and variety of economic, engineering, and demographic problems associated with development. The main goal of the class was to investigate permafrost conditions of Central Siberia; dynamics of upper permafrost due to changing climate and under anthropogenic influence; and to understand factors responsible for the diversity of permafrost conditions in the region. The students and instructors were required to make presentations on a variety of topics focusing on the region or research methods, such as climate, vegetation, hydrology, history of development, economics, remote sensing, etc. The emphasis in the field was made on understanding permafrost in relation to other components of the natural system. For example, landscape conditions (including microclimatic, biogeographic and pedologic conditions) were described at every site located in natural settings. Sites located in settlements were evaluated

  7. Geologic field trip guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-08

    geologic research at Crater Lake have been incorporated not only in scientific investigations elsewhere, but also in the practical evaluation of local hazards (Bacon and others, 1997b) and geothermal resources (Bacon and Nathenson, 1996). The 1:24,000-scale geologic map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera (Bacon, 2008) is unusual because it portrays bedrock (outcrop), surficial, and lake floor geology. Caldera wall geology is depicted in detail on the accompanying geologic panoramas, and bedrock geology is shown in a 1:50,000-scale geologic map. This field guide supersedes earlier geology guides of Crater Lake (Bacon, 1987, 1989).

  8. Apps for Angiosperms: The Usability of Mobile Computers and Printed Field Guides for UK Wild Flower and Winter Tree Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated usability of mobile computers and field guide books with adult botanical novices, for the identification of wildflowers and deciduous trees in winter. Identification accuracy was significantly higher for wildflowers using a mobile computer app than field guide books but significantly lower for deciduous trees. User preference…

  9. Field estimation of soil water content. A practical guide to methods, instrumentation and sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    During a period of five years, an international group of soil water instrumentation experts were contracted by the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out a range of comparative assessments of soil water sensing methods under laboratory and field conditions. The detailed results of those studies are published elsewhere. Most of the devices examined worked well some of the time, but most also performed poorly in some circumstances. The group was also aware that the choice of a water measurement technology is often made for economic, convenience and other reasons, and that there was a need to be able to obtain the best results from any device used. The choice of a technology is sometimes not made by the ultimate user, or even if it is, the main constraint may be financial rather than technical. Thus, this guide is presented in a way that allows the user to obtain the best performance from any instrument, while also providing guidance as to which instruments perform best under given circumstances. That said, this expert group of the IAEA reached several important conclusions: (1) the field calibrated neutron moisture meter (NMM) remains the most accurate and precise method for soil profile water content determination in the field, and is the only indirect method capable of providing accurate soil water balance data for studies of crop water use, water use efficiency, irrigation efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency, with a minimum number of access tubes; (2) those electromagnetic sensors known as capacitance sensors exhibit much more variability in the field than either the NMM or direct soil water measurements, and they are not recommended for soil water balance studies for this reason (impractically large numbers of access tubes and sensors are required) and because they are rendered inaccurate by changes in soil bulk electrical conductivity (including temperature effects) that often occur in irrigated soils, particularly those containing

  10. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  11. Joint deformable liver registration and bias field correction for MR-guided HDR brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Marko; König, Tim; Tönnies, Klaus D; Walke, Mathias; Ricke, Jens; Wybranski, Christian

    2017-12-01

    In interstitial high-dose rate brachytherapy, liver cancer is treated by internal radiation, requiring percutaneous placement of applicators within or close to the tumor. To maximize utility, the optimal applicator configuration is pre-planned on magnetic resonance images. The pre-planned configuration is then implemented via a magnetic resonance-guided intervention. Mapping the pre-planning information onto interventional data would reduce the radiologist's cognitive load during the intervention and could possibly minimize discrepancies between optimally pre-planned and actually placed applicators. We propose a fast and robust two-step registration framework suitable for interventional settings: first, we utilize a multi-resolution rigid registration to correct for differences in patient positioning (rotation and translation). Second, we employ a novel iterative approach alternating between bias field correction and Markov random field deformable registration in a multi-resolution framework to compensate for non-rigid movements of the liver, the tumors and the organs at risk. In contrast to existing pre-correction methods, our multi-resolution scheme can recover bias field artifacts of different extents at marginal computational costs. We compared our approach to deformable registration via B-splines, demons and the SyN method on 22 registration tasks from eleven patients. Results showed that our approach is more accurate than the contenders for liver as well as for tumor tissues. We yield average liver volume overlaps of 94.0 ± 2.7% and average surface-to-surface distances of 2.02 ± 0.87 mm and 3.55 ± 2.19 mm for liver and tumor tissue, respectively. The reported distances are close to (or even below) the slice spacing (2.5 - 3.0 mm) of our data. Our approach is also the fastest, taking 35.8 ± 12.8 s per task. The presented approach is sufficiently accurate to map information available from brachytherapy pre-planning onto interventional data. It

  12. International intercomparison of environmental dosimeters under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; de Planque Burke, G.; Becker, K.

    1975-04-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study at ORNL in 1973, a more comprehensive international intercomparison of integrating dosimeters for the assessment of external penetrating environmental radiation fields was carried out. Forty-one laboratories from eleven countries participated in this study. A total of 56 sets of six detectors each were mailed to and from Houston, Texas, where they were exposed for three months (July to September 1974) as follows: two in an unprotected space out-of-doors 1 m above ground; two in an air-conditioned shielded area with a known, low exposure rate; and two with the second group, but with an additional exposure to 30 mR. Evaluation of the dosimeters provides information on the calibration precision, the accuracy of field measurement, and transit exposure. Results are discussed. (U.S.)

  13. Superstrong fields in Plasmas: First International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lontano, M.; Mourou, G.; Pegoraro, F.; Sindoni, E.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the first International Conference on Superstrong Fields in Plasmas held in Varenna, Italy in August endash September, 1997. The conference attracted more than 100 participants from fourteen countries. A wide range of topics were discussed, including fundamental atomic and plasma processes, relativistic nonlinear optics, solid density plasmas, laser systems for ultrahigh-intensity physics, applications of ultrastrong fields and applications of ultraintense pulses to astrophysics. The progress in laser technology was brought into focus at this conference, especially the creation of pulses with peak power exceeding multiple TW range and the interaction of these pulses with superrelativistic electrons. There were 74 papers presented; out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  14. Development of Safety Review Guide for the Periodic Safety Review of Reactor Vessel Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongsoon; Ko, Hanok; Kim, Seonjae; Jhung, Myungjo

    2013-01-01

    Aging management of the reactor vessel internals (RVIs) is one of the important issues for long-term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Safety review on the assessment and management of the RVI aging is conducted through the process of a periodic safety review (PSR). The regulatory body should check that reactor facilities sustain safety functions in light of degradation due to aging and that the operator of a nuclear power reactor establishes and implements management program to deal with degradation due to aging in order to guarantee the safety functions and the safety margin as a result of PSR. KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has utilized safety review guides (SRG) which provide guidance to KINS staffs in performing safety reviews in order to assure the quality and uniformity of staff safety reviews. The KINS SRGs for the continued operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) published in 2006 contain areas of review regarding aging management of RVIs in chapter 2 (III.2.15, Appendix 2.0.1). However unlike the SRGs for the continued operation, KINS has not officially published the SRGs for the PSR of PWRs, but published them as a form of the research report. In addition to that, the report provides almost same review procedures for aging assessment and management of RVIs with the ones provided in the SRGs for the continued operation, it cannot provide review guidance specific to PSRs. Therefore, a PSR safety review guide should be developed for RVIs in PWRs. In this study, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals in PWRs is developed and provided. In this paper, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals (PSR SRG-RVIs) in PWRs is introduced and main contents of the draft are provided. However, since the PSR safety review guides for areas other than RVIs in the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are expected to be developed in the near future, the draft PSR SRG-RVIs should be revisited to be compatible with

  15. 8th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Tadokoro, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    FSR, the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, is the leading single track conference of robotics for field and service applications. This book presents the results of FSR2012, the eighth conference of Field and Service Robotics, which was originally planned for 2011 with the venue of Matsushima in Tohoku region of Japan. However, on March 11, 2011, a magnitude M9.0 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, and a large-scale disaster was caused by the Tsunami which resulted, therefore the conference was postponed by one year to July, 2012. In fact, this earthquake raised issues concerning the contribution of field and service robotics technology to emergency scenarios. A number of precious lessons were learned from operation of robots in the resulting, very real and challenging, disaster environments. Up-to-date study on disaster response, relief and recovery was then featured in the conference. This book offers 43 papers on a broad range of topics including: Disaster Response, Se...

  16. 9th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Peter; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    FSR, the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, is a robotics Symposium which has established over the past ten years the latest research and practical results towards the use of field and service robotics in the community with particular focus on proven technology. The first meeting was held in Canberra, Australia, in 1997. Since then the meeting has been held every two years in the pattern Asia, America, Europe.   Field robots are non-factory robots, typically mobile, that operate in complex, and dynamic environments; on the ground (of earth or planets), under the ground, underwater, in the air or in space. Service robots are those that work closely with humans to help them with their lives. This book present the results of the ninth edition of Field and Service Robotics, FSR13, held in Brisbane, Australia on 9th-11th December 2013. The conference provided a forum for researchers, professionals, and robot manufactures to exchange up-to-date technical knowledge and experience. This book off...

  17. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  18. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  20. Making sense of the study of international relations: Seeking a guide for perplexed

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnell, John

    2010-01-01

    Patrick Jackson’s book on The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations offers graduate students, younger scholars, and, indeed, many specialists a useful map for charting the often inhospitable terrain of scholarship in the field of International Relations (IR). This is particularly the case as far as illuminating the awakening to issues in the philosophy of science that has taken place in IR during the last two decades. Jackson presents a typology for sorting the debates about the natur...

  1. Effects of light guide and magnetic field on the characteristics of the short time measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1977-01-01

    In order to construct the nuclear life-time measurement apparatus with good energy and time resolution, consisting of DuMond type beta-ray spectrometer and plastic scintillator, experimental studies are carried out for the effects of light guide and magnetic field on the time resolution, and for the effects of μ-metal shielding on the energy resolution. It has been found that all these effects could be practically diminished. (auth.)

  2. The IAEA's activities in safeguarding nuclear materials and in developing internationally acceptable safety codes and guides for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, Rudolf; Specter, Herschel

    1977-01-01

    Promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy and aiming at the international sharing of its benefits are objectives that guide the activities of the Agency. But this promotional work is carried out on condition that security and safety are provided for. All Agency assistance involving nuclear facilities will be subjected to standards of safety or other standards, which are proposed by a State the Agency finds essentially equivalent. Safeguards are always applied on the basis of agreement. States party to NPT are obligated to negotiate and conclude with the Agency agreements which cover all their peaceful nuclear activities. Safeguards agreements concluded outside NPT are applied to specific supplies of facilities, equipment and material. To assist countries in laying down their nuclear safety regulations the Agency's program for the developing of codesof practice and safety guides for nuclear power plants draws up guidelines for governmental organizations, siting, design, operation and quality assurance. Codes are the fundamental documents laying down the objectives of each field of nuclear safety

  3. Density-functional theory for internal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellgren, Erik I.

    2018-01-01

    A density-functional theory is developed based on the Maxwell-Schrödinger equation with an internal magnetic field in addition to the external electromagnetic potentials. The basic variables of this theory are the electron density and the total magnetic field, which can equivalently be represented as a physical current density. Hence, the theory can be regarded as a physical current density-functional theory and an alternative to the paramagnetic current density-functional theory due to Vignale and Rasolt. The energy functional has strong enough convexity properties to allow a formulation that generalizes Lieb's convex analysis formulation of standard density-functional theory. Several variational principles as well as a Hohenberg-Kohn-like mapping between potentials and ground-state densities follow from the underlying convex structure. Moreover, the energy functional can be regarded as the result of a standard approximation technique (Moreau-Yosida regularization) applied to the conventional Schrödinger ground-state energy, which imposes limits on the maximum curvature of the energy (with respect to the magnetic field) and enables construction of a (Fréchet) differentiable universal density functional.

  4. The application of private international law in the field of labor relationship complicated by a foreign element in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matorina T.A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes urgent issues of application of international law in the field of labor relations. The inclusion of international law in the Russian legal system has become a necessity because at the present time the most universally recognized norms of international law and international treaties can actually be achieved and implemented solely through the judicial system. The main domestic legal norm permitting courts of the Russian Federation to be guided by the provisions contained in international law is set out in part 4 of article 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

  5. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  6. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  7. Energy flux due to electromagnetic fluctuations during guide field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Yanai, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    Large electromagnetic fluctuations inside the current sheet and large reconnection electric fields are observed during fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field. The fluctuations transport 2.5% of the dissipated magnetic energy from the reconnection region. Although the energy gains of the ions and electrons are approximately 60% and 12%, respectively, of the dissipated magnetic energy after the fast reconnection, the energy of fluctuations is not comparable to their energy gains. The fluctuations do not directly contribute to the energy conversion but might cause the fast reconnection leading to the rapid release of magnetic energy. (author)

  8. Know Your Rights on Campus: A Guide on Racial Profiling, and Hate Crime for International Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Civil Rights Project, Cambridge, MA.

    This guide to the rights of international students explains racial profiling and hate crimes. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many immigrants and international students have experienced heightened scrutiny and outright discrimination. Racial profiling refers to the reliance by law enforcement officers on a person's ethnicity,…

  9. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  10. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  11. Illustrated field guide for aquatic insects study: A collection that lets you view life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castiblanco-Zerda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed from the aquatic insects collection (CIA of National Pedagogical University of Colombia, Bogotá. A field guide and ID portable key was outlined, which contributed to the study of aquatic insects with alternative collection methods, through the development of methodologies for observation of living organisms (in situ and in vivo for identification until taxonomic level of family during the field practice and its subsequent return to the habitat, taking into account students’ practical work needs in the field and the active use of Biology Department biological resources. It was concluded that the recognition of aquatic insects families allows articulation between collection and field practices, as well as students’ reflection on methods and goals of the collection, and evaluation of other procedural possibilities as those presented in this work.

  12. Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Marino, Giuseppe; Ginzburg, Pavel; O'Connor, Daniel; Martínez, Alejandro; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2013-04-19

    Wave interference is a fundamental manifestation of the superposition principle with numerous applications. Although in conventional optics, interference occurs between waves undergoing different phase advances during propagation, we show that the vectorial structure of the near field of an emitter is essential for controlling its radiation as it interferes with itself on interaction with a mediating object. We demonstrate that the near-field interference of a circularly polarized dipole results in the unidirectional excitation of guided electromagnetic modes in the near field, with no preferred far-field radiation direction. By mimicking the dipole with a single illuminated slit in a gold film, we measured unidirectional surface-plasmon excitation in a spatially symmetric structure. The surface wave direction is switchable with the polarization.

  13. Perspectives on global nursing leadership: international experiences from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, E B; Anderson, D J; Garzon, N; Hafsteinsdóttir, T B; Lai, C K Y; Roshan, R

    2014-12-01

    Nursing leaders from six countries engaged in a year-long discussion on global leadership development. The purpose of these dialogues was to strengthen individual and collective capacity as nursing leaders in a global society. Field experiences in practice and education were shared. Perspectives on global leadership can strengthen nurses' contributions to practice, workplace and policy issues worldwide. Transformational leadership empowers nurses' increasing confidence. Mentoring is needed to stimulate leadership development but this is lacking in many settings where nurses practice, teach and influence policy. Organizations with global mission provide opportunity for nurses' professional growth in leadership through international dialogues. Dialogues among participants were held monthly by conference calls or videoconferences. Example stories from each participant illustrated nursing leadership in action. From these exemplars, concepts were chosen to create a framework. Emerging perspectives and leadership themes represented all contexts of practice, education, research and policy. The cultural context of each country was reflected in the examples. Themes emerged that crossed global regions and countries. Themes were creativity, change, collaboration, community, context and courage. Relationships initially formed in professional organizations can be extended to intentionally facilitate global nursing leadership development. Exemplars from the dialogues demonstrated nursing leadership in health policy development within each cultural context. Recommendations are given for infrastructure development in organizations to enhance future collaborations. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  15. Distinction between externally vs. internally guided decision-making: Operational differences, meta-analytical comparisons and their theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making. Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e. internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e. circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using MKDA, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  16. Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, T.; Wonneberger, U.; Wagner, M.; Hermann, K.G.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U. [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wichlas, F. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and technical features of MR-guided lumbosacral injection procedures in open high-field MRI at 1.0 T. In a CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O phantom and five human cadaveric spines, fluoroscopy sequences (proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE), T1w TSE, T2w TSE; balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), T1w gradient echo (GE), T2w GE) were evaluated using two MRI-compatible 20-G Chiba-type needles. Artefacts were analysed by varying needle orientation to B{sub 0}, frequency-encoding direction and slice orientation. Image quality was described using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subsequently, a total of 183 MR-guided nerve root (107), facet (53) and sacroiliac joint (23) injections were performed in 53 patients. In vitro, PDw TSE sequence yielded the best needle-tissue contrasts (CNR = 45, 18, 15, 9, and 8 for needle vs. fat, muscle, root, bone and sclerosis, respectively) and optimal artefact sizes (width and tip shift less than 5 mm). In vivo, PDw TSE sequence was sufficient in all cases. The acquisition time of 2 s facilitated near-real-time MRI guidance. Drug delivery was technically successful in 100% (107/107), 87% (46/53) and 87% (20/23) of nerve root, facet and sacroiliac joint injections, respectively. No major complications occurred. The mean procedure time was 29 min (range 19-67 min). MR-guided spinal injections in open high-field MRI are feasible and accurate using fast TSE sequence designs. (orig.)

  17. Technological learning through international collaboration: Lessons from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2013-02-01

    Countries on every continent are making new or renewed commitments to domestic satellite programs. These programs have the potential to address national needs by enhancing access to information, improving infrastructure and providing inspiration to the public. How do countries without local expertise in space technology begin a new satellite program? What is the role of international collaboration in supporting the efforts of a new space fairing country? This paper explores such questions by highlighting outputs from intensive field work in Africa and Asia. Specifically, the study explores case studies of early space activity in these countries to search for lessons about the management of a young space program. The observations from field work are compared to ideas from scholarly literature on technological learning. The findings are organized using principles from systems architecture. The paper presents a model that captures many of the influences and strategic decision areas for a collaborative satellite development project. The paper also highlights the growth of capability among African countries in the area of satellite technology.

  18. International co-operation in the field of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Operational safety in nuclear power plants is without doubt a field where international co-operation is in constant progress. Accounting for over 80 per cent of the 400 reactors in service throughout the world, the menber countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are constantly striving to improve the exchange and use of the wealth of information to be gained not just from power plant accidents and incidents but from the routine operation of these facilities. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) helps the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to meet the NEA's objectives in the safety field, namely: - to promote co-operation between the safety bodies of member countries - to contribute to the safety and regulation of nuclear activities. The CSNI relies on the technical back-up of several different working groups made up of experts appointed by the member countries. For the past three years I have had the honour of chairing Principal Working Group 1 (PWG 1), which deals with operating experience and human factor. It is in this capacity that I will attempt to outline the group's various activities and its findings illustrated by a few examples

  19. Design of a high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator with low guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoze; Song, Wei; Tan, Weibing; Zhang, Ligang; Su, Jiancang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Hu, Xianggang; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liang, Xu; Ning, Qi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator working at a low guiding magnetic field is designed and simulated. A trapezoidal resonant reflector is used to reduce the modulation field in the resonant reflector to avoid overmodulation of the electron beam which will lead to a large momentum spread and then low conversion efficiency. The envelope of the inner radius of the slow wave structure (SWS) increases stepwise to keep conformal to the trajectory of the electron beam which will alleviate the bombardment of the electron on the surface of the SWS. The length of period of the SWS is reduced gradually to make a better match between phase velocity and electron beam, which decelerates continually and improves the RF current distribution. Meanwhile the modulation field is reduced by the introduction of nonuniform SWS also. The particle in cell simulation results reveal that a microwave with a power of 1.8 GW and a frequency of 14.7 GHz is generated with an efficiency of 47% when the diode voltage is 620 kV, the beam current 6.1 kA, and the guiding magnetic field 0.95 T.

  20. Sub-solar Magnetopause Observation and Simulation of a Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S.; Cassak, P.; Retino, A.; Mozer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Polar satellite recorded two reconnection exhausts within 6 min on 1 April 2001 at a rather symmetric sub-solar magnetopause that displayed different out-of-plane signatures for similar solar wind conditions. The first case was reported by Mozer et al. [2002] and displayed a bipolar guide field supporting a quadrupole Hall field consistent with a single X-line. The second case, however, shows the first known example of a tripolar guide-field perturbation at Earth's magnetopause reminiscent of the types of solar wind exhausts that Eriksson et al. [2014; 2015] have reported to be in agreement with multiple X-lines. A dedicated particle-in-cell simulation is performed for the prevailing conditions across the magnetopause. We propose an explanation in terms of asymmetric Hall magnetic fields due to a presence of a magnetic island between two X-lines, and discuss how higher resolution MMS observations can be used to further study this problem at the magnetopause.

  1. Field guide for the protection and cleanup of oiled Arctic shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Practical suggestions for the protection, treatment and cleanup of oiled shorelines during summer and open-water conditions are described. This manual was developed as a field guide to be used during spill response operations for the rapid identification of shoreline response options. Special attention is given to techniques that are normally available and appropriate for shoreline types and coastal environmental setting that are typical of Arctic regions. The guide is divided into four main sections: (1) shoreline protection, (2) treatment strategy by shoreline type, (3) treatment or cleanup methods, and (4) response strategies for specific environments. The importance of the type and volume of oil spilled, and the environmental factors that should be taken into account in the event of a spill (time of year, weather, ice and wave conditions) are stressed. The presence of sensitive resources such as wildlife, fish stocks, plant communities and human-use activities are also considered. tabs., figs

  2. Design of a high power cross field amplifier at X band with an internally coupled waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.; Ko, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. The authors have developed a simulation model for CFAs using the PIC code CONDOR. The authors simulations indicate that there are limits to the maximum RF field strength that a CFA can sustain. When the fields become too high, efficiency becomes very poor, and the currents drawn may become so large that secondary emission cannot be maintained. It is therefore desirable to reduce the circuit impedance of a very high power tube. One method for doing this, proposed by Feinstein, involves periodically coupling a standard CFA circuit to an internal waveguide. Most of the power flows in the waveguide, so the overall impedance is much reduced. By adjusting the guide dimensions one can vary the impedance. Thus one can retain high impedance at the low power end but low impedance at the high power end. In principle one can maintain constant RF voltage throughout the tube

  3. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  4. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems.

