WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal energy measured

  1. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  2. Conceptual proposals for measuring the impact of international regimes on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes two concepts to assess the effect of international regimes on energy security. Existing indicators focus mainly on state-level factors, excluding international influences. International relation scholars on the other hand see a clear connection between international regimes and stable energy relations. International regimes stabilise energy relations by providing frameworks for negotiations, defining, controlling and sanctioning compliance and allowing the actors to engage in package deals. The researcher needs to include these factors in a complete assessment of political energy security risks. As first step, the paper uses the effectiveness of control mechanisms as basis for such consideration. It refers specifically to international arbitration as the most important control mechanism in international energy relations. The simplest measurement option is the share of a county's energy imports covered by a certain regime. The paper applies the Oslo-Potsdam-Solution to account for outcome effectiveness. It applies a variant of the International Regimes Data Base protocol to account for effective regime structures. In a last section, the paper proposes some possible paths for future research. - Highlights: • International regimes mitigate political risks for energy supply and must be considered. • The paper proposes two concepts to measure energy regime effectiveness. • The OPS-variant measures output, the IRDB-variant measures structure effectiveness. • The paper offers a preliminary feasibility test for the concepts. • Finally, it suggests further roads for research

  3. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  4. Can we really measure the internal energy of hot nuclei with a 4 π detection array?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vient, E.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Steckmeyer, J.C.

    2001-10-01

    The second generation of high quality detection arrays gave hope to nuclear physicists to finally obtain an experimental equation of state of nuclear matter. In spite of this progress, the measurement of the internal energy of a hot nucleus remains a very difficult task. This paper illustrates this difficulty by a methodological study of a classical technique of excitation energy measurement used in the Fermi energy range. The aim of this study is to verify the validity, the accuracy and the experimental limits of these measurements. It is shown that it is difficult to have a real experimental mastery of the source reconstruction and calorimetry at least for limited bombarding energies and violent collisions. (authors)

  5. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  6. Public Internal Performance Contracting - Managing and financing energy-efficiency measures in public administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, Wolfgang; Thomas, Stefan; Attali, Sophie; Benke, Georg; Borg, Nils; Figorski, Arkadiusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Labanca, Nicola; Pindar, Andrew; Ochoa, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Public Internal Performance Contracting (PICO) is a type of in-house 'third-party' financing or energy performance contracting scheme. In theory, once triggered, PICO provides a 'perpetual motion' finance mechanism for public authorities by which energy efficiency savings fund new investments in an upward virtuous cycle. One unit of the public authority, e.g. the technical department, delivers the financial and technical energy efficiency service to another unit of the same public administration. Remuneration takes place through cross payments between these units, according savings made in energy costs. The initial investments require 'seed funds' to kick start the process, after which the cross payments provide sufficient means to fund further measures. How can the PICO mechanism be initiated in times of tight public budgets? What difficulties are faced during the implementation process and how can these be overcome? What kind of energy-efficiency measures is PICO best suited to? And what role can national and European policy play to facilitate implementation? These are the key questions that the EU-funded PICOLight project aimed to tackle. This was done through testing and disseminating the PICO schemes, first used in Germany, in six European countries, developing these further and making the necessary adaptations. PICO schemes were piloted in seven public administrations with the technical focus on energy-efficient lighting retrofits. The experiences gathered in these pilot projects should help to introduce PICO schemes on a larger scale in public administrations in Europe. The paper presents the preliminary results from these pilot projects

  7. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  8. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  9. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A; Lawrance, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  10. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  11. International energy outlook, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. This and other EIA reports are provided as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts, not as a Government energy plan. Current US Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010

  12. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-01

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of ΔE b /E b =10 -4 . (orig.)

  13. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  14. Precise and fast beam energy measurement at the international linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viti, Michele

    2010-02-15

    The international Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron collider with a center-of-mass energy between 200 and 500 GeV and a peak luminosity of 2 . 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. For the physics program at this machine, an excellent bunch-by-bunch control of the beam energy is mandatory. Several techniques are foreseen to be implemented at the ILC in order to achieve this request. Energy spectrometers upstream and downstream of the electron/positron interaction point were proposed and the present default option for the upstream spectrometer is a beam position monitor based (BPM-based) spectrometer. In 2006/2007, a prototype of such a device was commissioned at the End Station A beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in order to study performance and reliability. In addition, a novel method based on laser Compton backscattering has been proposed, since as proved at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) and the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), complementary methods are necessary to cross-check the results of the BPM-based spectrometer. In this thesis, an overview of the experiment at End Station A is given, with emphasis on the performance of the magnets in the chicane and first energy resolution estimations. Also, the novel Compton backscattering method is discussed in details and found to be very promising. It has the potential to bring the beam energy resolution well below the requirement of {delta}E{sub b}/E{sub b}=10{sup -4}. (orig.)

  15. International energy outlook, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil

  16. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  17. Measurements of internal stresses in bond coating using high energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, K; Akiniwa, Y; Nishio, K; Kawamura, M; Okado, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) techniques enable high temperature combustion of turbines made of Ni-base alloy. TBC is made of zirconia top coating on NiCoCrAlY bond coating. The internal stresses in the bond coating play essential role in the delamination or fracture of TBC in service. With the X-rays from laboratory equipments, it is impossible to measure nondestructively the internal stress in the bond coating under the top coating. synchrotron radiations with a high energy and high brightness have a large penetration depth as compared with laboratory X-rays. Using the high energy X-rays from the synchrotron radiation, it is possible to measure the internal stress in the bond coating through the top coating. In this study, the furnace, which can heat a specimen to 1473 K, was developed for the stress measurement of the thermal barrier coatings. The internal stresses in the bond coating were measured at the room temperature, 773 K, 1073 K and 1373 K by using the 311 diffraction from Ni sub 3 Al with about 73...

  18. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  19. International energy outlook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA's projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA's World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts' knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs

  20. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  1. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  2. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  3. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  4. International energy outlook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year's report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs

  5. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  6. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  7. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  8. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  9. Automated low energy photon absorption equipment for measuring internal moisture and density distributions of wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiitta, M.; Olkkonen, H.; Lappalainen, T.; Kanko, T.

    1993-01-01

    Automated equipment for measuring the moisture and density distributions of wood samples was developed. Using a narrow beam of gamma rays, the equipment scans the wood samples, which are placed on the moving belt. The moisture measurement is based on the 241 Am photon absorption technique (59.5 keV), where the difference of the linear absorption coefficients of the moist and dry wood is measured. The method requires no knowledge of the thickness of the specimen. The density estimation method is based on the measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of wood. Comprehensive software including image processing was developed for treatment of the numerical values of the measurements. (author)

  10. Removing the effect of blooming from potential energy measurement by employing total internal reflection microscopy integrated with video microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Gong, Xiangjun; He, Chuanxin; Ngai, To

    2017-10-01

    Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) measures the interactions between a colloidal particle and a flat surface in aqueous solution. Recently, TIRM has further integrated with video microscopy (VM) and enabled the simultaneous measurements of multi-particle colloid-surface interactions in the same ensemble. However, there still remain challenges about accurate image acquisition due to blooming. Blooming means the number of photons reaching the detector exceeds its maximum capacity, and the excess photons will either spill to adjacent pixels or not be counted, leading to an obstacle from precise determination of intensity. Our result shows that blooming gives rise to a deviation of the measured potential energy from the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verway, and Overbeek (DLVO). Therefore, a correction method was developed in this work to deduce the real intensity from the experimental measurement. The relationship between scattered light intensity and exposure time deviates from linearity when blooming occurs. A correction equation was developed to recover the real intensity, which was then confirmed by the accordance between the corresponding potential energy profiles and the DLVO theory. This correction method is suitable for VM systems of colloidal probes illuminated by scattered light, broadening the application of VM imaging to investigate colloidal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  12. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  13. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedavalli, Rangaswamy

    1994-01-01

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  14. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  15. International energy indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  16. International energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio

  17. International measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). List of errata; 1998 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seigohyo. Asia energy shohi koritsuka bunseki tool chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The list of errata was prepared for the data book of the international measures project for rational energy use (Survey project of the analysis tool of Asian energy consumption efficiency). Corrected pages of the data book 1 (1990) are as follows: 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295- 298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. Corrected pages of the data book 2 (1985) are as follows: 102-105 on Chinese data, 154 on common data, and 187-190, 223-226, 259-262, 295-298, 369-370, 387-388 and 405-406 on Malaysian data. (NEDO)

  18. Recent developments in classical density functional theory: Internal energy functional and diagrammatic structure of fundamental measure theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of several recent developments in density functional theory for classical inhomogeneous liquids is given. We show how Levy's constrained search method can be used to derive the variational principle that underlies density functional theory. An advantage of the method is that the Helmholtz free energy as a functional of a trial one-body density is given as an explicit expression, without reference to an external potential as is the case in the standard Mermin-Evans proof by reductio ad absurdum. We show how to generalize the approach in order to express the internal energy as a functional of the one-body density distribution and of the local entropy distribution. Here the local chemical potential and the bulk temperature play the role of Lagrange multipliers in the Euler-Lagrange equations for minimiziation of the functional. As an explicit approximation for the free-energy functional for hard sphere mixtures, the diagrammatic structure of Rosenfeld's fundamental measure density functional is laid out. Recent extensions, based on the Kierlik-Rosinberg scalar weight functions, to binary and ternary non-additive hard sphere mixtures are described.

  19. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  20. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  1. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation. Industrial applications. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 and 31 July 2002. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English, though some are also available in other languages than English

  2. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  3. International energy annual, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production, consumption, reserves, trade, and prices for five primary energy sources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear electricity. It also presents information on petroleum products. Since the early 1980's the world's total output of primary energy has increased steadily. The annual average growth rate of energy production during the decade was 1.9 percent. Throughout the 1980's, petroleum was the world's most heavily used type of energy. In 1989, three countries--the United States, the USSR, and China--were the leading producers and consumers of world energy. Together, these countries consumed and produced almost 50 percent of the world's total energy. Global production and consumption of crude oil and natural gas liquids increased during the 1980's, despite a decline in total production and demand in the early part of the decade. World production of dry natural gas continued to rise steadily in the 1980's. For the last several years, China has been the leading producer of coal, followed by the United States. In 1989, hydroelectricity supply declined slightly from the upward trend of the last 10 years. Nuclear power generation rose slightly from the 1988 level, compared with the marked growth in earlier years. Prices for major crude oils all increased between 1988 and 1989, but remained well below the price levels at the beginning of the decade. 26 figs., 36 tabs

  4. Market-pull report. Measures on the demand side accelerate development and market introduction of energy-saving technologies. Swiss examples in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, C.; Aebischer, B.

    1995-09-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA) experts met in Zurich in order to further develop international projects for the coordinated procurement of energy-saving technologies. On the occasion of this meeting, Swiss specialists from business and administrative circles presented examples of how the market can be purposefully influenced by implementing measures on the demand side. In order to ensure success, it is vital that all parties concerned - from the manufacturers to the consumers - are taken into account, and that tools are applied that have been adapted to each individual market. An international coordination of activities that are aimed at bringing about a change in procurement behaviour contributes considerably to an acceleration of the various processes. For the manufacturers, most of whom are active on an international level, it becomes simpler and more worthwhile to react. This applies in particular when instruments such as quality seals (labels) and target values are applied. (author) figs., tabs

  5. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  6. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  9. DTU International Energy Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage...

  10. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  11. DTU International Energy Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to solve some of the challenges introduced by the broader integration of renewable sources. Closer integration and coordination of energy infrastructures might also lead to a more cost-effective energy system with a lower impact on the environment and climate. The DTU International Energy Report 2015......One of the challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources is to secure a well-functioning and stable electricity infrastructure. Today, conventional generation is responsible for providing many of the power system services needed...... for stable and reliable electricity infrastructure operation. When fluctuating renewable energy sources are taking over, the heating, cooling, gas, and transport infrastructures may be able to provide some of the flexibility needed. Closer integration of the various energy infrastructures is thus a means...

  12. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  13. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  14. International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy and Water Savings, Volume I (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This protocol serves as a framework to determine energy and water savings resulting from the implementation of an energy efficiency program. It is also intended to help monitor the performance of renewable energy systems and to enhance indoor environmental quality in buildings.

  15. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  16. Nuclear energy and international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, B.

    1975-01-01

    The historical perspectives of the international organizations' role concerning the development and spreading of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, taking into account the national interests within and towards these organizations, are portrayed. The difference in political status between the so-called nuclear and non-nuclear States, lodged in Articles I and II of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is an important factor. The effects so far of these differences in status on the interest of nuclear States to participate in organizations and on factors which might possibly lead to conflict between these two groups are presented. The author skirts the cooperation between organizations (international bureaucracies, group-formation of states). (HP/LN) [de

  17. Tasks and problems of international energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberth, R.

    1979-01-01

    International energy policy creates an international 'energy consciousness' which supports the national energy-political efforts, strengthening and directing them. Limited, categorized goals have, in international votings, higher chances of success than global concepts; careful determination is better than quick proceeding. (orig.) [de

  18. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohensee, J.; Salewski, M.

    1993-01-01

    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias's oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [de

  19. The International Energy Agency's world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 edition of the World Energy Outlook to 2010 was reviewed. An overview of the energy projections was provided based on assumptions about economic growth and energy prices, geological potential, technological developments, the availability of traditional fuels outside the OECD and the future preferences of energy users. Demand vs. price movements were modelled, based on 'capacity constraints' and 'energy saving ' scenarios. Three major conclusions derived from the projections were: (1) world primary energy demand will grow steadily as it has over the past two decades, (2) fossil fuels will account for 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010, and (3) a structural shift in the shares of different regions in world energy demand is likely to occur, i.e., the OECD share will fall in favor of the share of the ROW (rest of the world). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  20. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  1. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self......-reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance...... of energy balance....

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rahim Mohd Nor

    1985-01-01

    A review on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and its relation with Malaysia is given. This article also discusses the background history of IAEA, its organization and functions in the field of nuclear energy

  3. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 2. Examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 2 (kokusai kyoryoku shuishin no tame no chosa kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the results of examination and promotion of measures to obtain international understanding and cooperation, and examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, conducted in the FY 1998 continuously from the previous year, with the object to realize the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) project. In the FY 1998, the English version of the 1997 annual summary report was distributed to a total of about 150 overseas organizations. The WE-NET project activities were presented to the 12th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, International Joint Power Generation Conference held in 1998 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Energy Conversion Systems and Related Technologies. For the examination and development of measures to promote international exchange of technical information, the contracting party of Japan for the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement with IEA has been shifted from the government of Japan to NEDO. NEDO has been representing Japan for various workshops on the tasks. The hydrogen projects conducted by Germany and USA were also surveyed. The WE-NET project homepage was opened in June, 1998. (NEDO)

  4. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  5. International energy efficiency and renewable energy resources on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meyer, R.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A variety of sources of information on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. These resources are sponsored and maintained by a myriad of organizations across the country and world. One expeditious way to access these resources is by using the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN). This network is a user-friendly computer link to Internet based information on energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and techniques. Numerous international sources of information can be accessed through EREN including the International Energy Agency`s Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) and the Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). CADDET`s Register of demonstrated energy technologies provides an extensive guide to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, and GREENTIE`s Directory of supplier information helps users access technology providers and experts.

  6. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  7. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA... Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will be held at the headquarters of... of Switzerland --Questionnaire Response of The Netherlands 5. Emergency Response Exercises...

  8. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  9. International Energy and Environmental Congress: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information presented at the International Energy and Environmental Congress `93 proceedings. Symposiums included demand-side management strategic directions; federal energy management; corporate energy management; and pollution control technologies. Individual reports from the symposiums are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Proceedings of V International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007. International Workshop of Eolic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2007, held in Havana, Cuba, on May 22-25, 2007. The purpose of the CIER 2007 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education. The objective of the International Workshop of Eolic Energy is in advancing in the dialogue international on the systems in question and their applications around the world, you they analyzed the perspectives of possible programs of cooperation in this field and their use in Cuba

  11. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  12. 3. International Energy Symposium. Contrasts and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.

    2001-12-01

    The contributions made by the speakers of the 3 rd International Energy Symposium in Ossiach have clearly shown the dichotomies that exist in energy supply and have stated unequivocally what is expected from political decision-makers. One of the request has been that the political system provide the framework conditions for so-called flexible instruments to be employed in climate policy. These should allow efficient measures to be taken to reduce emissions not just in Austria but abroad as well. The technological questions of energy supply have been answered to a large extent by engineers. However, what remains to be solved are the issues of distribution and financing of sufficient and ecologically optimized systems. This requires ingenuity and problem solving capacity on part of politicians and bank experts so that scientific and technological developments will be followed by their translation into practice. The change in awareness has already taken place. However, its actual implementation will determine the success or failure of the energy concepts for a better future. (Giljum, H.H.)

  13. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  14. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  15. Proceedings; 4th Tsuruga international energy forum. Energy policy and international cooperation of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The forum was opened at Tsuruga City in Japan from 26 to 27 in April, 2004. It initially discussed Japan's energy policy with the central focus based on the fundamental law of energy, presenting energy policies of each country and the position and future prospects of nuclear energy from these policies. Considering that the forum took place in Tsuruga City (where the FBR 'Monju' is located), expectations on 'Monju' and demands for its international utilization was discussed by researches from abroad, universities in Japan, and the possibility of its realization with views on firm implementation measures was exchanged. Keynote speech was 'Energy policy in the 21st century', special presentation 'importance of science and technology development and cultivation of improvement'. The forum consisted of three sessions: the session I 'energy policy and the role of each country in the 21st century', session II 'international utilization of Monju for FR development' and III 'regional technology development by utilizing nuclear related technology and facilities in Fukui pref.'. There were three panel discussions. 24 members composed speaker and panelists from USA, Turkey, France, UK, China, Switzerland, Korea, Russia and Japan. (S.Y.)

  16. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  17. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  18. International nuclear low and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouinet, Nejib

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to put points on the codification of international law of nuclear energy and its uses in military and peaceful in the first part. The second part was devoted for the imperfection of the law of international nuclear.

  19. The prepossession of international institutions for energy. The example International Energy Agency (IEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the fact that large international energy agencies, which are advisory active in energy questions active, affect the world-wide policy. In particular, these are the International Atomic Energy Authority in Vienna (Austria) and the International Energy Agency in Paris (France). The International Energy Agency is considered world-wide as the most important institution for all energy questions. Nearly annually, it publishes the World Energy Outlook by summarizing the most important current energy data of the world, prognoses the future power supply and makes future energy prices. The reality of the International Energy Agency looks completely differently: It performs no own sciences, but consists of statisticians, who gather only statistical data without scientific analysis. The author of this contribution summarizes the work of the International Energy Agency in three points: (a) Promotion of the interests of companies in mineral oil, natural gas, coal and atomic energy; (b) Hindering the world-wide conversion of renewable energy; (c) Endangerment of the world economy and prevention of an effective climate protection. The International Energy Agency does not justice to its own goal of a reliable, economical and pollution free power supply

  20. International Energy Agency 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The IEA Executive Director’s Annual Report 2012 is the first of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It is presented to the IEA Governing Board and released publicly to ensure transparency and also to take stock of the organisation’s activities from a strategic perspective. 2012 was a transitional year for the IEA, given fundamental changes in the global energy economy as well as internal management and budget issues. At the same time demand for IEA products set new records, and the public and political impact of IEA work through effective communication was measured as high.

  1. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  2. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  3. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  4. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  5. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  6. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. (eds.) (USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  7. Making `Internal Thermal Energy' Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xueli

    2004-09-01

    In a 1992 paper published in this journal, Uri Ganiel described a pair of model carts used to demonstrate elastic and inelastic collisions. The wooden carts had low-friction wheels and a steel-strip bumper on one end. On one of the carts, a number of brass washers were rigidly mounted in vertical stacks to a wooden framework. The other cart was similar except that the washers were tied to rubber bands that were stretched horizontally and diagonally across the framework. When the first cart was rolled into a wall it bounced off with only a small reduction in speed ("elastic" collision). The second cart, on the other hand, was found to come nearly to a complete stop upon colliding with the wall ("inelastic" collision). Following the instructions given in Ganiel's paper, I built a pair of carts and demonstrated them to introductory-level physics students at a large public university. It was interesting to find that many students were distracted by the different-looking structures of the two model carts.2 They thought the different distributions of washers between the carts resulted in the rubber-band cart bouncing back a significantly shorter distance than the rigid-rod one after they both collided with a wall at the same initial speed. Apparently, the students had difficulties in understanding the collisions and used surface features to reason about them. To avoid this superficial distraction and to help students visualize easily "where the kinetic energy goes in an inelastic collision," I modified the rigid-rod cart to have washers fixed on hollow aluminum rods mounted at four different levels horizontally and diagonally (see Fig. 1). The new pair of the model carts look very similar to each other: They have the same bumpers, same wheels, same distributions of washers, and same masses.

