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Sample records for internal dosimetry di

  1. Biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (CaDT) treated with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, Ana M.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana; Cabrejas, Raul C.

    2009-01-01

    The internal 131 I radiotherapy in patients with CaDT is used within the therapeutic scheme as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of therapy is to achieve a lethal dose in the tumor tissue without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues (doses greater than 2 Gy in bone marrow could lead to myelotoxicity). In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) for estimating doses to the whole body and bone marrow to administer a therapeutic personalized for each patient. The estimate biological dose is based in the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is referred to a dose-response curve. Objectives: 1) To estimate the absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I therapy in patients with CaDT, by applying three different cytogenetic tests: conventional cytogenetics, micronuclei (MN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2) Assess the correlation of the results obtained by DB and DI for personalization of treatment. Materials and methods: We evaluated 24 patients with CaDiT by applying the cytogenetic tests mentioned and internal dosimetry (methodology Mird-Olinda). Internal dosimetry: We administered a tracer dose 74 to 111 MBq. Measurements were made of activity in whole body and blood. By adjusting the scheme was estimated MIRD dose in bone marrow and the maximum therapeutic activity to manage and secure. Through software Olinda was determined absorbed dose to the whole body for each patient. We considered patient-specific data (physical frame size, weight, hematocrit) to adjust the methodology in each particular case. It is assumed that the tracer activity administered has a kinetic in the body similar to the 131 I to be administered in therapeutic amounts. Biology Dosimetry : We performed for each patient taking 2 sequential venous blood samples to estimate the dose due to therapeutic activity in review: the first shows, pre

  2. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  3. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  5. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  6. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  7. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  8. Internal radiation dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Lim, Sang Moo

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been continued for treatment of incurable diseases for past decades. Relevant evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide therapy in important to predict treatment output and essential for making treatment planning to prevent unexpected radiation toxicity. Many scientists in the field related with nuclear medicine have made effort to evolve concept and technique for internal radiation dosimetry. In this review, basic concept of internal radiation dosimetry if described and recent progress in method for dosimetry is introduced

  9. The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1985-04-01

    This document describes the contents of the second version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85), distributed by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This library superseded IRDF-82. (author)

  10. Radiation Litigation and Internal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Litigation refers to those lawsuits filed by individuals who claim to have been injured by some past exposure to ionizing radiation. Law classifies these cases as personal injury or tort cases. However, they are a new breed of such cases and the law is presently struggling with whether these cases can be resolved using the traditional methods of legal analysis or whether new forms of analysis, such as probability of causation, need to be applied. There are no absolutely certain rules concerning how these particular lawsuits will be tried and analyzed. The United States presently is defending cases filed by approximately 7000 plaintiffs. The private nuclear industry is defending cases filed by over 2000 plaintiffs. While not all of these cases will actually be tried on their merits, at least some will and internal dosimetry will play a very important part in many of these trials

  11. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  12. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  13. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  14. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  15. Long term nuclear data needs for internal radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is the principle source of nuclear data for internal radiation dosimetry and is, therefore, described briefly. Nuclear data needs and accuracy requirements for internal radiation dosimetry are summarized. Currently available sources of internal radiation dosimetry data are outlined and the need for traceability and documentation of these data is discussed. (author)

  16. Updating the INDAC computer application of internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Perez-Tinao, B.; Marchena Gonzalez, P.; Sollet Sanudo, E.; Serrano Calvo, E.

    2013-01-01

    The initial objective of this project is to expand the application INDAC currently used in internal dosimetry services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom for estimating the effective doses of internal dosimetry of workers in direct action. or in-vivo dosimetry. (Author)

  17. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  18. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program

  19. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee

  20. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  1. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  2. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.A. [RWE NUKEM Limited, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  3. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  4. Dosimetry of internal emitters - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.; Nagaratnam, A.; Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.; Mehta, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The dosimetry of internally administered radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures using MIRD formalisms and dosimetry in the case of intakes of radionuclides and ICRP methodology for the purpose of radiological protection are well established working practices. It should, however, be remembered that dose or dose coefficients calculated refer to a reference individual, defined in terms of a mathematical phantom established on the basis of certain biokinetic reference parameters. The reference individual represents a typical caucasian adult of West Europe or North American origin. Recently, some attempts have been made to define a Reference Asian and a Reference Indian individual and to assess the effects of anatomical differences and changes in the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals and other radionuclides in these different reference individuals on the estimation of dose and dose coefficients in relation to the intake of internal radionuclides. The assessment of doses to the embryo/fetus due to intake of radionuclides by pregnant women, local dose estimates, microdosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection aspects relating to Auger electron emitters represent other areas of active research in the area of dosimetry of internal emitters. The present review summarises these different aspects of work. (orig.) [de

  5. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  6. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  7. Internal dosimetry of polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.

    2007-01-01

    On November 1, 2006, former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. He died three weeks later, becoming the first known victim of lethal polonium-210 induced acute radiation syndrome. Po-210 is an alpha emitter and is not a radiological hazard as long as it remains outside the body. If taken into the body, much of Po-210 is subsequently excreted, mostly through faeces and some through urine and other pathways. After uptake by the blood, Po-210 is widely distributed through soft body tissues including bone marrow. The internal dose from polonium in the body gives rise to an increase in lifetime cancer risk. Very high radiation doses can cause severe damage to body tissues and organs and in the extreme can be fatal. The hazard function model was used to estimate the lethal levels of intake of Po-210. In case of Litvinenko the destruction of bone marrow and resulting failure of the immune system was most probably the main cause of death, likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs, including kidneys and liver. It was estimated that the ingestion of several hundreds MBq or just about a microgram of Po-210 can be lethal. (author)

  8. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  9. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  10. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): Internal Dosimetry Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostrotin, Vadim; Birchall, Alan; Zhdanov, Alexey; Puncher, Matthew; Efimov, Alexander; Napier, Bruce; Sokolova, Alexandra; Miller, Scott; Suslova, Klara

    2016-09-24

    The distribution of calculated internal doses was determined for 8043 Mayak Production Associate (Mayak PA) workers according to the epidemiological cohorts and groups of raw data used as well as the type of industrial compounds of inhaled aerosols. Statistical characteristics of point estimates of accumulated doses to 17 different tissues and organs and the uncertainty ranges were calculated. Under the MWDS-2013 dosimetry system, the mean accumulated lung dose was 185585 mGy, with a median value of 31 mGy and a maximum of 8980 mGy maximum. The ranges of relative standard uncertainty were: from 40 to 2200% for accumulated lung dose, from 25-90% to 2600-3000% for accumulated dose to different regions of respiratory tract, from 13-18% to 2300-2500% for systemic organs and tissues. The Mayak PA workers accumulated internal plutonium lung dose is shown to be close to lognormal. The accumulated internal plutonium dose to systemic organs was close to a log-triangle. The dependency of uncertainty of accumulated absorbed lung and liver doses on the dose estimates itself is also shown. The accumulated absorbed doses to lung, alveolar-interstitial region, liver, bone surface cells and red bone marrow, calculated both with MWDS-2013 and MWDS-2008 have been compared. In general, the accumulated lung doses increased by a factor of 1.8 in median value, while the accumulated doses to systemic organs decreased by factor of 1.3-1.4 in median value. For the cases with identical initial data, accumulated lung doses increased by a factor of 2.1 in median value, while accumulated doses to systemic organs decreased by 8-13% in median value. For the cases with both identical initial data and all of plutonium activity in urine measurements above the decision threshold, accumulated lung doses increased by a factor of 2.8 in median value, while accumulated doses to systemic organs increased by 6-12% in median value.

  11. Course on internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This documentation was distributed to the participants in the Course of Internal Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine organised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina and held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 9-13, 2004. The course was intended for people from IAEA Member States in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and for professionals and workers in medicine, related with the radiation protection. Spanish and English were the languages of the course. The following subjects were covered: radioprotection of the patient in nuclear medicine; injuries by ionizing radiations; MIRD methodology; radiation dose assessment in nuclear medicine; small scale and microdosimetry; bone and marrow dose modelling; medical internal dose calculations; SPECT and image reconstruction; principles of the gamma camera; scattering and attenuation correction in SPECT; tomography in nuclear medicine

  12. Internal Dosimetry for Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal dosimetry which refers to dosage estimation from internal part of an individual body is an important and compulsory component in order to ensure the safety of the personnel involved in operational of a Nuclear Power Program. Radionuclides particle may deposit in the human being through several pathways and release wave and/or particle radiation to irradiate that person and give dose to body until it been excreted or completely decayed from the body. Type of radionuclides of concerning, monitoring program, equipment's and technique used to measure the concentration level of such radionuclides and dose calculation will be discussed in this article along with the role and capability of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (author)

  13. Development of Probabilistic Internal Dosimetry Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Eun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai-Ki [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values (e.g. the 2.5{sup th}, 5{sup th}, median, 95{sup th}, and 97.5{sup th} percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various

  14. Development of probabilistic internal dosimetry computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values ( e.g. the 2.5th, 5th, median, 95th, and 97.5th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases of

  15. Internal dosimetry - its evolution and new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, Luiz

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some discussions on the developments and trends of metabolic models and dosimetry and their associated parameters, which have been adopted by ICRP to evaluate intakes of radionuclides

  16. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  17. GENMOD - A program for internal dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, D.W.; Johnson, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The computer code GENMOD was created to calculate the retention and excretion, and the integrated retention for selected radionuclides under a variety of exposure conditions. Since the creation of GENMOD new models have been developed and interfaced to GENMOD. This report describes the models now included in GENMOD, the dosimetry factors database, and gives a brief description of the GENMOD program

  18. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2009-09-24

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.( ) for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection and their Hanford Site contractors. The manual describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and the radiation protection programs of the Hanford Site contractors. Recommendations and guidance are also provided for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs.

  19. Internal dosimetry for occupationally exposed personnel in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.T.; Alfaro, L.M.M.; Angeles, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry plays an important role in nuclear medicine dosimetry control of personnel occupationally exposed, and that in recent years there has been a large increase in the use of radionuclides both in medical diagnosis as radiotherapy. But currently, in Mexico and in many parts of the world, this internal dosimetry control is not performed. The Instituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Nucleares de Mexico (ININ) together with the Centro Oncologico de Toluca (ISEMMYM) have developed a simple and feasible methodology for monitoring of personnel working in these facilities. It was aimed to carry out the dosimetry of the personnel, due to the incorporation of I-131, using the spectrometric devices that the hospital has, a gamma camera. The first step in this methodology was to make a thyroid phantom to meet the specifications of the ninth ANSI. This phantom is compared under controlled conditions with RMC- II phantom used for system calibration of the ININ internal dosimetry (ACCUSCAN - Ll), and with another phantom developed in Brazil with ANSI specifications, in order to determine the variations in measurements due to the density of the material of each of the phantoms and adjust to the system ACCUSCAN, already certificate. Furthermore, necessary counts were performed with the gamma camera of the phantom developed at ININ, with a standard source of 133 Ba which simulates the energy of 131 I. With these data, were determined the counting efficiencies for a distance of 15 to 20 cm between the surface of the phantom and the the plate of the detectors. Another important aspect was to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD). In this paper we present the results obtained from the detectors calibration of the gamma camera of the hospital.

  20. A molding technique for use in internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissi, A.; Tsakeres, F.S.; Poston, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for producing molds which can be used in the construction of volumetric organ dosimeters. These negative organ molds are formed by wrapping quick-setting plaster bandages around a silicon-treated hardwood organ mold. The cast is cut in two and after further setting time is ready to contain the tissue equivalent materials and thermoluminescent powders. Such volumetric dosimeters will be useful for comparing experimental and calculated internal dosimetry results. (U.K.)

  1. Organization of the internal dosimetry in the Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchena, P.; Soliet, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the beginning of the exploitation of the nuclear energy of Espanna, the nuclear facilities have had Services of Personal Dosimetry with the appropriate means to determine the dose. so much internal as external, of the personnel that mentioned facilities works. All the nuclear power stations use advanced systems of teams with object of detecting the radionuclides incorporation in the organism and calculation programs based on the recent recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the determination of the derived doses

  2. Answer to request on the ININ internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    1999-05-01

    In this report it is presented the reply to CNSNS asking for information about the methodology for the evaluation of the occupational dose due to internal contamination. The characteristics of the installation, type and dimensions of the shield room, construction materials, type of detecting, calibration geometries, type of used phantom, intervals of energy of the calibration, type of routine measurements, detection limit for Cs-137 and Co-60, code to carry out the analysis of the spectra, evaluation of the measurement data, whole body system type armchair with anthropomorphic phantom, whole body system of vertical scanning, distribution and location diagram of the internal dosimetry laboratory there are among the treated aspects. (Author

  3. Course of training in Specific internal dosimetry for the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Michelin, S.C.; Gomez P, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the experience obtained in a course organized in Argentina to qualify professionals in the radiopharmaceutical dosimetry using the methodology MIRD and the patient's images is presented. The motivation to carry out it was based on the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic purposes that makes necessary the knowledge of the distribution of the absorbed dose to be able to establish the dose-response relationship. The main objective was the study of the biokinetic model and those techniques available that starting from images can contribute information of specific parameters of the patient to calculate with more accuracy the doses in the tumor and in different organs. In the design of the program of this course it was considered to approach the different focuses for the calculation of specific dose of the patient and includes the following topics: the patient's radiological protection, new concepts in damages by radiations (bystander effect), methodology for the internal dosimetry by radiopharmaceuticals, dosimetric systems (MIRD/ICRP), revision of the physical phantoms, design of kinetic studies, compartmental models, calculation tools and the demonstration of the programs SAAM and OLINDA; calculation of activity starting from the patient's images (planar and SPECT). Principles of the gamma camera: the dispersed radiation, calculation of the activity with planar images, the attenuation, correction of the dispersed radiation, collimation problems. SPECT: the common method of reconstruction, basic principles, method of filtered over head projection and iterative methods (MLEM/OSEM), measurement of the attenuation maps, problems of the penetration in the collimator (I-131, I-123), effects of partial volume, incorporation of corrections in an iterative reconstruction. Dosimetry in bone marrow, discussion of study cases of new radiopharmaceuticals. Internal dosimetry in small scale for electrons and photons. Perspectives of the

  4. Internal dosimetry monitoring equipment: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Lynch, T.P.; Strom, D.J.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-09-01

    We have attempted to characterize the current and future status of in vivo and in vitro measurement programs coupled with the associated radioanalytical methods and workplace monitoring. Developments in these areas must be carefully integrated by internal dosimetrists, radiochemists and field health physicists. Their goal should be uniform improvement rather than to focus on one specific area (e.g., dose modeling) to the neglect of other areas where the measurement capabilities are substantially less sophisticated and, therefore, the potential source of error is greatest

  5. The use of Monte Carlo codes in internal dosimetry; Utilisation des codes de Monte Carlo en dosimetrie interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, M.; Coulot, J. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Service de Physique, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2003-07-01

    Internal dosimetry concerns the radiation sources inside human body. It contributes to determine the energy depositions in a living organism following the accidental or medical irradiation. In the case of an accidental irradiation, the aim is to evaluate the risk estimation; in the case of a medical use the dosimetry data are used in a radiation protection purpose. In any case, it is necessary to have references methods in order to know the dose absorbed bound to the radioactive product incorporation. Three levels have to be considered: the organ level in radiation protection, the cellular and tissue levels for application in radiotherapy. The analytical methods become rapidly difficult to use so the Monte Carlo methods give now a correct statistical precision. The advantages of this way of doing are developed in this article. (N.C.)

  6. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  7. Good practices in Taipower's internal dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.L.; Yeh, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and technical justifications for internal monitoring at Taipower. A 30% relative efficiency HPGe system with superior counting capabilities has been established for in-vivo bioassay applications. The interference from other photopeaks in spectrum can be eliminated and the system stability can be ensured. In order to solve the bottleneck of whole body counting during the peak period of outage, a fast in-vivo system was designed the stand up linear geometry counter with control analysis software, to ascertain whether the subject was contaminated or not and finished the identification within one minute. It was also derived a quick methodology, to separate respirable from non-respirable particulates and obtain the reasonable committed effective dose equivalent, by assuming each counting variance be proportional to its expected value. 6 refs., 1 fig

  8. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  9. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  10. Workshop on internal dosimetry in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gómez Parada, I.; Gossio, S.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Saavedra, A.D.; Segato, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. In the case of workers exposed in nuclear fuel facilities, the normal uranium excretion from the diet is an additional difficulty in the process of assessing internal exposure. The aim of this paper is to present the main topics discussion and the conclusions of the workshop, held in the frame of the missions of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear. All the personnel involved in the control of internal exposure in nuclear fuel cycle was invited to participate in the workshop to discuss about individual monitoring criteria and the available tools for assessing committed effective dose in the workers of their facilities. The lectures were presented jointly by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities Control and the Dosimetric and Radiobiological Assessment departments. It was hold at the Ezeiza Atomic Center from 23th to 24th November 2010 based on the Advanced Course on Internal Dosimetry organized on 2009 and focusing specific uranium compound internal dosimetry. A representative of each facility was invited to present the monitoring program implemented for controlling the internal exposure. It was an opportunity to discuss criteria and to share experiences on this field in the frame of the ICRP, HPA and ISO publications. The different monitoring program criteria could be analyzed and so contributing to the improvement of radiological protection. Finally, it was agreed to hold periodical meetings to assure the update on uranium measurement techniques and the handling of monitoring data for committed effective dose assessment. (authors) [es

  11. Sixth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.-Stelson, A.T. [ed.] [comp.; Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B. [eds.; Smith, F.B. [comp.

    1999-01-01

    This conference was held May 7--10 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Attention is focused on the following: quantitative analysis and treatment planning; cellular and small-scale dosimetry; dosimetric models; radiopharmaceutical kinetics and dosimetry; and animal models, extrapolation, and uncertainty.

  12. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  13. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Over the last few years the Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP on Internal Dosimetry (INDOS), in conjunction with the Task Group on Dose Calculations (DOCAL), has prepared a series of publications that have given dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by infants, children and adults. The most recent publications have been Publication 88 that gives doses to the embryo, fetus and newborn child from intakes of radionuclides by the mother and Publication 94 that will give doses to the newborn child from intakes of radionuclides in mothers' milk. These documents have completed the programme of work of Committee 2 on dose coefficients for members of the public. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry by Committee 2 is now concerned with occupational exposure. This is will take into account recent advice from ICRP, including the new 2005 Recommendations of ICRP which are expected to provide revised tissue weighting factors for the calculation of effective dose. In addition ICRP has issued Publication 89 on Basic Anatomical and Physiological Data for use in Radiological Protection and in addition will have published a new Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM). It will have implemented a human phantom for dose calculations based upon medical imaging data and updated radionuclide decay data; superseding Publication 38. In addition, the systemic models for a number of elements are being revised to take account of more recent data, and the lung clearance characteristics of a wide range of compounds relevant to occupational exposure are being reviewed. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. This series will cover both dosimetry and data for bioassay interpretation. The first report will cover radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in the series of

  14. Validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M. de las M.

    2014-10-01

    People working with radioactive materials, under certain circumstances (e.g. not using the proper protective equipment, an incident not covered, etc.) could be incorporated into the body. The radiation protection programs include direct measurement methods -in vivo- or indirect -in vitro- or both, to know that radioactive material is incorporated into the body. The monitoring measurements of internal contamination or (Radio-bioassay) are carried out with the purpose of determining the amount of radioactive material incorporated in the body; estimate the effective dose and committed dose; management administration of radiation protection; appropriate medical management; and to provide the data necessary for the legal requirements and the preservation of records. The measurement methods used in the monitoring of internal contamination must be validated by the combination of the following processes: calibration, using standards reference materials and/or simulators; execute systematic research, using control samples; and intercomparison between laboratories and performance tests. In this paper the validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo are presented following the information provided by the standard ANSI N13-30-1996 and ISO/TEC 17025-2005 as are the criteria of facilities, staff training, interpretation of measurements, performance criteria for monitoring of internal contamination in vivo, results reporting and records retention. Thereby we achieve standardized quantitative performance criteria of truthfulness, accuracy and detection limit and a consensus on statistical definitions to establish the validation plan of a monitoring laboratory of internal contamination in vivo. (Author)

  15. Personalized dosimetry in internal radiotherapy with the help of voxelised phantoms; Dosimetrie personnalisee en radiotherapie interne a l'aide de fantomes voxelises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S.; Bardies, M.; Martin, S.; Aubineau-Laniece, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPHD/SDOS/LEMDI), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this communication is to present a evaluation tool of the personalised internal dose that associated a Monte Carlo code to a voxelised representation of the patient for a personalised dosimetry evaluation in vectorized radiotherapy. the developments realised to reach a whole body dosimetry at tissue scale in a reasonable calculation time ( about a day) and some functionalities of the software are exposed. (N.C.)