  5. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-01-01

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems

  6. Image-guided regularization level set evolution for MR image segmentation and bias field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Pan, Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) image segmentation is a crucial step in surgical and treatment planning. In this paper, we propose a level-set-based segmentation method for MR images with intensity inhomogeneous problem. To tackle the initialization sensitivity problem, we propose a new image-guided regularization to restrict the level set function. The maximum a posteriori inference is adopted to unify segmentation and bias field correction within a single framework. Under this framework, both the contour prior and the bias field prior are fully used. As a result, the image intensity inhomogeneity can be well solved. Extensive experiments are provided to evaluate the proposed method, showing significant improvements in both segmentation and bias field correction accuracies as compared with other state-of-the-art approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hamiltonian field description of two-dimensional vortex fluids and guiding center plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1981-03-01

    The equations that describe the motion of two-dimensional vortex fluids and guiding center plasmas are shown to possess underlying field Hamiltonian structure. A Poisson bracket which is given in terms of the vorticity, the physical although noncanonical dynamical variable, casts these equations into Heisenberg form. The Hamiltonian density is the kinetic energy density of the fluid. The well-known conserved quantities are seen to be in involution with respect to this Poisson bracket. Expanding the vorticity in terms of a Fourier-Dirac series transforms the field description given here into the usual canonical equations for discrete vortex motion. A Clebsch potential representation of the vorticity transforms the noncanonical field description into a canonical description

  8. HDR Pathological Image Enhancement Based on Improved Bias Field Correction and Guided Image Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjiao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological image enhancement is a significant topic in the field of pathological image processing. This paper proposes a high dynamic range (HDR pathological image enhancement method based on improved bias field correction and guided image filter (GIF. Firstly, a preprocessing including stain normalization and wavelet denoising is performed for Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stained pathological image. Then, an improved bias field correction model is developed to enhance the influence of light for high-frequency part in image and correct the intensity inhomogeneity and detail discontinuity of image. Next, HDR pathological image is generated based on least square method using low dynamic range (LDR image, H and E channel images. Finally, the fine enhanced image is acquired after the detail enhancement process. Experiments with 140 pathological images demonstrate the performance advantages of our proposed method as compared with related work.

  9. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to volcanoes of the Cascades Arc in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Ryan-Davis, Juliet

    2017-08-15

    The California Cascades field trip is a loop beginning and ending in Portland, Oregon. The route of day 1 goes eastward across the Cascades just south of Mount Hood, travels south along the east side of the Cascades for an overview of the central Oregon volcanoes (including Three Sisters and Newberry Volcano), and ends at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Day 2 and much of day 3 focus on Medicine Lake Volcano. The latter part of day 3 consists of a drive south across the Pit River into the Hat Creek Valley and then clockwise around Lassen Volcanic Center to the town of Chester, California. Day 4 goes from south to north across Lassen Volcanic Center, ending at Burney, California. Day 5 and the first part of day 6 follow a clockwise route around Mount Shasta. The trip returns to Portland on the latter part of day 6, west of the Cascades through the Klamath Mountains and the Willamette Valley. Each of the three sections of this guidebook addresses one of the major volcanic regions: Lassen Volcanic Center (a volcanic field that spans the volcanic arc), Mount Shasta (a fore-arc stratocone), and Medicine Lake Volcano (a rear-arc, shield-shaped edifice). Each section of the guide provides (1) an overview of the extensive field and laboratory studies, (2) an introduction to the literature, and (3) directions to the most important and accessible field localities. The field-trip sections contain far more stops than can possibly be visited in the actual 6-day 2017 IAVCEI excursion from Portland. We have included extra stops in order to provide a field-trip guide that will have lasting utility for those who may have more time or may want to emphasize one particular volcanic area.

  10. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  11. The role of electron heat flux in guide-field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Birn, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    A combination of analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations are employed in order to investigate the electron dynamics near and at the site of guide field magnetic reconnection. A detailed analysis of the contributions to the reconnection electric field shows that both bulk inertia and pressure-based quasiviscous processes are important for the electrons. Analytic scaling demonstrates that conventional approximations for the electron pressure tensor behavior in the dissipation region fail, and that heat flux contributions need to be accounted for. Based on the evolution equation of the heat flux three tensor, which is derived in this paper, an approximate form of the relevant heat flux contributions to the pressure tensor is developed, which reproduces the numerical modeling result reasonably well. Based on this approximation, it is possible to develop a scaling of the electron current layer in the central dissipation region. It is shown that the pressure tensor contributions become important at the scale length defined by the electron Larmor radius in the guide magnetic field

  12. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-10-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (IJV), closely abutting the wall of both vessels. The guide wire was coiled with end coursing behind the esophageal wall. Guide wire was removed under fluoroscopic guide manipulation under local anesthesia. We want to emphasize that even though CVC placement is common and simple procedure, serious complication can occur in hands of untrained operator. The procedure should be performed under supervision, if done by trainee. Force should never be applied to advance the guide wire if resistance is encountered.

  13. International Acquisitons in Multinacionals: Under a Force Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo da Costa Ramos Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to debate the performance of multinational companies concerning the management alternatives of their foreign unities, especially the ones derived from acquisitions, with consequences on the interaction between the headquarters and its subsidiaries or colligates and the managerial learning and knowledge associated to this process. First the problematic of internationalized companies by foreign direct investments – FDI’s, mainly by acquisitions and strategic alliances, is discussed. The intensity of the assimilation and interchange of values and practices within organizations in interacting process is stressed, including a set of typologies derived from the existing related literature. After this, a more specific approach about intra and interorganization aspects of the multinationals is performed, related to strategies, competences and roles of headquarters and subsidiaries, as well as their impact on the knowledge flux and its derived learning modes, evolving a established typologies set. The next step is to discuss two visions about the opposition between the universal and the particular in international management, with global and contextual aspects: a convergence-divergence opposition, like a force field, impacting on the knowledge transfer. Finally, some concluding comments are made, emphasizing, for the purpose of contribution, another type of multinationals typology relating the convergence-divergence duality to the organizational and national levels, as well the positioning of the companies in the resulted matrix.

  14. Delphi Method Validation of a Procedural Performance Checklist for Insertion of an Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Central Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nicholas; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David

    2016-01-01

    Placement of ultrasound-guided central lines is a critical skill for physicians in several specialties. Improving the quality of care delivered surrounding this procedure demands rigorous measurement of competency, and validated tools to assess performance are essential. Using the iterative, modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States, the study team created a 30-item checklist designed to assess competency in the placement of ultrasound-guided internal jugular central lines. Cronbach α was .94, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Further validation of this checklist will require its implementation in simulated and clinical environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. MiDAS Field Guide – a Comprehensive Online Source of Information About the Microbes of Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    this information in MiDAS field guide (www.midasfieldguide.org). MiDAS taxonomy gives a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the wastewater treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide links the identity of genera that are important for the wastewater treatment process to details about...... guide to the microbes of activated sludge by comparing microbial community composition in 32 WWTPs located worldwide. This will facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of the ecosystem of activated sludge. Reference: McIlroy et al. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge...... on a survey of 25 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants over 6 years and using MiDAS taxonomy, we have collected more than 150 key organisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, linked their identity with available information on their function and distribution and included...

  16. On guided circumferential waves in soft electroactive tubes under radially inhomogeneous biasing fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-02-01

    Soft electroactive (EA) tube actuators and many other cylindrical devices have been proposed recently in literature, which show great advantages over those made from conventional hard solid materials. However, their practical applications may be limited because these soft EA devices are prone to various failure modes. In this paper, we present an analysis of the guided circumferential elastic waves in soft EA tube actuators, which has potential applications in the in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or online structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect structural defects or fatigue cracks in soft EA tube actuators and in the self-sensing of soft EA tube actuators based on the concept of guided circumferential elastic waves. Both circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in an incompressible soft EA cylindrical tube under inhomogeneous biasing fields are considered. The biasing fields, induced by the application of an electric voltage difference to the electrodes on the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the EA tube in addition to an axial pre-stretch, are inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Dorfmann and Ogden's theory of nonlinear electroelasticity and the associated linear theory for small incremental motion constitute the basis of our analysis. By means of the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion along with the approximate laminate technique, dispersion relations are derived in a particularly efficient way. For a neo-Hookean ideal dielectric model, the proposed approach is first validated numerically. Numerical examples are then given to show that the guided circumferential wave propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous biasing fields and the geometrical parameters. Some particular phenomena such as the frequency veering and the nonlinear dependence of the phase velocity on the radial electric voltage are discussed. Our numerical findings demonstrate that it is feasible to use guided circumferential

  17. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  18. A novel coaxial Ku-band transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu, E-mail: lingjunpu@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Jiang, Tao [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel coaxial transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field is designed to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. By using a coaxial structure, the space-charge potential energy is suppressed significantly, that is good for enhancing efficient beam-wave interaction. In order to improve the transmission stability of the unmagnetized intense relativistic electron beam, a Pierce-like cathode is employed in the novel device. By contrast with conventional relativistic microwave generators, this kind of device has the advantages of high stability, non-guiding magnetic field, and high efficiency. Moreover, with the coaxial design, it is possible to improve the power-handing capacity by increasing the radial dimension of the Ku-band device. With a 550 keV and 7.5 kA electron beam, a 1.25 GW microwave pulse at 12.08 GHz has been obtained in the simulation. The power conversion efficiency is about 30%.

  19. Self-guiding of high-intensity laser pulses for laser wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstader, D.; Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    A means of self-guiding an ultrashort and high-intensity laser pulse is demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. Its relevance to the laser wake field accelerator concept is discussed. Self-focusing and multiple foci formation are observed when a high peak power (P>100 GW), 1 μm, subpicosecond laser is focused onto various gases (air or hydrogen). It appears to result from the combined effects of self-focusing by the gas, and de-focusing both by diffraction and the plasma formed in the central high-intensity region. Quasi-stationary computer simulations show the same multiple foci behavior as the experiments. The results suggest much larger nonlinear electronic susceptibilities of a gas near or undergoing ionization in the high field of the laser pulse. Although self-guiding of a laser beam by this mechanism appears to significantly extend its high-intensity focal region, small-scale self-focusing due to beam non-uniformity is currently a limitation

  20. Degenerate variational integrators for magnetic field line flow and guiding center trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C. L.; Finn, J. M.; Burby, J. W.; Kraus, M.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Symplectic integrators offer many benefits for numerically approximating solutions to Hamiltonian differential equations, including bounded energy error and the preservation of invariant sets. Two important Hamiltonian systems encountered in plasma physics—the flow of magnetic field lines and the guiding center motion of magnetized charged particles—resist symplectic integration by conventional means because the dynamics are most naturally formulated in non-canonical coordinates. New algorithms were recently developed using the variational integration formalism; however, those integrators were found to admit parasitic mode instabilities due to their multistep character. This work eliminates the multistep character, and therefore the parasitic mode instabilities via an adaptation of the variational integration formalism that we deem "degenerate variational integration." Both the magnetic field line and guiding center Lagrangians are degenerate in the sense that the resultant Euler-Lagrange equations are systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. We show that retaining the same degree of degeneracy when constructing discrete Lagrangians yields one-step variational integrators preserving a non-canonical symplectic structure. Numerical examples demonstrate the benefits of the new algorithms, including superior stability relative to the existing variational integrators for these systems and superior qualitative behavior relative to non-conservative algorithms.

  1. International scientific communications in the field of colorectal tumour markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Krasimir; Donev, Ivan

    2017-05-27

    To analyze scientometrically the dynamic science internationalization on colorectal tumour markers as reflected in five information portals and to outline the significant journals, scientists and institutions. A retrospective problem-oriented search was performed in Web of Science Core Collection (WoS), MEDLINE, BIOSIS Citation Index (BIOSIS) and Scopus for 1986-2015 as well as in Dervent Innovations Index (Derwent) for 1995-2015. Several specific scientometric parameters of the publication output and citation activity were comparatively analyzed. The following scientometric parameters were analyzed: (1) annual dynamics of publications; (2) scientific institutions; (3) journals; (4) authors; (5) scientific forums; (6) patents - number of patents, names and countries of inventors, and (7) citations (number of citations to publications by single authors received in WoS, BIOSIS Citation Index and Scopus). There is a trend towards increasing publication output on colorectal tumour markers worldwide along with high citation rates. Authors from 70 countries have published their research results in journals and conference proceedings in 21 languages. There is considerable country stratification similar to that in most systematic investigations. The information provided to end users and scientometricians varies between these data-bases in terms of most parameters due to different journal coverage, indexing systems and editorial policy. The lists of the so-called "core" journals and most productive authors in WoS, BIOSIS, MEDLINE and Scopus along with the list of the most productive authors - inventors in Derwent present a particular interest to the beginners in the field, the institutional and national science managers and the journal editorial board members. The role of the purposeful assessment of scientific forums and patents is emphasized. Our results along with this problem-oriented collection containing the researchers' names, addresses and publications could

  2. Guide for the putting int practice the control of internal contamination due to I-131 in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The generalized use of radioactive installations in different branches of the Economy and Medicine makes essential the existence of a radiological surveillance systems that guarantees that exposure are kept within the limits established. Nuclear medicine workers in hospitals that handle I-131 constitutes a professional group that can be internally contaminated the aim of this guide is to give the entity the general instructions and the necessary methodology to fulfill the control of the internal contamination by this radionuclide

  3. Design of a high power cross field amplifier at X band with an internally coupled waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.; Ko, Kwok.

    1991-01-01

    Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. We have developed a simulation model for CFAs using the PIC code CONDOR. Our simulations indicate that there are limits to the maximum RF field strength that a CEA can sustain. When the fields become too high, efficiency becomes very poor, and the currents drawn may become so large that secondary emission cannot be maintained. It is therefore desirable to reduce the circuit impedance of a very high power tube. One method for doing this, proposed by Feinstein, involves periodically coupling a standard CFA circuit to an internal waveguide. Most of the power flows in the waveguide, so the overall impedance is much reduced. By adjusting the guide dimensions one can vary the impedance. Thus one can retain high impedance at the low power end but low impedance at the high power end. In principle one can maintain constant RF voltage throughout the tube. CONDOR simulations have identified a good operating point at X band, with power generation of over 5 MW per cm and total efficiency of over 60 percent. ARGUS simulations have modelled the cold test properties of the coupled structure. The nominal design specifications are 300 MW output, 17 db gain, frequency 11.4 GHz, dc voltage 142 kV, magnetic field 5 kG, anode cathode gap 3.6 mm, total interaction length about 60 cm. We will discuss the results of code simulations and report on the status of the experimental effort

  4. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  5. A proposal to pulse the Bevatron/Bevalac main guide field magnet with SCR power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, B.; Alonso, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lothrop, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Bevatron/Bevalac Main Guide Field Power Supply was originally designed to provide a 15,250 Volt DC. at sign 8400 Ampere peak magnet pulse. Protons were accelerated to 6.2 Gev. The 128 Megawatt (MW) pulse required two large motor-generator (MG) sets with 67 ton flywheels to store 680 Megajoules of energy. Ignitron rectifiers are used to rectify the generator outputs. Acceleration of heavy ions results in an operating schedule with a broad range of peak fields. The maximum field of 12.5 kilogauss requires a peak pulse of 80 MW. Acceleration of ions to 1.0 kilogauss requires an 8 MW peak pulse. One MG set can provide pulses below 45 MW. Peak pulses of less than 15 MW are now a large block of the operating schedule. A proposal has been made to replace the existing MG system with eight SCR power supplies for low field operation. The SCR supplies will be powered directly from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 12.3 KV. power distribution system. This paper describes the many advantages of the plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. The effect of guide-field and boundary conditions on collisionless magnetic reconnection in a stressed X-point collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Works of Tsiklauri and Haruki [Phys. Plasmas 15, 102902 (2008); 14, 112905 (2007)] are extended by inclusion of the out-of-plane magnetic (guide) field. In particular, magnetic reconnection during collisionless, stressed X-point collapse for varying out-of-plane guide-fields is studied using a kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell numerical code. For zero guide-field, cases for both open and closed boundary conditions are investigated, where magnetic flux and particles are lost and conserved, respectively. It is found that reconnection rates, out-of-plane currents and density in the X-point increase more rapidly and peak sooner in the closed boundary case, but higher values are reached in the open boundary case. The normalized reconnection rate is fast: 0.10-0.25. In the open boundary case it is shown that an increase of guide-field yields later onsets in the reconnection peak rates, while in the closed boundary case initial peak rates occur sooner but are suppressed. The reconnection current changes similarly with increasing guide-field; however for low guide-fields the reconnection current increases, giving an optimal value for the guide-field between 0.1 and 0.2 times the in-plane field in both cases. Also, in the open boundary case, it is found that for guide-fields of the order of the in-plane magnetic field, the generation of electron vortices occurs. Possible causes of the vortex generation, based on the flow of decoupled particles in the diffusion region and localized plasma heating, are discussed. Before peak reconnection onset, oscillations in the out-of-plane electric field at the X-point are found, ranging in frequency from approximately 1 to 2 ω{sub pe} and coinciding with oscillatory reconnection. These oscillations are found to be part of a larger wave pattern in the simulation domain. Mapping the out-of-plane electric field along the central lines of the domain over time and applying a 2D Fourier transform reveal that

  7. Perspectives of Turkish Intern and Non-Intern Students towards Sport Management Internship within the Context of Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coknaz, Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…

  8. Measuring unintended effects in peacebuilding: What the field of international cooperation can learn from innovative approaches shaped by complex contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Adrienne; Pinet, Mélanie

    2018-06-01

    Capturing unintended impacts has been a persistent struggle in all fields of international development, and the field of peacebuilding is no exception. However, because peacebuilding focuses on relationships in complex contexts, the field of peacebuilding has, by necessity, made efforts towards finding practical ways to reflect upon both the intended and unintended effects of this work. To explore what lessons can be learned from the peacebuilding field, this study examines the evaluations of Search for Common Ground, a peacebuilding organisation working in over 35 countries across the world. Analysis focuses on 96 evaluations completed between 2013 and 2016 in 24 countries across Africa, Asia, and the MENA regions that found unintended effects. Programmes focusing on women, youth, and radio were most effective at identifying and explaining unintended effects, likely because the project design guided broader lines of questioning from the beginning. The paper argues that OECD-DAC guidelines are not enough on their own to guide evaluators into exploration of unintended effects, and teams instead need to work together to decide where, when and how they will look for them. Different approaches were also used to capture positive and negative outcomes, suggesting that evaluators need to decide at what level they are evaluating and how to tie effects back to the project's contribution. This study explores evaluation techniques and approaches used to understand impact in complex contexts in the peacebuilding field, and draws on lessons learned for the benefit of other fields dealing with similar complexities in international development and cooperation among actors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Multilayered Edge Guided Stochastically Fully Connected Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daya, Ibrahim; Chen, Albert I H; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Wong, Alexander; Yeow, John T W

    2017-09-06

    The row-column method received a lot of attention for 3-D ultrasound imaging. By reducing the number of connections required to address the 2-D array and therefore reducing the amount of data to handle, this addressing method allows for real time 3-D imaging. Row-column still has its limitations: the issues of sparsity, speckle noise inherent to ultrasound, the spatially varying point spread function, and the ghosting artifacts inherent to the row-column method must all be taken into account when building a reconstruction framework. In this research, we build on a previously published system and propose an edge-guided, compensated row-column ultrasound imaging system that incorporates multilayered edge-guided stochastically fully connected conditional random fields to address the limitations of the row-column method. Tests carried out on simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system over other published systems. Visual assessment show our proposed system's potential at preserving edges and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  10. Student representation of magnetic field concepts in learning by guided inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmaryanti, Siska Desy; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Ashadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the change of student’s representation after the intervention of learning by guided inquiry. The population in this research were all students who took a fundamental physics course, consisted of 28 students academic year 2016, Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Muhammadiyah Purworejo. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with group pre-test and post-test. The result of the research showed that the average of students representation of magnetic field before implementation of guided inquiry was 28,6 % and after implementation was 71,4%. It means that the student’s ability of multi-representation increase. Moreover, the number of students who is able to write and draw based on experiment data increased from 10,7% to 21,4 %. It was also showed that the number of student with no answer decreased from 28,5% to 10,7%. (paper)

  11. Student representation of magnetic field concepts in learning by guided inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy Fatmaryanti, Siska; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Ashadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the change of student’s representation after the intervention of learning by guided inquiry. The population in this research were all students who took a fundamental physics course, consisted of 28 students academic year 2016, Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Muhammadiyah Purworejo. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with group pre-test and post-test. The result of the research showed that the average of students representation of magnetic field before implementation of guided inquiry was 28,6 % and after implementation was 71,4%. It means that the student’s ability of multi-representation increase. Moreover, the number of students who is able to write and draw based on experiment data increased from 10,7% to 21,4 %. It was also showed that the number of student with no answer decreased from 28,5% to 10,7%.

  12. Internal attention to features in visual short-term memory guides object learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Attending to objects in the world affects how we perceive and remember them. What are the consequences of attending to an object in mind? In particular, how does reporting the features of a recently seen object guide visual learning? In three experiments, observers were presented with abstract shapes in a particular color, orientation, and location. After viewing each object, observers were cued to report one feature from visual short-term memory (VSTM). In a subsequent test, observers were cued to report features of the same objects from visual long-term memory (VLTM). We tested whether reporting a feature from VSTM: (1) enhances VLTM for just that feature (practice-benefit hypothesis), (2) enhances VLTM for all features (object-based hypothesis), or (3) simultaneously enhances VLTM for that feature and suppresses VLTM for unreported features (feature-competition hypothesis). The results provided support for the feature-competition hypothesis, whereby the representation of an object in VLTM was biased towards features reported from VSTM and away from unreported features (Experiment 1). This bias could not be explained by the amount of sensory exposure or response learning (Experiment 2) and was amplified by the reporting of multiple features (Experiment 3). Taken together, these results suggest that selective internal attention induces competitive dynamics among features during visual learning, flexibly tuning object representations to align with prior mnemonic goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. User Guide for the International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) model is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, and geothermal energy projects for several different countries. Building on the original JEDI model, which was developed for the United States, I-JEDI was developed under the USAID Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector. I-JEDI estimates economic impacts by characterizing the construction and operation of energy projects in terms of expenditures and the portion of these expenditures made within the country of analysis. These data are then used in a country-specific input-output (I-O) model to estimate employment, earnings, gross domestic product (GDP), and gross output impacts. Total economic impacts are presented as well as impacts by industry. This user guide presents general information about how to use I-JEDI and interpret results as well as detailed information about methodology and model limitations.