  8. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  9. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year`s report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  10. Forward energy measurement with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kheyn, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Energy flow is measured in the forward region of CMS at pseudorapidities up to 6.6 in pp interactions at 13 TeV with forward (HF) and very forward (CASTOR) calorimeters. The results are compared to model predictions. The CMS results at different center-of-mass energies are intercompared using pseudorapidity variable shifted by beam rapidity, thus studying applicability of hypothesis of limiting fragmentation.

  11. Proceedings of VIII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Several workshops were carried out within the framework of the conference for example 4th International Wind Energy Workshop, 2nd International Workshop of Hydrogen as an alternative fuel, 1st International Workshop of Photovoltaic Solar Energy. It was an excellent occasion to share experiences and promote synergies oriented towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture.

  12. The International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzutti, A.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The origens, functions and objectives of the IAEA are analysed. The application of safeguards to avoid military uses of nuclear energy is discussed. In the final section the agrement between Brazil and Germany regarding IAEA safeguards, as well as the competence for executing the brazilian program are explained. It is, then, an informative study dealing with nuclear energy and its peaceful path, the creation of International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and nonproliferation [pt

  13. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  14. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  15. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  16. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  17. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  18. 77 FR 16826 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency.... 6272(c)(1)(A)(i)) (EPCA), the following notice of meetings is provided: Meetings of the Industry... --Emergency Response Review of Switzerland --Emergency Response Review of The Netherlands --Questionnaire...

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  1. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W

    2015-01-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis...

  2. A new international measure of social stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meraviglia, C.; Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; De Luca, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new international measure of social stratification, the ICAMS (International Cambridge Scale). Our aim is to bring new evidence to the hypothesis that the construct that underlies measures of social stratification as different as prestige scales, socio-economic indexes,

  3. The International Energy Agency collaboration in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Pershagen, B.

    1991-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) wind energy agreements have provided a useful framework for international cooperative efforts during more than thirteen years. Nine comprehensive research Tasks have been successfully completed and three Tasks are currently in progress. The sharing of research and information has clearly contributed to the development of wind technology, has eliminated unnecessary redundancy in national programmes, has encouraged utilization of the most efficient approaches to solve common problems, and has created a cooperative spirit among the professional groups that seems to be unique. After a brief introduction on the activities of the IEA on wind energy an overview is given of the ongoing tasks and other current activities with regard to the subject. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 9 refs

  4. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  5. Fiscal 2000 international energy use rationalization measures project. International energy consumption efficiency improvement technology diffusion project - Green helmet project (Thailand: Report on heating furnace energy conservation seminar); 2000 nendo. Kokusai energy shiyo gorika to taisaku jigyo, Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka to gijutsu fukyu jigyo, Green helmet jigyo (Thai : kanetsuro shoenergy seminar hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above-named seminar was held in Bangkok, Thailand, on January 30, 2001, and covered three kinds of industries of ceramics, glass, and aluminum. Approximately 200 people attended the meeting, consisting of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)-affiliated people and 16 lecturers from Japan, and Thai participants. The seminar comprised a 'keynote address' and 'lectures on engineering' that aimed at the three industries as a whole, and 'lectures on engineering' and 'cases and activities for energy conservation' that aimed, respectively, at the three industries. Lectures were delivered on operating technologies which were already in practical use and on state-of-the-art technologies. The keynote address, entitled 'Global warming prevention and industrial furnaces,' covered the results of the 'High-performance industrial furnace field test project.' The lectures on engineering dealt with the 'instrumentation control system' and 'heat insulation technology' which were basic technologies for energy conservation and 'diagnosis technology and practice' which aimed at the enhancement of energy conservation after the start of operation. Questions and answers were earnestly exchanged. (NEDO)

  6. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  7. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  8. Project for rationalization measures for international energy conservation. Model project concerning efficient consumption of energy for international energy conservation (Model project of waste heat recovery on billet reheating furnace); 1999 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado model jigyo (kozai kanetsuro hainetsu kaishu model jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of curtailing energy consumption in the steel industry, a heavy energy consuming industry in Thailand, a model project was carried out for waste heat recovery on a billet reheating furnace, with the fiscal 1999 results compiled. This model project is to install a high efficiency recuperator and the latest combustion control system in the existing furnace in a SISCO (The Siam Iron and Steel Co., Ltd.) plant in Thailand. This year, following the preceding year, the construction manual was prepared, as were the test run manual, performance verification manual, operation and maintenance manual, etc. Supervisors were also dispatched to the site, giving guidance of the installation work, test run and the demonstrative operation, on the basis of these documents. Operation for verifying performance of the equipment was implemented on November 17, 1999, with the intended results obtained. Subsequently, operation maintenance instructors were dispatched, with energy saving effect proved through the collection/analysis of operation data and monitoring, for example. Further, as the dissemination activities, pamphlets and videos were prepared, and seminars were held, among others. (NEDO)

  9. INTERNATIONALLY LEGAL MEASURES TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.

  10. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Campaner, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a

  11. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  12. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  13. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  14. International energy workshop: overview of poll responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Minkoff, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Workshop is an informally organized group. Its general aim is to compare the most up-to-date long-term energy projections available throughout the world, and to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for their differences. The current edition of the IEW poll supersedes all previous ones, and contains only those poll responses bearing publication dates of 1984-1986. Altogether, this edition of the poll contains 192 individual responses received from 71 participating organizations. The poll covers the period 1980-2010. Appendix I contains frequency distributions for each of the eight standard IEW regions: (1) USSR and Eastern Europe, (2) China, (3) Centrally Planned Economies, Subtotal, (4) OECD, (5) OPEC, (6) Non-OPEC Developing Countries, (7) Market Economies, Subtotal, and (8) World, Total. In addition, frequency distributions are provided for four individual countries/regions: Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, and USA. Poll items 3-16 refer to individual fuel types: oil, gas, coal, hydroelectric, nuclear, solar and other renewables. To ensure international comparability, these are expressed in terms of commercial primary energy consumption, production and net trade (exports minus imports). (Author)

  15. Proceedings of the seventieth International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Proceedings of the seventieth International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement held May 16-18, 1995 in Oklahoma City, OK are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 146 papers presented at the conference for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. International biomass. International markets of biomass-energy - Public synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardette, Yves-Marie; Dieckhoff, Lea; Lorne, Daphne; Postec, Gwenael; Cherisey, Hugues de; RANTIEN, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at analysing the present and future place of wood-energy in the European Union as the main renewable resource used to produce heat and electricity. This study comprised an analysis of European markets of solid biomass and of regulation, case studies on wood-energy producer markets (North America, Eastern Europe, Brazil and Africa), a study of preparation modes (shredding, granulation, roasting) and biomass transport. This study is based on bibliographical searches in national and European sources, and on field data collected by the various bodies involved in this study. This synthesis notably discusses the following issues: solid biomass is the main renewable resource for the EU and has many applications; European objectives for solid biomass by 2020 are very ambitious; markets are becoming international to face the EU's increasing demand; pellet production in North America is strongly increasing; in Europe, eastern European countries are the main exporters; Brazil has an export potential which is still to be confirmed; the African trade with Europe is still in its infancy. Finally, the development perspectives of roasted wood trade are discussed

  17. Study of Si-N amorphous compounds combining XPS (X photoemission) and EELS (electron energy loss spectra) optical measurements. Internal levels photoemission. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guraya, M.M.; Acolani, H.; Zampieri, G.E.; Silva, J.H. Dias da; Cisneros, J.I.; Cantao, M.; Marques, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    A Si-N non-stoichiometric hydrogenated amorphous compounds study with different N- contents is presented. The shape and shifts of the photoemission peaks corresponding to the N - 1s and Si - 2p internal levels are analyzed. Based on the latter, the homogeneity of the samples and the Si - N bonds charge transfer is discussed. (Author) [es

  18. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The CD-ROM presents papers submitted to the International Conference of Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education. CIER 2009, held in Havana, Cuba, on Jun 9-13, 2009 May. The purpose of the CIER 2009 are to offer an opportunity to engineers, investigators, academic, makers and specialists in the energy topic from all over the world to exchange experiences, to share their successes and to discuss their focuses to future in the topic of the energy renewable, the energy saving, the energy efficiency and the energy education

  19. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  20. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  1. Proceedings of IX International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Study Centre for Renewable Energy Technologies (CETER) located at the Technological University of Havana Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE) Cuba hosted the IX International Renewable Energy Conference, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2017). The current focus on Cuba's renewable energy sector is ambitious with the Government proposing to boost investment by USD 3.5 billion in order to reach its goal of generating 24 per cent of its power from renewable energy by 2030. CIER 2017 brought together hundreds of scientist, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists from across the entire international renewable energy spectrum to exchange knowledge, debate and analyze the global efforts currently being carried out in the field. This is all with the objective of intensifying the introduction of renewable energy technologies and promoting the sustainable energetic development in Cuba and the Caribe.

  2. Manual for Internal Audits and Management Review Energy Care; Handreiking Interne Audits en Management Review Energiezorg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    This document offers practical support for two important aspects of energy care: establishing an internal audit and a management review. Both are logical next steps following planned and implemented energy saving measures. They will help test if measures have (had) the desired effect or if they need to be adjusted and to establish if any follow-up measures are needed. (mk) [Dutch] Deze handreiking biedt praktische ondersteuning bij twee belangrijke onderdelen van Energiezorg: het opzetten van een interne audit en een management review. Beide onderdelen zijn een logisch vervolg op geplande en al genomen energiebesparende maatregelen. Het is een toetsing of de maatregelen effect hebben (gehad), of ze bijgesteld moeten worden en of er eventuele vervolgmaatregelen nodig zijn.

  3. Measure for Measure: Urban Water and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, C.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments in the United States account for a majority of the population and, as such, require large volumes of treated drinking water supply and wastewater removal, both of which need energy. Despite the large share of water that urban environments demand, there is limited accounting of these water resources outside of the city itself. In this study, we provide and analyze a database of drinking water and wastewater utility flows and energy that comprise anthropogenic fluxes of water through the urban environment. We present statistical analyses of the database at an annual, spatial, and intra-annual scale. The average daily per person water flux is estimated as 563 liters of drinking water and 496 liters of wastewater, requiring 340 kWh/1000 m3 and 430 kWh/1000 m3 of energy, respectively, to treat these resources. This energy demand accounts for 1% of the total annual electricity production of the United States. Additionally, the water and embedded energy loss associated with non-revenue water (estimated at 15.8% annually) accounts for 9.1 km3of water and 3600 GWh, enough electricity to power 300,000 U.S. households annually. Through the analysis and benchmarking of the current state of urban water fluxes, we propose the term `blue city,' which promotes urban sustainability and conservation policy focusing on water resources. As the nation's water resources become scarcer and more unpredictable, it is essential to include water resources in urban sustainability planning and continue data collection of these vital resources.

  4. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  5. Measurement and evaluation of internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Song, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium present in lung by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of the KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity

  6. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK be...

  7. Temperature dependent measurement of internal damping of austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oravcová Monika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed on the analysis of the internal damping changes of austenitic stainless steels AISI 304, AISI 316L and AISI 316Ti depending from temperature. In experimental measurements only resonance method was used which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimens and the whole apparatus vibrates at the frequency near to the resonance. Microplastic processes and dissipation of energy within the metals are evaluated and investigated by internal damping measurements. Damping capacity of materials is closely tied to the presence of defects including second phase particles and voids. By measuring the energy dissipation in the material, we can determine the elastic characteristics, Youngs modulus, the level of stress relaxation and many other.

  8. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers......This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems...

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  10. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  11. Social science research on energy: International and Norwegian studies

    OpenAIRE

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Schwach, Vera; Scordato, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This analysis indicates that energy, and environmental friendly energy especially, has increased in importance within social science publishing and also in terms of Norwegian participation in national and international research projects. This heightened research interest reflects a stronger focus on environmentally friendly energy in general, in an international context and nationally. The requirements of deploying new energy technologies, reducing energy consumption and building effective an...

  12. International Strategic Alliances: Identifying Objective Performance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Russell P. Adams; Clara Downey

    2011-01-01

    With the acceleration of globalization, International Strategic Alliances (ISA) are increasingly playing a critical role in a firms strategic arsenal. Despite its importance, measuring an ISAs success is difficult due to the reticence of failing partnerships to announce these issues. This paper presents an analysis of 29 alliances from 18 countries and 5 industries. The success or failure of these alliances was analyzed utilizing ROA, ROE, ROI, and operating margin as the variables of perform...

  13. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  14. The renewable energy development framework - II. The foundations of renewable energy development: Economic foundations of renewable energies; International foundations of renewable energies; European foundations of renewable energy development; Foundations of renewable energy development in internal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes Motel, Pascale; Thebaut, Matthieu; Loic Grard; Michallet, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A first article analysis the reasons for the development of renewable energies (economic and environmental reasons, European commitments in terms of production objectives), how these renewable energies can be developed (acceptation by the population, administrative, technological, and financial constraints, political instruments related to market, taxes and purchase prices). A second article proposes a discussion about the way international law deals with renewable energies as far as texts as well as actors are concerned. The third article describes the European ambitions regarding renewable energies as a product of national perspectives (national action plans and projects) as well as of European perspectives (financing, integrated actions). The last article presents and comments various legal texts dealing with the development of renewable energies in France (texts concerning the right to energy, the environment law, planning tools, incentive measures)

  15. Do Austerity Measures Harm International Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Iulian CHIRIŢOIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the trade relations between Romania and the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain in order to verify whether the exports of Romania have been positively or negatively affected by the austerity measures adopted by these Eurozone periphery countries, thus diminishing Romania’s export performance in such markets. Hence, our main research question is whether austerity measures harm or affect in any way the inflows and outflows of international trade in the studied countries. To assess this hypothesis, we focused on the external trade relations, and their linkages with the macroeconomic environment, rather than the competitiveness of a state explained by a detailed sectoral analysis. In this respect, we use comparative and descriptive statistics in order to observe the consequences of the internal devaluation, and implicitly austerity measures, on the PIIGS-Romanian trade relations. Our findings suggest that the effects of austerity measures are not homogenous because they depend on the scale of trade exchanges and on the way in which the austerity measures were applied.

  16. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  17. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  18. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingook Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  19. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  20. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  1. The Thermal Measurement of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, E. H.

    2014-08-01

    1. Introductory remarks; 2. Relation between potential and kinetic energy; 3. Table of values obtained by different observers; 4. Distinction between capacity for heat and specific heat of water; Appendix I. The thermal unit; Appendix II. Approximate methods of determining the mechanical equivalent; Appendix III. Copy of resolutions passed by the Electrical Standards Committee of the British Association in 1896.

  2. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both ... describes the thermonuclear processes in the core of the Sun and foresees the emission of neutrinos from ..... neutrino–electron elastic scattering and does not benefit from the handle of the delayed coincidence ...

  3. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND ...

  4. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  5. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  6. CARS measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, I A; Williams, D R; Cole, J B; Swords, M D

    1979-11-15

    The first reported coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiments within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are described. The feasibility of making noninvasive temperature and species measurements, with good spatial and temporal resolution, both before and after ignition has been demonstrated. Temperatures have been derived from the shape of the Q-branch vibrational spectrum of nitrogen since it is present as a major species and does not take part in combustion. Methods of overcoming such problems as were encountered are discussed.

  7. Biotrade1: international trade in renewable energy from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, A.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses international trade in renewable energy from biomass. Main objective is to compare options for international trade in energy from biomass and to compare these options with non-trade options like domestic use of biomass and afforestation. Aspects that are taken into account are

  8. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... However, the light takes ∼105 yr to reach us, while neutrinos escape from the solar matter undisturbed. Consequently, a precision measurement of ... neutrinos is therefore a major goal with important cosmological implications. ..... In addition, the water plants have been modified for a better control of.

  9. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  10. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, M. V.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghasabian, M.; Mazandarani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α -particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of α -particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with α -particles.

  11. Industrial energy economy, national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    VDI-report 1061 contains the papers given on the Conference of the same name in Essen on the 22 and 23.6.1993. German industry suffers not only from high wage and on-cost but high, energy costs as well. Waste disposal problems and impending taxes on wages are the cause of these difficulties. The EC believes that competition between energy supplies may help to reduce energy costs. This report deals with cost-efficient energy supply for the German industry and books at the background of this scenario. This industry puts forward its wishes and demands to politicians and energy economy. Representatives of energy suppliers discuss energy supplies, demand, availability, safety of supplies, competitiveness, quality and environmental aspects. The influence of energy costs and environmental taxation on the industrial and economic future of Germany and the situation in the Eastern States of Germany are a further subject of discussion. The views of the EC commission, the industry and the energy suppliers on energy transports across the EC are discussed as well. (orig./UA) [de

  12. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  13. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  14. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...: Challenges Ahead 6. Understanding Chinese Apparent Oil Demand 7. Potential Implications of the European... Energy, Justice, and State, the Federal Trade Commission, the General Accounting Office, Committees of...

  15. Experimental measurement of energy harvesting with backpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkova, Radka; Vala, David; Suranek, Pavel; Mahdal, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the energy harvesting systems, especially the energy harvesting backpack, which appears as a convenient means for energy harvesting for mobile sensors power. Before starting the experiment, it was necessary to verify whether this energy will be sufficient to get acquainted with the human kinematics and analyze problematics itself. For this purpose there was used motion capture technology from Xsens. Measured data on the position of a particle moving man and back when walking, these data were then used for experimental realization of energy harvesting backpack and as input data to the simulation in Simulink, which brought us a comparison between theoretical assumptions and practical implementation. When measuring characteristics of energy harvesting system we have a problem with measurements on backpack solved when redoing of the hydraulic cylinder as a source of a suitable movement corresponding to the amplitude and frequency of human walk.

  16. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  17. 75 FR 34724 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Greece. --Questionnaire Response of Denmark. --Questionnaire Response of Norway. 5. Emergency Policy for... accordance with section 252(c)(1)(A)(i) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6272(c)(1)(A)(i... 29). --Energy Security Indicators Model. 9. Policy and Other Developments in Member Countries...

  18. Energy: The coin of international understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, A.

    1989-01-01

    Energy and agriculture have been the technological hallmarks of civilization from its dimmest beginnings. The myth of fire stolen from the gods recounts the first ever technology transfer activity, and it quite rightly focuses on energy. Even that myth foreshadows the ambivalence mankind has always exhibited toward fire. There is a price to pay for the possession of fire. Fire, the good servant and evil master. Don't play with fire. How deeply energy is engraved in human consciousness. Now, with a world of five billion souls and heading for double that number, energy commands center stage. Everybody uses, mistrusts, needs, wants, loves, hates, and fears some aspect of energy. Rich poor, north and south, capitalist and ancialist, humanist and fundamentalist---all deal with energy in most intimate way. The price of oil has an immediate effect on the economy of the West, it can start stop development in the third world, it leads to wars, it determines the size of cars in Japan, and create bizarre cities on stilts in the hostile North Sea. Energy is the great benefactor: it relieves drudgery, it makes agriculture productive, it gives us light and heat. The great dream of every young person in the US is to own that certain car. The same dream that informs the citizens of the third world, that leads to impenetrable traffic jams in Mexico City, in Nairobi, in Shanghai, but not yet in Moscow or Riev. No doubt the unsuspecting Russian will judge perestroika to have been successful when there is gridlock on Pushkin Street. Energy is the great polluter: smog, carbon dioxide, acid rain, islands of heat, melting permafrost, a nuclear waste. Indirectly energy fuels all the other forms of pollution: agricultural waste, pesticides, little bits of polystyrene, the huge amounts of just plain trash in search of a final resting place. Aspects of energy that characterize its uses by society are discussed

  19. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ellison, G.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-03-21

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  20. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  1. 4th international conference in sustainability in energy and buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Höjer, Mattias; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB12, held in Stockholm, Sweden, and is organised by KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in partnership with KES International. The International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings focuses on a broad range of topics relating to sustainability in buildings but also encompassing energy sustainability more widely. Following the success of earlier events in the series, the 2012 conference includes the themes Sustainability, Energy, and Buildings and Information and Communication Technology, ICT. The SEB’12 proceedings includes invited participation and paper submissions across a broad range of renewable energy and sustainability-related topics relevant to the main theme of Sustainability in Energy and Buildings. Applicable areas include technology for renewable energy and sustainability in the built environment, optimisation and modeling techniques, informati...