  16. Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Stokke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. Results A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Conclusions Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  17. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives; Primo interconfronto italiano sulle metodiche di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna: risultati e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati delle valutazioni di Intake e di equivalente di dose nei centri MIDIA (coordinamento dei WBC operanti in Italia) per effettuare un interconfronto sui metodi di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna utilizzando casi di studio reperiti in ambiente europeo. Vengono indicate le prospettive per la valutazione della qualita' della stima di dose in dosimetria interna.

  18. Current internal-dosimetry practices at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Murphy, B.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1985-04-01

    The internal dosimetry practice at DOE facilities were characterized. The purpose was to determine the size of the facilities' internal dosimetry programs, the uniformity of the programs among the facilities, and the areas of greatest concern to health physicists in providing and reporting accurate estimates of internal radiation dose and in meeting proposed changes in internal dosimetry. The differences among the internal-dosimetry programs are related to the radioelements in use at each facility and, to some extent, the number of workers at each facility. The differences include different frequencies in the use of quality control samples, different minimum detection levels, different methods of recording radionuclides, different amounts of data recorded in the permanent record, and apparent differences in modeling the metabolism of radionuclides within the body. Recommendations for improving internal-dosimetry practices include studying the relationship between air-monitoring/survey readings and bioassay data, establishing uniform methods for recording bioassay results, developing more sensitive direct-bioassay procedures, establishing a mechanism for sharing information on internal-dosimetry procedures among DOE facilities, and developing mathematical models and interactive computer codes that can help quantify the uptake of radioactive materials and predict their distribution in the body. 19 refs., 8 tabs

  19. International cooperation within the IRCP using the example of internal dosimetry; Internationale Zusammenarbeit innerhalb der ICRP am Beispiel der internen Dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosske, Dietmar

    2017-10-01

    IRCP is working since decades in the field of internal dosimetry and defines limiting values for occupational exposed persons, individuals in the population and patients in the diagnostic nuclear medicine that are worldwide included in the national and international radiation protection regulations. The effort to be as realistic as possible is producing continuously more complex models. This fact is delaying the respective values and aggravates the application of the models. In order to facilitate the application other institutions like EURADOS (European radiation dosimetry group) generate appropriate guidelines. Cooperation is taking place between ISRP and the respective institutions.

  20. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  1. Proceedings of the V. international symposium 'Actual problems of dosimetry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Okeanov, A.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.

    2005-10-01

    The main topics of the workshop were: monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects as well as normative, metrological and technical aspects of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring

  2. International beta-dosimetry symposium. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Abstracts of the presentations at the symposium are contained in this volume. Problems associated with beta dosimetry, beta detectors and dosemeters, and current development programs are described. Each abstract has been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  4. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-07-01

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  5. Personalized dosimetry in internal radiotherapy with the help of voxelised phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.; Bardies, M.; Martin, S.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to present a evaluation tool of the personalised internal dose that associated a Monte Carlo code to a voxelised representation of the patient for a personalised dosimetry evaluation in vectorized radiotherapy. the developments realised to reach a whole body dosimetry at tissue scale in a reasonable calculation time ( about a day) and some functionalities of the software are exposed. (N.C.)

  6. Harmonization of internal dosimetry procedures in Latin America - ARCAL/IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.; Dantas, B.M.; Juliao, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - Av. Salvador Allende S/N, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, RJ 22780-160 (Brazil); Cruz Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Rojo, A.; Serdero, N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Videla, R. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Puerta, J.A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, G. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Gonzales, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Montevideo (Uruguay); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediciones Ambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Under the auspices of the Regional Coordination Agreement for Latin America, representatives of the eight member states have participated in a project to improve radiological protection for workers exposed to unsealed sources of radiation. The design of the project was based on information obtained from a questionnaire circulated among the participants, from which the initial status of internal dosimetry services in each country was characterised. The objective of the project is to harmonize internal dosimetry procedures, with reference to International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations. After the implementation of new procedures and personnel training, four intercomparison exercises were carried out: measurement of iodine in thyroid phantoms, measurement of gamma emitters in urine samples, measurement of beta emitters in urine samples and internal dose assessments. This project has resulted in important improvements in internal dosimetry services in the region. (authors)

  7. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Corporate Radiation Safety and Dangerous Goods Transport, Munich (Germany); Nosske, D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on

  8. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, K.; Nosske, D.

    2006-01-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on the

  9. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  10. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  11. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry - scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-03-16

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in

  12. Results of the argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry 2014. Measurement of thyroid burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the capability to perform direct measurements of “1”3”1I thyroid burden and the expertise in the interpretation of these data for dose assessment. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. The exercise counted with the participation of six internal dosimetry services: nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE), CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE), Roffo Institute (UBA – CNEA) and ARN. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  13. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Pomroy, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author)

  14. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  15. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-09-01

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  16. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  17. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  18. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  19. True dose from incorporated activities. Models for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Eschner, W.; Nosske, D.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of doses after incorporation of radionuclides cannot use direct measurements of the doses, as for example dosimetry in external radiation fields. The only observables are activities in the body or in excretions. Models are used to calculate the doses based on the measured activities. The incorporated activities and the resulting doses can vary by more than seven orders of magnitude between occupational and medical exposures. Nevertheless the models and calculations applied in both cases are similar. Since the models for the different applications have been developed independently by ICRP and MIRD different terminologies have been used. A unified terminology is being developed. (orig.)

  20. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: Part 2, final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Onori, S.; Bayankin, S. N.; Brik, A.; Bugay, A.; Chumak, V.; Ciesielski, B.; Hoshi, M.; Imata, H.; Ivannikov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Junczewska, M.; Miyazawa, C.; Penkowski, M.; Pivovarov, S.; Romanyukha, A.; Romanyukha, L.; Schauer, D.; Scherbina, O.; Schultka, K.; Sholom, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Thomas, J. A.; Tielewuhan, E.; Toyoda, S.; Trompier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation. (authors)

  1. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 2: Internal radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to internal radiations (including radon decay products). (author)

  2. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  3. Progetto EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetria per terapie ultrasonore. Confronto tra metodi di misura - EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetry for ultrasound therapy. Intercomparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Durando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La mancanza di una definizione della dose ultrasonora rende di fatto impossibile la valutazione della più appropriata “quantità” energia ceduta ai tessuti dal fascio ultrasonoro emesso da un trasduttore durante una terapia. Il progetto di ricerca “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy”, finanziato dal programma di ricerca EURAMET EMRP, aveva tra i suoi principali obiettivi, oltre al confronto interlaboratorio che validasse le capacità metrologiche dei laboratori partecipanti, la ricerca della definizione di dose ultrasonora che consentisse la definizione di un piano terapeutico specifico per ogni paziente. ------ Standardized and traceable dose has not yet been developed for medical ultrasound applications. This means that the ‘amount’ of ultrasound required for a particular therapy cannot be calculated and that the ‘amount’ actually delivered quantified. The aim of EURAMET EMRP project “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy” project was developing the metrological infrastructure (definitions, validated measurement and modelling methods which underpins the specification of dose for therapeutic ultrasound applications allowing appropriate treatment planning and risk assessment.

  4. Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, PNNL-MA-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Hill, Robin L.

    2009-09-30

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (HIDP) provides internal dosimetry support services for operations at the Hanford Site. The HIDP is staffed and managed by the Radiation and Health Technology group, within the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Operations supported by the HIDP include research and development, the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities formerly used to produce and purify plutonium, and waste management activities. Radioelements of particular interest are plutonium, uranium, americium, tritium, and the fission and activation product radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co. This manual describes the technical basis for the design of the routine bioassay monitoring program and for assessment of internal dose. The purposes of the manual are as follows: • Provide assurance that the HIDP derives from a sound technical base. • Promote the consistency and continuity of routine program activities. • Provide a historical record. • Serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel. • Aid in identifying and planning for future needs.

  5. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert TM USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  6. Internal dosimetry for radioembolization therapy with Yttrium-90 microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpoor, Maryam; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Parach, Ali Asghar; Kalantari, Faraz

    2017-03-01

    The absorbed doses in the liver and adjacent viscera in Yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy for metastatic liver lesions are not well-documented. We sought for a clinically practical way to determine the dosimetry of this advent treatment. Six different female XCAT BMIs and seven different male XCAT BMIs were generated. Using Monte Carlo GATE code simulation, the total of 100MBq 90 Y was deposited uniformly in the source organ, liver. Self-irradiation and absorbed doses in lung, kidney and bone marrow were calculated. The mean energy of Yittrium-90 (i.e., 0.937 MeV) was used. The S-values and equivalent doses in target organs were estimated. The dose absorbed in the liver was between 84 and 53 Gy and below the target of 80 to 150 Gy. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow, lungs, and kidneys are very low and below 0.1 , 0.4, and 0.5 Gy respectively. Our study indicates that larger activities than the conventional dose of 3 GBq may be both required and safe. Further confirmations in clinical settings are needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences

  8. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of

  9. Internal in vitro dosimetry for fish using hydroxyapatite-based EPR detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, D.V. [Urals Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shishkina, E.A.; Osipov, D.I.; Pryakhin, E.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Razumeev, R.A. [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    A number of aquatic ecosystems were exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the activities of the Mayak Production Association in the Southern Urals, former Soviet Union, in the 1950s. Currently, fishes inhabiting contaminated lakes are being actively studied. These investigations need dosimetric support. In the present paper the results of a pilot study for elaborating an EPR dosimeter which can be used for internal dosimetry in vitro are described. Biological hydroxyapatite is proposed here to be used as a detecting substance. More specifically, small hydroxyapatite grains are proposed for use as point detectors fixed in a solid matrix. After having been pelletized, the detectors were covered by Mylar and placed in the body of a fish to be stored in the fridge for several months. Application of the detectors for internal fish dosimetry demonstrated that the enamel sensitivity is sufficient for passive detection of ionizing radiation in fishes inhabiting contaminated lakes in the Southern Urals. (orig.)

  10. Update of computer applications associated to measuring equipment of the services of internal dosimetry of NPPS and Tecnatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, B.; Sollet, E.; Serrano, E.

    2014-01-01

    Within the continuous improvement processes that take place in all the activities taking place in the Spanish nuclear power plants, and as a result of implementation of ISO Standards for Internal Dosimetry, has undertaken a review, improvement and updating INDAC ALEDIN and applications associated with measuring equipment and DIYs Quicky kind Personal Internal Dosimetry Services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom This paper presents updates capacities both tools. (Author)

  11. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  12. Direct internal dosimetry. A new way for routine incorporation monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The INDOS detector system offers the following advantages with respect to routine incorporation monitoring: The measurement is performed automatically and there is no need for trained staff. The measuring time is short and thus a relative large number of persons may be monitored with a relative high measuring frequency. First estimates of the individual effective dose equivalent rate are available immediately after the measurement. 1) The direct determination of the dose equivalent in principle is more precise than the conventional procedures for internal dosimetry, because (i) the retention of radionuclides in the body may be measured explicitly and (ii) the dependence of the dose equivalent on the body proportions is corrected implicitly. 2) The measuring procedure is comparable to the external dosimetry with respect to accuracy and lower limit of detection. Thus, the results of internal and external dosimetry can be summed up in an easy and reasonable manner. 3) The detector system can be installed in any building; it also can be installed as a mobile unit in a car or a container for long distance transportation by aircraft or train. 4) Last but not least, the cost for monitoring with INDOS is much lower than for the conventional monitoring procedures using whole body counters. (author)

  13. Monte Carlo and experimental internal radionuclide dosimetry in RANDO head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, Ruhollah; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Parach, Ali Asghar; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Momennezhad Mehdi; Davenport, David

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are widely employed in internal dosimetry to obtain better estimates of absorbed dose distributions from irradiation sources in medicine. Accurate 3D absorbed dosimetry would be useful for risk assessment of inducing deterministic and stochastic biological effects for both therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate the use of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package for 3D internal dosimetry using the head portion of the RANDO phantom. GATE package (version 6.1) was used to create a voxel model of a human head phantom from computed tomography (CT) images. Matrix dimensions consisted of 319 × 216 × 30 voxels (0.7871 × 0.7871 × 5 mm 3 ). Measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). One rod-shaped source with 94 MBq activity of 99m Tc was positioned in the brain tissue of the posterior part of the human head phantom in slice number 2. The results of the simulation were compared with measured mean absorbed dose per cumulative activity (S value). Absorbed dose was also calculated for each slice of the digital model of the head phantom and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each slice from the simulation data. The S-values calculated by GATE and TLD methods showed a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, r 2 ≥ 0.99, p < 0.05) with each other. The maximum relative percentage differences were ≤14 % for most cases. DVHs demonstrated dose decrease along the direction of movement toward the lower slices of the head phantom. Based on the results obtained from GATE Monte Carlopackage it can be deduced that a complete dosimetry simulation study, from imaging to absorbed dose map calculation, is possible to execute in a single framework.

  14. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  15. Answer to request on the ININ internal dosimetry; Respuesta a encuesta sobre dosimetria interna del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-05-15

    In this report it is presented the reply to CNSNS asking for information about the methodology for the evaluation of the occupational dose due to internal contamination. The characteristics of the installation, type and dimensions of the shield room, construction materials, type of detecting, calibration geometries, type of used phantom, intervals of energy of the calibration, type of routine measurements, detection limit for Cs-137 and Co-60, code to carry out the analysis of the spectra, evaluation of the measurement data, whole body system type armchair with anthropomorphic phantom, whole body system of vertical scanning, distribution and location diagram of the internal dosimetry laboratory there are among the treated aspects. (Author.

  16. The establishment of Chinese pregnant woman model and application on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Changran; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Feida; Liu Yunpeng; Ding Ding; Xie Qin

    2012-01-01

    This paper present the construction of a radiation stylized pregnant phantom with Chinese physiological feature. Also the calculation of specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were performed with the dosimetry schema developed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. A Monte Carlo user code was used to simulate internal photon emitters ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV. SAF values of kidney to kidney and kidney to fetus were calculated and compared with previous data derived from ORNL phantoms. (authors)

  17. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  18. Internal dosimetry data and methods of ICRP. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Bernard, S.R.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology being used to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report of Committee 2, ICRP Publication 2 on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation, is described. The system of differential equations, which is used to calculate the cumulated activity in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, other body organs, and the transfer compartment of reference man, is presented. These equations describe the physical decay and metabolism of a radionuclide as governed by the lung and gastrointestinal tract models adopted by Committee 2 from models developed for the ICRP. The equations also take into account organ uptake and retention following intake into blood and the contribution of activity from radioactive daughter nuclides. Additionally, the scheme for estimating the dose from immersion in a radioactive cloud and the scheme for computing the nuclear decay data needed for all of the dose computations are presented. In computing the immersion dose, estimates for both the infinite and the finite cloud are considered

  19. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  20. Calliope: a new educational tool in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Berard, Ph.; Perrin, M.L.; Malarbet, J.L.; Roy, M.; Metivier, H.; Lirsac, P.N.; Gibert, B.

    1999-01-01

    The surveillance face to the internal contamination risk obliges to control several evaluation means as per understanding of models of dose calculation recommended by the ICRP. This educational tool CALLIOPE presented under compact disc (CD ROM) informs the professionals and the future actors of radiation protection. This information source allows the application of the new European Directive in the respect of new limits. Then, this tool must help to validate approaches employed by dose calculation computer code for estimation. (N.C.)

  1. Current trends on internal dosimetry for patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gisone, P.A.; Kunst, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The associated risk-benefit analyses in nuclear medicine implicitly performed by the clinician have been straightforward. Relatively low administered activity activities yield important diagnostic information, the benefit of which far outweigh any potential risk associated with the attendant normal tissue radiation doses. Such small risk to benefit ratios have been very forgiving of possible inaccuracies in dose estimates. With the ongoing development of new radiopharmaceutical and the increasing therapeutic application of internal radionuclides, radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine continues to evolve from population- and organ-average to patient-specific dose estimation. Patient-specific dosimetry refers to the estimation of radiation dose to tissues of a specific-patients based on their individual body and measured biokinetics rather than an average anthropomorphic model and hypothetic kinetic. The importance of dosimetry specific-patient considers to avoid the risk of an unsuitable treatment and/or with probability of damage to the patient. This is illustrated by the dosimetric approaches to radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. The most common prescription algorithm to fix the activity administered to a hyperthyroid patient does not consider individual parameters that are highly variable (thyroid uptake, biological half-life, thyroid mass). Its arbitrary approach doesn't permit individually optimized therapy and it may be inappropriate and even hazardous. (author)

  2. IDEAS international contamination database: a compilation of published internal contamination cases. A tool for the internal dosimetry community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data. The project was divided into 5 Work Packages for the major tasks. Work Package 1 entitled Collection of incorporation cases was devoted to the collection of data by means of bibliographic research (survey of the open literature), contacting and collecting data from specific organisations and using information from existing databases on incorporation cases. To ensure that the guidelines would be applicable to a wide range of practical situations, a database of cases of internal contamination including monitoring data suitable for dose assessment was compiled. The IDEAS Bibliography database and the IDEAS Internal Contamination database were prepared and some reference cases were selected for use in Work Package 3. The other Work packages of the IDEAS Project (WP-2 Preparation of evaluation software, WP-3 Evaluation of incorporation cases, WP-4 Development of the general guidelines and WP-5 Practical testing of general guidelines) have been described in detail elsewhere and can be found on the IDEAS website. A search for reference from the open literature, which contained information on cases of internal contamination from which intake and committed doses could be assessed, has been compiled into a database. The IDEAS Bibliography Database includes references to papers which might (but were not certain to) contain such information, or which included references to papers which contained such information. This database contains the usual bibliographical information: authors' name(s), year of publication, title of publication and the journal or report number. Up to now, a comprehensive Bibliography Database containing 563 references has been compiled. Not surprisingly more than half of the references are from Health Physics and Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journals.The next step was for the partners of the IDEAS project to obtain the references

  3. The need for international standardization in clinical beta dosimetry for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, U.; Boehm, J.; Kaulich, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Beta radiation has found increasing interest in radiotherapy. Besides the curative treatment of small and medium-sized intraocular tumors by means of ophthalmic beta radiation plaques, intravascular brachytherapy has proven to successfully overcome the severe problem of restenosis after interventional treatment of arterial stenosis in coronaries and peripheral vessels in many clinical trials with a large number of patients. Prior to initiating procedures applying beta radiation in radiotherapy, however, there is a common need to specify methods for the determination and specification of the absorbed dose to water or tissue and their spatial distributions. The IAEA-TECDOC-1274 Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy (2002) is a help for photon brachytherapy calibration. But, for beta seed and line sources, IAEA recommends well type ionization chambers as working standards which are far from measuring absorbed dose to water of the radiation clinically used. Although the application of such working standards seems to be more precise, large errors can occur when the medical physicist has to convert the calibration data to absorbed dose to water of the beta radiation emitted. The user must believe that the source is equally activated and that the manufacturer did not change the design and construction of the source encapsulation. With the DGMP Report 16 (2001) Guidelines for medical physical aspects of intravascular brachytherapy a very detailed code of practice is given, especially for the calibration and clinical dosimetry of intravascular beta radiation sources. As there is a global need for standardization in clinical dosimetry for intravascular brachytherapy utilizing beta radiation, the DIN-NAR, the German committee on standardization in radiology, task group dosimetry, has initiated an international adhoc working group for a new ISO work item proposal on the standardization of procedures in clinical dosimetry to guarantee reliable

  4. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5 fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Schlesinger, T.