  14. The international power market: Creating a level playing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation examines current foreign government practices in international trade and the impact of these practices on US companies competitiveness in foreign energy related markets. The topics of the presentation include a statement of the problem, comparative government practices, industry trends, making the US more competitive in the international arena, and the role of USAID. The published presentation consists of the outline and slides used in the presentation

  15. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-11

    Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation. Eight orthopaedic surgeons performed the experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of this device. Each surgeon performed guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation in six synthetic femurs: three times with the new device and three times with the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic time, operative time and surgeon satisfaction were evaluated. In the operations with the new adjustable drill guide, the fluoroscopic and operative times were significantly lower than the operations with the conventional technique (p level of satisfaction of this device was also statistically significantly better (p = 0.02) than the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic and operative times with the new adjustable drill guide were reduced for multiple screw fixation of femoral neck fracture and the satisfaction of the surgeons was good.

  16. The IEEE guide to writing in the engineering and technical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kmiec, David

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces students and practicing engineers to all the components of writing in the workplace. It teaches readers how considerations of audience and purpose govern the structure of their documents within particular work settings. The IEEE Guide to Writing in the Engineering and Technical Fields is broken up into two sections: "Writing in Engineering Organizations" and "What Can You Do With Writing?" The first section helps readers approach their writing in a logical and persuasive way as well as analyze their purpose for writing. The second section demonstrates how to distinguish rhetorical situations and the generic forms to inform, train, persuade, and collaborate. The emergence of the global workplace has brought with it an increasingly important role for effective technical communication. Engineers more often need to work in cross-functional teams with people in different disciplines, in different countries, and in different parts of the world. Engineers must know how to communicate in a rapid...

  17. Field dose radiation determination by active learning with Gaussian Process for autonomous robot guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Naiff, Danilo de; Silveira, Paulo R.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes an approach for determination of radiation dose pro le in a radiation-susceptible environment, aiming to guide an autonomous robot in acting on those environments, reducing the human exposure to dangerous amount of dose. The approach consists of an active learning method based on information entropy reduction, using log-normally warped Gaussian Process (GP) as surrogate model, resulting in non-linear online regression with sequential measurements. Experiments with simulated radiation dose fields of varying complexity were made, and results showed that the approach was effective in reconstruct the eld with high accuracy, through relatively few measurements. The technique was also shown some robustness in presence measurement noise, present in real measurements, by assuming Gaussian noise. (author)

  18. Field dose radiation determination by active learning with Gaussian Process for autonomous robot guiding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Naiff, Danilo de; Silveira, Paulo R.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: danilonai1992@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: paulo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This article proposes an approach for determination of radiation dose pro le in a radiation-susceptible environment, aiming to guide an autonomous robot in acting on those environments, reducing the human exposure to dangerous amount of dose. The approach consists of an active learning method based on information entropy reduction, using log-normally warped Gaussian Process (GP) as surrogate model, resulting in non-linear online regression with sequential measurements. Experiments with simulated radiation dose fields of varying complexity were made, and results showed that the approach was effective in reconstruct the eld with high accuracy, through relatively few measurements. The technique was also shown some robustness in presence measurement noise, present in real measurements, by assuming Gaussian noise. (author)

  19. Simulated experimental research on flow field near control rod guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ping'an; Shen Xiuzhong; Yang Guanyue; He Fangzheng; Gao Weiguo; Zhang Zhiyi; Tian Ji'an

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the velocity measurement in the 1/4 scale transparent model of PWR pressure vessel upper plenum of 300 MW nuclear power plant by employing dynamic resistance strain foil velocity measurement technology and laser Doppler velocity measurement technology which have no effect on the flow field. In the experiment water is chosen as the fluid. As a result of the measurement the hydraulic load on the control rods is clarified and the experimental basis is provided for the analysis of whether the control rods are moving upward and downward freely and drop rapidly in emergency case by order. Meantime it also provides the experimental basis for the optical design of the control rod guide tubes and bundles

  20. Impact of compressibility and a guide field on Fermi acceleration during magnetic island coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Peter; Egedal, Jan; Lichko, Emily; Wetherton, Blake

    2017-10-01

    Previous work has shown that Fermi acceleration can be an effective heating mechanism during magnetic island coalescence, where electrons may undergo repeated reflections as the magnetic field lines contract. This energization has the potential to account for the power-law distributions of particle energy inferred from observations of solar flares. Here, we develop a generalized framework for the analysis of Fermi acceleration that can incorporate the effects of compressibility and non-uniformity along field lines, which have commonly been neglected in previous treatments of the problem. Applying this framework to the simplified case of the uniform flux tube allows us to find both the power-law scaling of the distribution function and the rate at which the power-law behavior develops. We find that a guide magnetic field of order unity effectively suppresses the development of power-law distributions. The work was supported by NASA Grant No. NNX14AC68G, NSF GEM Grant No. 1405166, NSF Award 1404166, and NASA Award NNX15AJ73G.

  1. Field Guide to the Plant Community Types of Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Langendoen, Don; Aaseng, Norman; Hop, Kevin; Lew-Smith, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program is to classify, describe, and map vegetation for most of the park units within the National Park Service (NPS). The program was created in response to the NPS Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring Guidelines issued in 1992. Products for each park include digital files of the vegetation map and field data, keys and descriptions to the plant communities, reports, metadata, map accuracy verification summaries, and aerial photographs. Interagency teams work in each park and, following standardized mapping and field sampling protocols, develop products and vegetation classification standards that document the various vegetation types found in a given park. The use of a standard national vegetation classification system and mapping protocol facilitate effective resource stewardship by ensuring compatibility and widespread use of the information throughout the NPS as well as by other Federal and state agencies. These vegetation classifications and maps and associated information support a wide variety of resource assessment, park management, and planning needs, and provide a structure for framing and answering critical scientific questions about plant communities and their relation to environmental processes across the landscape. This field guide is intended to make the classification accessible to park visitors and researchers at Voyageurs National Park, allowing them to identify any stand of natural vegetation and showing how the classification can be used in conjunction with the vegetation map (Hop and others, 2001).

  2. Electron heating in the exhaust of magnetic reconnection with negligible guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Chen, Li-Jen; Bessho, Naoki; Kistler, Lynn M.; Shuster, Jason R.; Guo, Ruilong

    2016-03-01

    Electron heating in the magnetic reconnection exhaust is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations, space observations, and theoretical analysis. Spatial variations of the electron temperature (Te) and associated velocity distribution functions (VDFs) are examined and understood in terms of particle energization and randomization processes that vary with exhaust locations. Inside the electron diffusion region (EDR), the electron temperature parallel to the magnetic field (Te∥) exhibits a local minimum and the perpendicular temperature (Te⊥) shows a maximum at the current sheet midplane. In the intermediate exhaust downstream from the EDR and far from the magnetic field pileup region, Te⊥/Te∥ is close to unity and Te is approximately uniform, but the VDFs are structured: close to the midplane, VDFs are quasi-isotropic, whereas farther away from the midplane, VDFs exhibit field-aligned beams directed toward the midplane. In the far exhaust, Te generally increases toward the midplane and the pileup region, and the corresponding VDFs show counter-streaming beams. A distinct population with low v∥ and high v⊥ is prominent in the VDFs around the midplane. Test particle results show that the magnetic curvature near the midplane produces pitch angle scattering to generate quasi-isotropic distributions in the intermediate exhaust. In the far exhaust, electrons with initial high v∥ (v⊥) are accelerated mainly through curvature (gradient-B) drift opposite to the electric field, without significant pitch angle scattering. The VDF structures predicted by simulations are observed in magnetotail reconnection measurements, indicating that the energization mechanisms captured in the reported simulations are applicable to magnetotail reconnection with negligible guide field.

  3. Reading comics for the field of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to a medium that has escaped the attention of International Relations scholars: comics. Comics are combinations of text and drawings and they come in a variety of formats: as newspaper strips, as stories printed in magazines and as long narratives presented in free......-standing books. Comics have been central to how generations of children have encountered foreign places and comics artists have successfully captured public attention, with comics offering explicit engagements with foreign policy events. Theoretically, comics provide a unique combination of text and images...... through which central questions on the research agenda of International Relations scholars working on visuality, practices and intertextuality can be pursued. Drawing on comics scholarship, this article presents a theoretical framework aimed specifically at analysing comics as international relations...

  4. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  5. ICCS 2009 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the ICCS 2009 Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk; Jung, Michael; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Schulz, Wolfram; Zuehlke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This document presents Supplement 1 of "The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) 2009 International Database," which includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the ICCS 2009 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the ICCS 2009 questionnaires in the following seven…

  6. International Field Experiences Promote Professional Development for Sustainability Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, R. Bruce; Kimmel, Courtney; Robertson, David P.; Mortimer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students…

  7. The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection: Tearing Instability in Current Sheets with a Guide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldorff, L. K. S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Knizhnik, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is fundamental to many solar phenomena, ranging from coronal heating, to jets, to flares and CMEs. A poorly understood yet crucial aspect of reconnection is that it does not occur until magnetic stresses have built to sufficiently high levels for significant energy release. If reconnection were to happen too soon, coronal heating would be weak and flares would be small. As part of our program to study the onset conditions for magnetic reconnection, we have investigated the instability of current sheets to tearing. Surprisingly little work has been done on this problem for sheets that include a guide field, i.e., for which the field rotates by less than 180 degrees. This is the most common situation on the Sun. We present numerical 3D resistive MHD simulations of several sheets and show how the behaviour depends on the shear angle (rotation). We compare our results to the predictions of linear theory and discuss the nonlinear evolution in terms of plasmoid formation and the interaction of different oblique tearing modes. The relevance to the Sun is explained.

  8. Field-trip guide to the geologic highlights of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2017-08-09

    Newberry Volcano and its surrounding lavas cover about 3,000 square kilometers (km2) in central Oregon. This massive, shield-shaped, composite volcano is located in the rear of the Cascades Volcanic Arc, ~60 km east of the Cascade Range crest. The volcano overlaps the northwestern corner of the Basin and Range tectonic province, known locally as the High Lava Plains, and is strongly influenced by the east-west extensional environment. Lava compositions range from basalt to rhyolite. Eruptions began about half a million years ago and built a broad composite edifice that has generated more than one caldera collapse event. At the center of the volcano is the 6- by 8-km caldera, created ~75,000 years ago when a major explosive eruption of compositionally zoned tephra led to caldera collapse, leaving the massive shield shape visible today. The volcano hosts Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which encompasses the caldera and much of the northwest rift zone where mafic eruptions occurred about 7,000 years ago. These young lava flows erupted after the volcano was mantled by the informally named Mazama ash, a blanket of volcanic ash generated by the eruption that created Crater Lake about 7,700 years ago. This field trip guide takes the visitor to a variety of easily accessible geologic sites in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flows. The selected sites offer an overview of the geologic story of Newberry Volcano and feature a broad range of lava compositions. Newberry’s most recent eruption took place about 1,300 years ago in the center of the caldera and produced tephra and lava of rhyolitic composition. A significant mafic eruptive event occurred about 7,000 years ago along the northwest rift zone. This event produced lavas ranging in composition from basalt to andesite, which erupted over a distance of 35 km from south of the caldera to Lava Butte where erupted lava flowed west to temporarily block the Deschutes

  9. Future of international cooperative activity for graduate school education in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Further improvement of graduate school education in nuclear field is one of the important issues in universities in nuclear field. The COE-INES program has performed international cooperative activities for graduate school education with foreign universities in nuclear field. There are a lot of possibilities in international cooperation with foreign universities for graduate school education. The use of Internet can be a strong tool for the activities. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic Guided Waves-Based Monitoring of Rail Head: Laboratory and Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piervincenzo Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper shows the prototype in action on a railroad track mock-up built at the University of California, San Diego. The mock-up contained surface and internal defects. The results from three experiments are presented. The importance of feature selection to maximize the sensitivity of the inspection system is demonstrated here. The second part of the paper shows the results of field testing conducted in south east Pennsylvania under the auspices of the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration.

  11. There be dragons: Canadian explorers in international fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Meara, D.

    1999-11-01

    International hotspots of Canadian exploration and production companies are described. Examples of mid-sized Canadian companies competing successfully in many parts of the world are recounted. Being Canadian and having access to countries that Americans do not because of trade sanctions, allows Canadian companies to bring to these countries all the North American technology without the associated politics. Successes by Canadian Occidental Petroleum in Yemen, in Africa, the former Soviet Union and South America, or Alberta Energy Company International's recent commitment to explore in Azerbaijan with estimated reserves of 5.9 billion barrels of oil-equivalent, are only some of the examples where Canadian explorers have been very successful. Some of the problems faced by international operators such as scarcity of indigenous trained personnel, lack of infrastructure, unstable governments, and/or unfriendly government policies, tribal wars, unfavourable public reaction 'back home' to repressive regimes in parts of the world ( e.g. Talisman Energy in Sudan) are some of the dangers faced by companies venturing into the global arena, driven by dreams of untold riches, but also by the prospects of diminishing reserves on home turf.

  12. There be dragons: Canadian explorers in international fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Meara, D

    1999-11-01

    International hotspots of Canadian exploration and production companies are described. Examples of mid-sized Canadian companies competing successfully in many parts of the world are recounted. Being Canadian and having access to countries that Americans do not because of trade sanctions, allows Canadian companies to bring to these countries all the North American technology without the associated politics. Successes by Canadian Occidental Petroleum in Yemen, in Africa, the former Soviet Union and South America, or Alberta Energy Company International's recent commitment to explore in Azerbaijan with estimated reserves of 5.9 billion barrels of oil-equivalent, are only some of the examples where Canadian explorers have been very successful. Some of the problems faced by international operators such as scarcity of indigenous trained personnel, lack of infrastructure, unstable governments, and/or unfriendly government policies, tribal wars, unfavourable public reaction 'back home' to repressive regimes in parts of the world ( e.g. Talisman Energy in Sudan) are some of the dangers faced by companies venturing into the global arena, driven by dreams of untold riches, but also by the prospects of diminishing reserves on home turf.

  13. Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak plasmas using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vice [1], laser-light scattering [2], parametric interaction of microwave ... As we know that, each level of an atom in a weak magnetic field is split into 2В + 1 .... signal detection channel consists of two channels, one is the signal which is the sum ...

  14. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  15. A field guide to predict delayed mortality of fire-damaged ponderosa pine: application and validation of the Malheur model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind; Mark Loewen; Greg. Brenner

    2008-01-01

    The Malheur model for fire-caused delayed mortality is presented as an easily interpreted graph (mortality-probability calculator) as part of a one-page field guide that allows the user to determine postfire probability of mortality for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). Following both prescribed burns and wildfires, managers need...

  16. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-08-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  17. Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H

    2012-04-13

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  18. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  19. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the TIMSS 2011 Background and Curriculum Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The TIMSS 2011 International Database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the TIMSS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 10 sections: (1) Fourth Grade Student Questionnaire; (2) Fourth Grade Home…

  20. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the TEDS-M Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) International Database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the TEDS-M study. These consisted of questionnaires administered to future teachers, educators, and institutions with teacher preparation programs. This supplement contains the international version of the TEDS-M…

  1. Role of internal demagnetizing field for the dynamics of a surface-modulated magnonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M.; Röder, F.; Gallardo, R. A.; Schneider, T.; Stienen, S.; Gatel, C.; Hübner, R.; Bischoff, L.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Landeros, P.; Fassbender, J.

    2017-05-01

    This work aims to demonstrate and understand the key role of local demagnetizing fields in hybrid structures consisting of a continuous thin film with a stripe modulation on top. To understand the complex spin dynamics of these structures, the magnonic crystal was reconstructed in two different ways—performing micromagnetic simulations based on the structural shape as well as based on the internal demagnetizing field, which both are mapped on the nanoscale using electron holography. The simulations yield the frequency-field dependence as well as the angular dependence revealing the governing role of the internal field landscape around the backward-volume geometry. Simple rules for the propagation vector and the mode localization are formulated in order to explain the calculated mode profiles. Treating internal demagnetizing fields equivalent to anisotropies, the complex angle-dependent spin-wave behavior is described for an in-plane rotation of the external field.

  2. International Standardisation in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy standards, regularly reviewed and updated by international committees of technical experts, can help policy makers as an instrument to demonstrate national regulatory compliance, as well as ensuring successful deployment of renewable energy technologies (RET). This study identifies over 570 standards in the current RET landscape, yet finds gaps in the existing standards, particularly for post-installation aspects of RET, such as operation, maintenance and repair. The study calls for a more structured information platform to make appropriate standards accessible to a variety of users. All stakeholders, including those from developing countries, need to be engaged in the standardisation process. IRENA's analysis also underlines the importance of RET certification schemes as a risk-mitigation tool, particularly to help small-scale projects obtain financing.

  3. Geologic field-trip guide to Mount Shasta Volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-18

    off, in a field of high-alumina olivine tholeiite lavas (HAOTs, referred to elsewhere in this guide as low-potassium olivine tholeiites, LKOTs). It proceeds around the southern, western, and northern flanks of Mount Shasta and onto a part of the arc axis. The stops feature elements of the Mount Shasta area in an approximately chronological order, from oldest to youngest.

  4. Hebbian Plasticity Guides Maturation of Glutamate Receptor Fields In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Ljaschenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity shapes the development of functional neural circuits and provides a basis for cellular models of learning and memory. Hebbian plasticity describes an activity-dependent change in synaptic strength that is input-specific and depends on correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity. Although it is recognized that synaptic activity and synapse development are intimately linked, our mechanistic understanding of the coupling is far from complete. Using Channelrhodopsin-2 to evoke activity in vivo, we investigated synaptic plasticity at the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Remarkably, correlated pre- and postsynaptic stimulation increased postsynaptic sensitivity by promoting synapse-specific recruitment of GluR-IIA-type glutamate receptor subunits into postsynaptic receptor fields. Conversely, GluR-IIA was rapidly removed from synapses whose activity failed to evoke substantial postsynaptic depolarization. Uniting these results with developmental GluR-IIA dynamics provides a comprehensive physiological concept of how Hebbian plasticity guides synaptic maturation and sparse transmitter release controls the stabilization of the molecular composition of individual synapses.

  5. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; hide

    2012-01-01

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  6. Fields Institute International Symposium on Asymptotic Methods in Stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Kulik, Rafal; Haye, Mohamedou; Szyszkowicz, Barbara; Zhao, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This book contains articles arising from a conference in honour of mathematician-statistician Miklόs Csörgő on the occasion of his 80th birthday, held in Ottawa in July 2012. It comprises research papers and overview articles, which provide a substantial glimpse of the history and state-of-the-art of the field of asymptotic methods in probability and statistics, written by leading experts. The volume consists of twenty articles on topics on limit theorems for self-normalized processes, planar processes, the central limit theorem and laws of large numbers, change-point problems, short and long range dependent time series, applied probability and stochastic processes, and the theory and methods of statistics. It also includes Csörgő’s list of publications during more than 50 years, since 1962.

  7. Climate engineering field research : The favorable setting of international environmental law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.(Jesse)

    2014-01-01

    As forecasts for climate change and its impacts have become more dire, climate engineering proposals have come under increasing consideration and are presently moving toward field trials. This article examines the relevant international environmental law, distinguishing between climate engineering

  8. Nu shifts in betatron oscillations from uniform perturbations in the presence of non-linear magnetic guide fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crebbin, K.C.

    1985-05-01

    Uniform magnetic field perturbations cause a closed orbit distortion in a circular accelerator. If the magnetic guide field is non-linear these perturbations can also cause a Nu shift in the betatron oscillations. Such a shift in radial Nu values has been observed in the Bevalac while studying the low energy resonant extraction system. In the Bevalac, the radial perturbation comes from the quadrants being magnetically about 0.8% longer than 90 0 . The normal effect of this type of perturbation is a radial closed orbit shift and orbit distortion. The Nu shift, associated with this type of perturbation in the presence of a non-linear guide field, is discussed in this paper. A method of handling the non-linear n values is discussed as well as the mechanism for the associated Nu shift. Computer calculations are compared to measurements. 2 refs., 4 figs

  9. MiDAS Field Guide – a Comprehensive Online Source of Information About the Microbes of Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    activated sludge wastewater treatment systems, linking their identity with available information on their function and distribution. The guide includes the approx. 100 abundant genera that are present in most treatment plants (based on a survey of 25 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants...... are provided. The MiDAS Field Guide is a continuously developing resource where all working in the field are invited to contribute....... that would be otherwise excluded from analyses. The MiDAS database importantly provides a common taxonomy for the field that gives a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related wastewater treatment processes, such as biofilms and granular sludge. Each genus...

  10. On Multiple Hall-Like Electron Currents and Tripolar Guide Magnetic Field Perturbations During Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Stefan; Nakamura, Takuma; Gershman, Daniel J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Paterson, William R.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Two magnetopause current sheet crossings with tripolar guide magnetic field signatures were observed by multiple Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave activity. The two out-of-plane magnetic field depressions of the tripolar guide magnetic field are largely supported by the observed in-plane electron currents, which are reminiscent of two clockwise Hall current loop systems. A comparison with a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and vortex-induced reconnection suggests that MMS likely encountered the two Hall magnetic field depressions on either side of a magnetic reconnection X-line. Moreover, MMS observed an out-of-plane current reversal and a corresponding in-plane magnetic field rotation at the center of one of the current sheets, suggesting the presence of two adjacent flux ropes. The region inside one of the ion-scale flux ropes was characterized by an observed decrease of the total magnetic field, a strong axial current, and significant enhancements of electron density and parallel electron temperature. The flux rope boundary was characterized by currents opposite this axial current, strong in-plane and converging electric fields, parallel electric fields, and weak electron-frame Joule dissipation. These return current region observations may reflect a need to support the axial current rather than representing local reconnection signatures in the absence of any exhausts.

  11. Energization and Transport in 3D Kinetic Simulations of MMS Magnetopause Reconnection Site Encounters with Varying Guide Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Daughton, W. S.; Ohia, O.; Chen, L. J.; Liu, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    We present 3D fully kinetic simulations of asymmetric reconnection with plasma parameters matching MMS magnetopause diffusion region crossings with varying guide fields of 0.1 [Burch et al., Science (2016)], 0.4 [Chen et al. JGR (2017)], and 1 [Burch and Phan, GRL (2016] of the reconnecting sheath field. Strong diamagnetic drifts across the magnetopause current sheet drive lower-hybrid drift instabilities (LHDI) over a range of wavelengths [Daughton, PoP (2003); Roytershteyn et al., PRL (2012)] that develop into a turbulent state. Magnetic field tracing diagnostics are employed to characterize the turbulent magnetic geometry and to evaluate the global reconnection rate. The contributions to Ohm's law are evaluated field line by field line, including time-averaged diagnostics that allow the quantification of anomalous resistivity and viscosity. We examine how fluctuating electric fields and chaotic magnetic field lines contribute to particle mixing across the separatrix, and we characterize the accelerated electron distributions that form under varying magnetic shear or guide field. The LHDI turbulence is found to strongly enhance transport and parallel electron heating in 3D compared to 2D, particularly along the magnetospheric separatrix [Le et al., GRL (2017)]. The PIC simulation results are compared to MMS observations.