  2. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  3. Energy efficiency measurement in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacone, E.; Mancò, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the meaning of energy efficiency is clear, different definitions exist and important issues relating to its implementation still need to be addressed. It is now recognised that complicating factors – such as complex industrial sites and energy flows, multiple products and fuels, and the influence of production rate on energy efficiency – render it necessary to adopt a structured framework to define and measure energy efficiency more precisely. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to build such a framework. The whole energy system of a site is represented using a single matrix equation, which expresses the relationship between imported energies and energy drivers. The elements of the matrix are the specific energy consumptions of each single process. Mathematical process modelling, through statistical analysis of energy consumption data, is used to quantify the specific energy consumption as a function of the output. The results of this structured approach are relevant for energy benchmarking, budgeting and targeting purposes. Furthermore, this approach is suitable for implementation in an energy management system standard (e.g. EN 16001, ISO 50001) or LCA standard (e.g. ISO 14044). Glass and cast iron melting processes are presented in order to illustrate the application of the method. -- Highlights: ► A structured framework for energy efficiency in industrial processes is proposed. ► Two energy efficiency indicators are revised to take into account a variable output. ► The whole energy system of a factory can be represented by a single matrix equation. ► Mathematical modelling is used to characterise the energy consumption of a process. ► The results are relevant for energy benchmarking, budgeting and energy targeting.

  4. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  5. International trends on sustainable energy Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the role of nuclear power for a carbon free emission supply of energy is now being recognized although with certain reticence or opposition. Such recognition is taking place at the current cycle of discussions devoted to sustainable energy, industrial development, atmospheric pollution and climate change issues. This paper focuses on the arguments and facts provided during CSD deliberations for considering nuclear energy as a valid option: all available energy sources will need to be considered for an adjustment to a world that requires much less carbon liberation to the environment; in the transportation sector, actions need to be urgently implemented for promoting cleaner fuels and more efficient vehicles; massive reduction of greenhouse gas emissions must be urgently implemented in order to mitigate the impacts of global warming; sustainable energy solutions for developed economies are not always adequate in developing countries; the development evolution requires specifically tailored solutions to conditions of large annual growth-rates of energy demand. Consequently, nuclear power will provide the answer to many of these problems. (Author)

  6. Proceedings of the sixty-fifth international school of hydrocarbon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Sixty-Fifth International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. It covers the following topics: Gas measurement, Liquid measurement, Energy measurement and equipment, Regulators and control valves, Electronic measurement and related equipment, Quality determination, and operation and maintenance.

  7. Proceedings of the sixty-fourth international school of hydrocarbon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of a conference held at the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. The topics presented in the book include the following: gas measurement; liquid measurement; energy measurement and equipment; regulators and control valves; electronic measurement and related equipment; quality determination; and operation and maintenance.

  8. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  9. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  10. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. International workshop on energy outlook in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Outlook Workshop is to allow decision makers and energy experts to exchange views on a wide range of issues including current projections, economic, political, social and environmental stakes, use of forecasts, precautions required, and identification of priorities. Major challenges confronting energy policy makers include: design of new energy systems following opening of energy markets; investment required to ensure long-term security of supply (e.g depleted reserves of fossil energy); achieving international commitments for environmental protection (e.g Kyoto Protocol and other quantitative targets); respect of European standards and regulations; economic and social issues, such as impact of high energy prices. The workshop will take into account two new characteristics of Energy Outlook: the time horizon, previously limited to 10-20 years, may be now extended to 30-50 years due to enormous progress in economic modelling techniques and the European and international context. (author)

  12. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The

  13. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  14. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position ... nuclear fusion, and is of interest in the theory of light ion interactions [1]. Spin–orbit ... neutron modular detector to detect neutron energies. In our last paper [6], ...

  15. Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Roshan

    2018-02-07

    . Elastic scattering of monoenergetic α-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with ...

  16. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  17. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  18. German nuclear energy development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey on the short, but relatively successful story of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Like many other countries, FRG had to go through a very difficult period of political indecision and violent opposition from antinuclear groups, supported by large parts of the media. The licensing procedures have been streamlined, nuclear power plants are being built without major interference, and the FRG is making good progress in closing the fuel cycle. This means that nuclear power will play an important role in the energy supply system, although on a lower level than originally anticipated

  19. Measurement of fission fragments energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Benetti, P; Calligarich, E; Cesana, A; Dolfini, R; Ioppolo, T; Raselli, G L; Terrani, M

    2002-01-01

    The mean energy of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission fragments emerging from an absorber and the determination of the capture rate in the absorber itself have been measured using two independent and complementary nuclear techniques. The results can be applied to the measurement of the energy self-absorption in a non-zero thickness source and can be used to validate simulation programs.

  20. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  1. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK became a net energy importer in 2005. In this paper an energy input–output model is established to calculate not only the amount of fossil energy embodied in UK's imports and exports, but also the sector and country distributions of those embodied fossil energy. The research results suggest the following: UK's embodied fossil energy imports have exceeded embodied fossil energy exports every year since 1997, UK embodied energy imports through the so-called ‘Made in China’ phenomena are the largest accounting for 43% of total net fossil energy imports. If net embodied fossil energy imports are considered, the gap between energy consumption and production in UK is much larger than commonly perceived, with subsequent implications to the UK's energy security. - Highlights: ► Model is established to examine UK's energy imports embodied in trade. ► UK's embodied energy imports have exceeded its exports every year since 1997. ► UK's net embodied energy imports from China are the largest accounting for 43%. ► UK needs to reconsider its energy utilization and efficiency in the light of trade

  2. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  3. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  4. Fiber-optic diagnostic for energy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G. L.; Muron, D. J.; Ruggles, L. E.; Chang, J.; Bloomquist, D. D.; Babcock, S. R.

    A fiber-optic diagnostic system based on calorime try to measure the total energy deposited in a liquid-filled load resistor is developed. Thermodynamic calculations show the fluid temperature to come to equilibrium in about two seconds and to remain there for several tens of seconds. Thus fluid temperature can determine the energy deposited. Using a fluoroptic thermometer, the change in temperature of a copper sulfate solution load resistor was measured as a function of the energy stored in a capacitor bank. A comparison of these results with the calculated temperature rise shows agreement to + or - 3% over the energy range from 1.4 kJ to 5.9 kJ. Measurements were then made of the energy deposited in a sodium chloride solution load resistor on the Ripple accelerator. These were made as a function of energy stored in the Marx generator from 7.4 kJ to 21.2 kJ. Electrical measurements of the energy deposited were made at the same time. These were high on the average by 8%.

  5. Project finance and international energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollio, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the preference for and the features unique to project finance, one of the favoured vehicles for funding energy development. Our main focus is on the interests of project sponsors, commercial banks and host governments. Inclusion of the latter reflects the fact host governments are often leading participants in primary energy and energy-related projects; more recently, they have come to use limited recourse structures to finance local infrastructure development. Traditional analyses, whilst providing useful insights into the interests of leading project participants, are incapable of isolation a single motive or set of motives that can comprehensively account for all of the features common to this form of debt. Within an options-theoretic framework, most of these ambiguities are resolved. Risk management, long recognised as one of the primary reasons for choosing project finance over rival debt structures, is affirmed as a key explanatory factor. One the other hand, options pricing theory provides a radically different perspective on how to project finance contributes to the realisation of these objectives. (author)

  6. International Energy Agency 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    The IEA Executive Director's Annual Report 2013 is the second of a regular annual series reporting on the IEA’s operational and organisational achievements, as well as challenges and events over the year. It was presented to the IEA Governing Board and is also released publicly to ensure transparency and to take stock of the organisation's activities from a strategic perspective. 2013 was a banner year for the IEA, given continued changes in the global energy economy as well as the IEA Ministerial meeting in November which brought together Energy Ministers from all 28 IEA member countries, accession countries Chile and Estonia, seven key partner countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa - as well as more that 30 top-level executives from the energy industry. Key Ministerial outcomes included the first IEA Ministers' Joint Statement on Climate Change and a declaration of association by six key partner countries to build multilateral cooperation with the IEA.

  7. Inauguration of the international Institute of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    On June 27, 2011 was inaugurated in Saclay (France) the I2EN (international Institute of the nuclear energy) and the Jannus platform. The I2EN has to particularly centralize and relay, at the international scale, the French formations offer in the field of nuclear energy. On the other hand, the Jannus platform is an example of cooperation between research organisms and universities. (O.M.)

  8. Energy - politics - history. National and international energy politics since 1945; Energie - Politik - Geschichte. Nationale und internationle Energiepolitik seit 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohensee, J. [ed.; Salewski, M. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    All articles focus on historical aspects of the development of energy politics in the Federal Republic of Germany (energy enconomy and industry, hard coal, nuclear energy). Some articles also look at international developments (oil boycott, Saudia Arabias`s oil policies, International Energy Agency). (UA) [Deutsch] Im Vordergrund der Beitraege stehen historische Aspekte der Entwicklung der Energiepolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Energiewirtschaft, Steinkohle, Kernenergie), einige Arbeiten werfen auch einen Blick auf internationale Entwicklungen (Oelboykott, Erdoelpolitik Saudi-Arabiens, Internationale Energie-Agentur). (UA)

  9. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  10. International institutions for energy management: an American perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    International institutions need to continue preparing for sudden changes in oil prices and supply and to encourage long-term goals of energy conservation and the substitution of non-oil fuels. Because all governments interact with energy markets, international institutions can provide a framework for intergovernmental cooperation. The authors examine opportunities for such cooperation in oil crisis management, energy policy coordination, research and development cooperation and sharing, nuclear power and non-proliferation safeguards, and North-South stability. The effectiveness of international institutions is dependent upon politcial support from the separate nations. Following an introductory chapter on the nature of the energy problem and the role of institutions, later chapters examine their structures and meetings and evaluate their prospects for strengthening Western energy cooperation. 107 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  11. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  12. Framing and measuring international patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Tomas; Van Loon, Francis; Botterill, David; Dinnie, Keith; Platenkamp, Vincent; Meulemans, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals need to determine if an international patient department is a necessity to communicate with and manage international patients. A benchmarking instrument was created to assess the level of professionalism in managing international patients, including reviewing and validating processes by two university hospitals, professionals, and an expert panel. First, the differences between the hospitals depended on the will of the hospital to engage in such activities. Second, the differences depended on the embedding national context in which the hospital was situated. Further validation revealed the importance of other supportive services, such as cultural sensitivity and language. Finally, the microlevel phenomenon of international patient departments is placed within a macrolevel transnational health region development scheme. This study focused on the supply of services with respect to international patient departments, which could be related to efficiency and sustainability on a public health and health systems level.

  13. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  14. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC's fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  15. Proceedings of the 4. international green energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.Q.; Hao, Y.Z.; Zhu, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary international conference was organized for the development and promotion of the non-polluting, renewable and sustainable energy known as green energy. It was attended by researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers from around the world to discuss the future direction, strategies and priorities in the field of green energy, including energy diversity with local energy resources such as solar, hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal and other renewable sources of energy. Green energy technologies have the potential to meet future energy needs while reducing environmental impact and strengthening the economy. The 3 main conference topics were: (1) renewable and green energy resources and technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen energy, alternative fuels and green building development, (2) advanced energy systems, including power generation, distributed energy systems, energy efficiency and exergy optimization, and (3) energy, environment and sustainable development with particular focus on energy economics, greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, and energy security issues. All 135 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  17. Role of International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.

    1986-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the IAEA formulated guidelines for mutual emergency assistance in case of accidents. These guidelines have been revised periodically and updated, with the latest revision prepared in 1984. As a response to Chernobyl, two new conventions have been produced: (1) the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, and (2) the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. It is important to emphasize that points of contact and a focal point within the IAEA shall be available continuously for the implementation of the Conventions. A total of 58 and 57 Member States have signed Conventions 1 and 2, respectively, as of October 27, 1987. It is expected that these numbers will increase significantly in the near future. According to the INSAG Summary Report, the following areas have been recommended as top priority: epidemiology study; problems of skin lesions, problem of biological dosimetry in selected cohorts of the population; and medical literature. The IAEA has been designated to take the lead in these areas in close collaboration with WHO and other international organizations

  18. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  19. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  20. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  1. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  2. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  3. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  4. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. [eds.] [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  5. Measurements of low energy auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes ion measurements in the energy range 0.1 to 30 keV observed during the campaigns 'Substorm Phenomena' and 'Porcupine'. For a clear survey of the physical processes during extraordinary events, sometimes ion measurements of higher energies are also taken into account. Generally, the pitch angle distributions were isotropic during all flights except some remarkable events. In general the ion and electron flux intensities correlated, but sometimes revealed a spectral anti-correlation. Acceleration of the ions by an electrostatic field aligned parallel to the magnetic field could be identified accompanied by intense electron precipitation. On the other hand deceleration of the ions was observed in other field-aligned current sheets which are indicated by the electron and magnetic field measurements. Temporal successive monoenergetic ion variations pointed to energy dispersion and to the location of the source region at 9 Rsub(E). Furthermore, ion fluxes higher than those of the electrons were measured at pitch angles parallel to the magnetic field. The integral down-going number and energy flux of the ions contributed to the total particle or energy influx between 65% and less than 7% and did not clearly characterize the geophysical launch conditions or auroral activities. (author)

  6. Implementation of energy efficiency programs using cogeneration based on internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minciuc Eduard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of implementation of CHP plants based on internal combustion engines at different industrial companies. The authors have presented general aspects regarding utilization of internal combustion engines for cogeneration. There have been presented different possibilities of classification of internal combustion engines. Further on authors have presented different possibilities for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines, including: supercharging compression ratio increase, advanced heat recuperation for combined production of heat and power. There have also been presented different measures for increasing energy efficiency on site, including measures for CHP plant and internal combustion engines and measures for other auxiliary equipment and measures for technological equipment. In the second part of the paper authors have presented three case studies of utilization of internal combustion engines at a cogeneration plant for different industrial companies: cogeneration plant at a company from pharmaceutical sector, cogeneration plant at a beer production company and cogeneration plant at a company of electrical insulation materials. The results of the analysis led to following conclusions: implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines lead to significant financial savings, implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines can also lead to reducing environmental impact, it ensures higher global energy production efficiency and higher power efficiency compared to National Power System and to separate power and heat generation, it can lead to increased safety in energy supply of the company, it can also increase the reliability of power supply in cases of National Power Grid faults.

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three pillars of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2006-2007 (GC(49)/2). The introductory chapter seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2006 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency's web site at http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2006/. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to technology are: nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies; capacity building and nuclear knowledge maintenance for sustainable energy development; nuclear science; food and agriculture; human health; water resources; assessment and management of marine and terrestrial environments; radioisotope production and radiation technology; safety and security; incident and emergency preparedness and response; safety of nuclear installations; radiation and transport safety; management of radioactive waste; nuclear security

  8. The Global Governance of Renewable Energy: International Trends and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Lanshina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an unprecedented explosive growth of renewable energy. The demand for global governance in this sphere has also increased. Existing energy institutes proved to be unable to take lead in global governance not only in renewables, but also in the whole energy sector. Therefore, the last 10 to 15 years have been marked by attempts to solve renewable (as well as traditional energy problems at the informal level, or within the framework of Group of Seven/Eight, the Group of 20 and the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Moreover, authoritative organizations wholly devoted to renewable energy (such as the International Renewable Energy Agency have emerged. This article studies the structure and trends of the modern global governance of renewable energy. The authors analyze the role and functions of traditional and new energy institutions and informal groupings, and draw parallels with global governance of the whole energy sector. They pay special attention to Russia’s participation in international renewable energy incentives. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are applied. The article contains multiple examples of analytical research methods and a content analysis of international documents. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of Russia’s results in complying with the renewable energy commitments of informal groups. The authors conclude that traditional international energy organizations sustain a passive position toward renewable energy. The only exclusion is the International Energy Agency, which has transformed its agenda to include renewable energy. The role of informal groups has been limited (because they have broad agendas and because they were created for other tasks than promoting renewable energy. However, their efforts have a positive influence on the harmonization and development of governance in renewable energy. The article argues that on most sensitive energy

  9. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  10. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Maghrabi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. (authors)

  11. Measurements of cesium-137 internal decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.

    1988-01-01

    In the accident with Cs 137 which took place in Goiania, it could be verified that the majority of the victims presented internal and external contamination. In order to minimize deposits in internal organs and tissues and to enhance the excretion of Cs 137 we started treating the patients with: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in about 46 patients, (2) Diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients, and (3) Increasing the Cs 137 elimination by the sweat. Those proceedings were done under rigourous clinical evaluation and with data from radiochemical assay of excreta and afterwards with data obtained through the ''in vivo'' analysis though Whole Body Counting (Body Burden). (author) [pt

  12. Enermet in the forefront of energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, R.; Suonperae, J.; Alatalo-Korpi, H. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The deregulation of energy markets presents increasing challenges to the traditional measurement business and at the same time puts special demands on system solutions. Power companies are placing emphasis on the remote accessibility of measurement data at customer sites and on a greater variety of rates. Enermet, a member of the IVO Group, is a frontrunner in this business area, investing 8 % of its turnover in product development

  13. International Instructional Systems: How England Measures Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Brian; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Although England was not included in the International Instructional Systems Study because it was not a high-performing jurisdiction by the Study's definition, contributors largely were England-based. Analysing the Study's nine overall aspects of instructional systems, this paper finds that England is out of step with many of the high-performing…

  14. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  15. German atomic energy law in the international framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.) [de

  16. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  17. The international framework for safeguarding peaceful nuclear energy programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    International law, in response to the need for safeguard assurances, has provided a framework which can be utilized by supplier and recipient states. Multilateral treaties have created the International Atomic Energy Agency which can serve a vital role in the establishment and supervision of safeguard agreements for nuclear energy programs. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has created definite obligations on nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon states to alleviate some possibilities of proliferation and has rejuvenated the function of the IAEA in providing safeguards, especially to non-nuclear-weapon states which are parties to the Non-Proliferation treaty. States which are not parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty may receive nuclear energy co-operation subject to IAEA safeguards. States like Canada, have insisted through the bilateral nuclear energy co-operation agreements that either individual or joint agreement be reached with the IAEA for the application of safeguards. Trilateral treaties among Canada, the recipient state and the IAEA have been employed and can provide the necessary assurances against the diversion of peaceful nuclear energy programs to military or non-peaceful uses. The advent of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and its guidlines has definitely advanced the cause of ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ultimate objective should be the creation of an international structure incorporating the application of the most comprehensive safeguards which will be applied universally to all nuclear energy programs

  18. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  19. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  20. Proceedings of the second international symposium on nonconventional energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on emerging energy systems. Topics considered at the symposium included a quantum ramjet for interstellar flight, oil and gas exploration, advanced propulsion technology, motional field generators, electromagnetics, the fundamental properties of matter, magnetic monopoles, controlled fusion, ball lighting, homopolar faraday generator, free energy, fundamental ac energy and power measurement techniques in non-conventional energy, advanced alternators, ambient temperature superconducting filaments, and geometrical models of field wave forms.

  1. Optimal allocation of international atomic energy agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Each year the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to confirm that nuclear materials and facilities are employed for peaceful purposes. Because of limited inspection resources, however, the IAEA cannot fully attain its safeguards goals either quantitatively as measured by the inspection effort negotiated in the facility attachments or qualitatively as measured by the IAEA criteria for evaluating attainment of safeguards goals. Under current IAEA procedures the allocation of inspection resources assigns essentially equal inspection effort to facilities of the same type. An alternative approach would incorporate consideration of all material categories and facilities to be assigned inspection resources when allocating effort to a particular facility. One such method for allocating inspection resources is based on the IAEA criteria. The criteria provide a framework for allocating inspection effort that includes a ranking of material types according to their safeguards importance, an implicit definition of inspection activities for each material and facility type, and criteria for judging the attainment of safeguards goals in terms of the quality and frequency of these inspection activities. This framework is applicable to resource allocation for an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  2. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  3. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  4. Crossing the phantom divide: Dark energy internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy constraints have forced viable alternatives that differ substantially from a cosmological constant Λ to have an equation of state w that evolves across the phantom divide set by Λ. Naively, crossing this divide makes the dark energy gravitationally unstable, a problem that is typically finessed by unphysically ignoring the perturbations. While this procedure does not affect constraints near the favored cosmological constant model it can artificially enhance the confidence with which alternative models are rejected. Similar to the general problem of stability for w<0, the solution lies in the internal degrees of freedom in the dark energy sector. We explicitly show how to construct a two scalar field model that crosses the phantom divide and mimics the single field behavior on either side to substantially better than 1% in all observables. It is representative of models where the internal degrees of freedom keep the dark energy smooth out to the horizon scale independently of the equation of state

  5. Measurement of internal conversion electrons from Gd neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlakunta, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, L.R., E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mulligan, P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Gadolinium (Gd) is a suitable material for neutron conversion because of its superior neutron absorption cross-section. However, the principal secondary particles that generate electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor detector after Gd neutron capture are low-energy internal conversion (IC) electrons. We measured the IC electron spectrum due to Gd neutron capture by using a thermal neutron beam and a digitizer-based multidetector spectroscopy. We also discussed the effective use of the IC electrons in the context of a twin-detector design and the associated gamma-ray rejection issues. Extensive simulations of the spectra of IC electrons and gamma rays agreed well with the experimental results; both types of results support the feasibility of the proposed n–γ separation method.