    1980-01-01

    18 F-5-fluorouracil is currently used in a few nuclear centers as a diagnostic aid in predicting response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The advantage of this radiopharmaceutical, which has a radionuclide with a short physical half-life (tsub(1/2) = 110 minutes), in addition to its permitting a non-invasive diagnostic technique is balanced by the fact that high doses of the drug must be administered in order to obtain a good scan 12 hours after its administration. This is the optimal time for obtaining a high tumor:blood ratio and involves doses of up to 20 mCi of the drug injected intravenously as a bolus. Assuming the same distribution of the label in humans as in the investigated rat models, we calculated the radiation-dose to the various organs in millirad per mCi injected, according to the MIRD system. This was estimated to 12 main target organs of a reference-man, as if injected with 18 F-5-fluorouracil. The organs are: liver, muscle, kidneys, blood, bone, lungs, pancreas, spleen, heart, genitals, thyroid and adrenals. The calculated values suggest that diagnostic doses of up to 20 mCi 18 F-5-fluorouracil emit internal absorbed radiation which is within the doses experienced in similar procedures of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  5. Update Dosimetry Service internal staff Tecnatom; Actualizacion del servicio de dosimetria personal interna de TECNATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.; Alonso, A.; Navarro, E.; Serrano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The beginning of decommissioning of nuclear facilities and other industrial national context conditions have been a very significant increase in the need for such services, which have been almost overwhelmed by the demand. To provide a solution to this situation, Tecnatom decided to run as a new internal dosimetry service indirect measures to complement its renowned capabilities of direct measures. To perform this task, Tecnatom has signed a collaboration agreement with the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of Geocisa, all with the objective of characterizing contamination by alpha emitters or beta different analytical techniques.

  6. WE-H-207A-07: Image-Based Versus Atlas-Based Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is known as the gold standard method for internal dosimetry. It requires radionuclide distribution from PET or SPECT and body structure from CT for accurate dose calculation. The manual or semi-automatic segmentation of organs from CT images is a major obstacle. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results based on patient’s own CT and a digital humanoid phantom as an atlas with pre-specified organs. Methods: SPECT-CT images of a 50 year old woman who underwent bone pain palliation with Samarium-153 EDTMP for osseous metastases from breast cancer were used. The anatomical date and attenuation map were extracted from SPECT/CT and three XCAT digital phantoms with different BMIs (i.e. matched (38.8) and unmatched (35.5 and 36.7) with patient’s BMI that was 38.3). Segmentation of patient’s organs in CT image was performed using itk-SNAP software. GATE MC Simulator was used for dose calculation. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and S-values were calculated for the segmented organs. Results: The differences between SAFs and S-values are high using different anatomical data and range from −13% to 39% for SAF values and −109% to 79% for S-values in different organs. In the spine, the clinically important target organ for Samarium Therapy, the differences in the S-values and SAF values are higher between XCAT phantom and CT when the phantom with identical BMI is employed (53.8% relative difference in S-value and 26.8% difference in SAF). However, the whole body dose values were the same between the calculations based on the CT and XCAT with different BMIs. Conclusion: The results indicated that atlas-based dosimetry using XCAT phantom even with matched BMI for patient leads to considerable errors as compared to image-based dosimetry that uses the patient’s own CT Patient-specific dosimetry using CT image is essential for accurate results.

  7. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  8. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60 Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose

  9. Assessment of breathing rate of adult Korean for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, Y.W.; Kim, C.S.; Lee, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Breathing rate is one of the key factors in evaluating doses due to inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Since the reference values of breathing rate provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based on the physiology of Caucasian, they are not necessarily appropriate for internal dosimetry for Korean. In this study, we assessed breathing rate of Korean by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in second (FEV1) and the minute ventilation(MV). Measurements were made using SP-1 spirometry unit (Schiller AG. 1998) for 1474 adult Koreans whose heights and weights are in the range of one standard deviation from the mean values. The total liters of air breathed for working and resting were evaluated after the ICRP approach. We also considered smoking and ailment in the lungs. The resulting breathing rate appears to be 2.3x10 4 L/day which well agrees with the value given in ICRP 23

  10. MIRD pamphlet No. 23: quantitative SPECT for patient-specific 3-dimensional dosimetry in internal radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Frey, Eric C; Sgouros, George; Brill, A Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-08-01

    In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification-based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry.

  11. Patient-Specific Internal Dosimetry Protocol for 131 treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, Ana M.; Llina Fuentes, C.S.; Cabrejas, Mariana L.; Cabrejas, R.; Fadel, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The most effective treatment against Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC), in its most frequently types: papillar and follicular, is the administration of radioiodine. As a result of a multidisciplinary work, a dosimetrical protocol for radiological protection purpose has been developed that suggests the standards and formalisms for the determination of absorbed doses due to the administration of 131 I activity to DTC patients. This dosimetrical protocol takes into account individual data of each patient (age, gender, the presence or absence of metastases, physiology, physiopathology, biochemical parameters) and involves clinical aspects, the equipment that should be used and the dose assessment procedure of each treatment. Based on the Medical Internal radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme and considering the major critical organs for this therapy, the dosimetrical protocol states the 'how-to' of the following procedures, in adults and paediatric cases: 1) estimation of the red marrow dose (with/without bone metastases) to avoid mielotoxicity (200 cGy); 2) Estimation of the retention / dose rate / dose in lungs after 48 hours from the administration of radioiodine to avoid lung fibrosis; 3) Estimation of the testes dose in young male patients to avoid oligospermia; 4) Estimation of the maximum activity which can be safely administered without damaging the most critical organ for each patient; and 5) Acquisition of images and retention data from patients. This dosimetrical protocol also specifies the requirements and basic steps that should be followed, the essential information, the complementary studies and the basic equipment required to perform an appropriate internal dosimetry evaluation. To be fully implemented, the dosimetrical protocol needs the constitution of a multidisciplinary team including physicians, medical physicists and technicians. Clear instructions should be provided to the patient as his full collaboration is essential. Even though empirical

  12. The 4th international comparison on EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, P., E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg D-85764 (Germany); Adolfsson, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Benevides, L.A. [Naval Dosimetry Center, Bethesda MD 20889-5600 (United States); Brai, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Callens, F. [Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chumak, V. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS, 04050 Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Regina Elena Institute, I-00144 Rome (Italy); Emerich, K. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland); Gustafsson, H. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hirai, Y. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732-0815 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Israelsson, A. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Kaminska, J. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Ke, Wu [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Lund, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Marrale, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the 4th International Comparison of in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, where the performance parameters of tooth enamel dosimetry methods were compared among sixteen laboratories from all over the world. The participating laboratories were asked to determine a calibration curve with a set of tooth enamel powder samples provided by the organizers. Nine molar teeth extracted following medical indication from German donors and collected between 1997 and 2007 were prepared and irradiated at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen. Five out of six samples were irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Gy air kerma; and one unirradiated sample was kept as control. The doses delivered to the individual samples were unknown to the participants, who were asked to measure each sample nine times, and to report the EPR signal response, the mass of aliquots measured, and the parameters of EPR signal acquisition and signal evaluation. Critical dose and detection limit were calculated by the organizers on the basis of the calibration-curve parameters obtained at every laboratory. For calibration curves obtained by measuring every calibration sample three times, the mean value of the detection limit was 205 mGy, ranging from 56 to 649 mGy. The participants were also invited to provide the signal response and the nominal dose of their current dose calibration curve (wherever available), the critical dose and detection limit of which were also calculated by the organizers.

  13. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  14. PENGELOLAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYPT GRASADA INTERNATIONAL DI KABUPATEN PANGKEPPENGELOLAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYPT GRASADA INTERNATIONAL DI KABUPATEN PANGKEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaf Annur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the management of Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR PT Grasada International in Pangkep . CSR management is a corporate social responsibility to the community and environment in which it operates . The method used in this research is mixed method with observational data collection techniques ; survey and interview . The results showed the implementation of corporate social responsibility has been running well ; ranging from environmental development program ; namely repair and maintenance of roads for farmers ; repair bridges and cliffs smoothing used for the construction of houses around . The field of education is to give assistance to children whose school students in elementary and junior high schools in the form of stationery and uniforms social humanitarian and religious never implemented but is not performing well.     Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengelolaan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR PT Grasada International di Kabupaten Pangkep.Pengelolaan CSR merupakan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan kepada masyarakat dan lingkungan dimana perusahaan itu beroperasi.Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitumixed method dengan teknik pengumpulan data observasi, survey serta wawancara.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pelaksanaan Corporate social responsibility ini sudah berjalan dengan baik, mulai dari program bina lingkungan yaitu perbaikan dan perawatan jalan untuk petani, perbaikan jembatan serta perataan tebing yang digunakan untuk pembangunan rumah sekitar.Bidang pendidikan yaitu memberikan bantuan kepada anak-anak siswa siswi yang sekolah di SD dan SMP berupa alat tulis dan baju seragam  sosial kemanusiaan dan keagamaan pernah dilaksanakan namun tidak terlaksana dengan baik.

  15. Results of the Argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2014. Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of four internal dosimetry services from the nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE) and the CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE). This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  16. History of International Workshop on Mini-Micro- and Nano- Dosimetry (MMND) and Innovation Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Zaider, Marco; Yamada, Josh; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The biannual MMND (former MMD) - IPCT workshops was founded in collaboration between the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001 and has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced quality assurance (QA) dosimetry technology for radiation therapy and space science, as well as advanced technologies for clinical cancer treatment.

  17. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  18. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125 ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131 I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I were considered. (author)

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

  20. Our experience in the novel, safe delivery and Internal dosimetry aspects of radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanesan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine radionuclide therapy is rapidly developing as an additional treatment modality in oncology. Its unique characteristics are the systemic, yet selective delivery of radiation doses in target tissues, its non-invasiveness, the relative lack of immediate and late side effects, and the advantage that uptake and retention in the tumor can be pre-assessed by tracer studies. Many different tumor-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are being used for therapy by different routes and a variety of targeting mechanisms. Our current, safe method of delivery of radio nuclide therapy is presented, as well as more general aspects and considerations, such as mechanisms for transport, storage and the choice of shielding and radiation protection to staff in general are covered. The method of internal dosimetry for Nuclear Medicine radionuclide therapy will be presented as well. (author)

  1. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  2. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  3. Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.A.; Pereztol, O.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Alvarez, I.; Fraxedas, R.; Mesa, G.; Rodriguez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted on evaluating the Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc. In the dosimetry studies and biodistribution five healthy volunteers were included and in the pharmacokinetic studies five patients were included with less than 5% of probability of suffering illness of artery coronary

  4. Image-based dosimetry for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Reed G.

    present a new PET-labeled microsphere for pre- and post-treatment assessment, two new beta dosimetry protocols along with validation studies, a new positron branching ratio for 90Y that led to formation of an accurate non-destructive assay, and the first successful experimental validation of a computer generated internal dose distribution using dose kernel convolution.

  5. Statistical construction of a Japanese male liver phantom for internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofrad, Farshid Babapour; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Tehrani-Fard, Ali Abbaspour; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Hori, Masatoshi; Chen, Yen-Wei; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    A computational framework is presented, based on statistical shape modelling, for construction of race-specific organ models for internal radionuclide dosimetry and other nuclear-medicine applications. This approach was applied to the construction of a Japanese liver phantom, using the liver of the digital Zubal phantom as the template and 35 liver computed tomography (CT) scans of male Japanese individuals as a training set. The first step was the automated object-space registration (to align all the liver surfaces in one orientation), using a coherent-point-drift maximum-likelihood alignment algorithm, of each CT scan-derived manually contoured liver surface and the template Zubal liver phantom. Six landmark points, corresponding to the intersection of the contours of the maximum-area sagittal, transaxial and coronal liver sections were employed to perform the above task. To find correspondence points in livers (i.e. 2000 points for each liver), each liver surface was transformed into a mesh, was mapped for the parameter space of a sphere (parameterisation), yielding spherical harmonics (SPHARMs) shape descriptors. The resulting spherical transforms were then registered by minimising the root-mean-square distance among the SPHARMs coefficients. A mean shape (i.e. liver) and its dispersion (i.e. covariance matrix) were next calculated and analysed by principal components. Leave-one-out-tests using 5-35 principal components (or modes) demonstrated the fidelity of the foregoing statistical analysis. Finally, a voxelisation algorithm and a point-based registration is utilised to convert the SPHARM surfaces into its corresponding voxelised and adjusted the Zubal phantom data, respectively. The proposed technique used to create the race-specific statistical phantom maintains anatomic realism and provides the statistical parameters for application to radionuclide dosimetry.

  6. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay - Further validation of international networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ruth C., E-mail: Ruth.Wilkins@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Romm, Horst; Oestreicher, Ursula [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Marro, Leonora [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yoshida, Mitsuaki A. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department Radiation Biology, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Suto, Y. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Prasanna, Pataje G.S. [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Radiation Research Program, 6130 Executive Blvd., MSC 7440, Bethesda, MD 20892-7440 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation doses received to personnel when physical dosimetry is not available or inadequate. The current preferred biodosimetry method is based on the measurement of radiation-specific dicentric chromosomes in exposed individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, this method is labor-, time- and expertise-demanding. Consequently, for mass casualty applications, strategies have been developed to increase its throughput. One such strategy is to develop validated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory networks, both national and international. In a previous study, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) was validated in our cytogenetic biodosimetry network involving five geographically dispersed laboratories. A complementary strategy to further enhance the throughput of the DCA among inter-laboratory networks is to use a triage DCA where dose assessments are made by truncating the labor-demanding and time-consuming metaphase spread analysis to 20 - 50 metaphase spreads instead of routine 500 - 1000 metaphase spread analysis. Our laboratory network also validated this triage DCA, however, these dose estimates were made using calibration curves generated in each laboratory from the blood samples irradiated in a single laboratory. In an emergency situation, dose estimates made using pre-existing calibration curves which may vary according to radiation type and dose rate and therefore influence the assessed dose. Here, we analyze the effect of using a pre-existing calibration curve on assessed dose among our network laboratories. The dose estimates were made by analyzing 1000 metaphase spreads as well as triage quality scoring and compared to actual physical doses applied to the samples for validation. The dose estimates in the laboratory partners were in good agreement with the applied physical doses and determined to be adequate for guidance in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.

  7. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  8. Development of the mathematical phantom of the brazilian man for internal dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury.

    1995-01-01

    This work covers the theory and construction of a Mathematical Phantom of the Brazilian, to be used in internal dosimetry. To obtain this it was necessary to develop antropometric data of mass and height for Brazilian man between 20 and 40 years old. Through Monte Carlo Method, and applying the Specific Absorbed Fraction (SAF) formalism, it was possible determine the fraction internal organs such as bones, skin and total body. The results obtained from SAF are primordial in nuclear medicine and great value in the calculation of the dose received by workers exposed and in accidental cases, to a rapid evaluation of the received by a simple person. Through SAF, the references obtained for the Brazilian man, can be noted when compared to the phantom calculated by Snyder, which proposed to represent the international reference man, showed by ICRP-23 publication, that the determined SAF of the whole body does not exceed 15% between the two phantoms, agreeing with the allowed international norms error margin permitted. The differences between the two models appear, when the numbers are presented for individual organs, where the emission origin are the lungs and taken as target, the red and yellow marrows, for an energy of 10 KeV. The result obtained is that these two marrows receive 64% more absorbed fractions in the Brazilian model than in the international model. These numbers are considered trustfully because the coefficient of variation does not exceed 7%, value that in under 50%, which makes the coefficient of variation not trustfully, this is considered out of the normal distribution. Facts like these and may others, showed in this work, determine the necessity to calculate a specific mathematical model for the Brazilian man. (author). 51 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs

  9. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  10. An international co-ordinated research programme on nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1977-01-01

    Where fissile materials are being processed in quantities exceeding the minimum critical amounts, a radiation risk to workers arises from the possibility of criticality excursions. Despite the fact that techniques for preventing the occurende of such accidental excursions have reached very high standards it is generally agreed that the availability of suitable nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) systems is very important. Following the recommendations of an Advisory Group meeting on NAD, the IAEA had established in 1969 an international coordinated research programme on NAD systems and elaborating standarized systems. A large number of research groups from 14 Member States throughout the world participated in this co-ordinated work. Since 1970 four international multilaboratory intercomparison experiments on NAD have been organized and the response of a variety of dosimeters examined in different neutron spectra under simulated accident conditions at Valduc (France), Oak Ridge (USA), Vinca (Yugoslavia) and Harwell (UK). The results achieved in these intercomparison studies show that NAD systems have been substantially improved and that several systems are available now in a number of laboratories throughout the world that perform within the criteria laid down by the initiating advisory group in 1969. A compendium of neutron leakage spectra has also been elaborated for facilitating the determination of dose from readings of detectors exposed to various neutron fields in criticality accidents

  11. The international protocol for the dosimetry of external radiotherapy beams based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2001-01-01

    An International Code of Practice (CoP, or dosimetry protocol) for external beam radiotherapy dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water has been published by the IAEA on behalf of IAEA, WHO, PAHO and ESTRO. The CoP provides a systematic and internationally unified approach for the determination of the absorbed dose to water in reference conditions with radiotherapy beams. The development of absorbed-dose-to-water standards for high-energy photons and electrons offers the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. Many laboratories already provide calibrations at the radiation quality of 60Co gamma-rays and some have extended calibrations to high-energy photon and electron beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage x-rays, as well as that of proton and ion beams can also be based on these standards. Thus, a coherent dosimetry system based on the same formalism is achieved for practically all radiotherapy beams. The practical use of the CoP as simple. The document is formed by a set of different CoPs for each radiation type, which include detailed procedures and worksheets. All CoPs are based on ND,w chamber calibrations at a reference beam quality Qo, together with radiation beam quality correction factors kQ preferably measured directly for the user's chamber in a standards laboratory. Calculated values of kQ are provided together with their uncertainty estimates. Beam quality specifiers are 60Co, TPR20,10 (high-energy photons), R50 (electrons), HVL and kV (x-rays) and Rres (protons and ions) [es

  12. Application of the new International Code of Practice for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology to conventional exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, A.; Cardenas Herrera, J.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Machado, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the recent years, a policy for updating and installation of the X-ray equipment, specialized as well as conventional, have been carrying out, in Cuba. Conventional equipment has reached almost the whole primary level. Considering this situation, the quality control programs and clinical dosimetry have become even more important. Regarding the last one, an International Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology had been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to been used as a guide and to standardize the methodologies used to evaluate the patient exposure in radiodiagnostic. Taken into consideration the above reasons, an assessment of the aforementioned code of practice was done in order to choose the most feasible methodology to implement in the country. The evaluation was performed considering the lack of dosimetric equipment and medical physicists in this practice, in the interests of increasing the measurements scope to a large number of services as well as to standardize the methodology on a national scale. The present work shows the results obtained from the application of the new code of practice to conventional radiology exams in some medical institutions. Out of 3 on patients measurements methodologies described in the code of practice, the one of measurement of the incident air kerma was chosen. This methodology allow to the physicist to focus on the diagnostic equipment tests and to delegate the collection of the patient and exposure parameters data to the technicians, which make the increased of the patient and diagnostic departments sample, possible. The measurements were carried out in 2 hospital of the capital. The exams involved in the assessments were thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine LAT. In every diagnostic service, 25 patients were chosen on each projection. The weight and height average of the patient sample were 68 kg and 167 cm respectively. In the assessment were considered only

  13. Summary Report of the 1. Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improving the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Simakov, S.P.