  12. Protection against internal fires and explosions in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. This Safety Guide supplements the requirements established in Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev. 1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants: A Safety Guide, issued in 1992.The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice

  13. Review of international near-field modeling for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Andersson, K.; Pescatore, C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary components of nuclear waste repositories that mitigate radionuclide release are the near-field and the far-field subsystems. The near-field encompasses the waste package, which is composed of engineered barriers; the far-field includes the natural barriers. An international survey and review is being conducted on the latest developments in modeling of near-field performance, with particular emphasis on the conceptual and mathematical models for source-term calculations. The objectives of this review will be to establish the status and commonality among models and methods for assessing near-field performance, as well as to identify possible future needs for continued comparison and collaboration. In parallel with the technical evaluation, an international technical Workshop on near-field performance assessment will be held, in association with the Nuclear Energy Agency, on May 11-13, 1993 in Cadarache, France

  14. Evolutionary convergence of the patterns of international research collaborations across scientific fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Coccia, M.

    2015-01-01

    Frame and Carpenter (1979) analysed the pattern of international research collaboration among scientific fields in 1970s. Starting from this pioneering work, this paper investigates international collaborations over 1997-2012 and compares the critical results with earlier studies to detect the

  15. The hitchhiker's guide to altruism: gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintis, Herbert

    2003-02-21

    An internal norm is a pattern of behavior enforced in part by internal sanctions, such as shame, guilt and loss of self-esteem, as opposed to purely external sanctions, such as material rewards and punishment. The ability to internalize norms is widespread among humans, although in some so-called "sociopaths", this capacity is diminished or lacking. Suppose there is one genetic locus that controls the capacity to internalize norms. This model shows that if an internal norm is fitness enhancing, then for plausible patterns of socialization, the allele for internalization of norms is evolutionarily stable. This framework can be used to model Herbert Simon's (1990) explanation of altruism, showing that altruistic norms can "hitchhike" on the general tendency of internal norms to be personally fitness-enhancing. A multi-level selection, gene-culture coevolution argument then explains why individually fitness-reducing internal norms are likely to be prosocial as opposed to socially harmful.

  16. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v μ , which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs

  17. Field theory of the spinning electron: I - Internal motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Recami, Erasmo [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Dalmine, BG (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1994-05-01

    One of the most satisfactory picture of spinning particles is the Barut-Zanghi (BZ) classical theory for the relativistic electron, that relates the electron spin with the so-called Zitterbewegung (zbw). The BZ theory has been recently studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian symplectic formulations, both in flat and in curved space-time. The BZ motion equations constituted the starting point for two recent works about spin and electron structure, co-authored by us, which adopted the Clifford algebra formalism. In this letter, by employing on the contrary the ordinary tensorial language, we first write down a meaningful (real) equation of motion, describing particle classical paths, quite different from the corresponding (complex) equation of the standard Dirac theory. As a consequence, we succeed in regarding the electron as an extended-type object with a classically intelligible structure (thus overcoming some long-standing, well-known problems). Second, we make explicit the kinematical properties of the 4-velocity field v{sup {mu}}, which also result to be quite different from the ordinary ones, valid for scalar particles. At last, we analyze the inner zbw motions, both time-like and light-like, as functions of the initial conditions (in particular, for the case of classical uniform motions, the z component of spin s is shown to be quantized). In so doing, we make explicit the strict correlation existing between electron polarization and zbw kinematics. (author). 9 refs.

  18. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  19. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  20. The Philanthropic Mission of Comparative and International Education Bequeathed by Jullien: Continuing Capstone of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this lead article of this special issue of "Compare" is to assess the value of Jullien's vision for the field of comparative and international education today. The life, writings and ideas of Jullien are sketched, followed by a survey of the path of development of the field since the time of Jullien. In view of the exigencies…

  1. Nordic Internationalists' Contribution to the Field of Comparative and International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2016-01-01

    This paper stems from a PhD dissertation research focusing on the Nordic representatives' contribution to the field of comparative and international education (CIE) since the middle of the 20th century to the present days. Following the idea of the clear-cut distinction between the two component parts of the field in the region in question, the…

  2. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  3. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for sugar maple. Eleven types of external...

  4. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow-poplar. Twelve types of external...

  5. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow birch. Eleven types of external...

  6. Y.E.S. International Entomology Resource Guide. Second Edition. Special Publication No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gary A., Comp.

    This resource guide is designed to provide Young Entomologists' Society (Y.E.S.) members and other interested entomologists with information on people and companies that sell entomological equipment, supplies, services, preserved and dried specimens, livestock, books, publications, slides and other visuals, gift or novelty items, and…

  7. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  8. Planetarium Educator's Workshop Guide. International Planetarium Society Special Report No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alan; And Others

    Presented is a workshop guide for planetarium educators. Seven modules and four appendices focus on organizational patterns, learning theories, questioning strategies, activities for the planetarium, and incorporating all of the above into teaching. The four appendices include a list of the 1978 workshop participants, an annotated bibliography for…

  9. Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeesh, G.; Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: vigeesh@leibniz-kis.de [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in the Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high- β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.

  10. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  11. Development of a Laser-Guided Deep-Hole Internal-Grinding Tool (Series 1) : Grinding Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Akio; Onikura, Hiromichi; Sajima, Takao; Park, Hyunkoo

    2005-01-01

    The laser-guided deep-hole internal grinding tool is developed to bore accurate and straight deep-holes with high surface quality. The tool consists of a grinding head, the front and rear actuators mounted on an actuator holder and a laser diode set in the back end of the holder. The grinding head consists of a diamond or CBN wheel, an air motor, and the piezoelectric actuators for the compensation of tool diameter. The grinding wheel is located eccentrically at the grinding head. The grindin...

  12. Internal and External Factors Affecting The Size of Paddy Field Sold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Rostiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted  to identify internal condition of the farmers who sold their paddy field and analyze the effects of age, education level, number of family members, field productivity, location, and production cost to the total area of paddy field sold. This study used quantitative descriptive method. This research found that age, education level, number of family members, and location of the land had positive relation to the total area of paddy field sold. On the other hand, production cost and field productivity had negative relation to the total area of paddy field sold. Partially, field production and number of family members had no significant effect to the total area of paddy field sold.

  13. Think Globally! Enhancing the International Student Experience with LibGuides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ning; Hall, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Enrollment of international students in colleges and universities across the United States is growing. The relocation process can be arduous for international students as they face many barriers transitioning to a new environment. With retention as a key component in the success of academic institutions, what resources and services can academic…

  14. International conference on electromagnetic fields hazard protection of the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Second International conference concerning the problems of electromagnetic protection of the human being, fundamental and applied studies, normalization of the EMP: philosophy, criteria and harmonization which took place in Moscow in September 1999 is reported. The topics of reports covered both the mechanism of biological action of electromagnetic fields and aspects of impact of electromagnetic fields from various household appliances on the health of practically all modern people (television, radio, energetic, communication). The plenary section on evaluation of hazards of the mobile communication electromagnetic fields and the round table meeting dealing with evaluation of hazards of electromagnetic fields of the cellular communication base stations were conducted in the course of the conference. The plenary meetings were devoted to harmonization of the electromagnetic protection standards of Russia and western countries. The above conference constitutes one of the stages of the WHO international program concerning electromagnetic fields and the human being [ru

  15. Subsampled Numerical Experiments as a Guide for Field Deployment of Thermistor Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Justin; Stastna, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Thermistor chains are a standard tool for recording temperature profiles in geophysical flows. Density values can be inferred from readings and the resulting density field analyzed for the passage of internal waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz billows, and other dynamic events. The number and spacing of the thermistors, both on and between chains, determines which events can be identified in the dataset. We examine the effect of changing these variables by subsampling a set of numerical experiments to simulate thermistor chain locations. A pseudo spectral method was used to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The resulting flows are a set of high resolution seiches where the depth was held constant across experiments, and the length was varied. Sampling a known, commonly occurring flow with relatively simple geometry allows for a clear analysis of the effects of thermistor placement in the capture of dynamic events. We will discuss three dimensional deployment strategies, as well as EOF and DMD analyses if there is time. Funded by a Grant from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  16. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) generation 12: BGS candidates and final models

    OpenAIRE

    Beggan, Ciaran D.; Hamilton, Brian; Taylor, Victoria; Macmillan, Susan; Thomson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model is a reference main field magnetic model updated on a quinquennial basis. The latest revision (generation 12) was released in January 2015. The IGRF-12 consists of a definitive model (DGRF2010) of the main field for 2010.0, a model for the field at 2015.0 (IGRF2015) and a prediction of secular variation (IGRF-12 SV) for the forthcoming five years until 2020.0. The remaining coefficients of IGRF-12 are unchanged from IGRF-11. Nin...

  17. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.

    2017-01-01

    systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently......-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible...

  18. Plasma confinement in a magnetic field of the internal ring current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, Vitaly; Popovich, Paul; Samitov, Marat

    2000-01-01

    Plasma confinement in compact region surrounding an internal ring current is considered. As the limiting case of large aspect ratio system the cylindrical plasma is considered initially. Analysis of the cylindrical tubular plasma equilibrium and stability against the most dangerous flute (m=0) and kink (m=1) modes revealed the possibility of the MHD stable plasma confined by magnetic field of the internal rod current, with rather peaked plasma pressure and maximal local beta β(γ)=0.4. In case of the toroidal internal ring system an additional external magnetic field creates the boundary separatrix witch limits the plasma volume. The dependence of the plasma pressure profiles, marginally stable with respect to the flute modes, from the shape of the external plasma boundary (separatrix) in such kind closed toroidal systems is investigated. The internal ring system with circular poloidal magnetic mirror, where the ring supports could be placed, is proposed. (author)

  19. Enhancement of the guide field during the current sheet formation in the three-dimensional magnetic configuration with an X line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Anna; Bugrov, Sergey; Markov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the formation of current sheets during exciting a current aligned with the X line of the 3D magnetic configuration, in the CS-3D device. Enhancement of the guide field (parallel to the X line) was directly observed for the first time, on the basis of magnetic measurements. After the current sheet formation, the guide field inside the sheet exceeds its initial value, as well as the field outside. It is convincingly demonstrated that an enhancement of the guide field is due to its transportation by plasma flows on the early stage of the sheet formation. The in-plane plasma currents, which produce the excess guide field, are comparable to the total current along the X line that initiates the sheet itself.

  20. Theoretical predictions for spatially-focused heating of magnetic nanoparticles guided by magnetic particle imaging field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhavalikar, Rohan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI. - Highlights: • SAR predictions based on a field-dependent magnetization relaxation model.

  1. The internal wave field in Sau reservoir : Observation and modeling of a third vertical mode

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Hurtado, Javier; Casamitjana, Xavier; Colomer, Jordi; Serra Putellas, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Water withdrawal from Mediterranean reservoirs in summer is usually very high. Because of this, stratification is often continuous and far from the typical two-layered structure, favoring the excitation of higher vertical modes. The analysis of wind, temperature, and current data from Sau reservoir (Spain) shows that the third vertical mode of the internal seiche (baroclinic mode) dominated the internal wave field at the beginning of September 2003. We used a continuous stratification two-dim...

  2. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux $\\left$ and total radiated power $P$ for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both $\\left$ and $P$ are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function $\\psi$. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method...

  3. Possibility of internal transport barrier formation and electric field bifurcation in LHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Toda, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1999-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing a internal transport barrier. Within this simple model, the plasma with internal barriers is predicted to be realized for the parameters of T e (0) ∼ 2 keV and n(0) ≅ 10 18 m -3 . (author)

  4. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  5. Field guide to common macrofungi in eastern forests and their ecosystem functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Neil A. Anderson; Joesph G. O' Brien

    2011-01-01

    Macrofungi are distinguished from other fungi by their spore-bearing fruit bodies (mushrooms, conks, brackets). These fungi are critical in forests, causing disease, and wood and litter decay, recycling nutrients, and forming symbiotic relationships with trees. This guide is intended to assist in identifying macrofungi and provide a description of the ecological...

  6. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  7. Virtual Field and Internal Structure of Half-Dressed Extended Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagno, G.; Persico, F.

    1988-01-01

    A new method is proposed to investigate the internal geometrical structure of an extended particle surrounded by an incomplete virtual dressing field. This method involves analysing the time-dependent virtual field at large distances from the particle, without any direct interaction with the latter. As an example, the pulselike, time-dependent virtual field of an extended QED source is investigated using a model which has a well-known counterpart in meson theory. In the framework of nonrelativistic QED it is shown that, contrary to the case of a point source, the pulse has finite width and height. For the case of a spherically symmetric source, it is explicitly shown that the width and shape of the pulse at distance r from the particle depend on the parameters determining the space structure of the source. It is concluded that the study of the field of half-dressed particles may provide a new method to investigate their internal structure

  8. The Development of International Law in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mulyana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a pivotal role in ensuring economic growth, social equity and live-able environment. In this regard, the non-renewable or conventional source of energy such as oil, gas and coal continue to supply the energy demand throughout the world. Nevertheless, as the awareness of the international society towards the protection and preservation of the global environment is rapidly growing, the utilization of energy resources has been gradually shifted from the non-renewable to renewable ones. Observing the international developments in the field of energy, further international legal instruments is required to be able to regulate renewable energy activities undertaken by the countries today. Although there have been a number of rules in international law, but until recently, most of these regulations is still not legally binding. Moreover, to achieve world order that uses renewable energy, international law also had to resolve some fundamental issues, namely the issue of state sovereignty and energy security.

  9. International Cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the Field of Radiological and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2011-01-01

    International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of radiological and nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety is responsible. According to the Radiological and Nuclear Safety Act (OG 28/10) the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety: ''coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia''; ''fulfils the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning protection against ionising radiation, nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'' and ''cooperates with international and domestic organisations and associations in the area of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organisations and associations or to monitor their work''. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of radiological and nuclear safety, are presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the area of radiological and nuclear safety, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Zangger Committee, the Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, is described. (author)

  10. International Cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the Field of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Rosandic, L.

    2010-01-01

    International cooperation of the Republic of Croatia in the field of nuclear safety can be divided in two parts - political part, for which the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration is responsible, and technical part, for which the State Office for Nuclear Safety is responsible, in cooperation with other state administration bodies, where applicable. According to the Nuclear Safety Act (OG 73/2003) the State Office for Nuclear Safety: 'coordinates technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency for all participants from the Republic of Croatia'; 'fulfills the obligations which the Republic of Croatia has assumed through international conventions and bilateral agreements concerning nuclear safety and the application of protective measures aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons' and 'cooperates with international organizations and associations in the area of nuclear safety, and appoints its own expert representatives to take part in the work of such organizations and associations or to monitor their work'. In this paper various aspects of the technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear safety, will be presented. Also, cooperation with other international organizations and associations in the nuclear area, such as Nuclear Suppliers Group, Zangger Committee, Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Euratom and certain civil expert groups of NATO, will be described.(author).

  11. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  12. Analysis of the dependence of the guided mode field distribution on the silica bridges in hollow-core Bragg fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selleri, S.; Poli, F.; Foroni, M.

    2007-01-01

    The guiding properties of fabricated air-silica Bragg fibers with different geometric characteristics have been numerically investigated through a modal solver based on the finite element method. The method has been used to compute the dispersion curves, the loss spectra and the field distribution...... of the modes sustained by the Bragg fibers under investigation. In particular, the silica bridge influence on the fundamental mode has been analyzed, by considering structures with different cross sections, that is an ideal Bragg fiber, without the silica nonosupports, a squared air-hole one and, finally......, a rounded air-hole one, which better describes the real fiber transverse section. Results have shown.the presence of anti-crossing points in the effective index curves associated with the transition of the guided mode to a surface mode. Moreover, it has been verified that these surface modes are responsible...

  13. Guide to the Changes between the 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, Terry S.; Conover, David R.

    2012-05-31

    The International Code Council (ICC) published the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code{reg_sign} (IECC) in early 2012. The 2012 IECC is based on revisions, additions, and deletions to the 2009 IECC that were considered during the ICC code development process conducted in 2011. Solid vertical lines, arrows, or asterisks printed in the 2012 IECC indicate where revisions, deletions, or relocations of text respectively were made to 2009 IECC. Although these marginal markings indicate where changes have been made to the code, they do not provide any further guidance, leaving the reader to consult and compare the 2009 and 2012 IECC for more detail.

  14. Magnetorheological measurements with consideration for the internal magnetic field in samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordonski, W; Gorodkin, S [QED Technologies International, 1040 University Ave., Rochester, NY 14607 (United States)], E-mail: kordonski@qedmrf.com

    2009-02-01

    The magnetically induced yield stress in a sample of suspension of magnetic particles is associated with formation of a field-oriented structure, the strength of which depends on the degree of particles magnetization. This factor is largely defined by the actual magnetic field strength in the sample. At the same time it is common practice to present and analyze magnetorheological characteristics as a function of the applied magnetic field. Uncertainty of an influence function in magnetorheology hampers interpretation of data obtained with different measurement configurations. It was shown in this paper that rheological response of magnetorheological fluid to the applied magnetic field is defined by the sample's actual (internal) magnetic field intensity, which, in turn, depends on sample geometry and field orientation all other factors being equal. Utilization of the sample's actual field as an influence function in magnetorheology allows proper interpretation of data obtained with different measuring system configurations. Optimization of the actual internal field is a promising approach in designing of energy efficient magnetorheological devices.

  15. The International Data Sharing Challenge: Realities and Lessons Learned from International Field Projects and Data Analysis Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. F.; Moore, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major challenges facing science in general is how foster trust and cooperation between nations that then allows the free and open exchange of data. The rich data coming from many nations conducting Arctic research must be allowed to be brought together to understand and assess the huge changes now underway in the Arctic regions. The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory has been supporting a variety of international field process studies and WCRP sponsored international projects that require international data collection and exchange in order to be successful. Some of the programs include the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the Arctic Climate Systems Study (ACSYS), the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), and the Coordinated Energy and water-cycle Observations Project (CEOP) to name a few. EOL played a major role in the data management of these projects, but the CEOP effort in particular involved coordinating common site documentation and data formatting across a global network (28 sites). All these unique projects occurred over 25 years but had similar challenges in the international collection, archival, and access to the rich datasets that are their legacy. The Belmont Forum offers as its main challenge to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid or adapt to environmental change. One of their major themes is related to the study of these changes in the Arctic. The development of capable e-infrastructure (technologies and groups supporting international collaborative environments networks and data centers) to allow access to large diverse data collections is key to meeting this challenge. The reality of meeting this challenge, however, is something much more difficult. The authors will provide several specific examples of successes and failures when trying to meet the needs of an international community of researchers specifically related to Belmont Forum Work Package Themes regarding standards of

  16. Guiding device for a manipulator mast for internal inspection of a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W.; Schlueter, H.

    1977-01-01

    A remote-controlled supporting device centering a manipulator mast is described which is mounted and operated above a reactor pressure vessel under water in such a way that rotations and vertical movements necessary for the internal inspection of the pressure vessel remain possible. (RW) [de

  17. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... for Medical Science (CIOMS) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). PHS.../references/hrea1985.htm ) and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy; http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm ). The PHS Policy requires that institutions have an...

  18. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy Imaging-Guided Confocal Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Desheng; Kaldaras, Leonora; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an integrated spectroscopy system combining total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging with confocal single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy for two-dimensional interfaces. This spectroscopy approach is capable of both multiple molecules simultaneously sampling and in situ confocal fluorescence dynamics analyses of individual molecules of interest. We have demonstrated the calibration with fluorescent microspheres, and carried out single-molecule spectroscop...

  19. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  20. Field Guide to Layered Rocks. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom

    Presented is the study of sequences of rock layers as the basis for historical geology. Also considered is the influence of rock layers on the appearance of the landscape. Specific relevant laws of geology are presented. Preparation for a field trip is discussed. An example field trip is discussed and field techniques and projects are reviewed.…

  1. Proceedings of the international colloquium on modern quantum field theory II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the second International Colloquium on Modern Quantum Field Theory an attempt was made to cover a broad spectrum of topics in theoretical physics that included string theory, quantum gravity, statistical mechanics, condensed matter theory, complexity, lattice gauge theory and epistemological aspects of quantum mechanics. Papers relevant to INIS in the published proceedings are indexed separately

  2. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Vries, S.C. de; Emmerik, M.L. van; Groen, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between

  3. International Education Is a Broken Field: Can "Ubuntu" Education Bring Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Ubuntu" is an African philosophy of human kindness; applying it in the Global South would fundamentally alter the design of the education sector. This essay argues, however, that the field of international educational development is not, in fact, structured to support an education influenced by "ubuntu" ideals. Specifically,…

  4. Cranial radiotherapy guided by computed tomography with or without fields conformation in pediatric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Caussa, Lucas; Murina, Patricia; Zunino, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Many malignancies in children can be cured by radiotherapy, acute toxicity and the significant effect of delayed treatment are worrying for the patient, family and society. Therefore, the end of the pediatric radiotherapy is to maintain or improve the cure rate of cancer, diminishing the aftermath of treatment. The goal of this study is to measure differences in doses to the healthy tissue of the central nervous system with two radiotherapy techniques, both guided by computed tomography [es

  5. Generalized theory of a free-electron laser in a helical wiggler and guide magnetic fields using the kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, K.D.; Mishra, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent theory of a free-electron laser is developed by the kinetic approach, using the method of characteristics in helical wiggler and guide magnetic fields. The detailed relativistic particle trajectories obtained in wiggler and guide magnetic fields are used in linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations having variations in perpendicular and parallel momenta to obtain the perturbed distribution function in terms of perturbed electric and magnetic fields deviating from the vector potential approach. The perturbed distribution function thus obtained, having variations in perpendicular and parallel momenta for an arbitrary distribution function, is used to obtain current, conductivity and dielectric tensors. The full dispersion relation (FDR) and Compton dispersion relation (CDR) have been obtained. The dispersion diagram has been obtained and the interaction of the negative longitudinal space charge with the electromagnetic wave has been shown. The temporal growth rates obtained from the full dispersion relation and Compton dispersion relation for the tenuous cold relativistic beam in microwave region have been discussed

  6. Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to guide home health care services planning and delivery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimdee, Atipong; Nualnetr, Nomjit

    2017-01-01

    Home health care is an essential service for home-bound patients in Thailand. In this action research study, we used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to modify home health care services provided by a university hospital. Staff responsible for delivering the services (physical therapist, nurses, and Thai traditional medicine practitioners) participated in the development of an ICF-based assessment tool and home health care service procedure. After an 8-month trial of implementing these changes, professional satisfaction and empowerment were high among the home health care team members. Patients and their caregivers were also satisfied with the services. In conclusion, the ICF is an effective means of guiding home health care.