  6. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, μ-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session

  7. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  8. Energy, environment and technological innovation: Rome 2nd international congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    From the three volumes containing the proceedings of the October 12-16, 1992 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technological Innovation held at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers. The selection of papers included recent developments and research trends in the following high-tech areas: biomass plantations, wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, solar architecture, building energy management, global warming, automobile air pollution abatement, district heating with cogeneration, and hydrogen fuels for transportation

  9. International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, L; Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems (ICPERES 2014) held at Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of Power Electronics and Renewable Energy. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  10. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  11. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given

  12. The Conceptualization of Energy Security: the International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzychenko Mykola V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews and analyzes existing interpretations of the term of «energy security», which are used by international organizations, individual countries, and foreign scientists. As result of a generalization of the numerous existing conceptual-methodical and substantive approaches to the definition of energy security, its main components and possible ways of its ensuring, it has been found that the concept of energy security includes many multifactor components that are interconnected by numerous functional linkages, including economic, political, social, and ecological aspects. The issues related to geology, geography, and time factor have impact on interpretation of energy security. But in general, energy security can be seen in a one-aspect dimension that is largely based on the security of energy supplies (availability of energy resources and in a multi-aspect dimension which, in addition to the security of energy supplies, also takes into consideration a number of other important interrelated aspects of energy security, particularly in the areas of accessibility of energy resources, energy efficiency, and environmental safety.

  13. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  14. Neutron Energy Measurements in Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-09-11

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  15. The measurement of international migration in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, M

    1987-01-01

    This article examines legislation affecting international migration in Belgium from the perspective of 2 questions: 1) What types of migrants are definable by legislation? and 2) What kinds of documents may be utilized to compile statistics on international migration? The following are some of the article's main points. 1) Since January 1, 1847 each communal administration in Belgium has maintained a national population register that details births, deaths, marriages and household structures, and all movements within 1 commune, from 1 commune to another, and movements between states. 2) When a Belgian citizen leaves for a foreign destination with the intention of settling there, his name is struck from the registers. 3) To enter Belgian territory, the alien must possess the documents required under bilateral agreements between Belgium and each of the states concerned. Generally, the alien must obtain a visa to his passport from 1 of the diplomatic or consular offices of Benelux before entering Belgium. The alien must have sufficient means of subsistence to avoid being considered in need. He must not be listed as an undesirable alien in Belgium, he must not have been convicted of a crime, and he must not constitute a danger to public order or national security, The alien also should not have been expelled from Belgium less than 10 years earlier. 4) Absence from Belgium and the right to return is granted to aliens holding a valid certificate of enrollment or a settlement card. 5) Any individual who has reason to fear persecution can obtain refugee status; his stay is protected until his application is declared to be unfounded by the High Commission. 6) The National Statistical Institute issues various types of data from which international population movements can be identified. The 2 main sources of these statistics are the population censuses held every 10 years and the annual demographic statistics. 7) In 1967, the Belgian Council of Ministers authorized the

  16. 7 CFR 300.5 - International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. 300.5 Section 300.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.5 International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures. (a)...

  17. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  18. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  19. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  20. Tomorrow's Mores. The International System, Geopolitical Changes and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeveen, F.; Perlot, W.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an analysis of key geopolitical changes in the international system, with particular attention for energy issues and the EU, and on the basis of this analysis define possible energy futures up until 2020. Four sub-objectives have been identified: (1) to understand the international system and the main actors shaping it; (2) to understand an actor's energy policy and how energy policy is determined; (3) to identify the most important developments within the energy system; and (4) to understand the EU's position in the changing geopolitical landscape. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical and analytical framework used for the study. In this chapter important theoretical notions and assumptions are explained. It starts with a quadrants model combining two axes of uncertainty (multilateral-uni/bilateral and politics-economy). It continues with the foundation, consisting of key factors of analysis and assumptions about an actor's energy policy, underlying the analysis and the positioning of actors in the quadrants. It also contains a section on scenario studies. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the developments in the energy sector, with a focus on challenges, risks and problems with relevance to foreign policy and geopolitics. The chapter is based on the information on energy carriers, EU energy policy and important energy issues that is discussed in further detail in Annex A, B and C, respectively. Chapter 4 analyses the geopolitical landscape, starting with a description of the international system prior to 1989. It contains an analysis of the present situation and presents three possible energy futures towards 2020. Past, present and future are analysed on the basis of the quadrants model. The chapter includes a description of the most important actors. In Chapter 5 the analysis of chapter 4 is used to look at the case of the European Union. The current place and role of the EU is discussed. The implications for the EU of a

  1. Control of nuclear energy: new aims for the reform of international institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.

    1977-12-01

    Detailed negotiations over a possible package of measures to reform international safeguards and security managements under which nuclear technology is transferred are going on behind closed doors in the ''London Club,'' or Nuclear Suppliers' Group. The talks appear to be chiefly concentrated on bilateral agreements over national measures of control. The author examines some possible aims and functions that seem reasonable targets for negotiated reform over the coming months. These would include: jointly guaranteed supplies of low-enriched uranium for thermal reactors; a new international safeguards system; international nuclear security and safety standards; international agreement on nuclear waste disposal measures; international institutional initiative to promote alternative energy sources; functional reform of the IAEA; and reorganized regulatory review processes at national levels. (MCW)

  2. New atomic energy law - international and national developments. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the working sessions of the meeting were devoted to aspects of international atomic energy law; the international character of the meeting was also reflected by the home countries of the members of the panel discussion concluding the working sessions. There was substantial reason to put emphasis on the international dimension of the topics discussed. In June 1994, the Nuclear Safety Convention had been signed in Vienna by diplomatic representatives of the signatory countries, and this Convention marks a signpost in the history of international atomic energy law. At the time the meeting was held, negotiations for improving the international nuclear lability law, which had been dragging on since 1989, had come to a stalemate. The meeting offered a suitable forum for taking a scientific approach to tackle the complex problems involved in reshaping the law on nuclear safety and nuclear liability. The third working session of the meeting has been discussing topics relating to the implementation of the German Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act). (orig./HP) [de

  3. Collective flow measurements at RHIC energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results on collective flow measurements from relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC are presented and discussed to study high-temperature and high-density quark-nuclear matter, Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP especially focusing on bulk properties, such as freeze-out parameters, temperature, chemical potential, collective expansion, azimuthal event anisotropy measurements. Their relations to the various correlation and fluctuation studies are also discussed, including initial geometrical and E- and B-field conditions as well as possible collective flow evolution that could even be developed in small systems. Current results and understandings from the beam energy scan program (BES and future plans are discussed and reviewed.

  4. Partitioning of methyl internal rotational barrier energy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the theoretical point of view and the potential energy surfaces governing large amplitude motions have been calculated directly by ab initio molecular orbital procedures 3–6. Recently, the role of lone-pair electrons on methyl internal rotational barrier of dimethyl ether and its homologues has been analysed theoretically.

  5. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  6. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  7. Chemical potential and internal energy of the noninteracting Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eq. (14). The internal energy increases for all α. 2.2 Padé approximant method. We find that the truncated series for µ and U correctly finds the low-temperature limit of the numerical method. We need to express the series as a ratio of two finite- sized polynomials in the Padé approximant technique for extending their validity.

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1986-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1986 up to the end of 1999 and still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered important have also been included. The catalogue is in CD-ROM format

  9. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  10. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 13, Internal Energy, Heat, and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the thirteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to internal energy, heat, and temperature. The topics are concerned with collisions, thermometers, friction forces, degrees Centigrade and Fahrenheit, calories, Brownian motion, and state changes. The…

  11. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  12. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  13. International Mapping of Antenna-Measurement Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccia, Luigi; Breinbjerg, Olav; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    in the field of antenna measurements. It has been established to provide the scientific and industrial community with an efficient means to improve and facilitate their research and development activities in the field of antennas. The mapping will constitute a new service for all potential users of antenna...

  14. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  15. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  16. A Method to Measure the Bracelet Based on Feature Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang

    2017-12-01

    To measure the bracelet automatically, a novel method based on feature energy is proposed. Firstly, the morphological method is utilized to preprocess the image, and the contour consisting of a concentric circle is extracted. Then, a feature energy function, which is relevant to the distances from one pixel to the edge points, is defined taking into account the geometric properties of the concentric circle. The input image is subsequently transformed to the feature energy distribution map (FEDM) by computing the feature energy of each pixel. The center of the concentric circle is thus located by detecting the maximum on the FEDM; meanwhile, the radii of the concentric circle are determined according to the feature energy function of the center pixel. Finally, with the use of a calibration template, the internal diameter and thickness of the bracelet are measured. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the true sizes of the bracelet accurately with the simplicity, directness and robustness compared to the existing methods.

  17. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  18. Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.

  19. Measure Guideline: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  20. Measure Guideline. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, J. F. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  1. Automatic energy expenditure measurement for health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Cagatay; Akbulut, Akhan

    2018-04-01

    It is crucial to predict the human energy expenditure in any sports activity and health science application accurately to investigate the impact of the activity. However, measurement of the real energy expenditure is not a trivial task and involves complex steps. The objective of this work is to improve the performance of existing estimation models of energy expenditure by using machine learning algorithms and several data from different sensors and provide this estimation service in a cloud-based platform. In this study, we used input data such as breathe rate, and hearth rate from three sensors. Inputs are received from a web form and sent to the web service which applies a regression model on Azure cloud platform. During the experiments, we assessed several machine learning models based on regression methods. Our experimental results showed that our novel model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression in conjunction with the median aggregation technique provides the best result among other five regression algorithms. This cloud-based energy expenditure system which uses a web service showed that cloud computing technology is a great opportunity to develop estimation systems and the new model which applies Boosted Decision Tree Regression with the median aggregation provides remarkable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. International and internal migration measured from the School Census in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ludi; Marquis, Naomi; Jivraj, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The School Census is the only regularly updated dataset covering almost all of the population of a specific age, which records changes of address along with ethnicity and some family economic circumstances. It can be used to measure internal and international family migration as shown in this report. The School Census is suited to identify and quantify new local migration streams between censuses, successfully identifying the local distribution of Eastern European immigration in the decade since 2000. The measures do not provide a complete measure of migration, either internally or internationally. The exclusion of those outside the state school system means that internal migration is under-estimated, and international migration is approximately measured. The advantages of the School Census are its frequent updates, its fine geographical information, and its indicators of ethnicity and low family income, which powerfully complement other sources.

  3. Energy and Carbon Embodied in the International Trade of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmasquim, M.T.; Machado, G.

    2003-01-01

    Shifting the economic structure of a country towards energy-intensive industries may lead to significant effect on the environment. One of the major environmental impacts associated to such changes is the increase of the Carbon Dioxide emissions - the main factor behind the greenhouse effect. In the last decades, structural changes in the Brazilian economy were close related to changes in the country's trade specialization. This paper analyzes to what extent energy use and its associated CO2 emissions of Brazil in the 90's may be overloaded by changes in the country's trade specialization towards a more energy-intensive mix. This study finds that Brazil exported, in net terms, significant amounts of energy and carbon (C) embodied in goods traded with the rest of the world in the 90's. In fact, some 6.6% of the final energy used by the industrial sector and around 7.1% of its C emissions are prompted by international trade. By overloading the country's energy use and its associated environmental damage (both local and global), this situation seems to contribute to increase not only local but also global environmental damage, since C leakage from non-Annex I countries due to international trade may lead to higher C concentration in the atmosphere

  4. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  5. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  6. Springfield/L-COG Energy Plan Implementation Program, Internal Energy Management Project: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane Council of Governments (Or.); Tumidaj, Les

    1985-09-01

    The Internal Energy Management Project was developed as a component of the Springfield/L-COG Energy Plan Implementation Program. The project also took advantage of the ground work laid by the Lane Council of Governments through the Lane County Electric Energy Planning Program. This program, conducted in 1982 and 1983, developed detailed recommendations for Lane County cities concerning energy management and planning. Based on these recommendations, many jurisdictions committed themselves to implement energy management programs. Initially, the participating cities included Springfield, Veneta, Oakridge, Creswell, and Lowell. Two other local governments - Florence and Lane County - requested assistance once the project commenced.

  7. 2nd International Summer School in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pak, N K; Serin, M; The Standard Model and Beyond

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the edited tutorial lectures given at The Second International Summer School in High Energy Physics in Mgla, Turkey, in September 2006 - an annual event with international participation and a special focus on work done in the regions of central Asia. With emphasis on the standard model and beyond, lectures were devoted to presenting an introduction and update to many of the relevant topics, such as chiral perturbation theory, the Higgs mechanism, heavy flavour and b physics, CP violation, the AdS/CFT correspondence, ideas on grand unification and neutrino physics and astrophysics

  8. Competition, control and price formation in the international energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bina, C. (Providence Coll., RI (USA))

    1989-07-01

    It is shown that, since the early 1970s, the market prices of all energy sources have been regulated by the market value of crude oil at the international level, which in turn depends upon the magnitude of individual value of production units located within the least productive oilfields of the continental USA. Thus, historically and methodologically, the globalization of the petroleum industry together with the preponderant influence of US oil capital over other energy sources, especially its control over US coal, can be considered as, first of all, the fundamental basis of an all-embracing energy industry consisting of all sources and, second, the driving force behind the internationalization of capital in the energy industry. (author).

  9. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...... expansion of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV). The International Energy Agency's 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook stated that the rapid increases in RES integration are underpinned by falling technology costs as well as rising fossilfuel prices and carbon pricing, but RES integration is also...

  10. International Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, John [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis; Holtberg, Paul [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Analysis Integration Team; Diefenderfer, Jim [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis; LaRose, Angelina [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Integrated and International Energy Analysis; Turnure, James T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis; Westfall, Lynn [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Markets and Financial Analysis

    2016-05-01

    The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) presents an assessment by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040. U.S. projections appearing in IEO2016 are consistent with those published in EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015). IEO2016 is provided as a service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projections are used by international agencies, federal and state governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO2016 energy consumption projections are divided according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development members (OECD) and nonmembers (non-OECD). OECD members are divided into three basic country groupings: OECD Americas (United States, Canada, and Mexico/Chile), OECD Europe, and OECD Asia (Japan, South Korea, and Australia/New Zealand). Non-OECD countries are divided into five separate regional subgroups: non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (which includes Russia); non-OECD Asia (which includes China and India); Middle East; Africa; and non-OECD Americas (which includes Brazil). In some instances, the IEO2016 energy production models have different regional aggregations to reflect important production sources (for example, Middle East OPEC is a key region in the projections for liquids production). Complete regional definitions are listed in Appendix M. IEO2016 focuses exclusively on marketed energy. Nonmarketed energy sources, which continue to play an important role in some developing countries, are not included in the estimates. The IEO2016 projections are based on existing U.S. and foreign government laws and regulations. In general, IEO2016 reflects the effects of current policies—often stated through regulations—within the projections. EIA analysts attempt to interpret the

  11. Breast internal dose measurements in a physical thoracic phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.D.; Oliveira, M.A.; Castro, A.L.S.; Dias, H.G.; Nogueira, L.B.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: sadonatosilva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Hospital das Clinicas de Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Oncologia; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Anatomia e Departamento de Imagem

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a cancer treatment intended to deposit the entire prescribed dose homogeneously into a target volume in order to eliminate the tumor and to spare the surrounding healthy tissues. This paper aimed to provide a dosimetric comparison between the treatment planning system (TPS) ECLIPSE from Varian Medical Systems and the internal dosimetric measurements in a breast phantom. The methodology consisted in performing a 3D conformal radiotherapy planning with two tangential opposite parallel fields applied to the synthetic breast in a thoracic phantom. The irradiation was reproduced in the Varian Linear accelerator, model SL - 20 Precise, 6 MV energy. EBT2 Radiochromic films, placed into the glandular equivalent tissue of the breast, were used to measure the spatial dose distribution. The absorbed dose was compared to those values predicted by the treatment planning system; besides, the dosimetric uncertainties were analyzed. The modal absorbed dose was in agreement with the prescribed value of 180 cGy, although few high dose points between 180 and 220 cGy were detected. The findings suggested a non-uniform dose distribution in the glandular tissue of the synthetic breast, similar to those found in the TPS, associated with the irregular anatomic breast shape and presence of inhomogeneities next to the thoracic wall generated by the low lung density. (author)

  12. Energy confinement scaling from the international stellarator database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Murakami, M.; Dory, R.A.; Yamada, H.; Okamura, S.; Sano, F.; Obiki, T.

    1995-09-01

    An international stellarator database on global energy confinement is presented comprising data from the ATF, CHS and Heliotron E heliotron/torsatrons and the W7-A and W7-AS shearless stellarators. Regression expressions for the energy confinement time are given for the individual devices and the combined dataset. A comparison with tokamak L mode confinement is discussed on the basis of various scaling expressions. In order to make this database available to interested colleagues, the structure of the database and the parameter list are explained in detail. More recent confinement results incorporating data from enhanced confinement regimes such as H mode are reported elsewhere. (author).

  13. Perspectives of nuclear energy peaceful uses. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, Mahmud; Garibov, Adil

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The scientists from following countries (Usa, Pakistan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Uzbekistan, Iran) took part at the International Conference devoted to Perspectives of Nuclear Energy Peaceful Uses. The activity was conducted in five sections : Section 1 was devoted to perspectives and statuses on nuclear energy; Section 2 was devoted to radiation impact on the environment : radioecology situation, radiation security, existing problems and their solutions; Section 3 was devoted to radiation materiology (radiation chemistry, radiation physics, radiation effects in solid states). Section 4 was devoted to existing problems of nuclear and radiation security in our Azerbaijan Republic. Section 5 was devoted to radioecology situation, its problems and the ways of their solutions.

  14. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ark, Bart

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper

  15. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  16. Earth sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 May 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as A for Arabic, C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number

  17. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  18. Measurement of the cleavage energy of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Dai, Shuyang; Li, Xide; Yang, Jiarui; Srolovitz, David J; Zheng, Quanshui

    2015-08-28

    The basal plane cleavage energy (CE) of graphite is a key material parameter for understanding many of the unusual properties of graphite, graphene and carbon nanotubes. Nonetheless, a wide range of values for the CE has been reported and no consensus has yet emerged. Here we report the first direct, accurate experimental measurement of the CE of graphite using a novel method based on the self-retraction phenomenon in graphite. The measured value, 0.37±0.01 J m(-2) for the incommensurate state of bicrystal graphite, is nearly invariant with respect to temperature (22 °C≤T≤198 °C) and bicrystal twist angle, and insensitive to impurities from the atmosphere. The CE for the ideal ABAB graphite stacking, 0.39±0.02 J m(-2), is calculated based on a combination of the measured CE and a theoretical calculation. These experimental measurements are also ideal for use in evaluating the efficacy of competing theoretical approaches.

  19. Finland and international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1991-01-01

    The report is an index of international cooperational contacts of Finnish state, industry and organizations in the field of nucelar energy. The index contains information on international nuclear organizations which Finland is participating, the agreements of both the Finnish state and industry on nuclear research and development programs. It also contains information on connections to international professional and intellectual associations, industrial cooperational associations of industry related with nuclear energy, and other cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The collected data contains the official names of organizations in Finnish, Swedish and English, as well as the official abbreviation, the contact information, the date of establishment, the year when Finland joined the organization. The report also contains the list of members participating the cooperation, the purpose, the tasks, and operation of the organization, the management and administrative organs, the official languages, budget information of the organization, and the Finnish representatives in the management and administrative organs, main projects and working groups of the organization, the coordinators of Finnish activities, and the place where the organizational documents are held in Finland. The contractional data contains the subject, date of agreement and validity of it. The number of contraction series of the Finnish statute of the state level contracts, the participating and possible leading organizations, the joint organizations and countries, responsible persons and organizations

  20. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  1. Glenohumeral internal rotation measurements differ depending on stabilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Reinold, Michael M; Macrina, Leonard C; Porterfield, Ron; Devine, Kathleen M; Suarez, Kim; Andrews, James R

    2009-03-01

    The loss of glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion in overhead athletes has been well documented in the literature. Several different methods of assessing this measurement have been described, making comparison between the results of studies difficult. Significant differences in the amount of internal rotation range of motion exist when using different methods of stabilization. Descriptive laboratory study. THREE TECHNIQUES WERE USED BILATERALLY IN RANDOM FASHION TO MEASURE GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATION RANGE OF MOTION: stabilization of the humeral head, stabilization of the scapula, and visual inspection without stabilization. An initial study on 20 asymptomatic participants was performed to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability for each measurement technique. Once complete, measurements were performed on 39 asymptomatic professional baseball players to determine if a difference existed in measurement techniques and if there was a significant side-to-side difference. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. While interrater reliability was fair between all 3 methods, scapular stabilization provided the best intrarater reliability. A statistically significant difference was observed between all 3 methods (P < .001). Internal rotation was significantly less in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder (P < .001). Differences in internal rotation range of motion measurements exist when using different methods. The scapula stabilization method displayed the highest intrarater reproducibility and should be considered when evaluating internal rotation passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. A standardized method of measuring internal rotation range of motion is required to accurately compare physical examinations of patients. The authors recommend the use of the scapula stabilization method to assess internal rotation range of motion by allowing normal glenohumeral arthrokinematics while stabilizing the

  2. Oil substitution and energy saving - A research and development strategy of the International Energy Agency /IEA/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1981-03-01

    Systems analyses were carried out by the International Energy Agency for the participating 15 countries in order to work out strategies and scenarios for lessening the dependence on imported oil and for developing new energy technologies. MARKAL model computations show the technology and energy mixes necessary for achieving a reduction of oil imports by two thirds over the next 40 years. The scenario 'high social security' examines the projected rise in energy consumption, the development of oil substitutes, the increase in alternative heating sources, the development of markets for liquid energy products, the demand for gas, and the relative usage of various energy generation methods. The recommended strategy involves as the most important points an increase in coal consumption, greater nuclear energy reliance and development of alternative technologies.