    2013-09-01

    In accordance with the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee in May 2012, the Nuclear Data Section of IAEA has initiated a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP number F41031) with the main goal to test, validate and improve the international dosimetry library for fission and fusion (IRDFF). The output of this CRP will be a reference dosimetry database of cross sections and decay data with corresponding documentation. It will serve to the needs of fission, fusion and accelerator applications. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was held 1 to 5 July 2013 in IAEA. At this meeting, the attendees discussed the objectives of the whole CRP, presented their contributions and elaborated on consolidated recommendations and actions for implementation over the next 1.5 year period. This Summary Report documents the individual contributions and joint decisions made during this meeting. (author)

  14. Radiation defects in solid matrix as a physical base of EPR-dosimetry. The results of international experiment 'Intercomparison'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, S.P.; Rukhin, A.B.; Seredavina, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The very high sensitivity of EPR method at radiation defects in solid matrixes registration caused for last decade an intensive development of a new field - EPR-dosimetry. The suitable work substances had been found in a result of prolonged wide investigations, that allowed successful development both an operative dosimetry, and, that is especially important, the retrospective one. Nowadays the retrospective dosimetry on tooth enamel is adopted by IAEA and WHO as the main method of the radiation accidents consequences analysis for suffered population. In the report the methodical peculiarities of EPR-dosimetry are reviewed, the possible sources of the dose characteristics nonlinearity occurrence are analyzed as well other sources of errors and the ways of their elimination are considered. The review of the results of the international experiments 'Intercomparison' on EPR-dosimetry on tooth enamel series, held for last years under IAEA aegis is given. Practically all leading worldwide labs, including NMR laboratory of the INP NNC RK, took part in these experiments. The main goal was estimation of accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of summary dose values, having been reconstructed on base of EPR-signal of radiation defects in tooth enamel. The last experiment 'Intercomparison 3' has shown a considerable progress achieved lately in this area. Now the Japanese scientists from Hiroshima are preparing a further continuation of these Intercomparisons. Researches of radiation-induced EPR signals, stabilized in solid matrix, have been found out also rather useful and productive for the purposes of geological and archaeological dating, in criminalistics, in radiation chemistry and so on. Probably, this method will be rather perspective and at identification of radiation-sterilized food-stuffs, which come up now on world markets more and more often, however, studies in this direction are still on an incipient stage only

  15. Internal photon and electron dosimetry of the newborn patient—a hybrid computational phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael; Lee, Choonsik; Sgouros, George; Treves, S. Ted; Frey, Eric; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-03-01

    Estimates of radiation absorbed dose to organs of the nuclear medicine patient are a requirement for administered activity optimization and for stochastic risk assessment. Pediatric patients, and in particular the newborn child, represent that portion of the patient population where such optimization studies are most crucial owing to the enhanced tissue radiosensitivities and longer life expectancies of this patient subpopulation. In cases where whole-body CT imaging is not available, phantom-based calculations of radionuclide S values—absorbed dose to a target tissue per nuclear transformation in a source tissue—are required for dose and risk evaluation. In this study, a comprehensive model of electron and photon dosimetry of the reference newborn child is presented based on a high-resolution hybrid-voxel phantom from the University of Florida (UF) patient model series. Values of photon specific absorbed fraction (SAF) were assembled for both the reference male and female newborn using the radiation transport code MCNPX v2.6. Values of electron SAF were assembled in a unique and time-efficient manner whereby the collisional and radiative components of organ dose--for both self- and cross-dose terms—were computed separately. Dose to the newborn skeletal tissues were assessed via fluence-to-dose response functions reported for the first time in this study. Values of photon and electron SAFs were used to assemble a complete set of S values for some 16 radionuclides commonly associated with molecular imaging of the newborn. These values were then compared to those available in the OLINDA/EXM software. S value ratios for organ self-dose ranged from 0.46 to 1.42, while similar ratios for organ cross-dose varied from a low of 0.04 to a high of 3.49. These large discrepancies are due in large part to the simplistic organ modeling in the stylized newborn model used in the OLINDA/EXM software. A comprehensive model of internal dosimetry is presented in this study for

  16. Design and Fabrication of Kidney Phantoms for Internal Radiation Dosimetry Using 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Schlögl, Susanne; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the validation of multimodal quantitative imaging and absorbed dose measurements is impeded by the lack of suitable, commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms of variable sizes and shapes. To demonstrate the potential of 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, a set of kidney dosimetry phantoms and their spherical counterparts was designed and manufactured with a fused-deposition-modeling 3D printer. Nuclide-dependent SPECT/CT calibration factors were determined to assess the accuracy of quantitative imaging for internal renal dosimetry. A set of 4 single-compartment kidney phantoms with filling volumes between 8 and 123 mL was designed on the basis of the outer kidney dimensions provided by MIRD pamphlet 19. After the phantoms had been printed, SPECT/CT acquisitions of 3 radionuclides ( 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I) were obtained and calibration constants determined for each radionuclide-volume combination. A set of additionally manufactured spheres matching the kidney volumes was also examined to assess the influence of phantom shape and size on the calibration constants. A set of refillable, waterproof, and chemically stable kidneys and spheres was successfully manufactured. Average calibration factors for 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I were obtained in a large source measured in air. For the largest phantom (122.9 mL), the volumes of interest had to be enlarged by 1.2 mm for 99m Tc, 2.5 mm for 177 Lu, and 4.9 mm for 131 I in all directions to obtain calibration factors comparable to the reference. Although partial-volume effects were observed for decreasing phantom volumes (percentage difference of up to 9.8% for the smallest volume [8.6 mL]), the difference between corresponding sphere-kidney pairs was small (3D printing is a promising prototyping technique for geometry-specific calibration of SPECT/CT systems. Although the underlying radionuclide and the related collimator have a major influence on the calibration

  17. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  18. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  19. Computational dosimetry and risk assessment of radioinduced cancer: studies in mammary glands radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno Melo

    2017-01-01

    The use of Ionizing radiation (IR) in medicine has increased considerably. The benefits generated by diagnostic and therapy techniques with IR are proven. Nevertheless, the risks arising from these uses should not be underestimated. Justification, a basic radiation protection, states that the benefits from exposures must outweigh detriment. The cancer induction is one of the detriment components. Thus, the study of the benefit/detriment ratio should take into account cancer incidence and mortality estimations resulting from a given diagnosis or therapy radiological technique. The risk of cancer induction depends on the absorbed doses in the irradiated organs and tissues. Thus, IR dosimetry is essential to evaluate the benefit/detriment ratio. The present work aims to perform computational dosimetric evaluations and estimations of cancer induction risk after ionizing radiation exposure. The investigated situations cover nuclear medicine, radiological contamination and radiotherapy fields. Computational dosimetry, with MCNPx Monte Carlo Code, was used as a tool to calculate the absorbed dose in the interest organs of the voxelized human models. The simulations were also used to obtain calibration factors and optimization of in vivo monitoring systems for internal contamination dosimetry. A breast radiotherapy (RT) standard protocol was simulated using the MCNPx code. The calculation of the radiation-induced cancer risk was adapted from the BEIR VII methodology for the Brazilian population. The absorbed doses used in the risk calculations were obtained through computational simulations of different exposure scenarios. During this work, two new computational phantoms, DM B RA and VW, were generated from tomographic images. Additional twelve voxelized phantoms, including the reference phantoms, RCP A M and RCP A F, and the child, baby, and fetus models were adapted to run on MCNP. Internal Dosimetry Protocols (IDP) for radiopharmaceuticals and for internal contamination

  20. Course of training in Specific internal dosimetry for the patient; Curso de capacitacion en dosimetria interna especifica para el paciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Michelin, S.C. [Dosimetria Interna, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 CP (429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez P, I.M. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Av. del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: arojo@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this work the experience obtained in a course organized in Argentina to qualify professionals in the radiopharmaceutical dosimetry using the methodology MIRD and the patient's images is presented. The motivation to carry out it was based on the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic purposes that makes necessary the knowledge of the distribution of the absorbed dose to be able to establish the dose-response relationship. The main objective was the study of the biokinetic model and those techniques available that starting from images can contribute information of specific parameters of the patient to calculate with more accuracy the doses in the tumor and in different organs. In the design of the program of this course it was considered to approach the different focuses for the calculation of specific dose of the patient and includes the following topics: the patient's radiological protection, new concepts in damages by radiations (bystander effect), methodology for the internal dosimetry by radiopharmaceuticals, dosimetric systems (MIRD/ICRP), revision of the physical phantoms, design of kinetic studies, compartmental models, calculation tools and the demonstration of the programs SAAM and OLINDA; calculation of activity starting from the patient's images (planar and SPECT). Principles of the gamma camera: the dispersed radiation, calculation of the activity with planar images, the attenuation, correction of the dispersed radiation, collimation problems. SPECT: the common method of reconstruction, basic principles, method of filtered over head projection and iterative methods (MLEM/OSEM), measurement of the attenuation maps, problems of the penetration in the collimator (I-131, I-123), effects of partial volume, incorporation of corrections in an iterative reconstruction. Dosimetry in bone marrow, discussion of study cases of new radiopharmaceuticals. Internal dosimetry in small scale for electrons and photons

  1. Physical and biological organ dosimetry analysis for international space station astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Willingham, Veronica; George, Kerry A

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the biological and physical organ dose equivalents for International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. Individual physical dosimetry is difficult in space due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which consists of protons, heavy ions and secondary neutrons, and the modification of these radiation types in tissue as well as limitations in dosimeter devices that can be worn for several months in outer space. Astronauts returning from missions to the ISS undergo biodosimetry assessment of chromosomal damage in lymphocyte cells using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Individual-based pre-flight dose responses for lymphocyte exposure in vitro to gamma rays were compared to those exposed to space radiation in vivo to determine an equivalent biological dose. We compared the ISS biodosimetry results, NASA's space radiation transport models of organ dose equivalents, and results from ISS and space shuttle phantom torso experiments. Physical and biological doses for 19 ISS astronauts yielded average effective doses and individual or population-based biological doses for the approximately 6-month missions of 72 mSv and 85 or 81 mGy-Eq, respectively. Analyses showed that 80% or more of organ dose equivalents on the ISS are from galactic cosmic rays and only a small contribution is from trapped protons and that GCR doses were decreased by the high level of solar activity in recent years. Comparisons of models to data showed that space radiation effective doses can be predicted to within about a +/-10% accuracy by space radiation transport models. Finally, effective dose estimates for all previous NASA missions are summarized.

  2. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  3. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult female—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-12-01

    An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for internal electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined reference adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used internal dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida reference adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated

  4. Skeletal dosimetry in a voxel-based rat phantom for internal exposures to photons and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Han, Dao; Liu, Yang; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2010-05-01

    The skeleton makes a significant contribution to the whole body absorbed dose evaluation of rats, since the bone marrow and bone surface in the skeleton express high radiosensitivity and are considered to be important dose-limiting tissues. The bone marrow can be categorized as red bone marrow (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM). It is important to investigate the bone marrow in skeletal dosimetry. Cryosectional color images of the skeleton of a 156 g rat were segmented into mineral bone (including cortical bone and trabecular bone), RBM, and YBM. These three tissue types were identified at 40 different bone sites and integrated into a previously developed voxel-based rat computational phantom. Photon and electron skeletal absorbed fractions were then calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) for mineral bone, RBM, and YBM at the 40 different bone sites were established for monoenergetic photon and electron sources placed in 18 organs and seven bone sites. Discrete photon energy was varied from 0.01 to 5.0 MeV in 21 discrete steps, while 21 discrete electron energies were studied, from 0.1 to 10.0 MeV. The trends and values found were consistent with the results of other researchers [M. G. Stabin, T. E. Peterson, G. E. Holburn, and M. A. Emmons, "Voxel-based mouse and rat models for internal dose calculations," J. Nucl. Med. 47, 655-659 (2006)]. S-factors for the radionuclides 169Er, 143Pr, 89Sr, 32P, and 90Y, located in 18 organs and seven bone sites for the skeleton, were calculated and are provided in detail. For internal dose calculations, the AF data reveal that the mineral bone in the rat skeletal system is responsible for significant attenuation of gamma rays, especially at low energies. The photon SAF curves of RBM show that, for photon energies greater than 0.6 MeV, there is an increase in secondary photons emitted from the mineral bone as photon energy increases. The SAF values calculated in

  5. Skeletal dosimetry in a voxel-based rat phantom for internal exposures to photons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Tianwu; Han Dao; Liu Yang; Sun Wenjuan; Liu Qian [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The skeleton makes a significant contribution to the whole body absorbed dose evaluation of rats, since the bone marrow and bone surface in the skeleton express high radiosensitivity and are considered to be important dose-limiting tissues. The bone marrow can be categorized as red bone marrow (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM). It is important to investigate the bone marrow in skeletal dosimetry. Methods: Cryosectional color images of the skeleton of a 156 g rat were segmented into mineral bone (including cortical bone and trabecular bone), RBM, and YBM. These three tissue types were identified at 40 different bone sites and integrated into a previously developed voxel-based rat computational phantom. Photon and electron skeletal absorbed fractions were then calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Results: Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) for mineral bone, RBM, and YBM at the 40 different bone sites were established for monoenergetic photon and electron sources placed in 18 organs and seven bone sites. Discrete photon energy was varied from 0.01 to 5.0 MeV in 21 discrete steps, while 21 discrete electron energies were studied, from 0.1 to 10.0 MeV. The trends and values found were consistent with the results of other researchers [M. G. Stabin, T. E. Peterson, G. E. Holburn, and M. A. Emmons, ''Voxel-based mouse and rat models for internal dose calculations,'' J. Nucl. Med. 47, 655-659 (2006)]. S-factors for the radionuclides {sup 169}Er, {sup 143}Pr, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P, and {sup 90}Y, located in 18 organs and seven bone sites for the skeleton, were calculated and are provided in detail. Conclusions: For internal dose calculations, the AF data reveal that the mineral bone in the rat skeletal system is responsible for significant attenuation of gamma rays, especially at low energies. The photon SAF curves of RBM show that, for photon energies greater than 0.6 MeV, there is an increase in secondary

  6. Development of a hybrid multi-scale phantom for Monte-Carlo based internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, S.; Villoing, D.; Bardies, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: in recent years several phantoms were developed for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry in clinical and preclinical settings. Voxel-based models (Zubal, Max/Fax, ICRP110) were developed to reach a level of realism that could not be achieved by mathematical models. In turn, 'hybrid' models (XCAT, MOBY/ROBY, Mash/Fash) allow a further degree of versatility by offering the possibility to finely tune each model according to various parameters. However, even 'hybrid' models require the generation of a voxel version for Monte-Carlo modeling of radiation transport. Since absorbed dose simulation time is strictly related to geometry spatial sampling, a compromise should be made between phantom realism and simulation speed. This trade-off leads on one side in an overestimation of the size of small radiosensitive structures such as the skin or hollow organs' walls, and on the other hand to unnecessarily detailed voxellization of large, homogeneous structures. The Aim of this work is to develop a hybrid multi-resolution phantom model for Geant4 and Gate, to better characterize energy deposition in small structures while preserving reasonable computation times. Materials and Methods: we have developed a pipeline for the conversion of preexisting phantoms into a multi-scale Geant4 model. Meshes of each organ are created from raw binary images of a phantom and then voxellized to the smallest spatial sampling required by the user. The user can then decide to re-sample the internal part of each organ, while leaving a layer of smallest voxels at the edge of the organ. In this way, the realistic shape of the organ is maintained while reducing the voxel number in the inner part. For hollow organs, the wall is always modeled using the smallest voxel sampling. This approach allows choosing different voxel resolutions for each organ according to a specific application. Results: preliminary results show that it is possible to

  7. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  8. Summary remarks and recommended reactions for an international data file for dosimetry applications for LWR, FBR, and MFR reactor research, development and testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Fabry, A.; Dierckx, R.; Farinelli, U.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the use of an internationally accepted data file for dosimetry applications for light water reactor (LWR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), and magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) research, development, and testing programs continues to exist for the Nuclear Industry. The work of this IAEA meeting, therefore, will be another important step in achieving consensus agreement on an internationally recommended file and its purpose, content, structure, selected reactions, and associated uncertainy files. Summary remarks and a listing of recommended reactions for consideration in the formulation of an ''International Data File for Dosimetry Applications'' are presented in subsequent sections of this report

  9. An international dosimetry exchange for boron neutron capture therapy, Part I: Absorbed dose measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binns, P. J.; Riley, K. J.; Harling, O. K.; Kiger III, W. S.; Munck af Rosenschöld, P. M.; Giusti, V.; Capala, J.; Sköld, K.; Auterinen, I.; Serén, T.; Kotiluoto, P.; Uusi-Simola, J.; Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Spurný, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2005), s. 3729-3736 ISSN 0094-2405 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : BNCT * thermal neutrons * dosimetry intercomparison Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.192, year: 2005

  10. Status of radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been...... or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing....... The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification...

  11. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry; Curso anual de reentrenamiento para el POE del laboratorio de dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-09-15

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  12. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Brian J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom); Wall, Anders; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Silvia [Uppsala University, Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry in humans of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine, a synthetic L-leucine analogue being investigated as a potential diagnostic biomarker for neoplasia. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 6 healthy volunteers were acquired at up to 16 time points up to about 5 h after a bolus administration of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine (153.8 {+-} 2.2 MBq). Venous blood samples were taken up to about 4 h post-injection from which {sup 18}F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma were measured. Urine was collected as voided up to 4 h post-injection, from which the excreted {sup 18}F activity was measured. Absolute values of the {sup 18}F activity contained in up to 11 source regions (brain, salivary glands, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, red bone marrow, kidneys, uterus and urinary bladder contents) were determined directly from quantitative analysis of the images. For each source region, the {sup 18}F activity decay-corrected and normalised to that injected, as a function of time, was fit by an analytical function which was subsequently integrated to yield the cumulated activity normalised to the injected activity. These normalised cumulated activities were then used as input to the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) package to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry of each subject following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. An effective dose was then estimated for each subject. [{sup 18}F]Fluciclovine was clinically well tolerated in this study. Very little {sup 18}F was excreted with only a mean value of 3.3 % present in the urine at about 4 h post-injection; no activity within the intestinal contents was noted. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (13.8 %), red bone marrow (11.1 %) and lung (7.1 %). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity were received by the pancreas (102.2 {mu

  13. A computational tool for patient specific dosimetry and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Georgios; Leventouri, Theodora; Apte, Aditiya; Shang, Charles

    2015-11-01

    In recent years we have witnessed tremendous progress in selective internal radiation therapy. In clinical practice, quite often, radionuclide therapy is planned using simple models based on standard activity values or activity administered per unit body weight or surface area in spite of the admission that radiation-dose methods provide more accurate dosimetric results. To address that issue, the authors developed a Matlab-based computational software, named Patient Specific Yttrium-90 Dosimetry Toolkit (PSYDT). PSYDT was designed for patient specific voxel-based dosimetric calculations and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres. The developed toolkit is composed of three dimensional dose calculations for both bremsstrahlung and beta emissions. Subsequently, radiobiological modeling is performed on a per-voxel basis and cumulative dose volume histograms (DVHs) are generated. In this report we describe the functionality and visualization features of PSYDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Boris Kidric Institute at Vinca (Yugoslavia) (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Furet, J.; Baillet, J.; Donvez, G.; Duchene, J.; Gras, R.; Mercier, R.; Chenouard, J.; Lecomte, J.

    1961-01-01

    On the occasion of the international dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Yugoslavian Atomic Energy Centre at Vinca, the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique had agreed to prepare the measurement and security equipment and see to the manipulation of the heavy water, and in addition was responsible for the operation and the starting up of the pile during the experiment. The measurement and security apparatus, developed at Saclay and installed on the pile for low and high pressure runs, is listed, together with the safety equipment added near the control room. The various operations and manipulations carried out on the pile are described: filling with heavy water, starting up, determination of the critical level, testing the efficiency of the rods, operating the pile during the experiments. By operating to a carefully planned schedule, the experiments were, finished before the date fixed by the International Atomic Agency. (authors) [fr

  15. INDOSE V2.1.1, Internal Dosimetry Code Using Biokinetics Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Ido

    2002-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: InDose is an internal dosimetry code developed to enable dose estimations using the new biokinetic models (presented in ICRP-56 to ICRP71) as well as the old ones. The code is written in FORTRAN90 and uses the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model and the ICRP-30 gastrointestinal tract model as well as the new and old biokinetic models. The code has been written in such a way that the user is able to change any of the parameters of any one of the models without recompiling the code. All the parameters are given in well annotated parameters files that the user may change and the code reads during invocation. As default, these files contains the values listed in ICRP publications. The full InDose code is planed to have three parts: 1) the main part includes the uptake and systemic models and is used to calculate the activities in the body tissues and excretion as a function of time for a given intake. 2) An optimization module for automatic estimation of the intake for a specific exposure case. 3) A module to calculate the dose due to the estimated intake. Currently, the code is able to perform only its main task (part 1) while the other two have to be done externally using other tools. In the future we would like to add these modules in order to provide a complete solution for the people in the laboratory. The code has been tested extensively to verify the accuracy of its results. The verification procedure was divided into three parts: 1) verification of the implementation of each model, 2) verification of the integrity of the whole code, and 3) usability test. The first two parts consisted of comparing results obtained with InDose to published results for the same cases. For example ICRP-78 monitoring data. The last part consisted of participating in the 3. EIE-IDA and assessing some of the scenarios provided in this exercise. These tests where presented in a few publications. It has been found that there is very good agreement

  16. Internal dosimetry with the Monte Carlo code GATE: validation using the ICRP/ICRU female reference computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoing, Daphnée; Marcatili, Sara; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bardiès, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the reference female computational model proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values were generated with GATE and MCNPX for 12 regions of interest in the ICRP 110 female computational model, thereby leading to 144 source/target pair configurations. Relative differences between GATE and MCNPX obtained in specific configurations (self-irradiation or cross-irradiation) are presented. Relative differences in absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions or S-values are below 10%, and in most cases less than 5%. Dosimetric results generated with GATE for the 12 volumes of interest are available as supplemental data. GATE can be safely used for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry at the clinical scale. This makes GATE a viable option for Monte Carlo modelling of both imaging and absorbed dose in nuclear medicine.