  7. Humeral repair in birds by guided tissue regeneration and external and internal associated fixation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, M.

    1993-01-01

    Ten pigeons (Columba livia domestic form) with humeral diaphyseal fracture were treated with external and internal fixation techniques (Boston technique and intamedullary pin). Longitudinal space was intentionally left between fracture surfaces during osteosynthesis. This space was filled with bovine lyophilized collagen, set around an intramedullary pin, in five samples. Ossification process was checked by radiography every seven days. Results show the utility of this technique in pneumatic bird bones. In fact, shortening control and callus formation facility were observed [it

  8. Review of Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data by Joel Best

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Swingle

    2009-01-01

    Best, Joel. Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008) 144 pp. $19.95. ISBN 1-978-0-520-25746-7.Stat-Spotting is a practical, do-it-yourself manual for detecting questionable claims reported in the media. Using examples drawn mostly from mass media sources, Stat-Spotting provides readers with a number of useful tips for identifying potentially problematic statistics. The author’s skillful analyses and explanations presented in cl...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTION, DISABILITY AND HEALTH IN FIELD OF PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, as an active participant at the Seminar IMPLEMENTATION OF ICF IN THE FIELD OF PEDIATRICS, held on 14-15 July 2004 at the hotel Panorama – Skopje, states his insight about the organization, work and aims of the seminar. He makes a review on attitudes and fields ICF in pediatric field commits. The commitments of ICF (International Classification of Function, Disability and Health in the Field of Pediatrics have been put on the child with developmental disabilities to be attention-centered; on bio-developmental model in interaction with the environment, on greater possibilities, safety and satisfaction of needs, as well as on greater freedom in participation in the community to realize the legal rights. It is pointed out that ICF in the field of pediatrics supports the idea ‘One for all’.

  10. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Asakawa, Naoki [Division of Molecular Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Matsubara, Kiyohiko [KOOROGI LLC, 6-1585-1-B Sakaino-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-0002 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said “homeostatic” behavior or “noise robustness” against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  11. Using an International Medical Advisory Board to guide clinical governance in a corporate refractive surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John A

    2009-07-01

    To describe the role played by the International Medical Advisory Board (IMAB) in clinical and corporate governance at Optical Express, a corporate provider of refractive surgery. A review of goals, objectives, and actions of the IMAB. The IMAB has contributed to study design, data analysis, and selection of instruments and procedures. Through interactions with Optical Express corporate and clinical staff, the IMAB has supported management's effort to craft a corporate culture focused on continuous improvement in the safety and visual outcomes of refractive surgery. The IMAB has fashioned significant changes in corporate policies and procedures and has had an impact on corporate culture at Optical Express.

  12. Internal environmental protection audits: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Habegger, L.; Surles, T.

    1983-08-01

    This manual has been prepared for use by any DOE facility as an aid for conducting an internal environmental-protection audit. The manual is organized in modular format, with each module covering a separate area of environmental protection. The questions within each module were developed from existing DOE orders, executive orders, federal statutes, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations issued pursuant to specific environmental legislation. A bibliography of such legislation is included at the end of this section. Each module also includes questions about a facility's use of industrial standards of practice

  13. [Women are human: Brief guide on international human rights law for psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobredo, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    Violence against women has gained public awareness in Argentina over the last few years. As any other social phenomena, gender violence is present in the work of psychiatrists, especially in the way they approach to clinical practice. International human rights' law enshrines the right of every women to live free from violence and to be treated with dignity and respect. This legal framework might nourish the practice of psychiatrists as a proposal for seeking cultural and social common grounds. The paper tries to get readers attention on the potentiality of this legal framework which ultimately, might in?uence not only everyday life but clinical practice as well.

  14. The first law of black hole mechanics for fields with internal gauge freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    We derive the first law of black hole mechanics for physical theories based on a local, covariant and gauge-invariant Lagrangian where the dynamical fields transform non-trivially under the action of some internal gauge transformations. The theories of interest include General Relativity formulated in terms of tetrads, Einstein–Yang–Mills theory and Einstein–Dirac theory. Since the dynamical fields of these theories have some internal gauge freedom, we argue that there is no natural group action of diffeomorphisms of spacetime on such dynamical fields. In general, such fields cannot even be represented as smooth, globally well-defined tensor fields on spacetime. Consequently the derivation of the first law by Iyer and Wald cannot be used directly. Nevertheless, we show how such theories can be formulated on a principal bundle and that there is a natural action of automorphisms of the bundle on the fields. These bundle automorphisms encode both spacetime diffeomorphisms and internal gauge transformations. Using this reformulation we define the Noether charge associated to an infinitesimal automorphism and the corresponding notion of stationarity and axisymmetry of the dynamical fields. We first show that we can define certain potentials and charges at the horizon of a black hole so that the potentials are constant on the bifurcate Killing horizon, giving a generalised zeroth law for bifurcate Killing horizons. We further identify the gravitational potential and perturbed charge as the temperature and perturbed entropy of the black hole which gives an explicit formula for the perturbed entropy analogous to the Wald entropy formula. We then obtain a general first law of black hole mechanics for such theories. The first law relates the perturbed Hamiltonians at spatial infinity and the horizon, and the horizon contributions take the form of a ‘potential times perturbed charge’ term. We also comment on the ambiguities in defining a prescription for the total

  15. Charge transfer to a dielectric target by guided ionization waves using electric field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Guaitella, O.; Sobota, A.

    2017-01-01

    A kHz-operated atmospheric pressure plasma jet is investigated by measuring charge transferred to a dielectric electro-optic surface (BSO crystal) allowing for the measurement of electric field by exploiting the Pockels effect. The electric field values, distribution of the surface discharge and

  16. The International Gravity Field Service (IGFS): Present Day Activities And Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, R.; Vergos, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    IGFS is a unified "umbrella" IAG service that coordinates the servicing of the geodetic and geophysical community with gravity field related data, software and information. The combined data of the IGFS entities will include global geopotential models, terrestrial, airborne, satellite and marine gravity observations, Earth tide data, GPS/levelling data, digital models of terrain and bathymetry, as well as ocean gravity field and geoid from satellite altimetry. The IGFS structure is based on the Gravity Services, the "operating arms" of IGFS. These Services related to IGFS are: BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International), Toulouse, France ISG (International Service for the Geoid), Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy IGETS (International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service), EOST, Strasbourg, France ICGEM (International Center for Global Earth Models), GFZ, Potsdam, Germany IDEMS (International Digital Elevation Model Service), ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA The Central Bureau, hosted at the Aristotle Thessaloniki University, is in charge for all the interactions among the services and the other IAG bodies, particularly GGOS. In this respect, connections with the GGOS Bureaus of Products and Standards and of Networks and Observations have been recently strengthened in order to align the Gravity services to the GGOS standards. IGFS is also strongly involved in the most relevant projects related to the gravity field such as the establishment of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System and of the International Height Reference System. These projects, along with the organization of Geoid Schools devoted to methods for gravity and geoid estimate, will play a central role in the IGFS future actions in the framework of GGOS.

  17. Self-fields in free-electron lasers with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhi, B; Jafary, F B; Maraghechi, B

    2006-01-01

    A theory of self-electric and self-magnetic fields of a relativistic electron beam passing through a one-dimensional planar wiggler and an ion-channel is presented. The equilibrium orbits and their stability, under the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields, are analysed. New unstable orbits, in the first part of the group I orbits, are found. It is shown that for a low energy and high density beam the self-fields can produce very large effects. Stabilities of quasi-steady-state orbits are investigated by analytical and numerical methods and perfect agreement was found. The theory of small signal gain is used to derive a formula for the gain with the self-field effects included. A numerical analysis is conducted to study the self-field effects on the quasi-steady-state orbits and the gain

  18. Improved foilless Ku-band transit-time oscillator for generating gigawatt level microwave with low guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu; He, Juntao, E-mail: hejuntao12@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; Jiang, Tao; Hu, Yi [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-09-15

    An improved foilless Ku-band transit-time oscillator with low guiding magnetic field is proposed and investigated in this paper. With a non-uniform buncher and a coaxial TM{sub 02} mode dual-resonant reflector, this improved device can output gigawatt level Ku-band microwave with relatively compact radial dimensions. Besides the above virtue, this novel reflector also has the merits of high TEM reflectance, being more suitable for pre-modulating the electron beam and enhancing the conversion efficiency. Moreover, in order to further increase the conversion efficiency and lower the power saturation time, a depth-tunable coaxial collector and a resonant cavity located before the extractor are employed in our device. Main structure parameters of the device are optimized by particle in cell simulations. The typical simulation result is that, with a 380 kV, 8.2 kA beam guided by a magnetic field of about 0.6 T, 1.15 GW microwave pulse at 14.25 GHz is generated, yielding a conversion efficiency of about 37%.

  19. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; St. Amand, Ann

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  20. International co-operation in the nuclear field. Europe and OCDE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1981-05-01

    This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) []Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques

  1. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  2. International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Runci, Paul; Meier, Alan

    2008-08-01

    This report presents results from a program evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Buildings Technologies Program (BTP) participation in collaborative international technology implementing agreements. The evaluation was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the fall of 2007 and winter 2008 and was carried out via interviews with stakeholders in four implementing agreements in which BTP participates, reviews of relevant program reports, websites and other published materials. In addition to these findings, the report includes a variety of supporting materials such that aim to assist BTP managers who currently participate in IEA implementing agreements or who may be considering participation.

  3. Evaluation guide for the international reactor physics experiments evaluation project (IRPhEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akifumi

    2013-01-01

    At present, there is an urgent need to preserve integral reactor physics experimental data including separate or special effects data for nuclear energy and technology applications and the knowledge and competence contained therein. The International Reactor Physics Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated as a pilot activity in 1999 by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June of 2003. While coordination and administration of the IRPhEP takes place at an international level, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction, and priorities of the project within their respective countries. This document outlines the general presentation guidelines that evaluators should follow for the description of the experiments and all relevant experimental data in order to ensure the consistency between the evaluations published in the final Handbook. Publication templates will be used to ensure this consistency and will follow the general scheme below: 1 - Experiment identification number; 2- Date; 3 - Name of experiment (Purpose of experiment, Phenomena measured and scope); 4 - Name or designation of experimental programme; 5 - Description of facility; 6 - Description of test or experiment (Experimental configuration, Core life cycle, Experimental limitations or shortcomings); 7 - Phenomena measured (Description of results and analysis, Special features and characteristics of experiment, Measurement systems/methods and uncertainties); 8 - Duplicate or complementary experiments / other related experiments; 9 - Status of completion of the evaluation; 10 - References (pointer to evaluation, archive if available, otherwise generic bibliographic reference); 11 - Authors/ organisers 12 - Material available

  4. Investigation of the internal behavior in segmented PEMFCs of different flow fields during cold start process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.; Ren, Y.S.; Lin, X.W.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yang, Z.; Chang, Y.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have researched the internal behavior in segmented proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with three different flow fields during cold start process. The change of internal current density and temperature in fuel cells with different flow fields could be obviously shown by the printed circuit board (PCB) technology, and the study shows that the flow field is significant for enhancing the cold start ability and durability. Single serpentine flow field has the best cold start performance, while triple channel serpentine flow field has the best uniformity. It is found that without a robust temperature rising tendency, the cell temperature reaching 0 °C does not definitely mean a successful cold start because the cell temperature might drop down 0 °C again. Polarization curves show that there is almost no performance degradation after successful cold start, but the cell degrades quickly after the failed cold start at −7 °C and −10 °C. Based on these characteristics, we optimized the rapid cold start strategy by using electric heating and make it possible to start up the PEMFC at temperatures down to −20 °C within about 11 min. - Highlights: • Segmented fuel cell were used to record the internal current density and temperature distributions during the cold start. • The effects of flow fields on the PEMFC cold start capacity were evaluated. • The effect of cold start on the performance of fuel cell was evaluated. • An optimized strategy was adopted to improve the cold start capacity.

  5. Measurement of internal magnetic field pitch using Li pellet injection on TFTR (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Marmar, E.S.; Howell, R.B.; Bell, M.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Ramsey, A.; Schmidt, G.L.; Stratton, B.; Taylor, G.; Mauel, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic technique which measures the direction of the internal magnetic field pitch angle has been used successfully on TFTR. The technique requires the injection of high-speed Li pellets. The magnetic field direction is measured by observing the polarization direction of the intense visible line emission from Li + (λ∼5485 A, 1s2p 3 P 0,1,2 →1s2s 3 S 0 ) in the pellet ablation cloud. The presence of the large (primarily toroidal) magnetic field causes the line to be split due to the Zeeman effect, and the unshifted π component is polarized with its polarization direction parallel to the local magnetic field. In devices with sufficiently strong fields (B approx-gt 4.5 T), the Zeeman splitting of the line is large enough, relative to the linewidth of each Zeeman component, that enough residual polarization remains. Because the pellet moves about 1 cm before the Li + is ionized (τ ionization approx-lt 10 μs), the time history of the polarization direction (as the pellet penetrates from the outside toward the plasma center) yields the local magnetic field direction. In the TFTR experiment, spatial resolution of the measurement is typically ∼7 cm, limited by the requirement that a large number of photons must be collected in order to make the measurement of the polarization angle. Typically, the pitch of the field is measured with an accuracy of ±0.01 rad, limited by the photon statistics. The measurements of the internal field pitch angle, combined with external magnetic measurements, have been used in a code which finds the solution of the Grad--Shafranov equation, yielding the equilibrium which is the best fit to the measured inputs

  6. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  7. The measurement of internal stress fields in weldments and around cracks using high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Windsor, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes and illustrates the capability of neutron diffraction to measure the complete internal lattice macrostrain field, and hence the stress field, within steel components and weldments arising from their fabrication. A brief outline is given of the theory of the neutron method. The experimental considerations are discussed. The method is illustrated by its application to the measurement of the stress distribution in a:- uniaxially stressed mild steel rod, a double - V test weld, a tube-plate weld, and a cracked fatigue test specimen. (U.K.)

  8. Studies of field distortions in a time projection chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will allow to do precision measurements of Standard Model parameter and to search for new physics. The ILD detector concept, which is developed for the ILC, uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as central tracking device. The momentum resolution goal for the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t ) ≅ 10 -4 (GeV/c) -1 at a magnetic field of B=3.5 T. Field distortions of the magnetic or electric field inside the sensitive volume of the TPC distort the momentum measurements. Therefore, one needs to keep them under control and correct them with high precision. In this thesis the main sources of field distortions in the TPC are identified and their effects are determined. Furthermore, possibilities to reduce the identified field distortions are presented. One known source of distortions of the electric field are ions, produced by the gas amplification in the TPC anode, that drift into the sensitive volume of the TPC. In the first part of this work the creation of these ions in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), which are used for the gas amplification, is studied. It will be shown that the resulting field distortions are not acceptable at the ILD TPC. By tuning the parameters of the gas amplification at the anode the field distortion can be reduced, which is shown in measurements and simulations. In addition measurements using a modified GEM show that it is possible to further reduce the field distortions with such a GEM. In the second part of this work field distortions arising at boundaries between individual readout modules are investigated using simulation studies. It will be shown in simulations, which are verified by measurement results, that these field distortions significantly influence the readout module performance. Based on the simulation results the GEM based readout module developed at DESY is optimised and the field distortions are reduced. These performance improvements could also be verified in measurements. Finally, a laser

  9. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  10. Radiation field of an optically finite homogeneous atmosphere with internal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viik, T.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of radiative transfer in an optically finite homogeneous atmosphere with different internal sources is solved using the method of kernel approximation the essence of which is to approximate the kernel in the equation for the Sobolev resolvent function by a Gauss-Legendre sum. This approximation allows to solve the equation exactly for the resolvent function while the solution is a weighted sum of exponents. Since the resolvent function is closely connected with the Green function of the integral radiative transfer equation, the radiation field for different internal sources can be found by simple integration. In order to simplify the obtained formulas we have defined the x and y functions as the generalization of the well-known Ambarzumian-Chandrasekhar X and Y functions. For some types of internal sources the package of codes in Fortran-77 can be found at (http://www.aai.ee/~viik/HOMOGEN.FOR).

  11. Project Adopsys as an example of international collaboration in the field of photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoric, Nenad; Livshits, Irina; Urbach, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Tendencies of international cooperation in engineering education became very visible during recent years. We demonstrate this statement on one currently running EU project ADOPSYS in the field of optical design, which is an important part of engineering education in photonics. This example shows the importance of the input from different countries and organizations - both from industry and academia. Seven universities and eight optical companies are involved in the project ADOPSYS. Sharing experience of Academia education activity we provide new international type of education "free-of borders". We are going to discuss the key enable technology - PHOTONICS, which is widely used in modern society. Engineering science became very international. For communicating between people from different countries the English language is now used almost exclusively. For a fruitful collaboration between people from different nations, in multi-national projects, tolerance and respect are required between people of different political, cultural, educational backgrounds.

  12. DO WE STILL NEED A CONVENTION IN THE FIELD OF HARMONISATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL LAW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korzhevskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper critically discusses the opinion of certain scholars that the use of multilateral treaties (conventions in the field of harmonisation of international commercial law has been in a state of steady decline. They believe that traditional treaty law has been gradually replaced in recent years by softer methods of making international law, such as the use of restatements and model laws. Some scholars even claim that treaty law is dead or dying. The work assesses whether this view has reasonable grounds, providing an overview of the most prominent hard law and soft law harmonising instruments and outlining issues relating to the success of conventions, their advantages, drawbacks and tensions arising in this area. The paper suggests that conventions remain necessary where the third party or public interest are at stake, however, further improvements are needed to make conventions more successful instruments in international commercial law.

  13. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Nicholas; White, Nicholas Jeremiah; Caulfield, Colm-cille Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1000~m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1171 reflections, each of which is greater th...

  14. Internal electric fields and color shift in Cr3+-based gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Moreno, M.

    2012-06-01

    Seeking to better understand the origin of the different colors of emerald and ruby, both ab initio periodic and cluster calculations have been carried out. The calculations reproduce the interatomic distances measured for pure Be3Si6Al2O18 and Al2O3 as well as the Cr3+-O2- distances in emerald and ruby. The mean Cr3+-O2- distance for Be3Si6Al2O18:Cr3+ and Al2O3:Cr3+ is found to be practically equal to 1.97 Å, in agreement with recent experimental values. The present calculations confirm that the variations of optical properties due to Cr3+ impurities along the series of ionic oxides can be understood merely through the CrO69- unit but subject to the electric field due to the rest of the lattice ions. As a salient feature it is proved that changes in electronic density and covalency due to the internal field are not the cause of the color shift. Therefore, the red color of ruby is not due to the polarization of the electronic cloud around chromium as a result of the C3 local symmetry. The present study also demonstrates that the variation of the ligand field splitting parameter, 10Dq, induced by the internal electric field comes mainly from the contributions of first shells of ions around the CrO69- unit. As a consequence, 10Dq in emerald is not influenced by the internal field, as the contribution from Be2+ first neighbors is practically compensated by that of Si4+ second neighbors. In contrast, in ruby the t2g levels are shifted by the internal field 0.24 eV more than the eg ones, so explaining the color shift in this gemstone in comparison with emerald. This result is shown to arise partially from the asymmetric form of the internal electrostatic potential along the C3 axis in Al2O3.

  15. An investigation of coupling of the internal kink mode to error field correction coils in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of the internal kink to an external m/n = 1/1 perturbation is studied for profiles that are known to result in a saturated internal kink in the limit of a cylindrical tokamak. It is found from three-dimensional equilibrium calculations that, for A ≈ 30 circular plasmas and A ≈ 3 elliptical shapes, this coupling of the boundary perturbation to the internal kink is strong; i.e., the amplitude of the m/n = 1/1 structure at q = 1 is large compared with the amplitude applied at the plasma boundary. Evidence suggests that this saturated internal kink, resulting from small field errors, is an explanation for the TEXTOR and JET measurements of q 0 remaining well below unity throughout the sawtooth cycle, as well as the distinction between sawtooth effects on the q-profile observed in TEXTOR and DIII-D. It is proposed that this excitation, which could readily be applied with error field correction coils, be explored as a mechanism for controlling sawtooth amplitudes in high-performance tokamak discharges. This result is then combined with other recent tokamak results to propose an L-mode approach to fusion in tokamaks. (paper)

  16. 3-D near-field imaging of guided modes in nanophotonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Jed I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly evanescent waveguides with a subwavelength core thickness present a promising lab-on-chip solution for generating nanovolume trapping sites using overlapping evanescent fields. In this work, we experimentally studied Si3N4 waveguides whose sub-wavelength cross-sections and high aspect ratios support fundamental and higher order modes at a single excitation wavelength. Due to differing modal effective indices, these co-propagating modes interfere and generate beating patterns with significant evanescent field intensity. Using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM, we map the structure of these beating modes in three dimensions. Our results demonstrate the potential of NSOM to optimize waveguide design for complex field trapping devices. By reducing the in-plane width, the population of competing modes decreases, resulting in a simplified spectrum of beating modes, such that waveguides with a width of 650 nm support three modes with two observed beats. Our results demonstrate the potential of NSOM to optimize waveguide design for complex field trapping devices.

  17. The Things You Do: Internal Models of Others' Expected Behaviour Guide Action Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley C Schenke

    Full Text Available Predictions allow humans to manage uncertainties within social interactions. Here, we investigate how explicit and implicit person models-how different people behave in different situations-shape these predictions. In a novel action identification task, participants judged whether actors interacted with or withdrew from objects. In two experiments, we manipulated, unbeknownst to participants, the two actors action likelihoods across situations, such that one actor typically interacted with one object and withdrew from the other, while the other actor showed the opposite behaviour. In Experiment 2, participants additionally received explicit information about the two individuals that either matched or mismatched their actual behaviours. The data revealed direct but dissociable effects of both kinds of person information on action identification. Implicit action likelihoods affected response times, speeding up the identification of typical relative to atypical actions, irrespective of the explicit knowledge about the individual's behaviour. Explicit person knowledge, in contrast, affected error rates, causing participants to respond according to expectations instead of observed behaviour, even when they were aware that the explicit information might not be valid. Together, the data show that internal models of others' behaviour are routinely re-activated during action observation. They provide first evidence of a person-specific social anticipation system, which predicts forthcoming actions from both explicit information and an individuals' prior behaviour in a situation. These data link action observation to recent models of predictive coding in the non-social domain where similar dissociations between implicit effects on stimulus identification and explicit behavioural wagers have been reported.