  3. TELESCON 2000 - The 3. international telecommunications energy special conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J. (comp.) [Deutsche Telekom AG, Bonn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Dresden has been chosen, because all discussions with present experts on the Berlin and Budapest conferences have shown that this beautiful town can be an international meeting point for all people from east and west to come together to discuss important topics such as the future of power supply and energy conservation within the field of telecommunications. The plenary session includes well known names from Europe, North America, Japan and the Central European region. The programme is an excellent blend of presentation, application and discussions on energy technologies that will offer new insights into powering today's rapidly changing communications and data networks. The exhibition will be an excellent meeting place for suppliers and customers of energy systems. (orig.)

  4. Exploring Low Internal Reorganization Energies for Silicene Nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pablo-Pedro, Ricardo

    2017-08-17

    High-performance materials rely on small reorganization energies to facilitate both charge separation and charge transport. Here, we performed DFT calculations to predict small reorganization energies of rectangular silicene nanoclusters with hydrogen-passivated edges denoted by H-SiNC. We observe that across all geometries, H-SiNCs feature large electron affinities and highly stabilized anionic states, indicating their potential as n-type materials. Our findings suggest that fine-tuning the size of H-SiNCs along the zigzag and armchair directions may permit the design of novel n-type electronic materials and spinctronics devices that incorporate both high electron affinities and very low internal reorganization energies.

  5. Bibliometric Analysis of International Collaboration in Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology is increasingly complex and demands an ever-widening range of knowledge and skills. No single country will possess all the knowledge and skills required for addressing global issues such as climate change. Technology collaboration between leading countries is important to promptly and efficiently address the problem. Previous studies have shown that a high level of collaboration is correlated with high paper productivity. This paper first aims to use objective data and create maps that enable us to see both the distribution of worldwide research competency and the relationship of international collaboration in clean energy research. In the international research network of wind power and solar cell, 4,189 institutions located in 121 countries and 6,600 institutions located in 125 countries are included respectively. This paper discusses various factors that would have an impact on research capability and support strong international relationships. With respect to research capability, governmental policies, stability of governmental commitment, natural conditions and historical and institutional differences have a significant impact on it. For research collaborations, factors such as geographical proximity, international science and technology policy, and developmental stage of technology have been brought to attention. This study demonstrates that bibliometrics is a methodology that is capable of providing a knowledge base that is useful in the development of the international science and technology policy and technological management strategy.

  6. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  7. Internal flow measurement in transonic compressor by PIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongqing; Wu, Huaiyu; Liu, Yin

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents some research works conducted in National Key Laboratory of Aircraft Engine of China on the shock containing supersonic flow measurement as well as the internal flow measurement of transoijc compressor by PIC technique. A kind of oil particles in diameter about 0.3 micrometers containing in the flow was discovered to be a very good seed for the PIV measurement of supersonic jet flow. The PIV measurement in over-expanded supersonic free jet and in the flow over wages show a very clear shock wave structure. In the PIV internal flow measurement of transonic compressor a kind of liquid particle of glycol was successful to be used as the seed. An illumination periscope with sheet forming optics was designed and manufactured, it leaded the laser shot generated from an integrate dual- cavity Nd:YAG laser of TSI PIV results of internal flow of an advanced low aspect ratio transonic compressor were shown and discussed briefly.

  8. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  9. Proceedings of VII International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users, businessmen and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  10. Proceedings of VI International Conference for Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education (CIER 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this work scientists, engineers, manufactures, investors, policy makers, energy users and other specialists present their professional experiences and commercial samples with view to reach common objectives in a climate of friendship and solidarity. Within the conference's framework there will be multiple workshops in Renewable Energy, Energy Saving and Energy Education and related fields. CIER provides an excellent platform to share experiences and promote synergies towards the challenge of achieving a sustainable energy culture

  11. International Nuclear Information System. 1988-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications and products of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 July 2002. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as E for English, F for French, G for German, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number. Some INIS Reference Series publications are available in electronic form from the INIS Clearinghouse. For more details on the INIS publications programme, please visit the INIS web site mentioned above

  12. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Guo, Ju'e; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency: activities and relationship with Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abud Osuna, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Legal and political studies on the activities of the IAEA infer that the pacific uses of nuclear energy become more significant every day in the ambit of international relationships. The studies analyze as a whole relationships among member states. The first part is divided into four chapters, starting with the background and creation of the agency, its structure, statutes, amendments and the performance of its main organisms. It continues to describe mechanisms and programmes carried out, including cooperation agreements between the IAEA and other specialized organizations in the United Nations. It ends up with the IAEA performance resulting from different treaties. The second part examines Mexican norms on nuclear matter as well as relationships between Mexico and the IAEA. It demonstrates that achievements in the Agency have been possible because of the establishment of an international cooperation basis, which avoids duplicity of actions. The conclusions recommend joint efforts from both the developed and the developing countries in the following: a) to imbue public opinion with the goodness of nuclear energy; b) to discourage the construction and operation of nuclear installations; c) to unify national standards on nuclear safety and control; d) to decrease export restrictions, based on safeguards; e) to promote internal nuclear research in Mexico or throught regional integration agreements, with technical assistance and support from the IAEA. (author)

  14. The prepossession of international institutions for energy. The example International Energy Agency (IEA); Die Voreingenommenheit internationaler Energieinstitutionen. Das Beispiel Internationale Energieagentur (IEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, H.J. [Europaeische Sonnenergie-Vereinigung EUROSOLAR e.V., Bonn (Germany). Sektion Deutschland

    2007-07-01

    In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the fact that large international energy agencies, which are advisory active in energy questions active, affect the world-wide policy. In particular, these are the International Atomic Energy Authority in Vienna (Austria) and the International Energy Agency in Paris (France). The International Energy Agency is considered world-wide as the most important institution for all energy questions. Nearly annually, it publishes the World Energy Outlook by summarizing the most important current energy data of the world, prognoses the future power supply and makes future energy prices. The reality of the International Energy Agency looks completely differently: It performs no own sciences, but consists of statisticians, who gather only statistical data without scientific analysis. The author of this contribution summarizes the work of the International Energy Agency in three points: (a) Promotion of the interests of companies in mineral oil, natural gas, coal and atomic energy; (b) Hindering the world-wide conversion of renewable energy; (c) Endangerment of the world economy and prevention of an effective climate protection. The International Energy Agency does not justice to its own goal of a reliable, economical and pollution free power supply.

  15. Mongolia's potential in international cooperation in the Asian energy space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Sereeter; Stennikov, Valery; Bat-Erdene, Bayar; Erdenebaatar, Altay

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the issues of interstate electric power interconnections to be created in the countries of Northeast Asia. The conditions are formulated, the problems are stated, and solutions for Mongolia's entry into the Asian energy space are proposed. The electricity consumption rates are growing, however, the Northeast Asia countries differ considerably in available energy resources to cope with this growth. Therefore, the need to build international electric power interconnections that take into account climatic features, seasonal peak load differences and other factors in order to rationally match power demand and supply is getting increasingly more obvious. Mongolia can take an active part in this process, as the country is rich in energy resources and interested in their development to meet their domestic needs and exchange with neighboring countries. The establishment of interstate power interconnections in the Northeast Asia countries represents a topical task whose solution will make it possible to meet the demand of this region for electricity on mutually beneficial terms. Mongolia has a good spatial position, energy resources and is interested in ensuring domestic energy balance. Therefore, the country can be an active participant in such an integration process.

  16. Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of AMS-02 on the International Space Station ans measurement of the positronic fraction in the 1.5 – 350 GeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Basara, Laurent

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector installed on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, which measures the characteristics of the cosmic rays to bring answers to the problematics risen by the astroparticle physics since a few decades, in particular the study of dark matter and the search of antimatter. The phenomenological aspects of the physics of cosmic rays are reviewed in a first part. A second one describes the in-flight performances of the different subdetectors of AMS-02, in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter. It is shown, using particles at the ionizing minimum (MIPs), accounting for the main part of cosmic rays, that the calorimeter works as expected, and we find the same performances as on ground. This study is used to follow in time the evolution of the detector performances. It also allows to develop a charge estimator for the nuclei using the calorimeter. A third and final part, deals with the determination of the positronic fraction. The main difficulty of this me...

  17. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  18. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  19. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  1. Two Methods for Normalisation of Measured Energy Performance—Testing of a Net-Zero Energy Building in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Berggren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for energy-efficient buildings has led to an increasing focus on predicted energy performance once a building is in use. Many studies have identified a performance gap between predicted energy use and actual measured energy use once buildings are in the user phase. However, none of the identified studies normalise measured energy use for both internal and external deviating boundary conditions. This study uses a Net-zero energy building (Net ZEB building in Sweden to test two different approaches to the normalisation of measured energy use—static and dynamic methods. The normalisation of energy use for a ground source heat pump reduces the performance gap from 12% to 1–5%, depending on the method of normalisation. The normalisation of energy from photovoltaic (PV panels reduces the performance gap from 17% to 5%, regardless of the method used. The results show that normalisation is important in order to accurately determine the energy performance of buildings. The most important parameters are the indoor temperature and internal loads, which have the largest effect on normalisation in this case study. Furthermore, the case study shows that it is possible to build Net ZEB buildings with existing technologies in a Northern European climate.

  2. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  3. International intercalibration and intercomparison programme for radon, thoron and daughters measuring equipment. Part. 1: Radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Solomon, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for Radon, Thoron and Daughters Monitoring Equipment, abbreviated IIIP, is a program organized jointly by Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP is to determine if the somewhat diverse calibration procedures used in different countries are equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust them with the details of project definition and execution. The four selected laboratories are: Australian Radiation Laboratory, US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, UK National Radiation Protection Board, US DOI Bureau of Mines. The Organizing Committee that selected the four laboratories remained intact and served an oversight function in all work to date

  4. International Nuclear Information System 1983-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). INIS was established in 1969 to announced the scientific literature published worldwide on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. All books are published in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 21 x 30 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated. In addition all books in this catalogue, except for the INIS Input Training Kit, are available on microfiche. For information on the microfiche versions, contact the INIS Clearinghouse of the IAEA

  5. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  6. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  7. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (also known as the Calor Conference series, started in October 1990 at Fermilab) address all aspects of calorimetric particle detection and measurement, with an emphasis on high energy physics experiments. The XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (Calor 2010) was held at the campus of the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China, from May 10-14, 2010. This conference brought together more than 110 participants from 20 countries, including senior scientists and young physicists. During the five days of the conference, 98 presentations were given in seven plenary sessions. The attendees had in-depth discussions on the latest developments and innovations in calorimetry, including the exciting new LHC results. From the presentations, 83 papers were published in this proceedings. The success of the conference was due to the participants' enthusiasm and the excellent talks given by the speakers, and to the conveners for organizing the individual sessions. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for giving us the opportunity to host this Conference in Beijing. Finally we would like to thank all the people involved in the organization of the Conference, who have provided valuable local support. Yifang WangChair of Local Organizing Committee International Advisory Committee M DanilovITEP Moscow M DiemozINFN Roma I A EreditatoBern F L FabbriINFN Frascati T KobayashiICEPP Tokyo M LivanPavia University & INFN P LubranoINFN Perugia S MagillANL Argonne A MaioLIPP Lisbon H OberlackMPI Munich A ParaFermilab R WigmansTTU Lubbock R YoshidaANL Argonne R ZhuCaltech Local Organizing Committee Y WangIHEP (Chair) Y GaoTshinghua University T HuIHEP (Scientific secretary) C LiUSTC W LiIHEP J LuIHEP P WangIHEP T XuIHEP L ZhouIHEP Session Conveners 1) Materials and detectors - Junguang Lu (IHEP), Francesca Nessi (CERN) 2) Algorithm and simulation - Nural Akchurin

  8. International nuclear data measurement activities. Newsletter No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    A survey is presented for various laboratories where nuclear data measurement facilities are applied to measure specific data. The laboratories are located in France (2 laboratories), in Germany (4 laboratories), in Japan (10 laboratories), in Russia (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering), in Sweden (Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University), and in the USA (5 laboratories). Two international organizations are also included: Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, and Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. (R.P.)

  9. Measurement of internal stress within bulk materials using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.; Andreani, C.; Hutchings, M.T.; Windsor, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measures stress through the small changes in atomic lattice parameters caused by strain. The method is similar to X-ray diffraction with the vital difference that a thermal neutron beam penetrates several centimetres in most materials allowing measurements within bulk samples. Ways of achieving the high resolution necessary for quantitative measurements are described. Results are presented for the strains in a mild steel bar subjected to known elastic stresses, and on the internal stresses in a deformed bar. (author)

  10. International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards: Challenge and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Leonard S.

    2017-11-01

    This article provides a critical review of the nuclear accounting and inspection system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), known as "IAEA safeguards." The article focuses on the multiple challenges the Agency confronts in verifying that all nuclear activities in the countries under its safeguards system are being pursued for exclusively peaceful purposes. The principal challenges noted are those posed by: undeclared facilities, the development of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, illicit procurement activities, denial of inspector access, difficulties in verifying absence of weaponization activities, and difficulties in establishing that all nuclear-relevant activities in a state are peaceful. The article is in the form of annotated PowerPoint briefing slides.

  11. Safeguards and legal matters 1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all currently valid sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  12. Earth sciences 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Earth Sciences issued during the period 1969-1994. Most publications are published in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  13. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  14. R and D programs of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the collaborative research program of the International Energy Agency. Focusing on the organization of the program, rather than attempting to cover the technical content of the research, the discussion conveys how its operation is facilitated through a framework that takes account of the interests of participating governments as well as technical objectives. Some Canadian activities in the IEA program are briefly described as illustration and a list of current IEA Research Agreements and associated activities is presented in an Appendix

  15. Measuring energy security. A conceptual note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2008-11-06

    Along with the oil price, concerns about the security of energy supply have soared once again in recent years.Yet, more than 30 years after the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, energy security still remains a diffuse concept. This paper conceives a statistical indicator that aims at characterizing the energy supply risk of nations that are heavily dependent on energy imports. Our indicator condenses the bulk of empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels originating from a multitude of export countries as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic energy supply into a single parameter. Applying the proposed concept to empirical energy data on Germany and the U.S. (1980-2004), we find that there is a large gap in the energy supply risks between both countries, with Germany suffering much more from a tensed energy supply situation today than the U.S. (orig.)

  16. Energy use and carbon emissions: Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report examines international energy use patterns, trends, and energy-related carbon emissions since 1970. The main focus of this study is on the developed countries, represented by the members of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study is organized as follows: (1) the OECD is placed in a world context; (2) aggregate-level information is then presented for an important part of the OECD, namely the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries (the US, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany -- defined in this report as western Germany only, except where indicated); and (3) individual economic sectors within the G-7 countries are broken out for detailed review

  17. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O'Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site

  18. International Standardisation in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy standards, regularly reviewed and updated by international committees of technical experts, can help policy makers as an instrument to demonstrate national regulatory compliance, as well as ensuring successful deployment of renewable energy technologies (RET). This study identifies over 570 standards in the current RET landscape, yet finds gaps in the existing standards, particularly for post-installation aspects of RET, such as operation, maintenance and repair. The study calls for a more structured information platform to make appropriate standards accessible to a variety of users. All stakeholders, including those from developing countries, need to be engaged in the standardisation process. IRENA's analysis also underlines the importance of RET certification schemes as a risk-mitigation tool, particularly to help small-scale projects obtain financing.

  19. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  20. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  1. Fenestration system energy performance research, implementation, and international harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Raymond F [National Fenestration Rating Council, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-12-23

    The research conducted by the NFRC and its contractors adds significantly to the understanding of several areas of investigation. NFRC enables manufacturers to rate fenestration energy performance to comply with building energy codes, participate in ENERGY STAR, and compete fairly. NFRC continuously seeks to improve its ratings and also seeks to simplify the rating process. Several research projects investigated rating improvement potential such as • Complex Product VT Rating Research • Window 6 and Therm 6 Validation Research Project • Complex Product VT Rating Research Conclusions from these research projects led to important changes and increased confidence in the existing NFRC rating process. Conclusions from the Window 6/Therm 6 project will enable window manufacturers to rate an expanded array of products and improve existing ratings. Some research lead to an improved new rating method called the Component Modeling Approach. A primary goal of the CMA was a simplification of the commercial energy rating process to increase participation and make the commercial industry more competitive and code compliant. The project below contributed towards CMA development: • Component Modeling Approach Condensation Resistance Research NFRC continues to implement the Component Modeling Approach program. The program includes the CMA software tool, CMAST, and several procedural documents to govern the certification process. This significant accomplishment was a response the commercial fenestration industry’s need for a simplification of the present NFRC energy rating method (named site built). To date, most commercial fenestration is self-rated by a variety of techniques. The CMA enables commercial fenestration manufacturers to rate according to the NFRC 100/200 as most commercial energy codes require. International Harmonization NFRC achieved significant international harmonization success by continuing its licensing agreements with the Australian Fenestration

  2. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  3. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  4. Presentations from the 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary R

    2003-01-01

    The 13th International Magnetic Measurement Workshop was held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from Monday, May 19 through Thursday, May 22, 2003. All professionals in the field of magnetic measurements were encouraged to attend. The workshop was primarily concerned with equipment and techniques for measuring and fiducializing accelerator magnets and insertion devices, although other relevant topics were also welcome. The program consisted of presentations by the workshop participants followed by discussions. During the workshop, there was an industrial exhibit and a tour of the SLAC magnetic measurement facilities

  5. Energy technologies at the cutting edge: international energy technology collaboration IEA Implementing Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottinger, C. (ed.)

    2007-05-15

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change issues in a cost-effective way are the main challenges of energy policies and in the longer term will be solved only through technology cooperation. To encourage collaborative efforts to meet these energy challenges, the IEA created a legal contract - Implementing Agreement - and a system of standard rules and regulations. This allows interested member and non-member governments or other organisations to pool resources and to foster the research, development and deployment of particular technologies. For more than 30 years, this international technology collaboration has been a fundamental building block in facilitating progress of new or improved energy technologies. There are now 41 Implementing Agreements. This is the third in the series of publications highlighting the recent results and achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. This document is arranged in the following sections: Cross-cutting activities (sub-sectioned: Climate technology initiative; Energy Technology Data Eexchange; and Energy technology systems analysis programme); End-use technologies (sub-sectioned: Buildings; Electricity; Industry; and Transport; Fossil fuels (sub-sectioned: Clean Coal Centre; Enhanced oil recovery Fluidized bed conversion; Greenhouse Gas R & D; Multiphase flow sciences); Fusion power; Renewable energies and hydrogen; and For more information (including detail on the IEA energy technology network; IEA Secretariat Implementing Agreement support; and IEA framework. Addresses are given for the Implementing Agreements. The publication is based on core input from the Implementing Agreement Executive Committee.

  6. The international atomic energy agency's programme on utilization of accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytlewski, Nikolai; Mank, Günter; Rosengard, Ulf; Bamford, Samuel; Markowicz, Andrzej; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2006-06-01

    Low-energy accelerators have in the past produced a major part of our current knowledge of nuclear physics. Today they are mainly used for applied research and industrial applications. In view of this, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has during recent years initiated several Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) concerning Ion Beam Analysis of Materials, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Microprobe Techniques. The CRPs involve laboratories from developing as well as developed Member States, networking on a common topic coordinated by the IAEA. In order to facilitate networking, the IAEA has recently published the "World Survey of Accelerator Based Analytical Techniques" available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM. The IAEA maintains also a beamline at a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Ru đjer Bo\\vsković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Small and medium power accelerator driven spallation neutron sources will become more important as many small neutron producing research reactors are approaching the end of their useful working life. The IAEA has, within its Department for Nuclear Sciences and Applications, a programme on the Effective Utilization of Accelerators. This programme helps Member States, in particular developing Member States, in finding new areas of applications for their low and medium energy accelerators through increased participation in activities such as Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings and Conferences. This paper describes the IAEA's current programme on accelerator utilization and proposed future activities.

  7. How Expensive is Norway? New International Relative Price Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kornelia Krajnyak; Volodymyr Tulin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive two new measures of international relative prices for Norway. Developments in these new measures follow rather closely movements in the CPI-based real effective exchange rate through the 1990s, but diverge after 2000—suggesting that the costs of living in Norway relative to its trading partners have risen in the recent years more than the real effective exchange rate would indicate.