  17. Safety, pharmacokinetic and dosimetry evaluation of the proposed thrombus imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 Fab'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, David J. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Smart, Richard C. [St George Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Tsui, Wendy W. [St George Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of New South Wales, School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Gerometta, Michael [AGEN Biomedical Limited, Research and Development, Brisbane (Australia); Eisenberg, Paul R. [Eli Lilly Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Health, Centre for PET, Melbourne (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 (Thromboview, hereafter abbreviated to {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab') is a humanised, radiolabelled monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment with high affinity and specificity for the D-dimer domain of cross-linked fibrin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of four increasing doses of {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (18-70 years; 16 male, 16 female) received a single intravenous injection of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg of {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab'. Safety outcomes (vital signs, electrocardiography, haematology, biochemistry, adverse events and development of human anti-human antibodies) were assessed up to 30 days post injection. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 48 h post injection. Gamma camera images were acquired at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post injection. Dosimetry was performed using standard MIRD methodology. No adverse events considered to be drug related were observed. Human anti-human antibody was not detectable in any subject during the follow-up period. {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' had a rapid initial plasma clearance (t{sub 1/2}{alpha}=1 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of the Fab' fragment was generally linear across the four dose cohorts. By 24 h, 30-35% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the urine. There was marked renal accumulation with time, but no specific uptake was identified within other normal tissues. The effective dose was 9 mSv/750 MBq. (orig.)

  18. The evidence base for the use of internal dosimetry in the clinical practice of molecular radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Lidia [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Rome (Italy); Konijnenberg, Mark [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chiesa, Carlo [Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Bardies, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM / Universite Paul Sabatier, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Du, Yong [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, Sutton, London (United Kingdom); Gleisner, Katarina Sjoegreen [Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Lassmann, Michael [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Flux, Glenn [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Molecular radiotherapy (MRT) has demonstrated unique therapeutic advantages in the treatment of an increasing number of cancers. As with other treatment modalities, there is related toxicity to a number of organs at risk. Despite the large number of clinical trials over the past several decades, considerable uncertainties still remain regarding the optimization of this therapeutic approach and one of the vital issues to be answered is whether an absorbed radiation dose-response exists that could be used to guide personalized treatment. There are only limited and sporadic data investigating MRT dosimetry. The determination of dose-effect relationships for MRT has yet to be the explicit aim of a clinical trial. The aim of this article was to collate and discuss the available evidence for an absorbed radiation dose-effect relationships in MRT through a review of published data. Based on a PubMed search, 92 papers were found. Out of 79 studies investigating dosimetry, an absorbed dose-effect correlation was found in 48. The application of radiobiological modelling to clinical data is of increasing importance and the limited published data on absorbed dose-effect relationships based on these models are also reviewed. Based on National Cancer Institute guideline definition, the studies had a moderate or low rate of clinical relevance due to the limited number of studies investigating overall survival and absorbed dose. Nevertheless, the evidence strongly implies a correlation between the absorbed doses delivered and the response and toxicity, indicating that dosimetry-based personalized treatments would improve outcome and increase survival. (orig.)

  19. Experience of the new service of dosimetry internal by Bio elimination of Tecnatom; Experiencia del nuevo servicio de dosimetria interna por bioeliminacion de Tecnatom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, T.; Navas Menchen, C.; Campos Mendia, J.

    2012-07-01

    Internal dosimetry is of particular relevance for occupationally exposed workers in the field of nuclear decommissioning and radioactive facilities. The tasks to be performed at these facilities involve an increase in the risk of incorporation of radioactive material into the body, the radioactive waste generated diverse in nature and involve work that may lead to a greater dispersion of radioactive material.

  20. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  1. Internal dosimetry for blood vessels radiotherapy; Dosimetria interna para terapia com radiacao em vasos sanguineos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear] E-mail: lpbcampos@uol.com.br; Stabin, Michael Gregory [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences] E-mail: Michael.Stabin@mcmail.vanderbilt.edu

    2001-07-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment). Known as Intravascular Brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several radionuclides. Advantages and disadvantages of the radionuclides and source geometries are discussed and the dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients. (author)

  2. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  3. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, Viriato, E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  4. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity.

  5. Internal exposure to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats. Pt. 1. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy; Kaprin, Andrey; Galkin, Vsevolod; Ivanov, Sergey; Kolyzhenkov, Timofey; Petukhov, Aleksey; Yaskova, Elena; Belukha, Irina; Khailov, Artem; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Akhmedova, Umukusum; Bogacheva, Viktoria [Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC) named after A.F. Tsyb - National Medical Research Radiological Center of the Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Dyussupov, Altay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Uzbekov, Darkhan; Saimova, Aisulu; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Kairkhanova, Yankar [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Otani, Keiko; Endo, Satoru; Satoh, Kenichi; Kawano, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Sakaguchi, Aya; Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyoda, Shin [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Skakov, Mazhin; Vurim, Alexandr; Gnyrya, Vyacheslav; Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Kasym [Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-15

    There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al, {sup 31}Si, {sup 32}P, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 42}K, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 134}Cs. The radionuclide {sup 56}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to {sup 56}Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured {sup 56}Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of

  6. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  7. The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements): Its contribution to dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Zoetelief, J.; Menzel, H. G.; Paretzke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was created to develop a coherent system of quantities and units, universally accepted in all fields where ionizing radiation is used. Although the accuracy of dose or kerma may be low for most radiological applications, the quantity which is measured must be clearly specified. Radiological dosimetry instruments are generally calibrated free-in-air in terms of air kerma. However, to estimate the probability of harm at low dose, the mean absorbed dose for organs is used. In contrast, at high doses, the likelihood of harm is related to the absorbed dose at the site receiving the highest dose. Therefore, to assess the risk of deterministic and stochastic effects, a detailed knowledge of absorbed dose distribution, organ doses, patient age and gender is required. For interventional radiology, where the avoidance of deterministic effects becomes important, dose conversion coefficients are generally not yet developed. (authors)

  8. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  9. REVIEW: Nuclear medicine dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A brief overview is provided of the history of the development of internal dose methods for use in nuclear medicine. Basic methods of internal dosimetry and the systems that have been developed for use in nuclear medicine are described. The development of the MIRD system and the International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium series is outlined. The evolution of models and tools for calculating dose estimates is reviewed. Current efforts in developing more patient-specific methods, particularly for use in therapy calculations, development of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, and of relating internal radiation doses to observed biological effects are described and evaluated.

  10. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy With Yttrium-90 Glass Microspheres: Biases and Uncertainties in Absorbed Dose Calculations Between Clinical Dosimetry Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikell, Justin K; Mahvash, Armeen; Siman, Wendy; Baladandayuthapani, Veera; Mourtada, Firas; Kappadath, S Cheenu

    2016-11-15

    To quantify differences that exist between dosimetry models used for 90 Y selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Retrospectively, 37 tumors were delineated on 19 post-therapy quantitative 90 Y single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography scans. Using matched volumes of interest (VOIs), absorbed doses were reported using 3 dosimetry models: glass microsphere package insert standard model (SM), partition model (PM), and Monte Carlo (MC). Univariate linear regressions were performed to predict mean MC from SM and PM. Analysis was performed for 2 subsets: cases with a single tumor delineated (best case for PM), and cases with multiple tumors delineated (typical clinical scenario). Variability in PM from the ad hoc placement of a single spherical VOI to estimate the entire normal liver activity concentration for tumor (T) to nontumoral liver (NL) ratios (TNR) was investigated. We interpreted the slope of the resulting regression as bias and the 95% prediction interval (95%PI) as uncertainty. MC NL single represents MC absorbed doses to the NL for the single tumor patient subset; other combinations of calculations follow a similar naming convention. SM was unable to predict MC T single or MC T multiple (p>.12, 95%PI >±177 Gy). However, SM single was able to predict (p<.012) MC NL single , albeit with large uncertainties; SM single and SM multiple yielded biases of 0.62 and 0.71, and 95%PI of ±40 and ± 32 Gy, respectively. PM T single and PM T multiple predicted (p<2E-6) MC T single and MC T multiple with biases of 0.52 and 0.54, and 95%PI of ±38 and ± 111 Gy, respectively. The TNR variability in PM T single increased the 95%PI for predicting MC T single (bias = 0.46 and 95%PI = ±103 Gy). The TNR variability in PM T multiple modified the bias when predicting MC T multiple (bias = 0.32 and 95%PI = ±110 Gy). The SM is unable to predict mean MC tumor absorbed dose. The PM is statistically correlated with mean MC, but the

  11. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  12. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  13. Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): Phase I-Quality Assurance of Organ Doses and Excretion Rates From Internal Exposures of Plutonium-239 for the Mayak Worker Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, M-D; Birchall, A; Vostrotin, V

    2016-06-20

    The calculation of reliable and realistic doses for use in epidemiological studies for the quantification of risk from internal exposure to radioactive material is fundamental to the development of advice, guidance and regulations for the control and use of radioactive material. Thus, any programme of work carried out which requires the calculation of doses for use by epidemiologists ideally should contain a rigorous program of quality assurance (QA). This paper describes the initial QA (Phase I) implemented by Public Health England (PHE) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI) as part of the work programme on internal dosimetry in the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research Project 2.4 for the 2013 Mayak Worker Dosimetry System. SUBI designed and implemented new software (PANDORA) to include the latest Mayak Worker Dosimetry System and to calculate organ burdens, urinary excretion rates, intakes and absorbed doses, while PHE modified their commercially available IMBA Professional Plus software package. Comparisons of output from the two codes for the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 showed calculated values of absorbed doses, intakes, organ burdens and urinary excretion agreed to within 1%. The 1% discrepancy can be explained by the approximation used in IMBA to speed up dose calculations. © Crown copyright 2016.

  14. Molecular characterization of the di-leucine-based internalization motif of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1996-01-01

    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinases. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation of Ser-126 and the presence of the di-leucine sequence Leu-131 and Leu-132 in CD3 gamma are required f...... are important. 2) Recognition of phosphorylated CD3 gamma by molecules involved in receptor internalization. In this process Ser(P)-126, Asp-127, Leu-131, and Leu-132 are important....

  15. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni.5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & KosovoGeoMedia  has  received  an  invitation  from  GeoNetCom, an Italian  network  of  Enterprise  GIS,  to  participate  as  "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.

  16. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo GeoMedia  has  received  an  invitation  from  GeoNetCom, an Italian  network  of  Enterprise  GIS,  to  participate  as  "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.

  17. Internal dosimetry through GATE simulations of preclinical radiotherapy using a melanin-targeting ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Y.; Degoul, F.; Auzeloux, P.; Bonnet, M.; Cachin, F.; Chezal, J. M.; Donnarieix, D.; Labarre, P.; Moins, N.; Papon, J.; Rbah-Vidal, L.; Vidal, A.; Miot-Noirault, E.; Maigne, L.

    2014-05-01

    The GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 toolkit is under constant improvement for dosimetric calculations. In this study, we explore its use for the dosimetry of the preclinical targeted radiotherapy of melanoma using a new specific melanin-targeting radiotracer labeled with iodine 131. Calculated absorbed fractions and S values for spheres and murine models (digital and CT-scan-based mouse phantoms) are compared between GATE and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes considering monoenergetic electrons and the detailed energy spectrum of iodine 131. The behavior of Geant4 standard and low energy models is also tested. Following the different authors’ guidelines concerning the parameterization of electron physics models, this study demonstrates an agreement of 1.2% and 1.5% with EGSnrc, respectively, for the calculation of S values for small spheres and mouse phantoms. S values calculated with GATE are then used to compute the dose distribution in organs of interest using the activity distribution in mouse phantoms. This study gives the dosimetric data required for the translation of the new treatment to the clinic.

  18. Results of the regional intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2013: Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, the 1. Regional Intercomparison Exercise was organized in 2005 in the frame of the RLA 9/049. The results of this exercise led to the 2. Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organized in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and Tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of 19 centres from 13 countries. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this 2nd. exercise, useful to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in applying the IDEAS guidelines. It is important to highlight the improvement in the general performance of the participants. (authors) [es

  19. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  20. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  1. Murine-specific Internal Dosimetry for Preclinical Investigations of Imaging and Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Grudzinski, Joseph; Marsh, Ian; Besemer, Abby; Baiu, Dana; Weichert, Jamey; Otto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing need to estimate the absorbed dose to small animals from preclinical investigations involving diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This paper introduces a Monte Carlo-based dosimetry platform called RAPID, which is capable of calculating murine-specific three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions. A comparison is performed between absorbed doses calculated with RAPID and absorbed doses calculated in a commonly used reference mouse phantom called MOBY. Four test mice containing different xenografts underwent serial PET/CT imaging using a novel diagnostic therapy (theranostic) agent NM404, which can be labeled with I for imaging or I for therapy. Using the PET/CT data, 3D dose distributions from I-NM404 were calculated in the mice using RAPID. Mean organ doses in these four test mice were compared to mean organ doses derived by using two previously published I S-values datasets in MOBY. In addition, mean tumor doses calculated in RAPID were compared to mean organ doses derived from unit density spheres. Large differences were identified between mean organ doses calculated in the test mice using RAPID and those derived in the MOBY phantom. Mean absorbed dose percent errors in organs ranged between 0.3% and 333%. Overall, mass scaling improved agreement between MOBY phantom calculations and RAPID, where percent errors were all less than 26%, with the exception of the lung in which percent errors reached values of 48%. Percent errors in mean tumor doses in the test mice and unit density spheres were less pronounced but still ranged between 8% and 23%. This work demonstrates the limitations of using pre-computed S-values in computational phantoms to predict organ doses in small animals from theranostic procedures. RAPID can generate accurate 3D dose distributions in small animals and in turn offer much greater insight on the ability of a given theranostic agent to image and treat diseases.

  2. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  3. Personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry for the planning and evaluation of internal radiotherapy treatments: development and application to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitguillaume, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Medical techniques in full expansion arousing high therapeutic expectations, targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) consist of administering a radiopharmaceutical to selectively treat tumors. Nowadays, the activity injected to the patient is generally standardized. However, in order to establish robust dose-effect relationships and to optimize treatments while sparing healthy tissues at best, a personalized dosimetry must be performed, just like actual clinical practice in external beam radiotherapy. In that context, this PhD main objective was to develop, using the OEDIPE software, a methodology for personalized dosimetry based on direct Monte Carlo calculations. The developed method enables to calculate the tridimensional distribution of absorbed doses depending on the patient anatomy, defined from CT or MRI data, and on the patient-specific activity biodistribution, defined from SPECT or PET data. Radiobiological aspects, such as differences in radiosensitivities and repair time constants between tumoral and healthy tissues, have also been integrated through the linear-quadratic model. This methodology has been applied to the selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) which consists in the injection of 90 Y-microspheres to selectively treat unresectable hepatic cancers. Distributions of absorbed doses and biologically effective doses (BED) along with the equivalent uniform biologically effective doses (EUD) to hepatic lesions have been calculated from 99m Tc-MAA activity distributions obtained during the evaluation step for 18 patients treated at Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou. Those results have been compared to classical methods used in clinics and the interest of accurate and personalized dosimetry for treatment planning has been investigated. On the one hand, the possibility to increase the activity in a personalized way has been highlighted with the calculation of the maximal activity that could be injected to the patient while meeting tolerance criteria

  4. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  5. Optimisation of reconstruction, volumetry and dosimetry for 99mTc-SPECT and 90Y-PET images: Towards reliable dose-volume histograms for selective internal radiation therapy with 90Y-microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, M; Thevenet, H; Berthold, C; Desbrée, A; Smadja, C; Desiré, C; Bianciardi, M; Ghazzar, N

    2017-07-01

    In Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT), 99m Tc-MAA SPECT images are commonly used to predict microspheres distribution but recent works used 90 Y-microspheres PET images. Nevertheless, evaluation of the predictive power of 99m Tc-MAA has been hampered by the lack of reliable comparisons between 99m Tc-SPECT and 90 Y-PET images. Our aim was to determine the "in situ" optimisation procedure in order to reliably compare 99m Tc-SPECT and 90 Y-PET images and achieve optimal personal dosimetry. We acquired 99m Tc-SPECT/CT and 90 Y-PET/CT images of NEMA and Jaszczak phantoms. We found the best reconstruction parameters for quantification and for volume estimations. We determined adaptive threshold curves on the volumetric reconstruction. We copied the optimised volumes on the quantitative reconstruction, named here the "cross volumes" technique. Finally, we compared 99m Tc-SPECT and 90 Y-PET Dose Volume Histograms. Our "in situ" optimisation procedure decreased errors on volumes and quantification (from -44.2% and -15.8% to -3.4% and -3.28%, respectively, for the 26.5mL PET phantom sphere). Moreover, 99m Tc-SPECT and 90 Y-PET DVHs were equivalent only after the optimisation procedure (difference in mean dose PET images and allowed to achieve a reliable comparison between patient treatment planning and post implant dosimetry, notably by the use of the "cross volumes" technique. Methodology developed in this work will enable robust evaluations of the predictive power of 99m Tc-SPECT, as well as dose-response relationship and side effects in SIRT treatments. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurny, F.; Yukihara, E. G.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory of Microbiology at SCK.CEN, in collaboration with different universities, participates in several ESA programmes with bacterial experiments that are carried out in the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of these programmes is to study the effects of space flight conditions such as microgravity and cosmic radiation on the general behaviour of model bacteria. To measure the radiation doses received by the bacteria, different detectors accompanied the microbiological experiments. The results obtained during two space flight missions are discussed. This dosimetry experiment was a collaboration between different institutes so that the doses could be estimated by different techniques. For measurement of the high linear energy transfer (LET) doses (>10 keV μm -1 ), two types of etched track detectors were used. The low LET part of the spectrum was measured by three types of thermoluminescent detectors ( 7 LiF:Mg,Ti; 7 LiF:Mg,Cu,P; Al 2 O 3 :C) and by the optically stimulated luminescence technique using Al 2 O 3 :C detectors. (authors)

  8. SU-E-T-507: Internal Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Using GATE and XCAT Phantom: A Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Monte Carlo simulations are routinely used for internal dosimetry studies. These studies are conducted with humanoid phantoms such as the XCAT phantom. In this abstract we present the absorbed doses for various pairs of source and target organs using three common radiotracers in nuclear medicine. Methods The GATE software package is used for the Monte Carlo simulations. A typical female XCAT phantom is used as the input. Three radiotracers 153Sm, 131I and 99mTc are studied. The Specific Absorbed Fraction (SAF) for gamma rays (99mTc, 153Sm and 131I) and Specific Fraction (SF) for beta particles (153Sm and 131I) are calculated for all 100 pairs of source target organs including brain, liver, lung, pancreas, kidney, adrenal, spleen, rib bone, bladder and ovaries. Results The source organs themselves gain the highest absorbed dose as compared to other organs. The dose is found to be inversely proportional to distance from the source organ. In SAF results of 153Sm, when the source organ is lung, the rib bone, gain 0.0730 (Kg-1) that is more than lung itself. Conclusion The absorbed dose for various organs was studied in terms of SAF and SF. Such studies hold importance for future therapeutic procedures and optimization of induced radiotracer.