  18. Performance of an elliptically tapered neutron guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Sebastian; Stadlbauer, Martin; Boeni, Peter; Schanzer, Christan; Stahn, Jochen; Filges, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using elliptically tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of elliptic guides in various fields of neutron physics

  19. Electric Field Guided Assembly of One-Dimensional Nanostructures for High Performance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Various nanowire or nanotube-based devices have been demonstrated to fulfill the anticipated future demands on sensors. To fabricate such devices, electric field-based methods have demonstrated a great potential to integrate one-dimensional nanostructures into various forms. This review paper discusses theoretical and experimental aspects of the working principles, the assembled structures, and the unique functions associated with electric field-based assembly. The challenges and opportunities of the assembly methods are addressed in conjunction with future directions toward high performance sensors.

  20. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  1. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  2. Field Guide to Soils. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Henry; Jacobs, Hyde S.

    Discussed are the importance of soil to plant and animal life, the evolution of a soil profile, and the major kinds of soil in the United States. On a suggested field trip, students examine different kinds of soil profiles; they also measure soil acidity and water-holding capacity. Suggestions for further study are provided along with references…

  3. Variational Symplectic Integrator for Long-Time Simulations of the Guiding-Center Motion of Charged Particles in General Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hong; Guan Xiaoyin

    2008-01-01

    A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed for long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure, and has better numerical properties over long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and variable time-step fourth order Runge-Kutta methods

  4. Variational Symplectic Integrator for Long-Time Simulations of the Guiding-Center Motion of Charged Particles in General Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.; Guan, X.

    2008-01-01

    A variational symplectic integrator for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic fields is developed for long-time simulation studies of magnetized plasmas. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The variational symplectic integrator conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure, and has better numerical properties over long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and variable time-step fourth order Runge-Kutta methods.

  5. Internal electric fields of electrolytic solutions induced by space-charge polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2006-10-01

    The dielectric dispersion of electrolytic solutions prepared using chlorobenzene as a solvent and tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate as a solute is analyzed in terms of space-charge polarization in order to derive the ionic constants, and the Stokes radius obtained is discussed in comparison with the values that have been measured by conductometry. A homogeneous internal electric field is assumed for simplicity in the analysis of the space-charge polarization. The justification of the approximation by the homogeneous field is discussed from two points of view: one is the accuracy of the Stokes radius value observed and the other is the effect of bound charges on electrodes in which they level the highly inhomogeneous field, which has been believed in the past. In order to investigate the actual electric field, numerical calculations based on the Poisson equation are carried out by considering the influence of the bound charges. The variation of the number of bound charges with time is clarified by determining the relaxation function of the dielectric constant attributed to the space-charge polarization. Finally, a technique based on a two-field approximation, where homogeneous and hyperbolic fields are independently applied in relevant frequency ranges, is introduced to analyze the space-charge polarization of the electrolytic solutions, and further improvement of the accuracy in the determination of the Stokes radius is achieved.

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu

    2009-07-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Materials Fields (MAP3) was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. The first was held in March 2004 at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, USA. Two years later the second took place in Grenoble, France. MAP3 was held at The University of Tokyo International Symposium, and jointly with MANA Workshop on Materials Processing by External Stimulation, and JSPS CORE Program of Construction of the World Center on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials. At the end of MAP3 it was decided that the next MAP4 will be held in Atlanta, USA in 2010. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. MAP3 focused on the magnetic field interactions involved in the study and processing of materials in all disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry and biology: Magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, and biological phenomena Magnetic field effects on electrochemical phenomena Magnetic field effects on thermodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on hydrodynamic phenomena Magnetic field effects on crystal growth Magnetic processing of materials Diamagnetic levitation Magneto-Archimedes effect Spin chemistry Application of magnetic fields to analytical chemistry Magnetic orientation Control of structure by magnetic fields Magnetic separation and purification Magnetic field-induced phase transitions Materials properties in high magnetic fields Development of NMR and MRI Medical application of magnetic fields Novel magnetic phenomena Physical property measurement by Magnetic fields High magnetic field generation> MAP3 consisted of 84 presentations including 16 invited talks. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceeding of MAP3 with 34 papers that provide a scientific record of the topics covered by the conference with the special topics (13 papers) in

  7. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II; Desgaste placas tubos guia barras de control interno superior vasija del reactor C.N. Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  8. Intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Ye; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Bai-Nan

    2016-09-01

    To determine the beneficial effects of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas. Twelve patients with 13 supratentorial cavernomas were prospectively enrolled and operated while using a 1.5 T intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. All cavernomas were deeply located in subcortical areas or involved critical areas. Intraoperative high-field MRIs were obtained for the intraoperative "visualization" of surrounding eloquent structures, "brain shift" corrections, and navigational plan updates. All cavernomas were successfully resected with guidance from intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. In 5 cases with supratentorial cavernomas, intraoperative "brain shift" severely deterred locating of the lesions; however, intraoperative MRI facilitated precise locating of these lesions. During long-term (>3 months) follow-up, some or all presenting signs and symptoms improved or resolved in 4 cases, but were unchanged in 7 patients. Intraoperative high-field MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring are helpful in surgeries for the treatment of small deeply seated subcortical cavernomas.

  9. Energy Conversion Mechanism for Electron Perpendicular Energy in High Guide-Field Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuehan; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Frank; Ono, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The energy conversion mechanism for electron perpendicular energy, both the thermal and the kinetic energy, is investigated by means of two-dimensional, full-particle simulations in an open system. It is shown that electron perpendicular heating is mainly due to the breaking of magnetic moment conservation in separatrix region because the charge separation generates intense variation of electric field within the electron Larmor radius. Meanwhile, electron perpendicular acceleration takes place manly due to the polarization drift term as well as the curvature drift term of E . u⊥ in the downstream near the X-point. The enhanced electric field due to the charge separation there results in a significant effect of the polarization drift term on the dissipation of magnetic energy within the ion inertia length in the downstream. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  10. A practical guide to manuscript writing with particular relevance to the field of pediatric hospital medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Ronald J; Andrews, Anne L; Williams, Derek J

    2014-11-01

    Publishing manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals, such as Hospital Pediatrics, is critical for both the academic development of practitioners in pediatric hospital medicine and the scientific advancement of our field. Understanding the purpose of scientific writing and developing a structured approach to the writing process is essential. Doing so will improve the clarity of your work and likely the ease at which your research is published and disseminated throughout the scientific community. The purposes of this article are to detail the structure of a scientific manuscript, to highlight specific writing strategies, and to provide writing tips that may help or hinder publication. Our ultimate goal is to advance the field of pediatric hospital medicine and its growing membership by promoting the dissemination of high-quality research. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Archaeological Geophysics for DoD Field Use: A Guide for New and Novice Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    magnetometers are commonly used in archaeology: proton precession, optically pumped, and fluxgate . Proton precession magnetometers were the first to... Fluxgate magnetometers use a metal rod around which a coil of copper wire is wound (Clark 1996). An external magnetic field, such as the Earth’s...means that fluxgate sensors are direction sensitive, and much more so than precession magnetometers . They are usually configured to measure the

  12. Internal and external potential-field estimation from regional vector data at varying satellite altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2017-10-01

    When modelling satellite data to recover a global planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e.g. by regularization). Here, we develop the theory behind a procedure to invert for planetary potential fields from vector observations collected within a spatially bounded region at varying satellite altitude. Our method relies on the construction of spatiospectrally localized bases of functions that mitigate the noise amplification caused by downward continuation (from the satellite altitude to the source) while balancing the conflicting demands for spatial concentration and spectral limitation. The `altitude-cognizant' gradient vector Slepian functions (AC-GVSF) enjoy a noise tolerance under downward continuation that is much improved relative to the `classical' gradient vector Slepian functions (CL-GVSF), which do not factor satellite altitude into their construction. Furthermore, venturing beyond the realm of their first application, published in a preceding paper, in the present article we extend the theory to being able to handle both internal and external potential-field estimation. Solving simultaneously for internal and external fields under the limitation of regional data availability reduces internal-field artefacts introduced by downward-continuing unmodelled external fields, as we show with numerical examples. We explain our solution strategies on the basis of analytic expressions for the behaviour of the estimation bias and variance of models for which signal and noise are uncorrelated, (essentially) space- and band-limited, and spectrally (almost) white. The AC-GVSF are optimal linear combinations of vector spherical harmonics

  13. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network

  14. A method for gear fatigue life prediction considering the internal flow field of the gear pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haidong; Li, Zhiqiang; Qi, Lele; Qiao, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Gear pump is the most widely used volume type hydraulic pump, and it is the main power source of the hydraulic system. Its performance is influenced by many factors, such as working environment, maintenance, fluid pressure and so on. It is different from the gear transmission system, the internal flow field of gear pump has a greater impact on the gear life, therefore it needs to consider the internal hydraulic system when predicting the gear fatigue life. In this paper, a certain aircraft gear pump as the research object, aim at the typical failure forms, gear contact fatigue, of gear pump, proposing the prediction method based on the virtual simulation. The method use CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) software to analyze pressure distribution of internal flow field of the gear pump, and constructed the unidirectional flow-solid coupling model of gear to acquire the contact stress of tooth surface on Ansys workbench software. Finally, employing nominal stress method and Miner cumulative damage theory to calculated the gear contact fatigue life based on modified material P-S-N curve. Engineering practice show that the method is feasible and efficient.

  15. Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2013-11-01

    An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.

  16. Effects of multi-photon interferences from internally generated fields in strongly resonant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lu; Payne, Marvin G.; Garrett, William R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of various nonlinear optical phenomena, strong resonant features in the atomic or molecular response to multi-photon driven processes have been used to greatly enhance the visibility of otherwise weak higher-order processes. However, there are well defined circumstances where a multi-photon-resonant response of a target system leads to the generation of one or more new electromagnetic fields that can drastically change the overall system response from what would be expected from the imposed laser fields alone. New effects can occur and dominate some aspects of the nonlinear optical response because of the constructive or destructive interference between transition amplitudes along multiple excitation pathways between a given set of optically coupled states, where one of the pathways involve internally generated field(s). Under destructive interference some resonant enhancements can become completely canceled (suppressed). This review focuses on the class of optical interference effects associated with internally generated fields, that have been found to be capable of influencing a very significant number of basic physical phenomena in gas or vapor phase systems. It provides a historical overview of experimental and theoretical developments and a modern understanding of the underlying physics and its various manifestations that include: suppression of multi-photon excitation processes, suppression of stimulated emissions (Raman, hyper-Raman, and optically pumped stimulated emissions), saturation of parametric wave-mixing, pressure and beam-geometry dependent shifting of multi-photon-resonant absorption lines, and the suppression of Autler-Townes splitting and ac-stark shifts. Additionally, optical interference effects in some modern contexts, such as achieving multi-photon induced transparency, establishing single-photon self-interference based induced transparency, and generating entangled single photon states, are reviewed

  17. International education is a broken field: Can ubuntu education bring solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Ubuntu is an African philosophy of human kindness; applying it in the Global South would fundamentally alter the design of the education sector. This essay argues, however, that the field of international educational development is not, in fact, structured to support an education influenced by ubuntu ideals. Specifically, the educational development milieu includes donors, implementers and academicians who do not sufficiently question the power dynamics which underpin education development. This creates a field where the power imbalances between donors and host governments are not interrogated, where development workers place too much faith in their own knowledge rather than that of local education experts, and where development practitioners rarely appreciate the privilege of working in countries which are not their own. An ubuntu education would alter the educational development field in myriad critical ways, a few of which are suggested in this essay. Educational development programmes in universities and intake programmes for implementers and donors should teach officers humility, appreciating existing local talent and expertise. Donor programmes should incentivise reflective practice which formally embeds appreciation for local culture and expertise, thereby supporting structures which help educational development experts to review their metacognitive processes. The field should also dramatically increase the numbers of local, minority and female educational development practitioners and provide more avenues for advancement for those groups. These are activities which are critical to supporting the education development field, but require a fundamental change of attitude by practitioners to ensure the right kind of relationships between the West and the Global South.

  18. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  19. Internal fields on Gd3+ ions diluted in Eu2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysler, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The EPR spectrum of dilute Gd 3+ ions substituting for Eu 3+ in Eu 2 CuO 4 at 9 GHz and 35 GHz in the temperature range of room temperature down 1.5K have been measured. Each one of the resonance lines shows a splitting into two or more weaker lines below T N ∼ 215K. The simultaneous appearance of a low field microwave absorption signal is attributed to the onset of long range antiferromagnetic ordering with a weak ferromagnetic component. The splitting of the EPR spectrum is associated with different Gd sites in the magnetically ordered structure. A reduction of the local symmetry of the rare earth sites below T N is described in terms of an internal magnetic field lying in the ab-plane. Dipolar and exchange contributions to the internal field are discussed. A strong dependence of the GdEPR spectrum and the microwave absorption on the magnetic history of the samples has been observed, suggesting the formation of magnetic domains or a glassy state. (Author) [es

  20. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.

  1. Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Robinson, Joel E.

    2017-11-20

    Yellowstone National Park, a nearly 9,000 km2 (~3,468 mi2) area, was preserved in 1872 as the world’s first national park for its unique, extraordinary, and magnificent natural features. Rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, Yellowstone National Park has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of late Cenozoic explosive and effusive volcanism, on-going tectonism, glaciation, and hydrothermal activity. The Yellowstone Caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau lies at the most northeastern front of the 17-Ma Yellowstone hot spot track, one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on continental crust can be observed in the volcanic and tectonic (faulting and uplift) record at the rate and direction predicted by plate motion. Over six days, this field trip presents an intensive overview into volcanism, tectonism, and hydrothermal activity on the Yellowstone Plateau (fig. 1). Field stops are linked directly to conceptual models related to monitoring of the various volcanic, geochemical, hydrothermal, and tectonic aspects of the greater Yellowstone system. Recent interest in young and possible future volcanism at Yellowstone as well as new discoveries and synthesis of previous studies, (for example, tomographic, deformation, gas, aeromagnetic, bathymetric, and seismic surveys), provide a framework in which to discuss volcanic, hydrothermal, and seismic activity in this dynamic region.

  2. Gauge invariance and canonical quantization applied in the study of internal structure of gauge field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Chen Xiangsong; Lue Xiaofu; Sun Weiming; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However, we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed.

  3. Transient Occlusion of Bilateral Internal Iliac Arteries Facilitates Bloodless Operative Field in Subcapsular Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate is the gold standard of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Nevertheless, open subcapsular prostatectomy is still performed for large BPH. While enucleation of prostatic adenoma is being performed, unneglectable bleeding can occur and surgeons need to rush to remove adenomas, often using fingers and in a blinded fashion. The blood supply to the prostatic capsule and adenoma can be reduced to a marked extent in subcapsular prostatectomy if the bilateral internal iliac arteries are transiently occluded. Thus, a bloodless operative field is reasonably acquired during enucleation of adenoma, which would, otherwise, be a cause for concern to surgeons due to bleeding. It is not always applicable, but it could be an option if the estimated volume of BPH is more than 100 mL. In two cases, bilateral internal iliac arteries were occluded with Bulldog clamps, and then adenomas of 159 and 97 g were enucleated.

  4. Structural characteristics of proposed ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coil conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Telemedicine-guided, very low-dose international normalized ratio self-control in patients with mechanical heart valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koertke, Heinrich; Zittermann, Armin; Wagner, Otto; Secer, Songuel; Sciangula, Alfonso; Saggau, Werner; Sack, Falk-Udo; Ennker, Jürgen; Cremer, Jochen; Musumeci, Francesco; Gummert, Jan F

    2015-06-01

    To study in patients performing international normalized ratio (INR) self-control the efficacy and safety of an INR target range of 1.6-2.1 for aortic valve replacement (AVR) and 2.0-2.5 for mitral valve replacement (MVR) or double valve replacement (DVR). In total, 1304 patients undergoing AVR, 189 undergoing MVR and 78 undergoing DVR were randomly assigned to low-dose INR self-control (LOW group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.8-2.8; MVR/DVR: 2.5-3.5) or very low-dose INR self-control once a week (VLO group) and twice a week (VLT group) (INR target range, AVR: 1.6-2.1; MVR/DVR: 2.0-2.5), with electronically guided transfer of INR values. We compared grade III complications (major bleeding and thrombotic events; primary end-points) and overall mortality (secondary end-point) across the three treatment groups. Two-year freedom from bleedings in the LOW, VLO, and VLT groups was 96.3, 98.6, and 99.1%, respectively (P = 0.008). The corresponding values for thrombotic events were 99.0, 99.8, and 98.9%, respectively (P = 0.258). The risk-adjusted composite of grade III complications was in the per-protocol population (reference: LOW-dose group) as follows: hazard ratio = 0.307 (95% CI: 0.102-0.926; P = 0.036) for the VLO group and = 0.241 (95% CI: 0.070-0.836; P = 0.025) for the VLT group. The corresponding values of 2-year mortality were = 1.685 (95% CI: 0.473-5.996; P = 0.421) for the VLO group and = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.62-13.60; P = 0.004) for the VLT group. Telemedicine-guided very low-dose INR self-control is comparable with low-dose INR in thrombotic risk, and is superior in bleeding risk. Weekly testing is sufficient. Given the small number of MVR and DVR patients, results are only valid for AVR patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Helmholtz international Summer school quantum field theory at the limits. From strong fields to heavy quarks (HQ 2016). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed; Blaschke, David; Issadykov, Aidos; Ivanov, Mikhail (eds.)

    2017-04-15

    The Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) entitled ''Quantum Field Theory at the Limits: from Strong Fields to Heavy Quarks (SF→HQ)'', was held in the period July 18-30, 2016 at the Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, as part of the activities of the Dubna International Advanced School of Theoretical Physics (DIAS-TH). It was co-organized by Ahmed Ali (DESY Hamburg), David Blaschke (JINR Dubna, MEPhI and Univ. Wroclaw), Holger Gies (HI Jena), and Mikhail Ivanov (JINR Dubna), and was attended by 82 participants (faculty+students), not counting the JINR physicists who attended some lectures as non-registered participants. The school (SF→HQ) continued the workshops and schools of the HISS series held earlier in Dubna (1993, 1996, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2013), Bad Honnef (1994) and Rostock (1997). The scientific program of the school consisted of five regular (one-hour long) lectures in the morning and afternoon sessions, with typically two contributed talks given by younger participants (students and postdocs), each half-hour long, in the late afternoons. Altogether, we had sixty lectures by the faculty and participants. In addition, black-board exercises were held in the post-lunch periods on selected aspects of strong fields and field theory. The HISS series of schools has played an important role in bringing together an international faculty and young physicists (Ph.D. and postdocs), mostly from Russia and Germany, but increasingly also from other countries, including those affiliated to JINR Dubna. They participate in two-week long intense scientific discourse, mainly dedicated lectures on selected topics covering the foundation and the frontiers of high energy physics and cosmology. The novelty of this year's school was its bifocal interest, which brought together two different physical science communities - particle and laser physicists. There were

  7. Helmholtz international Summer school quantum field theory at the limits. From strong fields to heavy quarks (HQ 2016). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed; Blaschke, David; Issadykov, Aidos; Ivanov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    The Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) entitled ''Quantum Field Theory at the Limits: from Strong Fields to Heavy Quarks (SF→HQ)'', was held in the period July 18-30, 2016 at the Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, as part of the activities of the Dubna International Advanced School of Theoretical Physics (DIAS-TH). It was co-organized by Ahmed Ali (DESY Hamburg), David Blaschke (JINR Dubna, MEPhI and Univ. Wroclaw), Holger Gies (HI Jena), and Mikhail Ivanov (JINR Dubna), and was attended by 82 participants (faculty+students), not counting the JINR physicists who attended some lectures as non-registered participants. The school (SF→HQ) continued the workshops and schools of the HISS series held earlier in Dubna (1993, 1996, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2013), Bad Honnef (1994) and Rostock (1997). The scientific program of the school consisted of five regular (one-hour long) lectures in the morning and afternoon sessions, with typically two contributed talks given by younger participants (students and postdocs), each half-hour long, in the late afternoons. Altogether, we had sixty lectures by the faculty and participants. In addition, black-board exercises were held in the post-lunch periods on selected aspects of strong fields and field theory. The HISS series of schools has played an important role in bringing together an international faculty and young physicists (Ph.D. and postdocs), mostly from Russia and Germany, but increasingly also from other countries, including those affiliated to JINR Dubna. They participate in two-week long intense scientific discourse, mainly dedicated lectures on selected topics covering the foundation and the frontiers of high energy physics and cosmology. The novelty of this year's school was its bifocal interest, which brought together two different physical science communities - particle and laser physicists. There were

  8. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-31

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a “coupling mass” effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  9. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common caro...

  10. Numerical calculation for flow field of servo-tube guided hydraulic control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Keyu; Han Weishi

    2010-01-01

    A new-style hydraulic control rod driving mechanism was put forward by using servo-tube control elements for the design of control rod driving mechanism. The results of numerical simulation by CFD program Fluent for flow field of hydraulic driving cylinder indicate that the bigger the outer diameter of servo-tube, the smaller the resistance coefficient of variable throttle orifice. The zero position gap of variable throttle orifice could be determined on 0.2 mm in the design. The pressure difference between the upper and nether surfaces of piston was mainly created by the throttle function of fixed throttle orifice. It can be effectively controlled by changing the gap of variable throttle orifice. And the lift force of driving cylinder is able to meet the requirement on the design load. (authors)

  11. Enhancing the Employability of Chinese International Students: Identifying Achievements and Gaps in the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows what achievements have been made by existing studies on graduate employability, and what gaps need to be filled in this field. It starts with a retrospective account of the changing concept of employability, followed by a presentation of the practices that have been used to support graduate employability enhancement in different countries. Moreover, this article gives a critical review of Chinese contexts of graduate labour market. Last but not least, limitations of existing studies are identified, which reflect an expectation for future research on graduate employability to meet the demand of an increasingly international dimension of higher education.