  8. Nuclear energy: exit or revival? International aspects; Energie nucleaire: sortie ou relance? Aspects internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This colloquium took place less than 1 year after the decision of the US of revival of their nuclear program. Thus the international context has changed, even if nuclear contestation remains as strong as in the past. Among governments, some positions preach the banishment of nuclear energy while others consider the nuclear option as the only solution to meet the growing up energy demand and the future environmental and economical stakes. This report makes a synthesis of the different talks given by the participants during the 3 round tables of the colloquium on the future of nuclear energy: the ecological stake, the democratic stake, and the energy policy stake. Four talks of French government representatives open and conclude the debates of the different round tables. (J.S.)

  9. Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak plasmas using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a tokamak plasma, the poloidal magnetic field profile closely depends on the current density profile. We can deduce the internal magnetic field from the analysis of circular polarization of the spectral lines emitted by the plasma. The theory of the measurement and a detailed design of the Zeeman polarimeter ...

  10. Proceedings of the International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.; Glumac, B.

    2001-01-01

    International Conference Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 98 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and severe accidents, nuclear materials, NPP and research reactor operation, environmental issues and radiation measurement, fusion, radioactive waste and regulatory issues and public relations

  11. International workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and measures: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. Climate change country studies are a significant step for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet their national reporting commitments to the FCCC. These studies also provide the basis for preparation of National Climate Change Action Plans and implementation of technologies and practices which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The broad goals of the workshop were to: (1) present results of country study mitigation assessments, (2) identify promising no-regrets greenhouse gas mitigation options in land-use and energy sectors, (3) share information on development of mitigation technologies and measures which contribute to improved National Climate Change Actions Plans, and (4) begin the process of synthesizing mitigation assessments for use by FCCC subsidiary bodies. The 59 papers are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) national mitigation assessments, technology priorities, and measures; (2) sector-specific mitigation assessment results, subdivided further into: energy sector; non-energy sector; renewable energy; energy efficiency in industry and buildings; transportation; electricity supply; forestry; and methane mitigation; (3) support for mitigation technologies and measures; and (4) activities implemented jointly. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  13. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. The international law and the pacific uses of the atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, A.; Gutierrez, I.; Vargas, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Contains information about: fundamental aspects of atomic energy; International Atomic Energy Agency; pacific uses of nuclear energy at national and international level; regulation for some risky activities in the pacific uses of radioactive materials; United Nations system for the secure use of atomic energy with pacific purposes; nuclear accidents; responsibility as fundamental element of nuclear law. 207 refs

  15. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  16. Household preferences for energy-saving measures : A conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Steg, Linda; Vlek, Charles; Wiersma, Gerwin

    Studies on household energy use generally focus on social and psychological factors influencing the acceptability of energy-saving measures. However, the influence of physical characteristics of energy-saving measures on their acceptability is largely ignored. In this study, preferences for

  17. Draft nuclear energy policy statement for DOE report to the International Energy Agency: long version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    US national energy policy recognizes that the continued development of commercial nuclear power in the United States is vital to US national security and energy stability since it is a significant domestic energy resource that is relatively free from international pressures. As of this writing (August 1989) the United States had 108 nuclear power reactors in commercial status. In January 1989 nuclear energy produced 46 billion KwH or 20% of total US electricity generated in contrast to 45 billion KwH (18.8%) produced in January 1988. The US Federal Government has been engaged in a variety of activities to ensure that nuclear energy remains a safe, economically competitive and environmentally acceptable option. Much of the federal effort in recent months has been devoted to developing initiatives designed to remove institutional and regulatory obstacles to the continued use of nuclear power as part of the US energy system. Within this context, the following paragraphs summarize the major features of the current status of the US nuclear energy program and policies

  18. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8

  19. Cooperation Agreement. The Text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Cooperation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 13 October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 [es

  20. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  1. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  2. The International Atomic Energy Agency's program on decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) is developing an integrated information base that will systematically cover the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, and economic aspects related to the decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) of nuclear facilities. The object of this program is to assist member states in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programs so that they can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. In addition to providing information, the IAEA encourages research and provides technical assistance in the form of expert missions, equipment design and procurement, etc., to assist member states in implementing their D/D programs. The technology contained in some recent IAEA reports is reviewed, including the decontamination, segmentation, and demolition of concrete and steel; the recycle/reuse of components from decommissioning; and the reduction of occupational exposures in D/D and the regulatory process in decommissioning. The IAEA's future program is briefly reviewed

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications. Catalogue 1980-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued from 1980 up to the end of 1995 an still available. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. This is noted as C for Chinese, E for English, F for French, R for Russian and S For Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, seminars and panels, of experts contain papers in their original language (English, French, Russian or Spanish) with abstracts in English and in the original language

  4. Safeguards and legal matters 1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Safeguards and Legal Matters issued during the period 1970-1994. Most publications are published in English, through some are also available in French, Russian and Spanish. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  5. Optimal allocation of International Atomic Energy Agency inspection resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1987-12-01

    The Safeguards Department of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections to assure the peaceful use of a state's nuclear materials and facilities. Because of limited resources for conducting inspections, the careful disposition of inspection effort among these facilities is essential if the IAEA is to attain its safeguards goals. This report describes an optimization procedure for assigning an inspection effort to maximize attainment of IAEA goals. The procedure does not require quantitative estimates of safeguards effectiveness, material value, or facility importance. Instead, the optimization is based on qualitative, relative prioritizations of inspection activities and materials to be safeguarded. This allocation framework is applicable to an arbitrary group of facilities such as a state's fuel cycle, the facilities inspected by an operations division, or all of the facilities inspected by the IAEA

  6. Efficiency analysis of energy networks. An international survey of regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD (United Kingdom); Pollitt, Michael G. [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis. (author)

  7. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy, E-mail: ab748@cam.ac.u [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD (United Kingdom); Pollitt, Michael G. [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  8. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  9. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  10. The International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Security Education Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUNEGGER-GUELICH, A.; RUKHLO, V.; GREGORIC, M.; COLGAN, P.

    2011-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. In response to the concerns of States, an international nuclear security framework has emerged through the establishment of a number of legally binding and non-binding international instruments which obligates or commits States to carry out a number of actions to protect against nuclear terrorism. In this context, the need for human resource development programmes in nuclear security was underscored at several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conferences and Board of Governors' Meetings. In the pursuit of this need, the IAEA provides a comprehensive nuclear security training programme to States on a regular basis, and has developed a concept that seeks to effectively pass ownership of nuclear security knowledge and skills to States through the establishment of a Nuclear Security Support Centre. In addition, the IAEA has developed a technical guidance titled IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12 - Educational Programme in Nuclear Security that consists of a model of a Master of Science (M.Sc.) and assists educational institutions to provide nuclear security education. The article sets out IAEA efforts in the area of nuclear security training and education, including the assistance to States for establishing a Nuclear Security Support Centre. It underlines the objective and content of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 12, discusses different concepts on how to establish nuclear security at universities and, emphasizes on the IAEA efforts to assist educational and research institutions, and other stake holders to enhance global nuclear security by developing, sharing and promoting excellence in nuclear security education. (author)

  11. International and national energy and oil policy - Where we are going to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welbergen, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    International and National Energy and Oil Policy-In the long run energy policy is to be based on the available energy reserves. It is necessary to use the reserves carefully and to develop new and economical energy sources in due course. The short-term policy is shaped by the availability of oil, the price level, and by the worldwide economic situation. The result is overcapacity of refineries and tankers for the coming years and unutilized production capacity in the OPEC countries. The reduction of oil consumption in the European Community with overcapacity in the domestic oil industry creates a conflict with the export intention of the producing countries. In order to avoid unnecessary investments it is necessary to have an international understanding. The energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany faces structural problems. As a result of the reduced consumption of heavy fuel oil, the load on the refineries will be considerably lowered in the future. Cracking units are required to convert the heavy fuel oil into lighter products. Many risks are involved in the investments, since these investments run over a long term, whereas the political situation may change quickly. As far as temporary governmental measures become necessary, those should be flexible and agreeable to the economic structure, without contradicting the long term energy policies. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy upgrading measures improve also indoor climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2014-01-01

    A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy to incre......A new survey shows that the economy is what motivates Danish owners of single-family houses the most to start energy upgrading, and that improved indoor climate is also an important factor. After the upgrading, homeowners experience both improved economy and indoor climate. In a strategy...... to increase the number of homeowners who venture into a major energy upgrading of their house, the demonstrated positive side effects, more than energy savings, should be included in the communication to motivate homeowners. The barriers should be reduced by “taking the homeowners by the hand” and helping...... them to choose relevant energy-saving solutions as well as clarifying the financial consequences and opportunities....

  13. Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Chae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs for the building envelope, HVAC system operational methods, and system replacement. It also evaluated each ECM from the perspective of both energy and utility cost saving potentials to help retrofitting plan decision making. The study shows that the energy consumption of the building was highly dominated by the thermal requirements of laboratory spaces. Among other ECMs the demand management option of overriding the setpoint temperature is the most cost effective measure.

  14. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015 to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF.

  15. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  16. The European Energy Regulators Group and the realization of the internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) in the realization of the internal energy market is discussed. It is concluded that the ERGEG has already achieved significant results in dealing with several complex technical and legal problems that hamper market integration in the energy sector. However, it is a fundamental problem that the ERGEG is neither an EU institution nor a national institution, resulting in a lack of its democratic accountability and in the legal protection against the actions taken by the ERGEG. Therefore, the future success of the ERGEG will depend on the ability of the European legislator to find answers to the question how to ensure that the ERGEG fulfils its tasks in a legitimate way [nl

  17. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors of the ILC will feature a calorimeter system in the very forward region. The system comprises mainly two electromagnetic calorimeters: LumiCal, which is dedicated to the measurement of the absolute luminosity with highest precision and BeamCal, which uses the energy deposition from beamstrahlung pairs ...

  18. Fast and precise luminosity measurement at the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors of the ILC will feature a calorimeter system in the very forward region. The system comprises mainly two electromagnetic calorimeters: LumiCal, which is dedicated to the measurement of the absolute luminosity with highest precision and BeamCal, which uses the energy deposition from beamstrahlung pairs ...

  19. Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Brueckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Farh, A.B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D.M.; Joensson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kaestli, H.K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koehne, J.H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Kuepper, A.; Kuester, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, S.; Lueke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovsky, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Newman, P.R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poeschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schroeder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Stamen, R.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Ste llberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wittek, C.; Wittmann, E.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wuensch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    1999-01-01

    Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies E T,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k perpendicular and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 2 2 and Bjorken-x values 2 -4 Bj -3 , jet shapes and subjet multiplicities are measured as a function of a resolution parameter. Distributions of both observables are corrected for detector effects and presented as functions of the transverse jet energy and jet pseudo-rapidity. Dependences of the jet shape and the average number of subjets on the transverse energy and the pseudo-rapidity of the jet are observed. With increasing transverse jet energies and decreasing pseudo-rapidities, i.e. towards the photon hemisphere, the jets are more collimated. QCD models give a fair description of the data

  20. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  1. Measuring the sustainability of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, W.

    2001-01-01

    Today's energy policies are characterised by a contradictory position. In theory, there is a clear will to respond to emerging threats, e.g. evidence of man-made climate change, irresponsible use of limited resources, geopolitical discrepancies with unbalanced satisfaction of vital needs. In practice, decision making is dominated by economic competitiveness and maximization of short-term profit. The use of fossil fuels is unbroken and still increasing. A recent Green Paper concluded that the EU countries have to reduce growing structural weaknesses by limiting dependence on fuel imports and to give priority to energy systems that do not emit global warming gases. (authors)

  2. Measuring the internal-market orientation in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of internal marketing in organizations has been researched by scholars for nearly three decades, but literature has little empirical research in the public sector. There is a latent debate on the relevance of internal marketing in the public sector, given the need to provide a more effective service to the citizens. Given the possibility that the internal-market orientation is an antecedent of job satisfaction, the objective of this research was to measure the level of internal market orientation in the public sector, and the Military Fire Department of the State of Espírito Santo (MFDESS was surveyed using quantitative research. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which follows the model used by Gounaris (2006 in research with employees of a hotel chain in Greece. 522 firefighters were surveyed. The choice of this organization was due to the importance of the service performed and the society visibility, given the direct relationship with life and assets of the taxpayers. Therefore, the level of job satisfaction of firefighters is relevant for the achievement of excellence in their missions. The results showed that firefighters have the perception that there is little internal-market orientation in the Military Fire Department and the level of job satisfaction is low. The research result converged with the literature on the direct relationship of the internal-market orientation with job satisfaction. Furthermore, the research concluded that job satisfaction is influenced by the identification of the exchange of value, segment internal market, job description, management concern and training.

  3. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  4. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [French Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Chinese Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Arabic Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Spanish Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014 [Russian Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals. Technical cooperation projects provide expertise in fields where nuclear techniques offer advantages over other approaches, or where they can successfully supplement conventional approaches. The IAEA had 342 million euros in regular budget funding in 2014, while its extrabudgetary expenditures totalled 68.3 million euros. Highlights mentioned in the Annual report include: Nuclear Energy: • The IAEA published several new guidance materials for countries considering to introduce nuclear power programmes. Four new e-learning modules on the IAEA’s ‘Milestones’ approach to nuclear power were launched, bringing to 11 the number of modules in this series available on iaea.org by the end of the year. • More systematic training approaches were used in the nuclear field globally, helping to ensure succession and knowledge management, concluded participants of the International Conference on Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programmes. • The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle highlighted new initiatives such as innovative financing and the use of advanced technologies in 'smart mines', and the need for increased attention to stakeholder engagement. Nuclear Sciences and Applications: • As part of the IAEA’s effort to meet growing Member State needs, the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project began on 1 January, 2014. Following completion of the feasibility study in February, the strategic plan for the project was issued in May, and conceptual designs for the new buildings were completed in November. A donor package providing detailed information on the project and its requirements was made available to Member States last December. • Against the background of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 and other animal diseases that can spread to humans, the IAEA established the VetLab network of animal diagnostic laboratories in Africa to intensify its work on

  10. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  11. How to Measure Dark Energy with LSST's Strong Gravitational Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, T.; Brunner, R. J.; Strong Lensing, LSST; Dark Energy Science Collaborations

    2013-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is sensitive to dark energy (DE) via the combinations of angular diameter distances that appear in model predictions of the lens strength. Lenses with variable sources offer the most promise: the corresponding time delay distance has recently been shown to be measurable to 5% precision. Large samples of lensed quasars and supernovae will allow internal degeneracy-breaking and so enable the most direct access to the DE parameters, while multiple source-plane, compound lens systems may provide an alternative, complementary, H0-free probe. Its wide field survey and high cadence will enable LSST to provide a sample of several thousand measured time delays, two orders of magnitude larger than the current sample, and allow an independent, competitive Stage IV DE parameter measurement to be made. However, practical problems to be solved include: lens detection (which may be very sensitive to image quality and deblender performance); image and lightcurve modelling (which could be both CPU and manual labor-intensive); obtaining and analyzing high resolution spectro-imaging follow-up data; and interpreting the whole sample of lenses in the context of the well-studied subset.

  12. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averaging...

  13. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averagi...

  14. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  15. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  16. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED or energy shots (ES. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and

  17. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-03

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  18. Proceedings of the sixty-second international school of hydrocarbon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the International School of Hydrocarbon Measurement. A partial list of the contents is as follows: Critical Flow Testing of Gas Wells, Fixed Factor Pressure Measurement, Flow Measurement by Vortex Shedding Meters, Fundamentals of Gas Measurement, Calibration of Storage Tanks, Liquid Measurement Station Design, Automated Truck Loading Systems, Calibration of Liquid Density Meters, Ethylene Measurement, Energy Measurement Utilizing On-Line Chromatograph, Large Capacity Gas Regulators, Micrometer Measurement of Orifice Meter Tubes, Application of Micro Processors Flow Recorders, Mechanically Driven Electronic Correction Devices, Techniques of Gas Sampling, Moisture Analysis in Natural Gas, Orifice Meters - Operation and Maintenance, Manual Charge Calculation, BTU Reduction in Gas Plants, and Gas Theft and Means of Prevention.

  19. Energy crises and cooperation: Do international institutions matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarova, Vessela P.

    The risk of an oil supply disruption still exists. Oil reserves are increasingly concentrated in a handful of unreliable regimes, plagued by piracy and terrorism. Natural disasters and chokepoint incidents have increased in frequency. In addition, oil is expected to remain a significant part of the energy mix up until 2030. By that time Europe will be importing 90% of its oil. Thus, oil supply security will become an increasingly important feature of European politics. One way to counter the noxious consequences of an oil disruption is to cooperate. International cooperation is a critical factor in any type of crisis, however, it is especially important when it comes to a finite, highly concentrated and critical commodity like oil. The lack of coordination might lead to scrambling and oil hoarding, which dramatically exacerbate the crisis. Yet cooperation in the oil issue-area has been the subject of only a few studies, none of which provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis. They are also limited in their scope and findings. This dissertation aims to partially fill this lacuna. It employs a structured focused comparison to study European consumer countries' cooperation in times of oil supply shortages. There have been fifteen such crises since the Second World War, three of which with dramatic consequences for the world economy. The analysis evaluates European cooperative efforts in seven of these cases, starting with the Abadan crisis in 1951. The cases are selected on the basis of their magnitude and economic impact. In particular, I look at intergovernmental negotiations within existing international bodies prior to, during and immediately after the crisis. The findings suggest that institutions are more likely to facilitate interstate cooperation in the presence of a strong leader (a hegemon) - a role, which in the case of the oil issue-area was assumed by the US until the early 1970s.

  20. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations

  1. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  2. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  3. Calibration of the isomer shift of {sup 133}Cs from internal conversion measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiroko; Tanaka, Eiji; Muramatsu, Hisakazu [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, for 81 KeV transition of 133-Cs which is one of Moessbauer nuclides belonged to alkaline element and can be useful probe on study of binding state in a compound with high ionic boundability specific to alkaline element, an experiment to obtain {Delta}R/R was conducted by measurement of Moessbauer isomer shift and of internal conversion intensity of outer shell electron, using an internal conversion method, one of obtaining methods of {Delta} at the most accuracy. 133-Xe was buried at shallow surface of a host metal, reduced energy loss of internal conversion electron to realize high resolution and aimed to separate O-shell from P-shell to reduce injected ionic spaced and prepare a source. In range measurement of various energy to confirm actual speed reduction of ion, transmittance of 133-Xe on Cu layer vapor-deposited 2 to 10 micro g/sq cm thick on an Ni-foil was conducted. As a result, mean ranges of each energy were 5:2.2, 10:3.7, 15:4.8, and 20:5.6 micro g/sq cm, respectively. It was thought to be proved that speed reduction was certainly conducted by facts that the range increased with increase of the incident energy which showed good agreement with calculation results due to TRIM-95 code. (G.K.)

  4. Measuring internal friction at sonic and ultrasonic frequencies in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; Russell, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction measurements provide a sensitive means for probing some structural properties of materials. Defect relaxation processes and phase changes are frequently reflected in internal friction measurements as a function of temperature. Relaxation processes associated with oxygen content have been observed in YBCO and BSCCO (2212). By measuring the internal friction at different frequencies activation energies associated with relaxation processes can be determined. Structural changes are temperature dependent and independent of frequency. The composite bar technique developed employs a piezoelectric quartz bar (with lengths of 2 cm or 3 cm and resonant frequencies of approximately 85 kHz or 120 kHz) with a resonant bar of HTSC attached to one end. The quartz bar is suspended at its nodal points and the system excited electrically using a regenerative feedback system. The composite bar method can also be used at low kilohertz frequencies by attaching the HTSC specimen used in the previous technique to the end of a much longer (e g 30 cm) fused silica rod which has very low damping. The resulting composite bar can be excited electrostatically or electromagnetically at frequencies below 10 kHz. The internal friction can be measured by scanning through the resonant frequency and measuring the bandwidth or by observing the decay of free oscillation in the bar. The advantage of using the two composite bar techniques is that the measurements can be made on the same specimen at different frequencies

  5. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  6. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  7. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM, and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  8. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  9. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  10. Evaluating airline energy efficiency: An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Cui, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating airline energy efficiency, which is firstly divided into four stages: Operations Stage, Fleet Maintenance Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage. The new four-stage network structure of airline energy efficiency is a modification of existing models. A new approach, integrated with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure, is applied to assess the overall energy efficiency and divisional efficiency of 19 international airlines from 2008 to 2014. The influencing factors of airline energy efficiency are analyzed through the regression analysis. The results indicate the followings: 1. The integrated model can identify the benchmarking airlines in the overall system and stages. 2. Most airlines' energy efficiencies keep steady during the period, except for some sharply fluctuations. The efficiency decreases mainly centralized in the year 2008–2011, affected by the financial crisis in the USA. 3. The average age of fleet is positively correlated with the overall energy efficiency, and each divisional efficiency has different significant influencing factors. - Highlights: • An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure is developed. • 19 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Garuda Indonesia has the highest overall energy efficiency.