  9. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male—internal electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-04-01

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  10. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  11. Internal dosimetry from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, R.B.P.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1988-01-01

    The internal dose from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes products is related. In the workers population, six groups were classified: development and research, routine production, quality control, package, radioprotection supervision and maintenance. The internal doses were calculated according to the methodology described by the ICRP-30, using resuls from a whole-body counter. The results described were obtained from 970 whole-body radioactivity measurements during the last three years (1985 a 1987). (author) [pt

  12. [Analysis of compiling date of Huang di nei jing (Huangdi's Internal Classic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W B; Gao, Y T; Li, H Y

    2017-05-28

    There are Seven Medical Classics recorded in the Han shu Yi wen zhi ( Bibliography in Annals of the Han Dynasty ), among which the 18-volume Huang di nei jing ( Huangdi ' s Internal Classic ) is not the current edition of Ling shu ( Miraculous Pivot ) and Su wen ( Plain Questions ). The present edition of Huang di nei jing containing these two works might be merged in the Eastern Han Dynasty, benefited from the invention of Cai Lun's papermaking technique and the development of Nine needles, especially filiform needle manufacturing. Huang di nei jing was compiled on the basis of two major integrations: The first was joined by some medical experts such as Bian Que and tai yi ling (minister of imperial physicians) of the Qin State by using the language in the Warring States, contributing mainly to the theoretical system and forming its basic academic framework; The second was the second Royal book-collating activity in the Eastern Han Dynasty (100-110), which had revised the seven volumes of Chinese Medical Classics and incorporated them into two parts, Ling Shu and Su Wen, together with Bian Que's medical works and the new contents from the introductory Chapter on Nine Needles and Twelve Yuan ( origin ) Acupoints .

  13. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by intern......During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  15. The programme of work on committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Committee 2 of ICRP has the responsibility for establishing secondary standards based on the Commission's recommended dose limits. The Committee has an extensive programme of work related to internally incorporated radionuclides which was reviewed at its September, 1997 meeting in Oxford, England. It is summarized below. (author)

  16. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA; Intercalibracion de mediciones radiologicas para fines de vigilancia del laboratorio de dosimetria interna coordinada por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-07-15

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  17. Dinamika Kerukunan Intern Umat Islam Dalam Relasi Etnisitas Dan Agama Di Kalteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAgama Islam dianut oleh sebagian besar penduduk Kalimantan Tengah yang terdiri dari berbagai etnis seperti Dayak, Banjar, Jawa, Madura, dan lainnya. Penelitian ini mengkaji dinamika hubungan intern umat Islam dalam konteks relasi etnisitas dan agama di Kalimantan Tengah. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana dinamika hubungan inten umat Islam, faktor pendukung kerukunan, dan strategi adaptasi membangun harmoni di Kalimanta Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan kualitatif dimana pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara, observasi, Focus Group Discussion (FGD, dan telaah dokumen. Hubungan intern umat Islam di Kalimantan Tengah diwarnai dengan tanggapan terhadap konflik etnistahun 2001 antara Etnis Dayak dan Madura. Faktor yang mendukung kerukunan yang tercapai saat ini antara lain adanya daya tawar budaya, simbiosisme ekonomi, peran tokoh masyarakat, dan peran pemerintah. Adapun strategi adaptasi yang dilakukan untuk memelihara harmoni dilakukan secara kultural dengan revitalisasidan akulturasi budaya dan nilai-nilai lokal, serta secara struktural dengan politik uniformitas baik yang dilakukan oleh pranata Adat Dayak maupun pemerintah Kalimantan Tengah.Kata kunci: Kerukunan, Budaya Dominan, Politik Uniformitas, Strategi Adaptasi AbstractIslam is professed by the majority of people in Central Kalimantan who consists of various ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Banjar, Javanese, Madurese, and others. This study discusses about the dynamics of internal relationship among Muslim in the context of the relationship of ethnicity and religion in Central Kalimantan. The problems are how the dynamics of the internal relationship amongst Muslims in CentralKalimantan and what factors are supporting to the reconciliation and adaptation strategies to build harmony amongst them. This research was carried out with the qualitative approach in which data were collected through interviews, observation, Focus Group

  18. Modernization of Cross Section Library for VVER-1000 Type Reactors Internals and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloschenko Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad-group library BGL1000_B7 for neutron and gamma transport calculations in VVER-1000 internals, RPV and shielding was carried out on a base of fine-group library v7-200n47g from SCALE-6 system. The comparison of the library BGL1000_B7 with the library v7-200n47g and the library BGL1000 (the latter is using for VVER-1000 calculations is demonstrated on several calculation and experimental tests.

  19. Internal dosimetry for [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cesar, Thais B., E-mail: tcesar@fcfar.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCF/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao; Vinagre, Carmen G.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InCor/HCFMUSP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto do Coracao

    2011-07-01

    This study proposes a biokinetic model for use in the assessment of the internal dose received by human subjects administered orally with [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol. The proposed model includes three systemic pools representing the short-term (T1/2 = 1 d), intermediate-term (T1/2 = 16 d) and long-term (T1/2 = 78 d) physiological exchanges and two excretion pathways: urine and feces. This model used the ANACOMP software to estimate radiometric doses with MIRD techniques (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). To validate the model, the profile curve of excretion prediction by the model in the range of seven days was compared with those curves described in literature. No statistical difference was detected (P = 0.416). The estimated effective dose coefficient calculated for the reference man described on ICRP publication 23 was 3.39x10{sup -10} SvBq{sup -1}. The organs that received the highest equivalent dose were the lower large intestine (2.459x10{sup -9} GyBq{sup -1}), upper large intestine (9.023x10{sup -10} GyBq{sup -1}) and small intestine (3.717x10{sup -10} GyBq{sup -1}). (author)

  20. Internal dosimetry for [4-14C]-cholesterol in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Cesar, Thais B.; Vinagre, Carmen G.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a biokinetic model for use in the assessment of the internal dose received by human subjects administered orally with [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. The proposed model includes three systemic pools representing the short-term (T1/2 = 1 d), intermediate-term (T1/2 = 16 d) and long-term (T1/2 = 78 d) physiological exchanges and two excretion pathways: urine and feces. This model used the ANACOMP software to estimate radiometric doses with MIRD techniques (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). To validate the model, the profile curve of excretion prediction by the model in the range of seven days was compared with those curves described in literature. No statistical difference was detected (P = 0.416). The estimated effective dose coefficient calculated for the reference man described on ICRP publication 23 was 3.39x10 -10 SvBq -1 . The organs that received the highest equivalent dose were the lower large intestine (2.459x10 -9 GyBq -1 ), upper large intestine (9.023x10 -10 GyBq -1 ) and small intestine (3.717x10 -10 GyBq -1 ). (author)

  1. Space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    1988-01-01

    Japan will take part in the LML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory 1) program that is scheduled to be carried out with space shuttles to be launched in 1991. The program will be followed by the LS-J (Space Laboratory-Japan) and IML-2 programs. A reliable dosimetry system is currently required to be established to evaluate the radiations in space. The present article reviews major features of different types of space radiations and requirements of dosimeters for these radiations. The radiations in the space environment consist of: 1) electrons and protons that have been trapped by the terrestrial magnetism, 2) corpuscular, gamma-and X-rays released from the sun, and 3) galactic cosmic rays (corpuscular, gamma-and X-rays). The effects of the trapped radiations will be low if a spacecraft can get through the zone of such radiations in a short period of time. The effects of galactic cosmic rays are much smaller than those of the trapped radiations. A solar flare can give significant contributions to the total radiations received by a spacecraft. An extremely large flare can release a fatal amount of radiations to the crew of a spacecraft. Prediction of such a large flare is of great important for a long trip through the space. Significant improvements should be made on existing dosimeters. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the 131 I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the 131 INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons

  3. Radiation Dosimetry of the Pressure Vessel Internals of the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Norman E.; Reciniello, Richard N.; Hu, Jih-Perng; Rorer, David C.

    2003-06-01

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the Transition Plate, and the Control Rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex™ polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal "peanut" ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rates, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive MicroShield code were used to model the gamma-ray transport and dose buildup.

  4. RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF THE PRESSURE VESSEL INTERNALS OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLDEN, N.E.; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.P.; RORER, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the transition plate, and the control rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex(trademark) polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal ''peanut'' ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rate, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive Microshield code were used to model the gamma transport and dose buildup

  5. Mathematical development of a 10 years old child phantom for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-08-01

    The main objectives of this work are: 1) to develop a project of a mathematical phantom representing as far as possible a child of 10 years old and 2)to use this phantom as a base for the specific absorbed fractions (SAF) calculations in the internal organs and skeleton due to the radioisotopes most used in nuclear medicine. This phantom was similar in shape to the Fisher and Snyder one, but several changes were introduced to make the phantom more realistic. Those changes included the addition of a neck region, puting the arms outside the trunk region, changes in the trunk, head and genitalia regions shapes. Several modifications were also done in the skeleton. For instance, the head bones, rib cage, pelvis, vertebral column, scapula, clavicles and the arms and legs bones were made very close to the real anatomic shapes. Some internal organs as the brain, lungs, liver, small and large intestines were also changed as a consenquence of the above modifications. In all those cases, the changes were made not only in the shapes but also in the organs and bones position in such a way to be more representative of the 10 years old anatomic age. Estimates of the SAF obtained by the use of this phantom, resulted, as expected, significantly different from those obtained by the use of a simpler model. In other words, the ratio between the SAF in the organs of the phantom developed in this project and the SAF in the organs of the phantom similar to the adult (obtained by reducing each region of the adult phantom by the use of appropriate factor) vary from 0.37 to 5. Those differences and their meaning are also discussed. (author) [pt

  6. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry - scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-03-16

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10-year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  7. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the research on biokinetics of incorporated radionuclides for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The presentation intends to discuss the contribution that techniques of analysis, based on activation analysis or mass spectrometry, can give to a very selected item of the protection against ionizing radiation: the biokinetics of relevant elements. The assessment of radiation dose to body tissues, following intakes of radionuclides in occupational, accidental exposures and environmental exposure in case of dispersion in the environment of radio contaminants of potential concerns, is essential to evaluate and manage the the related radiological risk, including the decisions and actions to be undertake. Internal dose is not directly measurable and the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP has developed models which describes the behavior of the substances in the human body, following their entry ways by inhalation or ingestion. Generally, all the available sources of information contribute in the modeling process, including studies on animals, use of chemical analogues and, obviously direct information on humans, which is definitely the preferred source on which a biokinetic model can be based. Biokinetic data on human are available for most of the biological essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and for some elements the metabolic behavior is well know due to their use in clinical application (I, Sr, Tc), moreover research is in progress for non-essential alpha emitters. However, for a number of element, including elements with radionuclide of radiological significance in case of environmental contamination (Ru, Zr, Ce, Te and Mo), human data are poor or missing and biokinetic parameters are essentially extrapolated from data on animals. The use of stable isotopes is a publicly well acceptable and ethically justifiable method, compared to the use of radioisotopes, when volunteer subjects are considered in the investigations. The design of the investigation is based on the double tracer approach: one isotope is given orally and a second

  8. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of {sup 131}I in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B., E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    {sup 131}I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of {sup 131}I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of {sup 131}I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of {sup 131}I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, {sup 131}I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m{sup 3}. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m{sup 3}. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, {sup 131}I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10{sup -5} mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific

  9. Summary Report of Consultants' Meeting on Improvements and Extensions to IRDF (International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, M.A.; Greenwood, L.R.

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of this Consultants' Meeting was to discuss the appropriate manner for implementing improvements and extensions to the current IRDF-2002 reactor dosimetry library. It was important to assess the applications requiring a dosimetry library, to discuss if a library that would meet the requirements of these varied applications could be produced and, if so, to define an approach for producing such an updated version. This report summarises the presentations and discussions undertaken in order to achieve these goals, followed by the recommendations and conclusions resulting from the meeting. (author)

  10. Internal dosimetry contamination: update of revision of the dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.; Rojo, A.M.; Sanguineti, R.

    1995-01-01

    ICRP publication 60 introduces new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has also issued, in publications 57, 67 y 69, new biokinetic models for selected radionuclides since the issue of publication 30. In publication 66 the new human respiratory tract model for radiological protection is described. The aim of the present paper is to compare values of dose coefficients for workers calculated using the new tissue weighting factors, biokinetic models and lung model with those given in publication 30.The software package LUPED 1.1 was used to calculate dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion. When possible, some changes in the biokinetic models were made trying to incorporate new parameters. The following radionuclides were analysed: 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99m Tc, 131 I, 137 Cs, 239 Pu y 241 Am. Most of the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new assumptions are within a factor of three of those calculated using the ICRP 30 lung and biokinetic models. Generally, the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new respiratory tract model and assuming a 5μm AMAD are lower than those calculated using the ICRP 30 model and parameters. The inhalation dose coefficients are generally within 10-90 % of the corresponding Publication 61 values, the difference tending to increase for relative insoluble compounds. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  11. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S.

    2011-01-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C≠ programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  12. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S., E-mail: claro@usp.br, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C{ne} programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  13. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  14. Preliminary dosimetry of (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra (methy1enephosphonicacid) for human based on biodistribution data in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Jalilian, Amir R; Shiri-Yekta, Zahra; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi-

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, radionuclides with high β- particle energies such as (166)Ho are recommended for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma. The addition of skeletal targeted radiotherapy to the patients can improve the response rate in phase I and II trials, with promising long-term survival data. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra methy1enephosphonicacid (PDTMP) was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats and was compared with (166)Ho-tetraazacyclododecane tetramethylene-phosphonate (DOTMP) as the only clinically used Ho-166 bone marrow ablative agent. In this work, the accumulated activity in animals was extrapolated to the accumulated activity in humans by mass extrapolation method. The absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-PDTMP was evaluated by medical internal radiation dose method. In this study, 166 Ho-PDTMP complex was prepared successfully using an in-house synthesized PDTMP ligand and (166)HoCl 3. Radiochemical purity of (166)Ho-PDTMP was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (>99%). The biodistribution of (166)Ho-PDTMP in wild-type rats was checked in animal tissues up to 48 h. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the data were compared using Student's t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The highest absorbed dose for this complex is observed in red marrow with 0.691 mSv/MBq. (166)Ho-PDTMP demonstrated a higher red marrow: Non target organ uptake ratio compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP. The results showed that 166 Ho-PDTMP has considerable characteristics compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore can be a good candidate for bone marrow ablation.

  15. PENENTU JUMLAH INTERNAL CONTROL COMPLIANCE COMMENT DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KUALITAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshia Christian

    2015-11-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah dan pengaruhnya terhadap kualitas laporan keuangan di Indonesia. Penelitian mengembangkan suatu model statistik untuk melaporkan komentar dalam sistem pengendalian internal dan kepatuhan (ICCC yang dikeluarkan oleh Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK-RI berdasarkan audit pemerintah daerah di Indonesia dan menggunakan 454 sampel pemerintah daerah tahun 2011. Penelitian ini menggunakan data softcopy laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah yang diperoleh dari BPK dan media publikasi lainnya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis regresi berganda untuk menguji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah dan binary logistic regression untuk menguji pengaruh antara jumlah ICCC dengan kualitas laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah satu tahun setelahnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa opini wajar tanpa pengecualian, peringkat kinerja pemerintah daerah, dan latarbelakang pendidikan auditor berpengaruh terhadap jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah sementara ukuran pemerintah daerah, kapabilitas APIP dan sertifikasi profesi auditor tidak memiliki pengaruh. Penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah berpengaruh negatif terhadap kualitas laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah satu tahun setelahnya. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pemerintah daerah belum mampu melaksanakan rekomendasi auditor dengan baik.

  16. IDAC-Dose 2.1, an internal dosimetry program for diagnostic nuclear medicine based on the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Johansson, Lennart; Eckerman, Keith; Mattsson, Sören

    2017-11-03

    To date, the estimated radiation-absorbed dose to organs and tissues in patients undergoing diagnostic examinations in nuclear medicine is derived via calculations based on models of the human body and the biokinetic behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical. An internal dosimetry computer program, IDAC-Dose2.1, was developed based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-specific absorbed fractions and computational framework of internal dose assessment given for reference adults in ICRP Publication 133. The program uses the radionuclide decay database of ICRP Publication 107 and considers 83 different source regions irradiating 47 target tissues, defining the effective dose as presented in ICRP Publications 60 and 103. The computer program was validated against another ICRP dosimetry program, Dose and Risk Calculation (DCAL), that employs the same computational framework in evaluation of occupational and environmental intakes of radionuclides. IDAC-Dose2.1 has a sub-module for absorbed dose calculations in spherical structures of different volumes and composition; this sub-module is intended for absorbed dose estimates in radiopharmaceutical therapy. For nine specific alpha emitters, the absorbed dose contribution from their decay products is also included in the committed absorbed dose calculations. The absorbed doses and effective dose of 131 I-iodide determined by IDAC-Dose2.1 were validated against the dosimetry program DCAL, showing identical results. IDAC-Dose2.1 was used to calculate absorbed doses for intravenously administered 18 F-FDG and orally administered 99m Tc-pertechnetate and 131 I-iodide, three frequently used radiopharmaceuticals. Using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103, the effective dose per administered activity was estimated to be 0.016 mSv/MBq for 18 F-FDG, 0.014 mSv/MBq for 99m Tc-pertechnetate, and 16 mSv/MBq for 131 I-iodide. The internal dosimetry program IDAC-Dose2.1 was developed and

  17. Pengaruh Pemasaran Internal dan Kualitas Layanan Internal Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Internal (Studi Pada Industri Kepariwisataan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi Jumadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the implication of internal marketing and internal service quality effectivity towards internal customer satisfaction in Tourism Industry in Yogyakarta Special Territory. This internal marketing studyinvolves variables of motivation and reward system, effective communication, effective employee's selection, effective recruitment, effective development, effective support system, and healthy work environment. While the internal quality service aspects that will be examined in this study are: tangible, emphaty, responsiveness, reliability and assurance, and then their influences on internal customer satisfaction would be analyzed.The sample size is 210 respondents,which is determined using purposive sampling method. The main instrument for data collection in this study is through questionnaire. The analysis tool used to examine the hypothesis of the study is Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS Version 20.0 Software. The result of the study shows that: Internal marketing and internal quality service significantly influence internal customers satisfation. However, the internal quality service influence the internal customers satisfaction more significantly. Therefore the managers in tourism industry should improve the internal marketing more than the internal quality service.

  18. Il sistema monetario internazionale negli anni settanta: regime dei tassi di cambio e creazione di liquidità. (Liquidity creation and risk in the international monetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L' articolo esamina il funzionamento del sistema finanziario attuale, segnalando la sua funzione più importante , vale a dire l'offerta di liquidità e il suo impatto sulla vasta gamma di variabili finanziarie internazionali. Liquidità e rischio sono concetti strettamente correlati. Come Keynes e Hicks hanno insegnato , una definizione significativa di liquidità non può essere data senza fare riferimento al rischio. L'autore fornisce alcune considerazioni per aiutare a far luce sulle azioni politiche che potrebbero essere necessarie per mitigare i problemi e le difficoltà connesse con l'attuale impostazione monetaria internazionale .The article looks at how the present financial system works, signalling out its most crucial function, namely the provision of liquidity and its impact on the broad spectrum of international financial variables. Liquidity and risk are closely interrelated concepts. As Keynes and Hicks taught, a meaningful definition of liquidity cannot be given without reference to risk itself. The author provides some considerations to help shed light on the policy actions that may be required to mitigate the problems and difficulties associated with the current international monetary setting. JEL: G15, F30, E42

  19. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  20. An introduction to radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, S.

    1979-01-01

    This book provides an elementary introduction to radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is treated from first principles dealing with the following aspects:- basic concepts of nuclear physics; ionizing radiations including charged particles, photons, and neutrons and their interaction with matter at the atomic level; the transitory and permanent effects of ionizing radiation on matter in bulk; dosimetric quantities and units; the measurement of exposure by a variety of techniques including thermoluminescent and photographic dosimetry; and finally radiation protection including the biological effects of ionizing radiations, the ethics of radiation protection, dose limitation, protective measures from external and internal irradiation, and monitoring. (U.K.)