  12. International symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunay, G.; Tezcan, L.; Atilla, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The international symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts was held on 10-20 September 1995 in Beldibi,Antalya, Turkey. The specialists discussed COST Action 65, Environmental Impact sand Legal Aspects, Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Research Methods, Tracing Techniques, Hydro chemistry, Environmental Isotopes in Karst, Transport Processing, Modeling and Flow Systems, Karst Morphology and Paleoenvironment, Regional Karst Systems, James F. Quinlay Pollution Control and Karst Water Protection Session and Hydrology. Almost 140 papers were presented in the meeting

  13. Optical Control of Internal Electric Fields in Band Gap-Graded InGaN Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, N.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Yang, F.; McComb, D. W.; Myers, R. C.; Holleitner, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    InGaN nanowires are suitable building blocks for many future optoelectronic devices. We show that a linear grading of the indium content along the nanowire axis from GaN to InN introduces an internal electric field evoking a photocurrent. Consistent with quantitative band structure simulations we observe a sign change in the measured photocurrent as a function of photon flux. This negative differential photocurrent opens the path to a new type of nanowire-based photodetector. We demonstrate that the photocurrent response of the nanowires is as fast as 1.5 ps.

  14. International symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunay, G; Tezcan, L; Atilla, A O [comps.

    1996-12-31

    The international symposium and field seminar on karst waters and environmental impacts was held on 10-20 September 1995 in Beldibi,Antalya, Turkey. The specialists discussed COST Action 65, Environmental Impact sand Legal Aspects, Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Research Methods, Tracing Techniques, Hydro chemistry, Environmental Isotopes in Karst, Transport Processing, Modeling and Flow Systems, Karst Morphology and Paleoenvironment, Regional Karst Systems, James F. Quinlay Pollution Control and Karst Water Protection Session and Hydrology. Almost 140 papers were presented in the meeting.

  15. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special......Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...

  16. Water droplets' internal fluidity during horizontal motion on a superhydrophobic surface with an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Munetoshi; Kono, Hiroki; Nakajima, Akira; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2010-02-02

    On a superhydrophobic surface, the internal fluidity of water droplets with different volumes (15, 30 microL) and their horizontal motion in an external electric field were evaluated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). For driving of water droplets on a superhydrophobic coating between parallel electrodes, it was important to place them at appropriate positions. Droplets moved with slipping. Small droplets showed deformation that is more remarkable. Results show that the dielectrophoretic force induced the initial droplet motion and that the surface potential gradient drove the droplets after reaching the middle point between electrodes.

  17. Superconducting spin switch with infinite magnetoresistance induced by an internal exchange field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Roschewsky, Niklas; Assaf, Badih A; Eich, Marius; Epstein-Martin, Marguerite; Heiman, Don; Münzenberg, Markus; Moodera, Jagadeesh S

    2013-03-01

    A theoretical prediction by de Gennes suggests that the resistance in a FI/S/FI (where FI is a ferromagnetic insulator, and S is a superconductor) structure will depend on the magnetization direction of the two FI layers. We report a magnetotransport measurement in a EuS/Al/EuS structure, showing that an infinite magnetoresistance can be produced by tuning the internal exchange field at the FI/S interface. This proximity effect at the interface can be suppressed by an Al(2)O(3) barrier as thin as 0.3 nm, showing the extreme confinement of the interaction to the interface giving rise to the demonstrated phenomena.

  18. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae, E-mail: mono-111@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Yeol, E-mail: apleseed@hanmail.net; Kim, Jae Kyu, E-mail: kjkrad@jnu.ac.kr [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sang Young, E-mail: sycpvts@jnu.ac.kr; Choi, Soo Jin Na, E-mail: choisjn@jnu.ac.kr; Lee, Ho Kyun, E-mail: mhaha@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  19. International student Arctic Field School on Permafrost and urban areas study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, L.; Tolmanov, V. A.; Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing drastic climatic and environmental changes. These changes are exacerbated in the Russian Arctic, where active resource development resulted in further land cover transformations, especially near large settlements. There is a growing need in multidisciplinary studies of climate and human- induced changes in the Arctic cities. In order to fill this gap, International Arctic Field Course on Permafrostand Northern Studies was organized in July 2017 to the Russian Arctic. The course was organized under the umbrella of the Arctic PIRE project in cooperation between the George Washington University, Moscow State University, and the Russian Center for Arctic Development. The course attracted twenty undergraduate and graduate students from Russia, USA, and EU countries and involved instructors specializing in Arctic system science, geocryology, permafrost engineering, and urban sustainability. The field course was focused on studying typical natural Arctic landscapes of tundra and forest tundra; transformations of natural landscapes in urban and industrial areas around Vorkuta and Salekhard; construction and planning on permafrost and field methods and techniques, including permafrost and soil temperature monitoring, active layer thickness (ALT) measurements, studying of cryogenic processes, stratigraphic and soil investigations, vegetation and microclimate studies. The students were also engaged in a discussion of climatic change and historical development of urban areas on permafrost,and were exposed to examples of both active and passive construction principles while conducting a field survey of permafrost related building deformations. During the course, students collected more than 800 ALT and soil temperature measurements in typical landscapes around Vorkuta and Salekhard to determine effects of soil and vegetation factors on ground thermal regime; surveyed several hundreds of buildings to determine locations with most deformation

  20. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station Payload Safety: Overcoming Differences and Working for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Masayuki; Takeyasu, Yoshioka; Griffith, Gerald; Goto, Katsuhito; Mitsui, Masami

    2010-09-01

    The importance of international cooperation among the International Space Station(ISS) Program participants is ever increasing as the ISS nears assembly complete. In the field of payload safety assurance, NASA and JAXA have enhanced their cooperation level. The authors describe the evolution of cooperation between the two agencies and the challenges encountered and overcame. NASA and JAXA have been working toward development of a NASA Payload Safety Review Panel(PSRP) franchise panel at JAXA for several years. When the JAXA Safety Review Panel(SRP) becomes a fully franchised panel of the NASA PSRP, the JAXA SRP will have the authority review and approve all JAXA ISS payloads operated on USOS and JEM, although NASA and JAXA joint reviews may be conducted as necessary. A NASA PSRP franchised panel at JAXA will streamline the conventional review process. Japanese payload organizations will not have to go through both JAXA and NASA payload safety reviews, while NASA will be relieved of a certain amount of review activities. The persistent efforts have recently born fruit. For the past two years, NASA and JAXA have increased emphasis on efforts to develop a NASA PSRP Franchised Panel at JAXA with concrete results. In 2009, NASA and JAXA signed Charter and Joint Development Plan. At the end of 2009, NASA PSRP transferred some review responsibility to the JAXA SRP under the franchising charter. Although JAXA had long history of reviewing payloads by their own panel prior to NASA PSRP reviews, it took several years for JAXA to receive NASA PSRP approval for delegation of franchised review authority to JAXA. This paper discusses challenges JAXA and NAXA faced. Considerations were required in developing a franchise at JAXA for history and experiences of the JAXA SRP as well as language and cultural differences. The JAXA panel, not only had its own well-established processes and supporting organizational structures which had some differences from its NASA PSRP counterparts

  1. Field guide to malformations of frogs and toads: with radiographic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically. Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and 19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99). The wide geographic distribution of malformed frogs and the variety of malformations are a concern to resource managers, research scientists and public health officials. The potential for malformations to serve as a signal of ecosystem disruption, and the affect this potential disruption might have on other organisms that share those ecosystems, has not been resolved. Malformations represent an error that occurred early in development. The event that caused the developmental error is temporally distant from the malformation we see in the fully developed animal. Knowledge of normal developmental principles is necessary to design thoughtful investigations that will define the events involved in abnormal development in wild frog populations.Development begins at the time an egg is fertilized and progresses by chemical communication between cells and cell layers. This communication is programmed through gene expression. Malformations represent primary errors in development, errors in chemical communication or translation of genetic information. Deformations arise later in development and usually result from the influence of mechanical factors (such as amputation) that alter shape or anatomy of a structure that has developed normally. The occurrence and the type of malformations are influenced by the type of error or insult as well as the timing of the error (the developmental stage at which the error occurred). The appearance of the malformation can therefore provide clues that suggest when the error may have occurred. If the malformation is an incomplete organ, such as an incomplete limb, the

  2. Quality assurance in the field of nuclear power, international and Romanian practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogociu, Ioan

    1997-01-01

    Electricity should be generated in nuclear power plants under nuclear safety regulations with a high reliability level. In order to achieve this requirement it is necessary to work under quality assurance (QA) mode. The term of 'quality assurance' was used for the first time in USA in 1967. Since then, the situation has continuously developed. The most comprehensive standards in the fields are the USA ones. The IAEA agency in Vienna developed the first standards in 1978. The developed countries have their own legislation in the field. The IAEA standards, are based on the USA, German, Japanese, British, Canadian and French legislation. Romania drafted the Law No. 6/1982, repealed by the Law No. 11 in 1996. There is no satisfactory Romanian standard at present to regulate the activities of quality assurance in the nuclear power field. The works at Unit 1 of Cernavoda nuclear power plant were performed under the Canadian QA standards. The Canadian nuclear power company Ontario Hydro has been lately confronted with difficulties that may lead to decommission of 7 out of 19 units now in operation. To avoid the Canadian system deficiencies Romania needs standards based on the experience gained in this field by all developed countries, such as: USA, Japan, Germany, France, etc and IAEA regulations. The present paper is a pleading in favour of the Romanian legislation drafting at the level of the international demands. (author)

  3. The Wide Field Imager of the International X-ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanescu, A., E-mail: astefan@hll.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Inst. f. anorganische und analytische Chemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bautz, M.W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Burrows, D.N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Milano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Fraser, G. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Heinzinger, K. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Herrmann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Kuster, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauf, T. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Lechner, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Majewski, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Meuris, A. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Murray, S.S. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) will be a joint X-ray observatory mission by ESA, NASA and JAXA. It will have a large effective area (3 m{sup 2} at 1.25 keV) grazing incidence mirror system with good angular resolution (5 arcsec at 0.1-10 keV) and will feature a comprehensive suite of scientific instruments: an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, a High Time Resolution Spectrometer, an X-ray Polarimeter, an X-ray Grating Spectrometer, a Hard X-ray Imager and a Wide-Field Imager. The Wide Field Imager (WFI) has a field-of-view of 18 ftx18 ft. It will be sensitive between 0.1 and 15 keV, offer the full angular resolution of the mirrors and good energy resolution. The WFI will be implemented as a 6 in. wafer-scale monolithical array of 1024x1024 pixels of 100x100{mu}m{sup 2} size. The DEpleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistors (DEPFET) forming the individual pixels are devices combining the functionalities of both detector and amplifier. Signal electrons are collected in a potential well below the transistor's gate, modulating the transistor current. Even when the device is powered off, the signal charge is collected and kept in the potential well below the gate until it is explicitly cleared. This makes flexible and fast readout modes possible.

  4. Virtual cathode microwave generation using inhomogeneous magnetic field and wave guide wall configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.; Kwan, T.J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Microwave generation from a virtual cathode system is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. In the typical virtual cathode geometry, the electron beam diode is separated from the output waveguide by a ground plane which is a thin foil or screen. By lowering the diode impedance sufficiently, it is possible to form a virtual cathode in the waveguide region a short distance from the ground plane. In this configuration two mechanisms can lead to microwave generation: 1) electron bunching due to reflection between the real and virtual cathode and 2) electron bunching due to virtual cathode oscillation. Both mechanisms are typically present, but it appears possible to make one mechanism dominant by adjusting the output waveguide radius. Although such a configuration might generate 1-10 GW output, electron deposition into the ground plane, waveguide wall, and output window causes breakdown. To overcome these disadvantages, the authors have investigated a configuration with no ground plane coupled with the use of an inhomogeneous external magnetic field and waveguide wall

  5. Driving magnetic turbulence using flux ropes in a moderate guide field linear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Matthew I.; Stemo, Aaron; Waleffe, Roger; Forest, Cary B.

    2017-12-01

    We present a series of experiments on novel, line-tied plasma geometries as a study of the generation of chaos and turbulence in line-tied systems. Plasma production and the injection scale for magnetic energy is provided by spatially discrete plasma guns that inject both plasma and current. The guns represent a technique for controlling the injection scale of magnetic energy. A two-dimensional (2-D) array of magnetic probes provides spatially resolved time histories of the magnetic fluctuations at a single cross-section of the experimental cylinder, allowing simultaneous spatial measurements of chaotic and turbulent behaviour. The first experiment shows chaotic fluctuations and self-organization in a hollow-current line-tied screw pinch. These dynamics is modulated primarily by the applied magnetic field and weakly by the plasma current and safety factor. The second experiment analyses the interactions of multiple line-tied flux ropes. The flux ropes all exhibit chaotic behaviour, and under certain conditions develop an inverse cascade to larger scales and a turbulent inertial range with magnetic energy ( ) related to perpendicular wave number ( \\bot $ ) as \\bot -2.5\\pm 0.5$ .

  6. Guide to precision calculations in Dyson close-quote s hierarchical scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godina, J.J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M.B.; Niermann, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a practical method to calculate, in a scalar theory, accurate numerical values of the renormalized quantities which could be used to test any kind of approximate calculation. We use finite truncations of the Fourier transform of the recursion formula for Dyson close-quote s hierarchical model in the symmetric phase to perform high-precision calculations of the unsubtracted Green close-quote s functions at zero momentum in dimension 3, 4, and 5. We use the well-known correspondence between statistical mechanics and field theory in which the large cutoff limit is obtained by letting β reach a critical value β c (with up to 16 significant digits in our actual calculations). We show that the round-off errors on the magnetic susceptibility grow like (β c -β) -1 near criticality. We show that the systematic errors (finite truncations and volume) can be controlled with an exponential precision and reduced to a level lower than the numerical errors. We justify the use of the truncation for calculations of the high-temperature expansion. We calculate the dimensionless renormalized coupling constant corresponding to the 4-point function and show that when β→β c , this quantity tends to a fixed value which can be determined accurately when D=3 (hyperscaling holds), and goes to zero like [Ln(β c -β)] -1 when D=4. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  8. Investigating microbial transformations of soil organic matter: synthesizing knowledge from disparate fields to guide new experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.; Tiemann, L. K.; Ballantyne, F., IV; Lehmeier, C. A.; Min, K.

    2015-04-01

    Discerning why some soil organic matter (SOM) leaves soil profiles relatively quickly while other compounds, especially at depth, can be retained for decades to millennia is challenging for a multitude of reasons. Simultaneous with soil-specific advances, multiple other disciplines have enhanced their knowledge bases in ways potentially useful for future investigations of SOM decay. In this article, we highlight observations highly relevant for those investigating SOM decay and retention but often emanating from disparate fields and residing in literature seldom cited in SOM research. We focus on recent work in two key areas. First, we turn to experimental approaches using natural and artificial aquatic environments to investigate patterns of microbially mediated OM transformations as environmental conditions change, and highlight how aquatic microbial responses to environmental change can reveal processes likely important to OM decay and retention in soils. Second, we emphasize the importance of establishing intrinsic patterns of decay kinetics for purified substrates commonly found in soils to develop baseline rates. These decay kinetics - which represent the upper limit of the reaction rates - can then be compared to substrate decay kinetics observed in natural samples, which integrate intrinsic decay reaction rates and edaphic factors essential to the site under study but absent in purified systems. That comparison permits the site-specific factors to be parsed from the fundamental decay kinetics, an important advance in our understanding of SOM decay (and thus persistence) in natural systems. We then suggest ways in which empirical observations from aquatic systems and purified substrate-enzyme reaction kinetics can be used to advance recent theoretical efforts in SOM-focused research. Finally, we suggest how the observations in aquatic and purified substrate-enzyme systems could be used to help unravel the puzzles presented by oft-observed patterns of SOM

  9. The Kepler Data Processing Handbook: A Field Guide to Prospecting for Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler telescope hurtled into orbit in March 2009, initiating NASA's first mission to discover Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Kepler simultaneously collected data for approximately 165,000 target stars at a time over its four-year mission, identifying over 4700 planet candidates, over 2300 confirmed or validated planets, and over 2100 eclipsing binaries. While Kepler was designed to discover exoplanets, the long-term, ultrahigh photometric precision measurements it achieved made it a premier observational facility for stellar astrophysics, especially in the field of asteroseismology, and for variable stars, such as RR Lyrae. The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to process the data acquired by Kepler from pixel-level calibrations all the way to identifying transiting planet signatures and subjecting them to a suite of diagnostic tests to establish or break confidence in their planetary nature. Detecting small, rocky planets transiting Sun-like stars presents a variety of daunting challenges, including achieving an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 ppm on 6.5-hour timescales, and supporting the science operations, management, processing, and repeated reprocessing of the accumulating data stream. A newly revised and expanded version of the Kepler Data Processing Handbook (KDPH) has been released to support the legacy archival products. The KDPH details the theory, design and performance of the algorithms supporting each data processing step. This paper presents an overview of the KDPH and features illustrations of several key algorithms in the Kepler Science Data Processing Pipeline. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  11. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  12. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux left and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both left and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ψ. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data.

  13. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, P. J.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux (J) and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both (J) and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ψ. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data

  14. Homogenization of linear viscoelastic three phase media: internal variable formulation versus full-field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, V.; Barbie, L.; Masson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media is here extended from two phase inclusion-matrix media to three phase inclusion-matrix media. Each phase obeying to a compressible Maxwellian behaviour, this analytic method leads to an equivalent elastic homogenization problem in the Laplace-Carson space. For some particular microstructures, such as the Hashin composite sphere assemblage, an exact solution is obtained. The inversion of the Laplace-Carson transforms of the overall stress-strain behaviour gives in such cases an internal variable formulation. As expected, the number of these internal variables and their evolution laws are modified to take into account the third phase. Moreover, evolution laws of averaged stresses and strains per phase can still be derived for three phase media. Results of this model are compared to full fields computations of representative volume elements using finite element method, for various concentrations and sizes of inclusion. Relaxation and creep test cases are performed in order to compare predictions of the effective response. The internal variable formulation is shown to yield accurate prediction in both cases. (authors)

  15. The importance of international cooperation in the field of high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of international collaboration in the field of radioactive waste management and points out how cooperation has benefited the U.S. civilian waste management program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) oversees the handling, transportation, storage, and final deposition of high-level radioactive wastes for the U.S. commercial sector. Because OCRWM shares many of the same waste management concerns as various other countries with nuclear programs, and since one country's waste management program will ultimately have an impact on the waste management programs of other countries, it is clearly in the interest of all countries to work together in search of solutions to common waste management problems. To facilitate this. cooperation, OCRWM is a participating member of international organizations, such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA. OCRWM further has in place several bilateral agreements with various individual countries and with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). Other international waste management initiatives are also currently being considered. (author)

  16. International co-operation in the nuclear field - past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its creation, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) held a symposium in Paris on 1 and 2 February 1978. Some 200 participants from the 23 Member countries of the NEA as well as representatives of the Commission of European Communities, FORATOM and the IAEA attended the symposium. At a panel discussion at the symposium, led by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, the future of international co-operation between advanced nations in the nuclear field was discussed. While recognizing that nuclear energy is at present going through a period of uncertainty pending resolution of the intertwined problems of gaining public confidence and of non-proliferation, the panel expressed its strong confidence in the future of nuclear power, and the vital contribution it would make, particularly between now and the end of the century. During the meeting, a critical review was made of the way in which international co-operation has evolved since the early stages of peaceful nuclear development, and of the influence on this co-operation of the changing relationship between government and industry. The contribution of international co-operation - and its limitations - was carefully scrutinized, notably in the crucial area of the nuclear fuel cycle

  17. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  18. Spatial Variation of Diapycnal Diffusivity Estimated From Seismic Imaging of Internal Wave Field, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Alex; White, N. J.; Caulfield, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1,000 m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1,171 reflections, each of which is greater than 2 km in length. Power spectra of the horizontal gradient of isopycnal displacement, ϕξx, are calculated from these tracked reflections. At low horizontal wave numbers (kxcpm), ϕξx∝kx-0.2±0.6, in agreement with hydrographic observations of the internal wave field. The turbulent spectral subrange is rarely observed. Diapycnal diffusivity, K, is estimated from the observed internal wave spectral subrange of each tracked reflection using a fine-scale parametrization of turbulent mixing. Calculated values of K vary between 10-8 and 10-4 m2 s-1 with a mean value of K˜4×10-6 m2 s-1. The spatial distribution of turbulent mixing shows that K˜10-7 m2 s-1 away from the shelf edge in the upper 300 m where stratification is strong. Mixing is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude adjacent to the shoaling bathymetry of the continental slope. This overall pattern matches that determined by analyzing nearby suites of CTD casts. However, the range of values recovered by spectral analysis of the seismic image is greater as a consequence of significantly better horizontal resolution.

  19. GRAIN ALIGNMENT INDUCED BY RADIATIVE TORQUES: EFFECTS OF INTERNAL RELAXATION OF ENERGY AND COMPLEX RADIATION FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies of grain alignment dealt mostly with interstellar grains that have strong internal relaxation of energy which aligns the grain axis of maximum moment of inertia (the axis of major inertia) with respect to the grain's angular momentum. In this paper, we study the alignment by radiative torques for large irregular grains, e.g., grains in accretion disks, for which internal relaxation is subdominant. We use both numerical calculations and the analytical model of a helical grain introduced by us earlier. We demonstrate that grains in such a regime exhibit more complex dynamics. In particular, if initially the grain axis of major inertia makes a small angle with angular momentum, then radiative torques can align the grain axis of major inertia with angular momentum, and both the axis of major inertia and angular momentum are aligned with the magnetic field when attractors with high angular momentum (high-J attractors) are available. For alignment without high-J attractors, beside the earlier studied attractors with low angular momentum (low-J attractors), there appear new low-J attractors. In addition, we also study the alignment of grains in the presence of strong internal relaxation, but induced not by a radiation beam as in earlier studies but instead induced by a complex radiation field that can be decomposed into dipole and quadrupole components. We found that in this situation the parameter space q max , for which high-J attractors exist in trajectory maps, is more extended, resulting in the higher degree of polarization expected. Our results are useful for modeling polarization arising from aligned dust grains in molecular clouds.