  11. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  12. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  13. Availability-based payback method for energy efficiency measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprowicz, Robert; Schulz, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient technologies can lead to high energy and monetary savings in numerous industries. However, a lot of potential identified in industries remains untapped due to comparatively short requested payback periods. Usually, companies base the calculation of their payback period on initial investment costs in conjunction with annual monetary energy savings. Energy efficiency measures, however, often lead to synergy effects which are not taken into account. Against this background, we i...

  14. Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-04-30

    We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

  15. Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Tujague, Jennifer; Kerr, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for estimating detailed energy intake from alcoholic beverages. Methods: Participants were 315 monthly drinkers who completed a drink-measuring exercise. Energy intake from alcohol and non-alcohol ingredients was calculated for all beverages consumed. Results: Measured alcoholic beverages had on average 140 kilocalories, with 26% of the energy coming from non-alcohol ingredients. The average monthly kilocalorie intake, from all alcoh...

  16. Measurement of Energy Performances for General-Structured Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Meng; Chen, Haihong

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of servers in data centers increases rapidly along with the wide application of Internet and connected devices. To improve the energy efficiency of servers, voluntary or mandatory energy efficiency programs for servers, including voluntary label program or mandatory energy performance standards have been adopted or being prepared in the US, EU and China. However, the energy performance of servers and testing methods of servers are not well defined. This paper presents matrices to measure the energy performances of general-structured servers. The impacts of various components of servers on their energy performances are also analyzed. Based on a set of normalized workload, the author proposes a standard method for testing energy efficiency of servers. Pilot tests are conducted to assess the energy performance testing methods of servers. The findings of the tests are discussed in the paper.

  17. Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude

    2017-12-01

    Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957. The analysis reveals stable lifetime migration for men but increased lifetime migration for women associated with earlier ages at moving in adulthood and a compression of intervals between consecutive moves. The proposed cohort measures provide a more comprehensive picture of migration behavior and should be used to complement period measures in exploring long-term trends. Increasing availability of retrospective and longitudinal survey data means that researchers can now apply the proposed measures to a wide range of countries.

  18. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  19. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e + e - collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e + e - →ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb -1 and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The jet energy resolution

  20. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-15

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e{sup +}e{sup -} collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e{sup +}e{sup -}→ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb{sup -1} and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 1/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. The plant at installation site has been run since 1995, having a production capacity of 50,000-60,000 tons. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the project for measures for rationalization of the international energy utilization - the model project for the heightening of efficiency of the international energy consumption. 2/2. Model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing exhaust gases from chemical plant, etc.; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka tou moderu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kagaku kojo fukusei haigasu tou yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the reduction in the energy consumption in China and the stable energy supply in Japan by heightening efficiency of the energy utilization in the petrochemical industry which is an industry of much energy consumption in China, a model project for facilities for effective utilization of by-producing gases from chemical plant, etc. was carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. Concretely, the combustion incinerator and combustion exhaust gas recovery facilities for waste water and gas were to be installed at acrylonitrile plant of petrochemical plant in China to recover the combustion exhaust gas as process gas used in plant for effective utilization. In this fiscal year, the detailed design and supply of electric instrumentation equipment and manufacture of boiler facilities were carried out according to the basic design made in the previous fiscal year. Further, the equipment manufactured in the previous year and this fiscal year were transported and inspected. The paper also reviewed drawings of the design of the facilities for part of which China takes responsibility. The separate volume (2/2) included drawings of valve, fire detector, orifice, thermocouple, motor control equipment, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Sensitivity analysis and energy conservation measures implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Electricity use characteristics of 10 air-conditioned office buildings in subtropical Hong Kong were investigated. Monthly electricity consumption data were gathered and analysed. The annual electricity use per unit gross floor area ranged from 233 to 368 kWh/m 2 , with a mean of 292 kWh/m 2 . The ranges of percentage consumption for the four major electricity end-users - namely heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical equipment, and lifts and escalators - were 40.1-50.7%, 22.1-29%, 16.6-32.9% and 2.2-5.3%, respectively. Ten key design variables were identified in the parametric and sensitivity analysis using building energy simulation technique. Analysis of the resulting influence coefficients suggested that indoor design condition (from 22 to 25.5 deg. C), electric lighting (a modest 2 W/m 2 reduction in the current lighting code) and chiller COP (from air- to water-cooled) could offer great electricity savings potential, in the order of 14%, 5.2% and 11%, respectively

  4. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  5. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  6. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  7. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131 I and 125 I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131 I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported [it

  8. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  9. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  10. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  11. Research and Construction of DC Energy Measurement Traceability Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang; Maotao, Yang; Jing, Yang

    2018-02-01

    With the implementation of energy saving and emission reduction policies, DC energy metering has been widely used in many fields. In view of the lack of a DC energy measurementtraceability system, in combination with the process of downward measurement transfer in relation to the DC charger-based field calibration technology and DC energy meter and shunt calibration technologies, the paper proposed DC fast charging, high DC, small DC voltage output and measuring technologies, and built a time-based plan by converting high DC voltage into low voltage and high current into low current and then into low voltage, leaving DC energy traceable to national standards in terms of voltage, current and time and thus filling in the gap in DC energy measurement traceability.

  12. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  13. India's energy needs and areas of international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazir, S.N.

    1980-03-15

    India's energy position is poor because of relatively large imports of oil, and poor reserves. In the impending energy crisis, developing countries will suffer (whether or not it is oil-rich) unless international cooperation is forthcoming. Energy consumption patterns in India are shown in tables. Energy reserves are also analyzed, including nonconventional sources (geothermal, solar, etc.). Possible areas for international cooperation are explored. (DLC)

  14. Analysis of energy pricing system and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, D.H. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Energy is an indispensable element of national life, and the stable and effective supply of energy becomes the most important prerequisite for the continuous development of the economy. Energy pricing policy should be established in the direction to induce the effective use of energy in Korea which has a high degree of reliance on imported energy, but as the result of maintaining a low energy price policy, it became the cause of over-consumption. As a result of analyzing relative prices of domestic energy, natural gas is judged as the most economical or becomes the second best policy in all uses. It is noteworthy that this result is due to price. In the mean time, in comparison, an analysis result of the energy price with major countries in OECD, prices of petroleum products, power, and natural gas for household use that lead to the increase force of domestic energy consumption, are relatively inexpensive, and relatively low tax rates are applied to these energy sources. Therefore, in order for the energy price to escape from remaining unchanged, it will be necessary to prepare proper relative pricing structure that considers the pricing level between energy sources under long-term energy policy and let the level of prices to be decided with the frame. Therefore, this study tries to find out the direction of proper relative pricing structure through structural analysis of energy price between Korea and major countries in OECD in this dimension. 31 refs., 7 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  16. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  17. Proceedings of the International conference on energy alternatives/risk education V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gyoergy

    1990-02-01

    This Proceedings volume on Energy Education within the context of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives/Risk Education contains papers on Energy Education, on Nuclear Education and on Risk Education. Ten papers concerning nuclear science and technology, and nuclear energy, were indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  18. Instrument to measure energy and charge of low energy interplanetary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums, E.; Gloeckler, G.; Cain, J.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on Oct. 26, 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor combines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle.

  19. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  20. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  1. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  2. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  3. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  4. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...... in wheat production. While the measures precision farming and improved crop drying require investments, reduced fertilizer input can be realized without investments. The environmental effects of all measures are comparable and do not show a clear advantage of one measure against the others. However......, reduced fertilizer input implies an economic loss which is unlikely to be realized by farmers unless they are forced to do so....

  5. Economic aspects of the Chinese energy policy in the international background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdeau, F

    1983-05-01

    A first part sets out the situation of the Chinese energy industry in the following sectors: coal, hydrocarbons, electricity, and other energy sources such as nuclear energy and the renevable energy sources. A second part deals with the structure and the evolution of the Chinese energy balance: supply and demand, modeling of energy consumption, and forecasting for 1990-2000. The third part is about the foreign aspects of the Chinese energy policy means of an international energy policy, the aims of the Chinese energy policy and its influence in the world.

  6. The International Airborne Wind Energy Conference 2015 : Book of abstracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmehl, R.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne wind energy is an emerging field in the renewable energy technologies that aims to replace the use of fossil fuels for energy production on an economical basis. A characteristic feature of the various concepts that are currently pursued is the use of tethered flying devices to access wind

  7. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  8. Recent activity of international comparison for nanoparticle size measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Takahata, Keiji; Misumi, Ichiko; Sugawara, Kentaro; Gonda, Satoshi; Ehara, Kensei

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticle sizing is the most fundamental measurement for producing nanomaterials, evaluation of nanostructure, and the risk assessment of nanomaterials for human health. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is widely used as a useful and convenient technique for determining nanoparticle size in liquid; however, the precision of this technique has been unclear. Some international comparisons are now in progress to verify the measurement accuracy of nanoparticle sizing, as a typical example of Asia Pacific Metrology Programme Supplementary Comparison. In this study, we evaluated the precision of DLS technique for nanoparticle sizing and estimated the uncertainty of the DLS data for polystyrene latex suspensions. The extrapolations of apparent diffusion coefficients to infinite dilution and to lower angles yielded more precise values than those obtained at one angle and one concentration. The extrapolated particle size measured by DLS was compared to the size determined by differential mobility analyzer (DMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before the comparison, the intensity-averaged size measured by DLS was recalculated to the number-averaged size, and the thickness of water layer attaching on the surface of particles were added into uncertainty of particle sizing by DLS. After the recalculation, the consistent values of mean particle diameter were obtained between those by DLS and by DMA, AFM, and SEM within the estimated uncertainties.

  9. International Energy Agency building energy simulation test (BESTEST) and diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    1995-01-01

    This is a report on the Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) project conducted by the Model Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 12 Subtask B, and the Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (BCS) Programme, Annex 21 Subtask C. Recognizing that the needs for model evaluation were similar in both IEA programmes, the combined Experts Group was approved by the Executive Committees in 1990. This is the first joint group organized by the respective IEA Executive Committees, and it has resulted in significant cost savings for all participating countries. The objective of this subtask has been to develop practical implementation procedures and data for an overall IEA validation methodology which has been under development by NREL since 1981, with refinements contributed by the United Kingdom. The methodology consists of a combination of empirical l validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques. This report documents a comparative testing and diagnostic procedure for thermal models related to the architectural fabric of the building. Other projects (reported elsewhere) conducted by this group include work on empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative test cases for commercial buildings. In the BESTEST project, a method was developed for systematically testing whole-building energy simulation programs and diagnosing the sources of predictive disagreement. Field trials of the method were conducted with a number of(open q uotes)reference(close q uotes) programs selected by the participants to represent the best state-of-the-art detailed simulation capability available in the United States and Europe. These included BLAST, DOE2, ESP, SERIRES, S3PAS, TASE, and TRNSYS

  10. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy {radical}(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L{sub Peak}=2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy {radical}(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d{radical}(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c{sup 2} to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of {sigma}{sub E}=0.0014 for electrons and {sigma

  11. Studies on the measurement of differential luminosity using Bhabha events at the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Andre Philippe

    2009-04-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is an electron-positron-collider with a variable center-of-mass energy √(2) between 200 and 500 GeV. The small bunch sizes needed to reach the design luminosity of L Peak =2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 necessary for the physics goals of the ILC, cause the particles to radiate beamstrahlung during the bunch crossings. Beamstrahlung reduces the center-of-mass energy from its nominal value to the effective center-of-mass energy √(2'). The spectrum of the effective center-of-mass energy √(2') is the differential luminosity dL/d√(2'), which has to be known to precisely measure particle masses through threshold scans. The differential luminosity can be measured by using Bhabha events. The real differential luminosity is simulated by the GuineaPig software. The energy spectrum of the Bhabha events is measured by the detector and compared to the energy spectrum of Monte Carlo (MC) Bhabha events with a known differential luminosity given by an approximate parameterization. The parameterization is used to assign each MC event a weight. By re-weighting the events, until the energy spectra from the real and the MC Bhabha events match, the differential luminosity can be measured. The approximate parameterization of the differential luminosity is given by the Circe parameterization introduced by T. Ohl (1997), which does not include the correlation between the particle energies due to beamstrahlung. The Circe parameterization is extended to include the correlation and better describe the differential luminosity. With this new parameterization of the differential luminosity it is possible to predict the observed production cross section of a MC toy particle with a mass of 250 GeV/c 2 to a precision better than 0.2%. Using the re-weighting fit with the extended parameterization also allows the measurement of the beam energy spreads of σ E =0.0014 for electrons and σ E = 0.0010 for positrons with a precision of a few percent. The total error

  12. 2nd International Conference on Measurement Instrumentation and Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface It is our great pleasure to welcome you to 2017 2nd International Conference on Measurement Instrumentation and Electronics which has been held in Prague, Czech Republic during June 9-11, 2017. ICMIE 2017 is dedicated to issues related to measurement instrumentation and electronics. The major goal and feature of the conference is to bring academic scientists, engineers, industry researchers together to exchange and share their experiences and research results, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Professors from Czech Republic, Germany and Italy are invited to deliver keynote speeches regarding latest information in their respective expertise areas. It is a golden opportunity for the students, researchers and engineers to interact with the experts and specialists to get their advice or consultation on technical matters, teaching methods and strategies. These proceedings present a selection from papers submitted to the conference from universities, research institutes and industries. All of the papers were subjected to peer-review by conference committee members and international reviewers. The papers selected depended on their quality and their relevancy to the conference. The volume tends to present to the readers the recent advances in the field of computer and communication system, system design and measurement and control technology, power electronics and electrical engineering, materials science and engineering, power machinery and equipment maintenance, architectural design and project management, environmental analysis and detection etc. We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed to this volume and also to the organizing committee, reviewers, speakers, chairpersons, and all the conference participants for their support to ICMIE 2017. ICMIE 2017 Organizing Committee June 20th, 2017 (paper)

  13. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  14. An international survey of building energy codes and their implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Graham, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Buildings are key to low-carbon development everywhere, and many countries have introduced building energy codes to improve energy efficiency in buildings. Yet, building energy codes can only deliver results when the codes are implemented. For this reason, studies of building energy codes need to consider implementation of building energy codes in a consistent and comprehensive way. This research identifies elements and practices in implementing building energy codes, covering codes in 22 countries that account for 70% of global energy demand from buildings. Access to benefits of building energy codes depends on comprehensive coverage of buildings by type, age, size, and geographic location; an implementation framework that involves a certified agency to inspect construction at critical stages; and independently tested, rated, and labeled building energy materials. Training and supporting tools are another element of successful code implementation, and their role is growing in importance, given the increasing flexibility and complexity of building energy codes. Some countries have also introduced compliance evaluation and compliance checking protocols to improve implementation. This article provides examples of practices that countries have adopted to assist with implementation of building energy codes.

  15. International aspects of nuclear energy - guarantees for peaceful applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, P.

    1980-03-01

    The author considers activities connected with treaties and international agreements in the context of safeguarding nuclear materials and technology and protection against radioactive contamination. A review is provided of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Convention on Physical Protection, the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation and the London Dumping Convention. (NEA) [fr

  16. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R ampersand D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R ampersand D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R ampersand D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report

  17. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R&D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R&D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R&D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report.

  18. Precision measurements of the SLC [Stanford Linear Collider] beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; King, M.; Von Zanthier, C.

    1989-03-01

    A method of precisely determining the beam energy in high energy linear colliders has been developed using dipole spectrometers and synchrotron radiation detectors. Beam lines implementing this method have been installed on the Stanford Linear Collider. An absolute energy measurement with an accuracy of better than δE/E = 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/ can be achieved on a pulse-to-pulse basis. The operation of this system will be described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. International panel to address state, local efforts to increase energy security, sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and energy are international issues. Following the maxim, "Think globally, act locally," a now international group first launched in Germany is hosting a panel discussion on the topic, "A Transatlantic Perspective on Climate Change and Energy Policy" on Thursday, Sept. 24, from 10 a.m. to noon at Squires Student Center in Brush Mountain Room A.

  20. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  1. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  2. A novel sensor platform matching the improved version of IPMVP option C for measuring energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-05-22

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  3. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yuan Chang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS. A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the

  4. Measuring the security of energy exports demand in OPEC economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, Jude Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of OPEC is the security of demand for the crude oil exports of its members. Achieving this objective is imperative with the projected decline in OECD countries' crude oil demand among other crude oil demand shocks. This paper focuses on determining the external crude oil demand security risks of OPEC member states. In assessing these risks, this study introduces two indexes. The first index, Risky Energy Exports Demand (REED), indicates the level of energy export demand security risks for OPEC members. It combines measures of export dependence, economic dependence, monopsony risk and transportation risk. The second index, Contribution to OPEC Risk Exposure (CORE), indicates the individual contribution of the OPEC members to OPEC's risk exposure. This study utilises the disaggregated index approach in measuring energy demand security risks for crude oil and natural gas and involves a country level analysis. With the disaggregated approach, the study shows that OPEC's energy export demand security risks differ across countries and energy types. - Highlights: • REED and CORE indexes are suitable measures for energy exports demand security risk. • The indexes show that energy demand security risk is different for each OPEC country. • The countries contribution to OPEC's energy demand security risk is also different. • The outcome is necessary for OPEC's common energy and climate change policies. • The outcome makes a case for oil demand security as a topical issue in the literature

  5. Compact Measurement Station for Low Energy Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Yildiz, H.

    2017-02-24

    A compact, remote controlled, cost efficient diagnostic station has been developed to measure the charge, the profile and the emittance for low energy proton beams. It has been installed and tested in the proton beam line of the Project Prometheus at SANAEM of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.

  6. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  7. On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, renewable energy sources have emerged as an important component of world energy consumption. Little is however known about the determinants of renewable energy consumption. This article tackles this issue for a global panel consisting of 64 countries over the period 1990-2011 by using a dynamic system- GMM panel model. We also consider three homogeneous subpanels which are constructed based on the income level of sample countries (high-, middle-, and low-income subpanels). ...

  8. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions, including the latest one

  9. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-bipolar world nuclear power has become one of the areas of competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West. The comprehensive analysis of theoretical publications allows us to consider international competition as an abstract, depoliticized contest of states and other international actors (including companies for some limited (mainly economic benefits. International rivalry is more a political process, necessarily involving some rival pairs of states (or groups of states that compete with each other not only to get some benefits, but to expand their territory or power. The competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West in the sphere of nuclear power are especially apparent in the Eastern European region where the American, European and Japanese corporations, with the support of the Western foreign ministries and EU institutions, try to achieve two main goals. The first goal is to win the contracts to build new power units, especially in tenders where Rosatom participates. The second goal is to become suppliers of nuclear fuel for multiple Russian- or Soviet-made VVER-type reactors, which are functioning or will be run in a number of countries in the region (Slovakia,CzechRepublic,Hungary,Bulgaria, andUkraine. Such activities can involve high risks. The West’s efforts to curb the dominant position of "Rosatom" inEastern Europeare formally associated with the need to create a "competitive market" of nuclear services in the region and to ensure the European energy security. It is also noteworthy that the expansion of Rosatom (and its predecessors to foreign markets, including Eastern Europe, is actively supported by the Russian state which in the second half of the 1990s – after a failed attempt of following in the footsteps of the West – joined in the rivalry, mostly imposed by the U.S. and their allies. As shown by the analysis,Russiaand the West, primarily theUnited States, are involved in the nuclear power sector to

  10. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  11. Energy and nuclear sciences international who's who. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    For this fourth edition the directory has been reformatted to A4 size to allow for the restructuring of both the biological data and the cover. The fourth edition contains details of over 3,500 including 400 for the first time, scientists and engineers concerned with new and improved methods of generating electricity. A wide range of people used the information provided in the last edition, among them information scientists, administrators, conference organizers, market researchers, financiers seeking technical advice, embassy staff, consultants, biochemists and engineers. Biographical enquiry forms were sent to officers in scientific societies in each nation, to directors and section leaders in industrial and official institutions where significant numbers of scientists relating to power and energy research are employed to heads of relevant academic departments, and to editorial board members of relevant journals. Part one lists biographical profiles of scientists in alphabetical order of surname. The subject index by country in Part two centres around nuclear and energy sciences divided into the following areas; electrical power engineering, energy conservation, energy planning, energy storage, fuel production, fusion technology, geothermal energy, nuclear sciences, high energy physics, low energy physics, wind and/or ocean energy. This allows the reader to locate experts in each of the above topic areas in around 90 countries. (Author)

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  13. Performance planning and measurement for DOE EM-International Technology Integration Program. A report on a performance measurement development workshop for DOE's environmental management international technology integration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.B.; Reed, J.H.; Wyler, L.D.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the process and results from an effort to develop metrics for program accomplishments for the FY 1997 budget submission of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management International Technology Integration Program (EM-ITI). The four-step process included interviews with key EM-ITI staff, the development of a strawman program logic chart, and all day facilitated workshop with EM-ITI staff during which preliminary performance plans and measures were developed and refined, and a series of follow-on discussions and activities including a cross-organizational project data base. The effort helped EM-ITI to crystallize and develop a unified vision of their future which they can effectively communicate to their own management and their internal and external customers. The effort sets the stage for responding to the Government Performance and Results Act. The metrics developed may be applicable to other international technology integration programs. Metrics were chosen in areas of eight general performance goals for 1997-1998: (1) number of forums provided for the exchange of information, (2) formal agreements signed, (3) new partners identified, (4) customers reached and satisfied, (5, 6) dollars leveraged by EM technology focus area and from foreign research, (7) number of foreign technologies identified for potential use in remediation of DOE sites, and (8) projects advanced through the pipeline

  14. Canada's uranium exports. Final report. International energy studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Lynch, M.C.