  1. Characterization of the materials used in the construction of a physical phantom for calibration of {sup 18}F-FDG internal dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Katia D.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Silva, Teógenes A. da, E-mail: katiadvitall@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Laboratory (LDI) of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, is responsible for the routine monitoring of Occupationally Exposed Individuals (OEIs) to {sup 18}F-FDG and other radiopharmaceuticals produced at CDTN. The monitoring system is usually calibrated using a physical head simulator, since {sup 18}F is usually incorporated into the brain at the time of contamination. However, the geometry of the brain is not adequately represented by the latex pocket, which does not fill the entire volume of the volume skull. In this study, the characterization of the materials regarding the composition, density and attenuation coefficient of the materials used in the production of the new physical head simulator was carried out. An equivalent tissue material containing 97% water, 2.5% agar, 0.5% urea and 8 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG was produced, the interior of the skull was filled with the material. After solidification, experimental measurements were performed on the NaI(Tl) 3 {sup x}3{sup s}cintillation detector, the density of the simulant material was determined by the flotation method and the attenuation coefficient of the XCOM database software provided by NIST. It was concluded that the PVC skull has acceptable characteristics to simulate a human skull in {sup 18}F-FDG internal dosimetry. The agar gel was shown to be a stable material capable of modeling different geometries and simulating the incorporation of {sup 18}F-FDG into the brain. (author)

  2. Characterization of the materials used in the construction of a physical phantom for calibration of 18F-FDG internal dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Katia D.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Silva, Teógenes A. da

    2017-01-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Laboratory (LDI) of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, is responsible for the routine monitoring of Occupationally Exposed Individuals (OEIs) to 18 F-FDG and other radiopharmaceuticals produced at CDTN. The monitoring system is usually calibrated using a physical head simulator, since 18 F is usually incorporated into the brain at the time of contamination. However, the geometry of the brain is not adequately represented by the latex pocket, which does not fill the entire volume of the volume skull. In this study, the characterization of the materials regarding the composition, density and attenuation coefficient of the materials used in the production of the new physical head simulator was carried out. An equivalent tissue material containing 97% water, 2.5% agar, 0.5% urea and 8 MBq of 18 F-FDG was produced, the interior of the skull was filled with the material. After solidification, experimental measurements were performed on the NaI(Tl) 3 x 3 s cintillation detector, the density of the simulant material was determined by the flotation method and the attenuation coefficient of the XCOM database software provided by NIST. It was concluded that the PVC skull has acceptable characteristics to simulate a human skull in 18 F-FDG internal dosimetry. The agar gel was shown to be a stable material capable of modeling different geometries and simulating the incorporation of 18 F-FDG into the brain. (author)

  3. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik; Bouville, Andre; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana

    2011-01-01

    source region for selected target organs—small intestine wall, lungs, pancreas and breast—as well as illustrate differences in energy deposition across the energy range (12 photon energies from 0.01 to 4 MeV). Differences were found in the SAFs between phantoms in a similar manner as the differences observed in S values but with larger differences at lower photon energies. To investigate the differences observed in the S and SAF values, the chord length distributions (CLDs) were computed for the selected source–target pairs and compared across the phantoms. As demonstrated by the CLDs, we found that the differences between phantoms in those factors used in internal dosimetry were governed to a significant degree by inter-organ distances which are a function of organ shape as well as organ location.

  4. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-01-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of 131 I-Crtx l31 I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of 131 I-Crtx and 131 I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of 131 I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I-Crtx was 0.01 mGy/370

  5. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  6. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  7. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta

    2015-09-30

    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  9. Validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo; Criterios para la validacion de un laboratorio de dosimetria interna in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. de las M., E-mail: mercedes.alfaro@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    People working with radioactive materials, under certain circumstances (e.g. not using the proper protective equipment, an incident not covered, etc.) could be incorporated into the body. The radiation protection programs include direct measurement methods -in vivo- or indirect -in vitro- or both, to know that radioactive material is incorporated into the body. The monitoring measurements of internal contamination or (Radio-bioassay) are carried out with the purpose of determining the amount of radioactive material incorporated in the body; estimate the effective dose and committed dose; management administration of radiation protection; appropriate medical management; and to provide the data necessary for the legal requirements and the preservation of records. The measurement methods used in the monitoring of internal contamination must be validated by the combination of the following processes: calibration, using standards reference materials and/or simulators; execute systematic research, using control samples; and intercomparison between laboratories and performance tests. In this paper the validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo are presented following the information provided by the standard ANSI N13-30-1996 and ISO/TEC 17025-2005 as are the criteria of facilities, staff training, interpretation of measurements, performance criteria for monitoring of internal contamination in vivo, results reporting and records retention. Thereby we achieve standardized quantitative performance criteria of truthfulness, accuracy and detection limit and a consensus on statistical definitions to establish the validation plan of a monitoring laboratory of internal contamination in vivo. (Author)

  10. Proton dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Siebers, J.; Miller, D.; Moyers, M.; Schaefer, M.; Jones, D.; Vynckier, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Delacroix, S.; Isacsson, U.; Medin, J.; Kacperek, A.; Lomax, A.; Coray, A.; Kluge, H.; Heese, J.; Verhey, L.; Daftari, I.; Gall, K.; Lam, G.; Beck, T.; Hartmann, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background and purpose: Methods for determining absorbed dose in clinical proton beams are based on dosimetry protocols provided by the AAPM and the ECHED. Both groups recommend the use of air-filled ionization chambers calibrated in terms of exposure or air kerma in a 60 Co beam when a calorimeter or Faraday cup dosimeter is not available. The set of input data used in the AAPM and the ECHED protocols, especially proton stopping powers and w-value is different. In order to verify inter-institutional uniformity of proton beam calibration, the AAPM and the ECHED recommend periodic dosimetry intercomparisons. In this paper we report the results of an international proton dosimetry intercomparison which was held at Loma Linda University Medical Center. The goal of the intercomparison was two-fold: first, to estimate the consistency of absorbed dose delivered to patients among the participating facilities, and second, to evaluate the differences in absorbed dose determination due to differences in 60 Co-based ionization chamber calibration protocols. Materials and methods: Thirteen institutions participated in an international proton dosimetry intercomparison. The measurements were performed in a 15-cm square field at a depth of 10 cm in both an unmodulated beam (nominal accelerator energy of 250 MeV) and a 6-cm modulated beam (nominal accelerator energy of 155 MeV), and also in a circular field of diameter 2.6 cm at a depth of 1.14 cm in a beam with 2.4 cm modulation (nominal accelerator energy of 100 MeV). Results: The results of the intercomparison have shown that using ionization chambers with 60 Co calibration factors traceable to standard laboratories, and institution-specific conversion factors and dose protocols, the absorbed dose specified to the patient would fall within 3% of the mean value. A single measurement using an ionization chamber with a proton chamber factor determined with a Faraday cup calibration differed from the mean by 8%. Conclusion: The

  11. Dosimetry for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry

  12. The group version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File IRDF-90 for use in the Neutron Metrology File NMF-90 (IRDF-90/NMF-G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szondi, E.J.

    1999-10-01

    The International Reactor Dosimetry File IRDF-90 of the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA has been developed for neutron metrology purposes. Its second version was distributed in October 1993. In frame of the evaluation of the Neutron Metrology File NMF-90 a systematic revision of IRDF-90 has been performed. The format of this cross section library has been adjusted to the ENDF-6 format rules, and the integrity of covariance information of several reactions has been improved. The library includes data on 53 reactions of 37 detector materials, furthermore 9 cross section sets without covariance information (cover materials, dpa calculation). The cross sections are available in a 640 groups (extended SAND II) histogram format. This version of the library noted IRDF-90/NMF-G is distributed in PC DOS format. Programs for installation and integrity test are also supplied. (author)

  13. Computational modeling of the mathematical phantoms of the Brazilian woman to internal dosimetry calculations and for comparison of the absorbed fractions with specific reference women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this work is the study of the concept of mathematical dummy - also called phantoms - used in internal dosimetry and radiation protection, from the perspective of computer simulations. In this work he developed the mathematical phantom of the Brazilian woman, to be used as the basis of calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (AEDs) in the body's organs and skeleton by virtue of goals with regarding the diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The phantom now developed is similar, in form, to Snyder phantom making it more realistic for the anthropomorphic conditions of Brazilian women. For so we used the Monte Carlo method of formalism, through computer modeling. As a contribution to the objectives of this study, it was developed and implemented the computer system cFAE - consultation Fraction Specific Absorbed, which makes it versatile for the user's query researcher

  14. Development of internal dosimetry protocols using the code MCNPx and voxelized phantoms of Reference of ICRP 110; Desenvolvimento de protocolos de dosimetria interna empregando o codigo MCNPx e fantomas voxelizados de referencia da ICRP 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M.; Fonseca, T.C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de esenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Trindade, B.M.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to perform internal dosimetry calculations for {sup 18}F-FDG employing the MCNPx code and ICRP 110 voxelized reference phantoms (RCP{sub A}F and RCP{sub A}M). The methodologies developed and validated here represent protocols of internal dosimetry holding a better anthropomorphic and anthropometric representation of the human model in which heterogeneous distributions of the emissions can be adopted, useful in the study of new radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination cases. The reference phantoms were implemented to run on MCNPx. Biodistribution data of {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical provided in ICRP 128 were used in the simulations. The organs average absorbed doses and the effective doses were calculated for each model. The values obtained were compared with two reference works available in the literature for validation purposes. The means of the difference of our values and Zankl et al., 2012 reference values were -0.3% for RCP{sub A}M and -0.4% for RCP{sub A}F. Considering Hadid et al., 2013 reference values, the means of the deviation were -2.9% and -2.2% for RCP{sub A}M and RCP{sub A}F respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p <0.01) between the reference values and the values calculated by the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group. Considering the {sup 18}F-FDG validation study performed in this work, the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group have produced suitable dosimetry data. (author)

  15. Esperienza del Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia dell’Ospedale di Trento nell’Accreditamento Joint Commission International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pederzolli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation is a standard based process provided by the Joint Commission International (JCI, in order to evaluate the health organization.The aim of this program, according to international standards and indicators, is both to promote and systematically test the continuous improvement of the health care services, with high regard for local needs. The work focuses on analysing the role played by the Microbiology and Virology Laboratory of Trento Hospital within the JCI Accreditation process.We therefore tried to examine and improve its different activities, in compliance with the specific JCI standards.

  16. High dose dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Radiation processing today offers various advantages in the field of sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, food preservation, treatment of chemical materials and a variety of other products widely used in modern society, all of which are of direct relevance to health and welfare. The safety and economic importance of radiation processing is clearly recognized. It is understood that reliable dosimetry is a key parameter for quality assurance of radiation processing and irradiated products. Furthermore, the standardization of dosimetry can provide a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and form the basis of international clearance for free trade. After the initiation of the Agency's high dose standardization programme (1977), the first IAEA Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry was organized in 1984. As a result, concern as to the necessity of reliable dosimetry has greatly escalated not only in the scientific community but also in the radiation processing industry. The second International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing was held in Vienna from 5 to 9 November, 1990, with a view to providing an international forum for the exchange of technical information on up to date developments in this particular field. The scientific programme held promises for an authoritative account of the status of high dose dosimetry throughout the world in 1990. Forty-one papers presented at the meeting discussed the development of new techniques, the improvement of reference and routine dosimetry systems, and the quality control and assurance of dosimetry. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. [{sup 131}I]-TYR3-octreotide: clinical dosimetry and use for internal radiotherapy of metastatic paraganglioma and carcinoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulieu, Jean-Louis E-mail: baulieu@med.univ-tours; Resche, Isabelle; Bardies, Manuel; Chauvet, Alain Faivre; Lecloirec, Joseph; Malhaire, Jean-Pierre; Thomas, Eric; Faurous, Patrick; Sassolas, Genevieve; Pourcelot, Leandre; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Guilloteau, Denis; Besnard, Jean-Claude

    2000-11-01

    Dosimetry and therapeutic application of [{sup 131}I]-Tyr3-octreotide were evaluated in three patients with metastatic paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor. The in vitro stability of [{sup 131}I]-Tyr3-octreotide was verified. Tumor uptake and residence time were between 0.02 and 0.1% and 0.5 to 9.8 h, respectively. The calculated tumor radiation doses were between 0.105 and 0.696 mGy{center_dot}MBq{sup -1}. No intolerance or adverse effects were observed after the therapeutic doses (3.3-6.6 GBq). A partial tumor response was obtained in one patient and no response occurred in two patients.

  18. Combined Yttrium-90 microsphere selective internal radiation therapy and external beam radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: From clinical aspects to dosimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti-Hao Wang

    Full Text Available Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT is an effective treatment strategy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. However, the prognoses of patients with portal vein thrombosis, extra-hepatic metastases, or residual tumors remain poor when treated with SIRT alone. In these patients, sequential external beam radiotherapy (EBRT may offer a chance of salvage. Here, we reported the clinical outcomes and the detailed dosimetry analysis of 22 patients treated with combination therapy.Between October 2011 and May 2015, 22 consecutive patients who underwent EBRT after yttrium-90 (90Y SIRT were included in this study. The post-SIRT 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT of each patient was transferred to dose distribution by adopting the local deposition hypothesis. The patient-specific 3-dimensional biological effective dose distribution of combined SIRT and EBRT was generated. The overall survival and safety were evaluated. The relationship between dosimetric parameters and liver toxicity was analyzed.The mean administered activity of SIRT was 1.50 GBq (range: 0.5-2.8. The mean prescribed dose of EBRT was 42.3 Gy (range: 15-63 in 14 fractions (range: 5-15 and was targeted to the residual liver tumor in 12 patients (55%, portal vein thrombosis in 11 patients (50%, and perihilar lymphadenopathies in 4 patients (18%. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 59.8%, 47.9%, and 47.9%, respectively. Overall, 8 patients (36% developed > grade 2 liver toxicities, and the Child-Pugh score prior to EBRT strongly affected the toxicity risk. A dosimetry analysis restricted to 18 Child-Pugh A/B patients showed that the V100 (The fraction of normal liver exposed to more than 100 Gy to V140 significance differed between patients who did or did not experience hepatotoxicity. The V110 was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (18.6±11.6% vs 29.5±5.8%; P = 0.030.Combined therapy is feasible and safe if patients are carefully selected

  19. Combined Yttrium-90 microsphere selective internal radiation therapy and external beam radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: From clinical aspects to dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ti-Hao; Huang, Pin-I; Hu, Yu-Wen; Lin, Ko-Han; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Yang; Liu, Chien-An; Tseng, Hsiou-Shan; Liu, Yu-Ming; Lee, Rheun-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is an effective treatment strategy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the prognoses of patients with portal vein thrombosis, extra-hepatic metastases, or residual tumors remain poor when treated with SIRT alone. In these patients, sequential external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) may offer a chance of salvage. Here, we reported the clinical outcomes and the detailed dosimetry analysis of 22 patients treated with combination therapy. Between October 2011 and May 2015, 22 consecutive patients who underwent EBRT after yttrium-90 (90Y) SIRT were included in this study. The post-SIRT 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT of each patient was transferred to dose distribution by adopting the local deposition hypothesis. The patient-specific 3-dimensional biological effective dose distribution of combined SIRT and EBRT was generated. The overall survival and safety were evaluated. The relationship between dosimetric parameters and liver toxicity was analyzed. The mean administered activity of SIRT was 1.50 GBq (range: 0.5-2.8). The mean prescribed dose of EBRT was 42.3 Gy (range: 15-63) in 14 fractions (range: 5-15) and was targeted to the residual liver tumor in 12 patients (55%), portal vein thrombosis in 11 patients (50%), and perihilar lymphadenopathies in 4 patients (18%). The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 59.8%, 47.9%, and 47.9%, respectively. Overall, 8 patients (36%) developed > grade 2 liver toxicities, and the Child-Pugh score prior to EBRT strongly affected the toxicity risk. A dosimetry analysis restricted to 18 Child-Pugh A/B patients showed that the V100 (The fraction of normal liver exposed to more than 100 Gy) to V140 significance differed between patients who did or did not experience hepatotoxicity. The V110 was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (18.6±11.6% vs 29.5±5.8%; P = 0.030). Combined therapy is feasible and safe if patients are carefully selected. Specifically

  20. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  1. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.

    2008-01-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  2. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective: The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method: A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results: The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion: There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal

  3. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  4. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  5. Dosimetry of proton therapy beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.

    1996-01-01

    Review of basic dosimetry of proton therapy treatment are presented with a goal to further development of the center for proton therapy planed in the frame of accelerator installation TESLA, which construction has been going on in the Vinca Institute. The basic of existing international recommendation for proton dosimetry, related both to dosimeter choice and calibration, as well as to absorbed dose determination methods, are presented. Recommendation statement and supposition in the future proton therapy practice belongs to the basic elements of developed conceptual program for proton therapy usage

  6. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Research and innovation in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this article some relevant lines of research in radiation dosimetry are presented. In some of them innovative approaches have been recently proposed in recent years. In others innovation is still to come as it is necessary in view of the insufficiency of the actual methods and techniques. mention is made to Thermoluminescence Dosimetry an to the improvement produced by new computational methods for the analysis of the usually complex TL signals. A solid state dosimetric technique recently proposed, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL, is briefly presented. This technique promises advantages over TLD for personal and environmental dosimetry. The necessity of improving the measurement characteristics of neutron personal dosemeters is commented, making reference to some very recent developments. The situation of the dosimetry in connection with radiobiology research is overviewed, commenting the controversy on the adequacy and utility of the quality absorbed dose for these activities. Finally the special problematic of internal dosimetry is discussed. (Author) 25 refs

  8. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  9. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. Molecular characterization of the di-leucine-based internalization motif of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1996-01-01

    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinases. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation of Ser-126 and the presence of the di-leucine sequence Leu-131 and Leu-132 in CD3 gamma are required...

  11. PENGARUH KOMUNIKASI INTERNAL, MOTIVASI KERJA DAN FASILITAS DAN FASILITAS KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA PERANGKAT DESA DI KECAMATAN WONOBOYO KABUPATEN TEMANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Ambarwati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh komunikasi internal, motivasi kerja, dan fasilitas kerja terhadap kinerja perangkat desa di Kecamatan Wonoboyo, Kabupaten Temanggung baik secara simultan maupun parsial. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah 159 orang perangkat desa di seluruh wilayah Kecamatan Wonoboyo. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah dokumentasi dan kuesioner. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif persentase, analisis regresi linier berganda, analisis uji asumsi klasik, dan analisis uji hipotesis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa persamaan regresi linier berganda yaitu Y = 24,810 + 0,479X1 + 0,205X2 + 0,405X3. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan besarnya pengaruh secara simultan komunikasi internal, motivasi kerja, dan fasilitas kerja terhadap kinerja perangkat desa sebesar 56,8%. Secara parsial besarnya pengaruh komunikasi internal sebesar 12,53%, besarnya pengaruh motivasi kerja sebesar 5,19%, dan besarnya pengaruh fasilitas kerja sebesar 9,30%. The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of internal communication, work motivation, and working facilities to the village councilors performance in the district of Wonoboyo, Temanggung Regency either simultaneously or partially. The population in this research are 159 people of the village councilors. The data collecting method is observation, questionnaire and documentation. The analysis data technique are percentage descriptive, multiple linear regression, the classical assumption test, and hypothesis testing analysis. Result of the analysis shows the multiple linear regression equivalent Y = 24,810 + 0,479X1 + 0,205X2 + 0,405X3. The result of the calculations showed the influence simultaneously of internal communication, work motivation, and working facilities to the village councilors’ performance was 56.8 %. Partially, the influence of internal communication is 12.53 %, work motivation was 5.19%, and work facilities

  12. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  13. Protocol for adaptation of internal dosimetry techniques for planning of individualized doses of 131I in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of radiation doses is emphasized in diseases with good prognosis, as differentiated thyroid carcinomas, especially in pediatric patients, since the radiation risk is conversely proportional to age. Aiming to establish individual treatment planning, it has been studied four dosimetry methodologies (external dose monitoring, image quantification, urine and blood bioassay) for four 13.3 ± 1.5-year-old female patients, who received 107 ± 15 MBq (2,9 ± 0,4 mCi) for tracer dose and 5.5 ± 0.3 GBq (149 ± 8 mCi) for thyroid ablation. Effective half-lives, residence times and cumulated activities were estimated in organs and tissues with iodine uptake, through planar images quantification by conjugate-view and attenuation correction, in order to compare biokinetic behavior in tracer dose and ablative dose phases. For external monitoring, two patients had similar whole-body effective half-lives in both phases. For this methodology, despite the uncertainties associated to measurements, equipment used and procedures performed were adequate. For urine bioassay, there were not similarities among the patients whole-body effective half-lives. Through blood bioassay, it was observed that 0.2 % of the administered activity for ablative dose remained in the blood until 76 hours after administration. The external monitoring allowed estimating effective doses in patients mothers by conversion of the environmental equivalent dose. In the ablative dose phase, the effective doses resulted in 1.3 ± 0.3 mSv in the hospital and 0.3 ± 0.1 mSv in patients houses. (author)

  14. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  15. Update of computer applications associated to measuring equipment of the services of internal dosimetry of NPPS and Tecnatom; Actualizacion de las aplicaciones informaticas asociadas a los equipos de medida de los Servicios de Dosimetria Interna de las CCNN y de Tecnatom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Sollet, E.; Serrano, E.