  20. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  1. Understanding the Internal Magnetic Field Configurations of ICMEs Using More than 20 Years of Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Raymond, J. C.; Linton, M. G.; Al-haddad, N.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Hidalgo, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic topology, structure, and geometry of the magnetic obstacles embedded within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are not yet fully and consistently described by in situ models and reconstruction techniques. The main goal of this work is to better understand the status of the internal magnetic field of ICMEs and to explore in situ signatures to identify clues to develop a more accurate and reliable in situ analytical models. We take advantage of more than 20 years of Wind observations of transients at 1 AU to compile a comprehensive database of ICMEs through three solar cycles, from 1995 to 2015. The catalog is publicly available at wind.gsfc.nasa.gov and is fully described in this article. We identify and collect the properties of 337 ICMEs, of which 298 show organized magnetic field signatures. To allow for departures from idealized magnetic configurations, we introduce the term "magnetic obstacle" (MO) to signify the possibility of more complex configurations. To quantify the asymmetry of the magnetic field strength profile within these events, we introduce the distortion parameter (DiP) and calculate the expansion velocity within the magnetic obstacle. Circular-cylindrical geometry is assumed when the magnetic field strength displays a symmetric profile. We perform a statistical study of these two parameters and find that only 35% of the events show symmetric magnetic profiles and a low enough expansion velocity to be compatible with the assumption of an idealized cylindrical static flux rope, and that 41% of the events do not show the expected relationship between expansion and magnetic field compression in the front, with the maximum magnetic field closer to the first encounter of the spacecraft with the magnetic obstacle; 18% show contractions ( i.e. apparent negative expansion velocity), and 30% show magnetic field compression in the back. We derive an empirical relation between DiP and expansion velocity that is the first step toward

  2. The Field Guide to ADHD: What They Don't Want You to Know. Psychiatry--Theory, Applications and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2017-01-01

    In "The Field Guide to ADHD: What They Don't Want You to Know," Harding confronts with unusual candor and painstaking effort one of the most alarming and perilous crises of our time: ADHD. In confronting this crisis, Harding forces us to reconsider the assumptions underlying ADHD and how we think about medical diagnoses, disability,…

  3. Focusing electrode and coaxial reflector used for reducing the guiding magnetic field of the Ku-band foilless transit-time oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao, E-mail: hejuntao12@163.com; Wang, Lei; Deng, Bingfang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Based on the theoretical analysis of the intense relativistic electron beam propagation in the coaxial drift-tube, a focusing electrode and a coaxial reflector is proposed to lessen the demand of the coaxial Ku-band foilless transit-time oscillator (TTO) for the guiding magnetic field. Moreover, a Ku-band TTO with the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector is designed and studied by particle in cell simulation. When the diode voltage is 390 kV, the beam current 7.8 kA, and the guiding magnetic field is only 0.3 T, the device can output 820 MW microwave pulse at 14.25 GHz by means of the simulation. However, for the device without them, the output power is only 320 MW. The primary experiments are also carried out. When the guiding magnetic field is 0.3 T, the output power of the device with the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector is double that of the one without them. The simulation and experimental results prove that the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector are effective on reducing the guiding magnetic field of the device.

  4. The International Science and Technology Center: Scope of activities and scientific projects in the field of nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepatsky, Alexander B.

    2002-01-01

    The review of the ISTC (The International Science and Technology Center) Programs and activities including Science Project Program, Partner Program, Seminar Program and others is presented. Project funding by technology area, by funding Parties, by CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) States etc. is demonstrated with emphasis on projects in the field of nuclear data. The ISTC opportunities for international cooperation in the fields of nuclear data measurements, calculation, evaluation and dissemination are discussed. (author)

  5. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  6. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, H.C.; Lee, S.J.; Kang, T.W.; Park, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  7. Internal electric fields due to piezoelectric and spontaneous polarizations in CdZnO/MgZnO quantum well with various applied electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.C. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.J., E-mail: leesj@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.W. [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Kyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization and the spontaneous polarization can be reduced effectively using the applied electric field in the CdZnO/ZnMgO quantum well (QW) structure with high Cd composition. That is, optical properties as a function of internal and external fields in the CdZnO/ZnMgO QW with various applied electric field result in the increased optical gain due to the fact that the QW potential profile is flattened as a result of the compensation of the internal field by the reverse field as confirmed. These results demonstrate that a high-performance optical device operation can be realized in CdZnO/MgZnO QW structures by reducing the droop phenomenon.

  8. Numerical analysis of the internal flow field in screw centrifugal blood pump based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Han, B. X.; Y Wang, H.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    As to the impeller blood pump, the high speed of the impeller, the local high shear force of the flow field and the flow dead region are the main reasons for blood damage. The screw centrifugal pump can effectively alleviate the problems of the high speed and the high shear stress for the impeller. The softness and non-destructiveness during the transfer process can effectively reduce the extent of the damage. By using CFD software, the characteristics of internal flow are analyzed in the screw centrifugal pump by exploring the distribution rules of the velocity, pressure and shear deformation rate of the blood when it flows through the impeller and the destructive effects of spiral blades on blood. The results show that: the design of magnetic levitation solves the sealing problems; the design of regurgitation holes solves the problem of the flow dead zone; the magnetic levitated microcirculation screw centrifugal pump can effectively avoid the vortex, turbulence and high shear forces generated while the blood is flowing through the pump. Since the distribution rules in the velocity field, pressure field and shear deformation rate of the blood in the blood pump are comparatively uniform and the gradient change is comparatively small, the blood damage is effectively reduced.

  9. Strong guided mode resonant local field enhanced visible harmonic generation in an azo-polymer resonant waveguide grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian Hung; Tseng, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ching-Ting; Young, Jeff F; Kan, Hung-Chih; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2014-02-10

    Guided mode resonance (GMR) enhanced second- and third-harmonic generation (SHG and THG) is demonstrated in an azo-polymer resonant waveguide grating (RWG), comprised of a poled azo-polymer layer on top of a textured SU8 substrate with a thin intervening layer of TiO2. Strong SHG and THG outputs are observed by matching either in-coming fundamental- or out-going harmonic-wavelength to the GMR wavelengths of the azo-polymer RWG. Without the azo-polymer coating, pure TiO2 RWGs, do not generate any detectable SHG using a fundamental beam peak intensity of 2 MW/cm(2). Without the textured TiO2 layer, a planar poled azo-polymer layer results in 3650 times less SHG than the full nonlinear RWG structure under identical excitation conditions. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculations confirm that this enhancement of the nonlinear conversion is due to strong local electric fields that are generated at the interfaces of the TiO2 and azo-polymer layers when the RWG is excited at resonant wavelengths associated with both SHG and THG conversion processes.

  10. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  11. Internal electric fields and color shift in Cr3+-based gemstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2012-01-01

    to the polarization of the electronic cloud around chromium as a result of the C3 local symmetry. The present study also demonstrates that the variation of the ligand field splitting parameter, 10Dq, induced by the internal electric field comes mainly from the contributions of first shells of ions around the CrO69...

  12. Proceedings of the 2. IASTED international conference on advanced technology in the environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, L.

    2006-01-01

    This international conference provided a forum for representatives from academic institutions, government agencies, and industries to discuss emerging technologies in the environmental field. Recent developments in physico-chemical remediation technologies were reviewed, as well as strategies related to waste water treatment in urban and coastal regions. Advances in bio-plastics and bio-hydrogen production were also discussed along with various bioremediation techniques. Strategies related to urban drainage and wetland management were presented together with issues related to energy efficiency and ecological sustainability. The conference was divided into 6 sections: (1) wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) biotechnology, bioremediation and biomass; (3) integrated water resources management; (4) alternative energy systems; (5) decision support tools; and (6) groundwater and soil remediation. The conference featured 48 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. International evaluation of Swedish research projects in the field of short rotation forestry for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, W M [N.I. Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Armagh (Ireland); Isebrands, J [USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Namkoong, G [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Tahvanainen, J [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme in the field of Short Rotation Forestry for Energy. Thereafter, the 16 projects are evaluated separately

  14. 12th International School of Mathematics "G Stampacchia" : Applied Mathematics in the Aerospace Field "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Salvetti, Attilio; Applied Mathematics in Aerospace Science and Engineering

    1994-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings ofthe meeting on "Applied Mathematics in the Aerospace Field," held in Erice, Sicily, Italy from September 3 to September 10, 1991. The occasion of the meeting was the 12th Course of the School of Mathematics "Guido Stampacchia," directed by Professor Franco Giannessi of the University of Pisa. The school is affiliated with the International Center for Scientific Culture "Ettore Majorana," which is directed by Professor Antonino Zichichi of the University of Bologna. The objective of the course was to give a perspective on the state-of­ the-art and research trends concerning the application of mathematics to aerospace science and engineering. The course was structured with invited lectures and seminars concerning fundamental aspects of differential equa­ tions, mathematical programming, optimal control, numerical methods, per­ turbation methods, and variational methods occurring in flight mechanics, astrodynamics, guidance, control, aircraft design, fluid mechanic...

  15. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs

  16. International nanotechnology development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based on USPTO patent database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Chen Zhikai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2004-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the National Nanotechnology Initiative definition of nanotechnology (which requires exploiting specific phenomena and direct manipulation at the nanoscale), while others only make use of NSE tools and methods of investigation. In previous work we proposed an integrated patent analysis and visualization framework of patent content mapping for the NSE field and of knowledge flow pattern identification until 2002. In this paper, the results are updated for 2003, and the new trends are presented

  17. International nanotechnology development in 2003: Country, institution, and technology field analysis based on USPTO patent database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Chen, Zhi-kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2004-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the National Nanotechnology Initiative definition of nanotechnology (which requires exploiting specific phenomena and direct manipulation at the nanoscale), while others only make use of NSE tools and methods of investigation. In previous work we proposed an integrated patent analysis and visualization framework of patent content mapping for the NSE field and of knowledge flow pattern identification until 2002. In this paper, the results are updated for 2003, and the new trends are presented.

  18. The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; de Vries, Sjoerd C; van Emmerik, Martijn L; Groen, Eric L

    2010-07-01

    Field of view (FOV) is said to affect visually induced motion sickness. FOV, however, is characterized by an internal setting used by the graphics generator (iFOV) and an external factor determined by screen size and viewing distance (eFOV). We hypothesized that especially the incongruence between iFOV and eFOV would lead to sickness. To that end we used a computer game environment with different iFOV and eFOV settings, and found the opposite effect. We speculate that the relative large differences between iFOV and eFOV used in this experiment caused the discrepancy, as may be explained by assuming an observer model controlling body motion. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P C de; Hawkes, N C; Challis, C D; Andrew, Y; Beurskens, M; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Zastrow, K-D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Litaudon, X [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/DFRC, CEA Cadarache, 13108, St Paul lez Durance (France); Brzozowski, J; Johnson, T [Association EURATOM-VR, Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Hobirk, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Loennroth, J; Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Tala, T [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Yavorskij, V [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW, University of Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.uk

    2008-06-15

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to {delta} = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  20. Proceedings of the 2. IASTED international conference on advanced technology in the environmental field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, L. [IRPI National Research Council, Rome (Italy)] (ed.)

    2006-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum for representatives from academic institutions, government agencies, and industries to discuss emerging technologies in the environmental field. Recent developments in physico-chemical remediation technologies were reviewed, as well as strategies related to waste water treatment in urban and coastal regions. Advances in bio-plastics and bio-hydrogen production were also discussed along with various bioremediation techniques. Strategies related to urban drainage and wetland management were presented together with issues related to energy efficiency and ecological sustainability. The conference was divided into 6 sections: (1) wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) biotechnology, bioremediation and biomass; (3) integrated water resources management; (4) alternative energy systems; (5) decision support tools; and (6) groundwater and soil remediation. The conference featured 48 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. 3D computations of flow field in a guide vane blading designed by means of 2D model for a low head hydraulic turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzemianowski, Z; Puzyrewski, R

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the main parameters of the flow field behind the guide vane cascade designed by means of 2D inverse problem and following check by means of 3D commercial program ANSYS/Fluent applied for a direct problem. This approach of using different models reflects the contemporary design procedure for non-standardized turbomachinery stage. Depending on the model, the set of conservation equation to be solved differs, although the physical background remains the same. The example of computations for guide vane cascade for a low head hydraulic turbine is presented.

  2. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  3. Proceedings of the international conference on selected topics in quantum field theory and mathematical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederle, J; Bednar, M; Bicak, J

    1987-01-01

    The conference, the fourth in the series of conferences on this subject, was held at the Bechyne castle (Czechoslovakia) on June 23-27, 1986, and was attended by about 100 theoreticians from 15 countries. The conference was organized by the Institute of Physics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague together with the Faculties of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University, Prague, and of the Comenius University, Bratislava, the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Techical University, Prague, with the Institute of Physics of the Electro-Physical Research Centre of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Rez. It was sponsored by the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics, the International Association of Mathematical Physics and the Physical Scientific Section of the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists. The main subjects discussed at the conference were: supersymmetries, supergravity and superstring theories; quantum field theory and in particular gauge theories, theories on lattices, renormalization; selected topics in non-linear equations, scattering theory and quantization. Details are given in the attached program. The proceedings include invited talks and contributions presented respectively at the morning and afternoon sessions of the conference. The main part of the proceedings will be published in the Czechoslovak Journal of Physics v. 37(1987), nos. 3,4 and 9.

  4. Proceedings of the international conference on selected topics in quantum field theory and mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.; Bednar, M.; Bicak, J.

    1987-01-01

    The conference, the fourth in the series of conferences on this subject, was held at the Bechyne castle (Czechoslovakia) on June 23-27, 1986, and was attended by about 100 theoreticians from 15 countries. The conference was organized by the Institute of Physics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague together with the Faculties of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University, Prague, and of the Comenius University, Bratislava, the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Techical University, Prague, with the Institute of Physics of the Electro-Physical Research Centre of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Rez. It was sponsored by the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics, the International Association of Mathematical Physics and the Physical Scientific Section of the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists. The main subjects discussed at the conference were: supersymmetries, supergravity and superstring theories; quantum field theory and in particular gauge theories, theories on lattices, renormalization; selected topics in non-linear equations, scattering theory and quantization. Details are given in the attached program. The proceedings include invited talks and contributions presented respectively at the morning and afternoon sessions of the conference. The main part of the proceedings will be published in the Czechoslovak Journal of Physics v. 37(1987), nos. 3,4 and 9. (author)

  5. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  6. Characterizing the Utility and Limitations of Repurposing an Open-Field Optical Imaging Device for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsay S; Rosenthal, Eben L; Chung, Thomas K; de Boer, Esther; Patel, Neel; Prince, Andrew C; Korb, Melissa L; Walsh, Erika M; Young, E Scott; Stevens, Todd M; Withrow, Kirk P; Morlandt, Anthony B; Richman, Joshua S; Carroll, William R; Zinn, Kurt R; Warram, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared devices designed for indocyanine green-based perfusion imaging to identify cancer-specific bioconjugates with overlapping excitation and emission wavelengths. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated potential for fluorescence-guided surgery, but the time and cost of the approval process may impede clinical translation. To expedite this translation, we explored the feasibility of repurposing existing optical imaging devices for fluorescence-guided surgery. Consenting patients (n = 15) scheduled for curative resection were enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the safety and specificity of cetuximab-IRDye800 (NCT01987375). Open-field fluorescence imaging was performed preoperatively and during the surgical resection. Fluorescence intensity was quantified using integrated instrument software, and the tumor-to-background ratio characterized fluorescence contrast. In the preoperative clinic, the open-field device demonstrated potential to guide preoperative mapping of tumor borders, optimize the day of surgery, and identify occult lesions. Intraoperatively, the device demonstrated robust potential to guide surgical resections, as all peak tumor-to-background ratios were greater than 2 (range, 2.2-14.1). Postresection wound bed fluorescence was significantly less than preresection tumor fluorescence (P open-field imaging device was successfully repurposed to distinguish cancer from normal tissue in the preoperative clinic and throughout surgical resection. This study illuminated the potential for existing open-field optical imaging devices with overlapping excitation and emission spectra to be used for fluorescence-guided surgery. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  7. TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D; Mutic, S; Shvartsman, S; Chmielewski, T; Fought, G; Sharma, A; Dempsey, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount needed for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.

  8. TU-H-BRA-02: The Physics of Magnetic Field Isolation in a Novel Compact Linear Accelerator Based MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Shvartsman, S; Chmielewski, T; Fought, G; Sharma, A; Dempsey, J [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount needed for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.

  9. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  10. Technical Note: Dose effects of 1.5 T transverse magnetic field on tissue interfaces in MRI-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinfeng; Prior, Phil; Chen, Guang-Pei; Schultz, Christopher J.; Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    dose effects of the TMF at tissue interfaces (e.g., air-cavity wall, lung-tissue interfaces, skin) are significantly reduced in most cases. Conclusions: The doses on tissue interfaces can be significantly changed by the presence of a TMF during MR-guided RT when the magnetic field is not included in plan optimization. These changes can be substantially reduced or even eliminated during VMAT/IMRT optimization that specifically considers the TMF, without deteriorating overall plan quality.

  11. MR-guided transgluteal biopsies with an open low-field system in patients with clinically suspected prostate cancer: technique and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangos, Stephan [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eichler, Katrin; Engelmann, Kerstin; Ahmed, Mukhtiar; Dettmer, Sebastian; Herzog, Christopher; Pegios, Wasilios; Wetter, A.; Lehnert, Thomas; Mack, Martin G.; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of MR-guided biopsies with a transgluteal approach in patients with uncertain or suspicious prostate lesions. Twenty-five patients with uncertain or suspicious focal prostate lesions detected by high-field MR imaging of the prostate gland using endorectal coil imaging were biopsied with a transgluteal approach in a low-field MRI system (0.2 T, Concerto, Siemens). The procedures were guided using T1-weighted FLASH sequences. The prostate gland was biopsied repeatedly with a coaxial technique through a 15-gauge pencil tip with a 16-gauge biopsy handy (median 3.8 samples per patient). Complications and biopsy findings were documented retrospectively. Using T1-weighted sequences biopsy procedures were performed successfully with MR guidance in all cases without any side effects or complications. The median intervention time was 11.3 min. Pathological findings revealed ten cases of hyperplasia or atrophy, three cases of prostatitis, ten cases of carcinoma and two cases of normal tissue. The clinical follow-up showed that in two patients prostate cancer was missed at MR-guided biopsy. Transgluteal MR-guided biopsy of the prostate gland is a safe and promising approach for histological clarification of uncertain or suspicious lesions. (orig.)

  12. PIRLS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 1: International Version of the PIRLS 2011, Background Questionnaires and Curriculum Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The PIRLS 2011 international database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the PIRLS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the PIRLS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 5 sections: (1) Student Questionnaire; (2) Home Questionnaire (Learning to Read…

  13. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  14. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  15. Communication failure: analysis of prescribers' use of an internal free-text field on electronic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Angela; Wong, Adrian; Amato, Mary; Wright, Adam

    2018-06-01

    Electronic prescribing promises to improve the safety and clarity of prescriptions. However, it also can introduce miscommunication between prescribers and pharmacists. There are situations where information that is meant to be sent to pharmacists is not sent to them, which has the potential for dangerous errors. To examine how frequently prescribers or administrative personnel put information intended for pharmacists in a field not sent to pharmacists, classify the type of information included, and assess the potential harm associated with these missed messages. Medication record data from our legacy electronic health record were requested for ambulatory care patients seen at an academic medical center from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2015 (20 123 881 records). From this database, 6 060 272 medication orders met our inclusion criteria. We analyzed a random sample of 10 000 medication orders with internal comments. Reviewers classified internal comments for intent. Comments intended for pharmacists were also sorted into descriptive categories and analyzed for the potential for patient harm. We found that 11.7% of the prescriptions in our sample contained comments that were intended to be sent to pharmacists. Many comments contained information about the dose, route, or duration of the prescription (38.0%). Approximately a third of the comments intended for pharmacists contained information that had the potential for significant or severe harm if not communicated. We found undelivered comments that were clearly intended for pharmacists and contained important information for either pharmacists or patients. This poses a legitimate safety concern, as a portion of comments contained information that could have prevented severe or significant harm.

  16. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  17. Regulatory Guide 1.131: Qualification tests of electric cables, field splices, and connections for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Criterion III, ''Design Control,'' of Appendix B, ''Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plant,'' to 10 CFR Part 50, ''Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' requires that, where a test program is used to verify the adequacy of a specific design feature, it include suitable qualification testing of a prototype unit under the most adverse design conditions. This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the Commission's regulations with regard to qualification testing of electric cables, field splices, and connections for service in light-water-cooled nuclear power plants to ensure that the cables, field splices, and connections can perform their safety-related functions. The fire test provisions of this guide do not apply to qualification for an installed configuration

  18. MR-guided breast biopsy and hook wire marking using a low-field (0.23 T) scanner with optical instrument tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Reinikainen, Heli; Blanco Sequeiros, Andreas M.; Ojala, Risto; Paeaekkoe, Eija; Tervonen, Osmo; Vaara, Teuvo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of MR-guided percutaneous breast biopsy (LCNB) and breast hook wire marking in a low-field (0.23 T) MRI system with optical instrument tracking. MR-guided core biopsy and/or hook wire marking was performed on 13 lesions observable at MR imaging only. Seven breast LCNBs and 10 hook wire markings were performed under MR guidance on 11 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy or mastectomy in 12 lesions and with histopathological and cytological diagnosis and 12-month clinical follow-up in one lesion. All lesions seen in the high-field scanner were also successfully identified and targeted in the low-field scanner. The following procedures were typically technically successful. There were difficulties due to unsatisfactory functioning of some core biopsy guns. Detailed description of low-field MR guidance and optical tracking in breast biopsies is provided. The procedure seems accurate and safe and provides means to obtain a histological diagnosis of a breast lesion only seen with MRI. The low-field biopsy system is comparable to the high-field MRI system. MR-compatible biopsy guns need to be improved. (orig.)

  19. International Social Work Field Placement or Volunteer Tourism? Developing an Asset-Based Justice-Learning Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Dubus, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a developing model for building an international social work placement that meets the needs of the host agency and community first. The paper addresses the challenges for social work departments to develop a strong learning environment while also keeping primary the needs of the host community and agency.

  20. REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN А FIELD OF HUMAN MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starovoitova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern huge and world-wide known projects concerning studying of human microbial ecology and construction of probiotics, particularly: Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease, Probiotics & Health Targeted Initiative of International Science and Technology Center (TI PROBIO ISTC, Human Microbiome Project of National Institutes of Health, MetaHIT Project (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract of European Commission, Human Metabolome Project of Canadian University of Alberta and some more else were characterized in the article. Brief historical information and reference to official sites of every discussed project were given. Main goals and tasks of every project were described. Short characteristic of discussed projects and also modern accessible results of researches were given. Importance of every examined project for widening scientific knowledge in the field of human microbial ecology and also for improvement and/or for construction of modern effective probiotics on basis of human normal intestinal microflora were paid attention. Close interaction of scientific data received by realization of every discussed project was shown.