    1982-03-01

    The history and structure of the uranium industry in Canada are briefly described. A mine by mine review of industry developments, including export contracting, is presented. These commitments are tabulated and Canada's international uranium trade patterns are examined

  15. Proceedings of the International conference on energy alternatives/risk education V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gyoergy

    1990-02-01

    This Proceedings volume on Energy and Risk within the context of the International Conference on Energy Alternatives/Risk Education contains papers on Nuclear Energy, on Background Radiation and on Risks of Energy Alternatives. 15 papers concerning safety of nuclear reactors, case stories of reactor and radiation accidents, monitoring low-level indoor radiation, educational tods, comparison of energy system risks, and catalyzed fusion were indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  16. Background and perspective on rapid progress and deepening of international development of nuclear industry-composition of international nuclear energy business 'cooperation and competition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tokio; Kanda, Keji; Ishizuka, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the recognition that international development of nuclear industry was important by a viewpoint of international cooperation to neighboring Asian area and also it was the trump that defeated a feeling of domestic confinement, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) founded Nuclear energy international development gathering' in November 2004. On that occasion our magazine (March, 2005 issue) featured 'prospects and problem of the international development of nuclear energy use'. Slightly for half a year afterwards this nuclear energy international development has been rapidly deepened and become a close-up as a policy of an important strategy of the field of nuclear energy that the government and the private sector were united to make. Therefore the nuclear energy international development was secondly featured from multidirectional points of view such as a background of nuclear energy international development, composition of international nuclear energy business, a main strategy of three makers, approach of finance / a business firm. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems { each facility uses from a few to several hundredsMW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifcations and feld lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy effciency of these plants are investigated in this work...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  18. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Manzoni, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electron and photon is paramount for many ATLAS physics analysis. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed in-situ using a large statistics of Z->ee events. The results obtained with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1 and 2.7 fb-1 respectively , as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented.

  19. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00436885; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electrons and photons is paramount for many ATLAS physics analyses. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed $in$-$situ$ using a large statistics of $Z \\rightarrow ee$ events. The results obtained with the $pp$ collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ and 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ respectively, as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented

  20. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases....

  1. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanc, Z.; Kerner, A.

    1997-01-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  3. Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2013-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

  4. Analysis of Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Measure Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Through the Chicagoland Single Family Housing Characterization and Retrofit Prioritization report, the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit research team characterized 15 housing types in the Chicagoland region based on assessor data, utility billing history, and available data from prior energy efficiency programs. Within these 15 groups, a subset showed the greatest opportunity for energy savings based on BEopt Version 1.1 modeling of potential energy efficiency package options and the percent of the housing stock represented by each group. In this project, collected field data from a whole-home program in Illinois are utilized to compare marketplace-installed measures to the energy saving optimal packages previously developed for the 15 housing types. Housing type, conditions, energy efficiency measures installed, and retrofit cost information were collected from 19 homes that participated in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program in 2012, representing eight of the characterized housing groups. Two were selected for further case study analysis to provide an illustration of the differences between optimal and actually installed measures. Taken together, these homes are representative of 34.8% of the Chicagoland residential building stock. In one instance, actual installed measures closely matched optimal recommended measures.

  5. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  6. The end of nuclear energy? International perspectives after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Nina; Steinhilber, Jochen (eds.)

    2011-07-15

    The nuclear disaster in Fukushima turned into a long-term crisis shaking the very foundations of economies and institutional structures. This offers an opportunity to organise energy supply in a more sustainable manner throughout the world. While a shift in thinking can be seen in some countries, others unswervingly continue along the planned path of an expansion of nuclear energy. However, given the economic and environmental misgivings as well as various security and safety risks of nuclear and fossil energy sources on the one hand as well as the benefits of green growth on the other hand, countries worldwide do not want to miss the opportunity to expand the use of renewable energy sources. Against the background of an ongoing depletion of resources and volatile oil and gas prices, any future set up of energy policies throughout the world has to balance the goals of energy security, economic viability, ecological sustainability and social compatibility. At the same time, a restructuring in the energy sector has to be formulated in a democratic manner involving the national, state, and community levels as well as civil society and industry.

  7. The international energy situation and nuclear development in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1980-01-01

    It is very important to maintain close contact regarding energy planning and energy policy among Japan, EC, USA and other industrial countries. The Tokyo summit meeting in June, 1979, offered very excellent opportunity for such purpose. Now, the success and failure in EC are analyzed frankly, and the future prospect is discussed. The dependence on imported oil is as high as 47% of total energy demand in EC. It is aimed at to reduce the dependence on imported oil to 35% by 1990. Successes were achieved in the reduction of the dependence of total energy on import from 63% in 1973 to 54% at present owing to the utilization of atomic energy and the discovery of North Sea oil fields, and in the attainment of economical growth of 12% without increasing energy consumption in six years. However, in some member countries, atomic energy projects are several years behind schedule. In the aspect of atomic energy policy, sufficient preparation is required for waste disposal. Efforts must be exerted to reduce the energy consumption in industries, buildings and automobile transportation. The consumer price in EC is different in each country due to the tax system, and well-balanced price must be maintained. The second oil crisis occurred due to worldwide oil demand. As for the nuclear power generation in EC, 30 million kW of power stations are in operation, and it will be increased to 75 million kW by 1985. No fatal accident has occurred in 1800 reactor-year of the operation. (Kako, I.)

  8. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  9. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  10. MEASURING AND ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL AUDIT#8217;S EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palfi Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of internal auditing in the last period was a very dynamic one, being affected by the increasing attention for its role in corporate governance, especially because of its links with internal control and risk management systems. Internal audi

  11. Measuring College Success for International Baccalaureate Diploma and Certificate Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennifer Coles

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative study was conducted at a private international high school. The study purpose was to investigate United States college trends comparing International Baccalaureate Diploma Program candidates and International Baccalaureate Non-Diploma Program candidates from the same school in Asia. Data was collected for the Classes of 2007-2012…

  12. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O≥5 keV/μm. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target fragment

  13. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  14. Measuring energy poverty in Japan, 2004–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okushima, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper first examines energy (or fuel) poverty in Japan from 2004 to 2013, especially around the time of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). To analyze the issue, the paper employs various poverty and vulnerability measures with the assistance of our unique dataset. The results indicate the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households during the past decade, resulting from both the escalation of energy prices and lowering of income. The analysis also employs a new decomposition technique and identifies the explanatory factors associated with the increase in energy poverty. These results suggest there were major changes in the forces driving the increase in energy poverty before and after the GEJE. After 2011, income alleviates energy poverty in Japan, with energy prices becoming the main driving factor. - Highlights: • This study is the first evaluation of energy poverty in Japan by unique microdata. • Focus on the period of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima accident. • Shows the aggravation of energy poverty among lower-income and vulnerable households. • Identifies factors accounting for the changes in energy poverty by decomposition. • Major changes in the explanatory factors before and after the Fukushima accident.

  15. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  16. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  17. A feasibility study of conceptual design for international clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Hamada, Akiyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Clean energy is more and more required worldwide in proportion to actualization of global environmental issues including global warming. Therefore, it is an urgent task to realize promotion of worldwide introduction of clean energy which exists abundantly and is widely distributed in the world, such as hydropower and solar energy, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. However, since the renewable energy, differing from so called fossil fuel, is impossible to transport for long distance and store as it is, its utilization is subject to be limited. As one possible resolution of this kind of issues, 'International clean energy network using hydrogen conversion technology' which enables conversion of renewable energy from low cost hydropower into hydrogen energy and also into the transportable and storable form, is a meaningful concept. This system technology enables dealing of this hydrogen energy in international market as in the same manner as fossil fuel. It is considered to enable promotion of international and large scale introduction of such clean energy, along with the contribution to diversified and stabilized international energy supply. In this study, based upon the above-mentioned point of view and assumption of two sites, one on supply side and another on demand side of hydrogen energy, three systems are presumed. One of the systems consists of liquid hydrogen as transportation and storage medium of hydrogen, and the others intermediately convert hydrogen into methanol or ammonia as an energy carrier. A overall conceptual design of each system spanning from hydrogen production to its utilization, is conducted in practical way in order to review the general technical aspects and economical aspects through cost analysis. This study is administrated through the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a part of the International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (so-called WE-NET) Program with funding from

  18. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  19. International Benchmark Renewable Energy. European Union and Norway. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Benner, J.H.B.; Brogtrop, A.C.G.M.; Van Alphen, M.

    2001-12-01

    The main aim of the survey was to generate an actual, realistic and accepted overview of potentials and cost prices for all relevant renewable energy options in the different countries of the European Union. The survey covered electrical options, heat options and combined heat and power options for renewable energy. Survey data were obtained directly from the responsible governments and their energy agencies, not from theoretical model studies. The intention was to improve insight for future decisions and create a useful basis (in the form of definitions, guidelines, etc.) for future perfection. Survey results also help to assess the relative ambition of the different national targets, especially in the EU Member States. The survey thus primarily sought answers to the following questions: (1) What renewable energy potential is available, and to what extent can the potential be exploited and what would be the related costs; and (2) What observations can be made, considering the survey results

  20. Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Energy of Nitrogen Molecular Beam by REMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kataoka, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Ide, K.; Niimi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular beams are powerful tools for diagnoses of solid surfaces and gas-surface interaction tests. Unfortunately, there are very few reports about experimental analysis of internal energy distribution (e.g. rotational energy) of molecular beams of diatomic or polyatomic molecules, because measurement of internal energy distribution is very difficult. Spectroscopic measurement techniques based on resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is very powerful for measurement in highly rarefied gas flows. In this study, the REMPI method is applied to measurement of rotational energy distribution of nitrogen molecular beams. The REMPI spectrum of the molecular beam indicates the rotational temperature higher than the translational temperature of 7.2 K estimated by assuming isentropic flows. The O and P branches of the REMPI spectrum correspond to the rotational temperature of 30 K, but the S branch of the spectrum deviates from that at 30 K. It seems to be because the non-equilibrium rotational energy distribution of the molecular beam deviates from the Boltzmann distribution.

  1. International conference on composite materials and energy: Proceedings. Enercomp 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    World demand for composite materials is continuously increasing. High strength and rigidity, associated with light weight, are the key factors for composites' success. These materials find numerous applications in all sectors of industry. Presently, a sector of particular interest in terms of demand for composite materials is the energy industry. More and more applications are found in the field of the forms of energy: electrical, petroleum, gas, nuclear, solar and wind. The topics addressed in various sessions of the conference cover potential applications of the entire range of polymer, metal and ceramic composites in all sectors of energy. Papers are divided into sessions covering the following topics: properties; design and analysis; fracture; fatigue and long-term performance; new materials; innovative processing; liquid molding; joining and repairs; radiation curing; recycling; development in ceramic materials; innovations in metallic materials; metal-matrix composites; nondestructive evaluation; energy savings in transportation; pressure vessels and piping; wind energy applications; electrical components; concrete applications; power plant applications; and new materials in the energy field. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. Topnux'96 international conference French nuclear energy society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Here is the opening address of Mr S. Park, vice-president of the Korea Electric Power Corporation, at the opening session of the Topnux'96 conference. The main ideas of his speech are the following: 1)energy is indispensable for maintaining affluent living standards 2)it is the most important requirement for rapid economic growth 3)overall energy consumption of the world is expected to rise continuously in the next century 4)demand for electricity is greater than growth of overall energy consumption 5)burning of large amount of fossil fuels to meet the energy, including electricity, will bring about serious environmental impact such as air pollution and global warming due to emission of toxic chemical and greenhouse gases 6)nuclear power is one of the most effective and practical alternatives available now for solving this global problem 7)energy should be convenient to use, inexpensive, safe, secured and environment friendly; in this respect, electricity is the most desirable type of energy indispensable for modern civilization and nuclear power is surely one of the viable option for producing electricity. (O.M.)

  3. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group: formation of patient-centered outcome measures in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W; Abernethy, April; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Bhushan, Reva; Garg, Amit; Merola, Joseph F; Maccarone, Mara; Christensen, Robin

    2015-02-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the group aims to create a tool considerate of patients and providers using the input of all relevant stakeholders in assessment of disease severity and response to treatment. Herein, we delineate the procedures through which consensus is being reached and the future directions of the project. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  5. Dynamics of pulsed expansion of polyatomic gas cloud: Internal-translational energy transfer contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyatomic gas cloud expansion under pulsed laser evaporation is studied on the basis of one-dimensional direct Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of rotational-translational (RT) and vibrational-translational (VT) energy transfer on dynamics of the cloud expansion is considered. Efficiency of VT energy transfer dependence on the amount of evaporated matter is discussed. To analyze VT energy transfer impact, the number of collisions per molecule during the expansion is calculated. The data are generally in good agreement with available analytical and numerical predictions. Dependencies of the effective number of vibrational degrees of freedom on the number of vibrationally inelastic collisions are obtained and generalized. The importance of the consideration of energy transfer from the internal degrees of freedom to the translational ones is illustrated by an example of pulsed laser evaporation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Based on the obtained regularities, analysis of experimental data on pulsed laser evaporation of aniline is performed. The calculated aniline vibrational temperature correlates well with the experimentally measured one

  6. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  7. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  8. The validation of a measure of organisational energy in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Derman

    2011-09-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to validate a measure of organisational energy in the South African context and to investigate whether there are differences in organisational energy as perceived by employees based on their demographic characteristics and lifestyle variables. Motivation for the study: Managing energy in organisations is important as it drives motivation, powers teamwork, fosters creativity and gives organisations a competitive edge (Schiuma, Mason & Kennerley, 2007. Limited empirical research currently exists on the phenomenon of energy in organisations. Research design/approach method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design, with a convenience sample (N = 520 of employees in a South African financial institution. The researchers administered the EnergyScapes Profile. Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a one-factor structure for the EnergyScapes Profile. The scale, labelled organisational energy, showed acceptable internal consistency. The researchers found statistically significant differences in the organisational energy levels of employees based on age, tenure, geographical region, relaxation, hypertension and diabetes, depression or psychosis. Practical/managerial implications: The research provides valuable insight for practicing managers about understanding the concept of organisational energy and encourages leaders to question the energy of their employees. Contribution/value-add: The insight the researchers gained by studying the concept of organisational energy contributed in a unique way and showed the importance of considering organisations as dynamic and interactive with the people that work for them.

  9. Partitioning of methyl internal rotational barrier energy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The nature of methyl internal rotational barrier in thioacetaldehyde has been investigated by relaxation effect, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and. Pauling exchange interactions. The true experimental barrier can be obtained by considering fully relaxed rotation. Nuclear-electron attraction term is a barrier.

  10. Partitioning of methyl internal rotational barrier energy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nature of methyl internal rotational barrier in thioacetaldehyde has been investigated by relaxation effect, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and Pauling exchange interactions. The true experimental barrier can be obtained by considering fully relaxed rotation. Nuclear-electron attraction term is a barrier forming term in ...

  11. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.K.; McKane, A.T.; Ploutakhina, M.; Monga, P.; Gielen, D.; Bazilian, M.; Nussbaumer, P.; Howells, M.; Rogner, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  12. Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2017-09-01

    Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.

  13. Energy demand for materials in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Ernst; Carreon, Jesus Rosales

    2017-06-13

    Materials are everywhere and have determined society. The rapid increase in consumption of materials has led to an increase in the use of energy and release of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing emissions in material-producing industries is a key challenge. If all of industry switched to current best practices, the energy-efficiency improvement potential would be between 20% and 35% for most sectors. While these are considerable potentials, especially for sectors that have historically paid a lot of attention to energy-efficiency improvement, realization of these potentials under current 'business as usual' conditions is slow due to a large variety of barriers and limited efforts by industry and governments around the world. Importantly, the potentials are not sufficient to achieve the deep reductions in carbon emissions that will be necessary to stay within the climate boundaries as agreed in the 2015 Paris Conference of Parties. Other opportunities need to be included in the menu of options to mitigate GHG emissions. It is essential to develop integrated policies combining energy efficiency, renewable energy and material efficiency and material demand reduction, offering the most economically attractive way to realize deep reductions in carbon emissions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. ISES International Solar Energy Society working committee report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcastro, G.N.; De Lillo, A.; Messana, C.

    1993-01-01

    In Italy, the potential for photovoltaic power production has been estimated at about 40,000 billion kWh/year. Given that this nation's total power demand is about 200 billion kWh/year, it's obvious that even the limited use of this renewable energy source would significantly reduce national dependency on foreign energy supplies. In this context, this paper assesses the prospects for the development of photovoltaic energy in Italy. The various aspects covered include: the current level of technology and national manufacturing capabilities; planned R ampersand D investments to the year 2000; current and future solar cell and module efficiency levels; the most promising solar cell materials; photovoltaic equipment manufacturing costs; grid connected demonstration plants operating world-wide; photovoltaic power production costs; environmental impacts; world market structure and major manufacturers; suitable applications; and legislated Italian national development incentives

  15. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems { each facility uses from a few to several hundredsMW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifcations and feld lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy effciency of these plants are investigated in this work....... They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  16. MEASURES TO IMPROVE ENERGY EFFCIENCY PLATFORM OF A TOURISM COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. FELEA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency improvement program for an organization that consumes a significant amount of energy is an important document, both through fulfillment of obligations and especially through utility of identified measures on improving EnEF. and economic. After evoking the regulatory framework and the usefulness of this concerns, the paper presents the working methodology in making identifications MIEnEF for a TC and the results for Turism Felix.

  17. Panorama 2001 energy and petroleum, the new international deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document analyses the main events of the petroleum and gas industries, in year 2000. A great importance is given to the petroleum price which governs the industry activity. A second part deals with the impacts of exploration-production investments. The environmental impacts of the hydrocarbons consumption is also discussed with the analysis of the carbon dioxide emission and the associated climatic change. The green book on the energy supplying safety is presented and discussed as the forecasting scenario concerning the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy strategies for the world. A case for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with policy aspects on environmental protection. The conclusion of the paper goes on the cooperation between the Government and industry to lay the foundation for a common, cooperative energy future. To achieve security of energy supplies and environmental protection, there is a need of developing stable market and framework conditions. According to the author, a good example is development of gas where long term commercial relations are needed to develop production and markets. This should also be acknowledged by governments in their policy making

  19. Development of the precise measurement method for gamma-ray energy of neutron induced radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishikawa, Toshiaki; Uemura, Jitsuya

    1998-01-01

    Goal of the research is to develop a new energy calibration method to perform precise measurement of photon energy by gamma-ray spectrometry. Here, we regard reference standard energies to be those of photon of radioactive isotopes measured basing on a laser wavelength of 86 Kr (606 nm) together with energy-wavelength conversion factor E λ = 1.239 842 44 x 10 -6 eV m ±0.03 ppm (CODATA 1986). As such the reference standard we use 192 Ir isotope. Deviation of photon energy values between data obtained by photon spectrometry, i.e., the decay gamma-ray analysis and the prompt gamma-ray analysis with Ge or Ge(Li) detectors, and those obtained by crystal diffraction spectrometry, has led that the 'conventional' method of energy calibration for the photon spectrometry is not adequate to the precise energy assignment. A 'new' method has solved this problem by introducing the concept of an instrument function, which is the transfer function between an input signal-shape function and an output (measured) signal-shape function, as summarized in reference 1. Present status of photon energy values has been examined for the nuclear-decay gamma-rays, the nuclear excitation gamma-rays and the mesonic-atom X-rays. At the previous stage of research we evaluated that a commonly-used internal standard method, mainly used for activation analysis study, was inadequate for the precise measurement of photon energy, so far as we use base subtraction method. In the present study, we examined the cause of the inadequacy of a base-subtraction method for obtaining the photopeak line shape for the precise energy measurement. (author)

  20. Nuclear fission energy: the international scene and the outlook for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Because of concerns about the environment, energy security and energy costs, fission nuclear energy is gaining ground again around the world. In Italy, the research community can help relaunch the national nuclear programmes by providing advanced training, recruiting young engineers and researchers for RD activities, and furthering an immediate cooperation of the Italian system in the principal European and international projects on sustainable nuclear energy [it