    2014-07-01

    Within the continuous improvement processes that take place in all the activities taking place in the Spanish nuclear power plants, and as a result of implementation of ISO Standards for Internal Dosimetry, has undertaken a review, improvement and updating INDAC ALEDIN and applications associated with measuring equipment and DIYs Quicky kind Personal Internal Dosimetry Services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom This paper presents updates capacities both tools. (Author)

  16. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  17. Dosimetry techniques applied to thermoluminescent age estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.

    1986-12-01

    The reliability and the ease of the field application of the measuring techniques of natural radioactivity dosimetry are studied. The natural radioactivity in minerals in composed of the internal dose deposited by alpha and beta radiations issued from the sample itself and the external dose deposited by gamma and cosmic radiations issued from the surroundings of the sample. Two technics for external dosimetry are examined in details. TL Dosimetry and field gamma dosimetry. Calibration and experimental conditions are presented. A new integrated dosimetric method for internal and external dose measure is proposed: the TL dosimeter is placed in the soil in exactly the same conditions as the sample ones, during a time long enough for the total dose evaluation [fr

  18. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Div. Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2000-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CEE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environmental conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues i a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati al settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile

  19. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2001-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environment conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues in a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile. In

  20. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  1. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology; Dosimetria de emisores internos: principios y perspectivas de la metodologia MIRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G. [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  2. Assessment of necessary regularity of internal irradiation monitoring on the basis of direct and indirect methods of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykhin, V.M.; Ivanova, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that when assessing the necessary periodicity of internal irradiation monitoring, it is required to take account of the nature (rhythm) of radionuclide intake to the organism during the monitoring period, the effective period of radionuclide biological half-life, its activity in the organism, sensitivity of the technique applied and the labour-consumig character of the monitoring method [ru

  3. An IAEA Survey of Dosimetry Audit Networks for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A Survey: In 2010, the IAEA undertook a task to investigate and review the coverage and operations of national and international dosimetry audit programmes for radiotherapy. The aim was to organize the global database describing the activities of dosimetry audit networks in radiotherapy. A dosimetry audit questionnaire has been designed at an IAEA consultants' meeting held in 2010 for organizations conducting various levels of dosimetry audits for radiotherapy. Using this questionnaire, a survey was conducted for the first time in 2010 and repeated in 2011. Request for information on different aspects of the dosimetry audit was included, such as the audit framework and resources, its coverage and scope, the dosimetry system used and the modes of audit operation, i.e. remotely and through on-site visits. The IAEA questionnaire was sent to over 80 organizations, members of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and other organizations known for having operated dosimetry audits for radiotherapy in their countries or internationally. Survey results and discussion: In response to the IAEA survey, 53 organizations in 45 countries confirmed that they operate dosimetry audit services for radiotherapy. Mostly, audits are conducted nationally, however there are five organizations offering audits abroad, with two of them operating in various parts of the world and three of them at the regional level, auditing radiotherapy centres in neighbouring countries. The distribution of dosimetry audit services in the world is given. (author)

  4. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  5. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity; Estimaciones de dosimetria interna: calculos practicos de actividad incorporada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  6. Effect of emaciation and obesity on small-animal internal radiation dosimetry for positron-emitting radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Tianwu; Zaidi Habib

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Rats are widely used in biomedical research involving molecular imaging and therefore the radiation dose to animals has become a concern. The weight of laboratory animals might change through emaciation or obesity as a result of their use in various research experiments including those investigating different diet types. In this work we evaluated the effects of changes in body weight induced by emaciation and obesity on the internal radiation dose from common positron emitting radion...

  7. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  8. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  9. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  10. Status of neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, M.F.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The status of current international efforts to develop standardized sets of evaluated energy-dependent (differential) neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry is reviewed. The status and availability of differential data are considered, some recent results of the data testing of the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file using 252 Cf and 235 U benchmark reference neutron fields are presented, and a brief review is given of the current efforts to characterize and identify dosimetry benchmark radiation fields

  11. An Assessment of the Interindividual Variability of Internal Dosimetry during Multi-Route Exposure to Drinking Water Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Valcke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate inter-individual variability in absorbed and internal doses after multi-route exposure to drinking water contaminants (DWC in addition to the corresponding variability in equivalent volumes of ingested water, expressed as liter-equivalents (LEQ. A multi-route PBPK model described previously was used for computing the internal dose metrics in adults, neonates, children, the elderly and pregnant women following a multi-route exposure scenario to chloroform and to tri- and tetra-chloroethylene (TCE and PERC. This scenario included water ingestion as well as inhalation and dermal contact during a 30-min bathroom exposure. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of internal dose metrics were obtained. The ratio of each of the dose metrics for inhalation, dermal and multi-route exposures to the corresponding dose metrics for the ingestion of drinking water alone allowed computation of LEQ values. Mean BW-adjusted LEQ values based on absorbed doses were greater in neonates regardless of the contaminant considered (0.129–0.134 L/kg BW, but higher absolute LEQ values were obtained in average adults (3.6–4.1 L, elderly (3.7–4.2 L and PW (4.1–5.6 L. LEQ values based on the parent compound’s AUC were much greater than based on the absorbed dose, while the opposite was true based on metabolite-based dose metrics for chloroform and TCE, but not PERC. The consideration of the 95th percentile values of BW-adjusted LEQ did not significantly change the results suggesting a generally low intra-subpopulation variability during multi-route exposure. Overall, this study pointed out the dependency of the LEQ on the dose metrics, with consideration of both the subpopulation and DWC.

  12. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  13. Dosimetry optimization at COGEMA-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the la Hague site strives to apply international recommendations together with national regulations concerning radiation protection, and especially the respect of limitation and optimization principles. The application of these principles is based on the implementation of a passive dosimetry and an active dosimetry. The monthly passive dosimetry is monitored by means of a photographic dosimetry film, completed with lithium fluorine thermoluminescent film badges. This personal dosimetry common to X, β, γ and neutron radiations is carried out in close relationship between the Radiation Protection Department, the Occupational Medical Department and the staff running the Plant. The application or ALARA's principle as well as that of radiation protection optimization implies to implement a complementary active dosimetry enabling to gain in real time, the personal dosimetry of each intervening person, either they be COGEMA's workers or external companies'. This active dosimetry provides with following information: This preventive dosimetry is based on the knowledge of doses integration in real time and is fitted with alarm thresholds according to the total amount of doses and dose rates. Thresholds on the dose rate are also set relatively to the radiological environment. This knowledge of doses and dose rates allows a stricter management of the works, while analyzing them according to the nature of the work, to the location and to the skills of the intervening people. This dosimetry allows to analyze and optimize doses integration according to the works nature for the whole intervening staff. The la Hague Site has developed an active personal dosimetry system, common to every intervening person, COGEMA or external companies. The DOSICARD was thus elaborated, shaped as an electronic dosimeter fitted with an alarm and a smart card. The access to controlled areas is conditioned to information given by the DOSICARD concerning medical aptitudes and

  14. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  15. Steps towards an individual treatment planning with the internal dosimetry of 18F-FDG as example for nuclear diagnostics and perspectives for internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaickner, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Moving towards a more individual treatment planning, the studies below describe the perspectives and methods both in nuclear diagnostics and in internal radiation therapy. With 18 F-FDG as example in nuclear diagnostics, a more precise estimation of the effective dose to the patient is achieved by the calculation of physiognomy-dependent S-values. This project is a work in progress and the results are expected soon. Additionally the future possibilities of individual treatment planning in internal radiation therapy, such as the use of β-nuclide pairs and the potentials of combining CT and PET, are outlined. (author)

  16. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  17. Accreditation of the Personal Dosimetry internal Service Tecnatom by the National Entity (ENAC); Acreditacion del Servicio de Dosimetria Personal Interna de Tecnatom por la Entidad Nacional de Acreditacion (ENAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.

    2014-07-01

    The service of personal Dosimetry internal Tecnatom has made the process of adapting its methodology and quality assurance, requirements technical and management will be required to obtain accreditation from the National Accreditation Entity according to ISO / IEC 170251 standard {sup G}eneral Requirements competence of testing and calibration laboratories. To carry out this process, the laboratory has defined quality criteria set out in their test procedures, based on ISO Standards 27048: 2011; ISO 20553: 2005 and ISO 28218: 2010. This paper describes what has been the methodology used to implement the requirements of different ISO test methods of SDPI Tecnatom. (Author)

  18. Evaluating the Application of Tissue-Specific Dose Kernels Instead of Water Dose Kernels in Internal Dosimetry : A Monte Carlo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghadam, Maryam Khazaee; Asl, Alireza Kamali; Geramifar, Parham; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the application of tissue-specific dose kernels instead of water dose kernels to improve the accuracy of patient-specific dosimetry by taking tissue heterogeneities into consideration. Materials and Methods: Tissue-specific dose point kernels (DPKs) and

  19. Analisis Profitabilitas Bank Umum Go Public di Indonesia Sebelum dan Setelah Krisis : Internal dan Eksternal Faktor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palupi Lindiasari S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to give the analysis of the determinants of 16 Indonesia go-public banking profitability over the periode 2005-2014. This study focus on the impact of internal factors (NIM, BOPO, CAR, LDR and NPL and external factors (inflation, BIrate, IHSG and GDPdeflator before and after crisis.  Furthermore, is to analize the simultaneous and growth effect of internal and external factors that have an influence to the profitability of go-public banking companies. Finally, is to give recommendation for managerial banking policy. This study using random effect method.  The empirical result shows that Indonesia go-public banking is influenced by several factor both internal and external factors.  After crisis CAR has positive and significant effect on ROA by 0,1 times larger than the effect of before crisis CAR. Whereas other internal factor (BOPO, NPL and NIM give the same effect on ROA, both before and after crisis.  Bank ownership (DUMP and LDR have no significant effect on ROA neither before nor after crisis.  External factor (Infation, BIrate and IHSG are significant different effect on ROA’s before and after crisis condition.  Only GDPdeflator give the same effect on ROA both before and after crisis condition.  The recommendation from this result is managerial banking needed to reduce growth of internal factor that cause negatif side effect on ROA.

  20. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  1. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Neutron personal dosimetry: state-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurný, František

    2005-03-01

    State-of-art of the personal neutron dosimetry is presented, analysed and discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the problems of this type of the dosimetry of external exposure for radiation fields at nuclear power plants. A review of general problems of neutron dosimetry is given and the active individual dosimetry methods available and/or in the stage of development are briefly reviewed. Main attention is devoted to the analysis of the methods available for passive individual neutron dosimetry. The characteristics of these dosemeters were studied and are compared: their energy response functions, detection thresholds and the highest detection limits, the linearity of response, the influence of environmental factors, etc. Particular attention is devoted to their behavior in reactor neutron fields. It is concluded that the choice of the neutron personal dosemeter depends largely on the conditions in which the instrument should be used (neutron spectrum, the level of exposure and the exposure rate, etc.). The results obtained with some of these dosemeters during international intercomparisons are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the personal neutron dosimeter developed and routinely used by National Personal Dosimetry Service Ltd. in the Czech Republic. (author)

  4. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  5. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Domokos, M.; Polyak, A.; Thuroczy, J.; Janoki, G.

    2009-01-01

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  6. PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN CINEMATHERAPY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PROSOSIAL PADA SISWA KELAS VIII DI BOSOWA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeruddin Niva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are: (i to know the prosocial behavioral level of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar before and after giving cinematography approach, and (ii to know whether or not the approach is able to enhance the prosocial behavior of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar. The research is a quantitative research using experimental method. The research design used is quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group design. The data collection technique applied is scale and FGD (Focus Group Discussion. The findings shows that (i the prosocial behavioral level of the students was low in pretest while after giving treatment there were significant increase to the prosocial behavior in the experimental group, and (ii the cinematography approach was able to increase the prosocial behavior of the Grade VIII students in Bosowa Internatinal School Makassar. 

  7. Prediksi Jumlah Tamu Menginap di Hotel Karlita International, Tegal, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is forecasting comparative analysis of number of guess room occupancy at Karlita International Hotel, Tegal, Central Java using 11 forecasting methods: linear regression, moving average, weighted moving average, exponential smoothing, exponential smoothing with trend, naïve method, trend analysis, additive decomposition – CMA, additive decomposition – average all, multiplicative decomposition – CMA, multiplicative decomposition – average All. Article used 17 data from January 2012 to Mei 2013, and results after using those 11 methods were the smallest MAD is 101.69 and the smallest MSE is 15,163.95. From additive decomposition – average all method, data showed guess room occupancy forecast at Karlita International Hotel for June 2013 is 960 guess.

  8. Peranan Lingkungan Eksternal Internal Terhadap Kinerja Industri Kecil Batik di Kabupaten Bangkalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Chrismardani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of every kind of industry always related to external-internal environment. Based on that subject, this research aimed to analyze the influences of external environment factors (buyers, suppliers, techology and government and internal environment factors (marketing, finance and production to the performance of small business of batik in Bangkalan. The population of this research was the small business’s manager or owner in Kecamatan Tanjung Buli Kabupaten Bangkalan. The sample was 42 batik’s manager or owner, taken in 3 villages. The result of this research was : buyers, suppliers, technology, marketing and production had the significant influences to the small business’s performance; and marketing had the biggest influence to the small businesss’s performance.

  9. Peran International Organization For Migration dalam Menanggulangi Masalah Women Trafficking di India (2008-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Fachri, Yuli; Elfitriani, Yori

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to find out the role of International Organization for Migration (IOM) against women trafficking in India. IOM started its operations in India in the year 2001 to provide emergency relief in Gujarat when it was hit by an earthquake. While implementing the project in Gujarat, IOM was planning to expand its operations in India, it decided to work on the counter trafficking issue which was one of its mandated service areas. IOM, in close collaboration with Ministry of Overseas...

  10. ANALISIS PENDEKATAN INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL KONSUMEN TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN PRODUK BATIK DI KAMPOENG BATIK LAWEYAN SURAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Moechammad Nasir

    2016-01-01

    This research in first year aim to to analyse influence signifikan among cultural factor, social factor, personal factor, and psychological factor to buying decision of batik product at Kampoeng Batik Laweyan Surakarta. Research done at chosen region that is: at Kampoeng  Batik Laweyan Surakarta. internal issue in this research is what there are influence which signifikan among cultural factor, social factor, personal factor, and psychological factor to buying decision of batik product at Kam...

  11. Prediksi Jumlah Tamu Menginap di Hotel Karlita International, Tegal, Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjono, Haryadi; Zulkifli, Irwan

    2013-01-01

    Article is forecasting comparative analysis of number of guess room occupancy at Karlita International Hotel, Tegal, Central Java using 11 forecasting methods: linear regression, moving average, weighted moving average, exponential smoothing, exponential smoothing with trend, naïve method, trend analysis, additive decomposition – CMA, additive decomposition – average all, multiplicative decomposition – CMA, multiplicative decomposition – average All. Article used 17 data from January 2012 to ...

  12. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  13. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  15. ANALISIS FAKTOR INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL YANG TERKAIT DENGAN MODEL PELAYANAN PRIMA DI APOTEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies, especially from the aspect of drug information for chronic and degenerative disease in the year of 2003, gave a patient-oriented model focused on drug information services including communication, drug counseling and consulting as well as drug effect monitoring on patient. An explorative qualitative study was carried out to identify internal and external factors associated wtth prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies so as measuring the gap amongst the pharmaceutical services model developed, the guidelines of pharmaceutical services in pharmacies, the existing practices in pharmaceutical services at this moment, pharmacists' professionalism and pharmaceutical faculty curiculum in an attempt to bridge the gap. The study carried out in 2004 on pharmacists, pharmacist assistants and the owners of 40 pharmacies in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Makassar. Data were collected using interviews, Focus Group Discussion, Checklist and observation, covering the opinion of Directorate General of Pharmaceutical Services, District and Provincial Health Offices, Central and Regional Indonesian Pharmacist Association, Pharmaceutical Company Association, pharmaceutical faculty, NGO and practitioners. Internal and external factors that influence pharmaceutical services in pharmacies were analyzed using SWOT method to solve problems in the implementation of prime pharmaceutical in pharmacies model. Results of the study showed that the tendency to perform prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies is great enough, especially in conjunction with conducive regulation and an opportunity to promote the quality of human resources in pharmacies. Key words: prime pharmaceutical services, pharmacies, SWOT analysis

  16. URGENSI PENILAIAN LINGKUNGAN INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL DALAM PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM DI LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Eferi

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to explain the urgency of the internal and external environment assessment in the application of TQM. From the authors conclude that the study can be distinguished on the Environment organization's internal environment which comprises three supporting elements: first, the structure, with regard to communication, authority and work flows. The structure is often also called the chain of command, and depicted graphically using organization charts; secondly, culture, a pattern of beliefs, expectations, and values that prevail among members of the organization; and third, the resource, include the individual's expertise, capabilities, and managerial talents of every member of the organization. While the external environment is the conditions that are outside the organization, which also directly influences the survival of organizations. As in assessing both the environment, can be done by using the characteristics that exist in TQM, namely: a focus on the customer; b obsession with quality; c a scientific approach; d long-term commitment; e team work; f improvement of the system on an ongoing basis; g education and training; h freedom of hand; i unity of purpose; and j the involvement and empowerment of employees.

  17. PENGARUH FAKTOR INTERNAL DAN FAKTOR EKSTERNAL TERHADAP MINAT SISWA MEMILIH JURUSAN IPS DI KELAS XI SMA NEGERI 1 KOTAPINANG KABUPATEN LABUHANBATU SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Tri Rahmadani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui: (1 pengaruh faktor internal dan faktor eksternal terhadap minat siswa memilih jurusan IPS di SMA Negeri 1 Kotapinang Tahun Ajaran 2015/2016. (2 faktor Internal (bakat, perhatian, motif/tujuan. (3 faktor Eksternal (keluarga, sekolah, teman bergaul, dan Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMA Negeri 1 Kotapinang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI IPS yang berjumlah 167 orang. Sampel ditentukan 30% populasi sehingga berjumlah 40 orang yang diambil secara acak. Teknik pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah tekni angket. Analisa datanya dengan cara deskriptif dan teknik inferensial. Untuk validitas dan reliabilitas diambil dari kelas IPS 3 sebanyak 36 orang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan: (1 Faktor Internal (bakat, perhatian, motif/tujuan terhadap minat siswa memilih jurusan IPS dapat dikategorikan baik hal ini diperoleh dari hasil pengolahan data seluruh jawaban responden terhadap indikator faktor internal yakni 62% menjawab selalu, 35% menjawab sering, dan 2,5% menjawab kadang-kadang.(2 Faktor eksternal (keluarga, sekolah, teman bermain terhadap minat siswa memilih jurusan IPS dapat dikategorikan baik hal ini diperoleh dari hasil pengolahan data seluruh jawaban responden terhadap indikator faktor eksternal yakni 52,5% menjawab selalu, 37,5% menjawab sering, 10% menjawab kadang-kadang dan hanya 5% menjawab tidak pernah. (3 Ada pengaruh faktor internal dan faktor eksternal terhadap minat siswa memilih jurusan IPS di SMA Negeri 1 Kotapinang hal ini diperoleh dari hasil pengolahan data dan dibuktikan dengan pengujian hipotesis dimana Fhitung > Ftabel = 8,22 > 3,09 dengan taraf signifikansi 0,000 > 0,005. Kontribusi faktor internal dan faktor eksternal terhadap minat siswa memilih jurusan IPS sebesar 62%, dan 38% dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain diluar faktor internal dan faktor eksternal siswa. Kata Kunci: faktor internal, faktor eksternal, minat siswa, IPS

  18. International peace and security. Rome, 5 July 2003. Di Vittorio Foundation Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Until the end of the Cold War, a bipolar world maintained international security through a combined system of alliances, spheres of influence, global and regional multilateral institutions - including the United Nations - and ultimately a balance of power through nuclear deterrence. With the disintegration of the Soviet empire, however, a uni-polar world has emerged that has dramatically changed the landscape of international security, with the disappearance of the Cold War rivalries and many of the associated old alliances and spheres of influence. But while in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War many preached the advent of a new world order - and expressed hope of a new paradigm of security that would be rooted in the UN system of collective security - these hopes have not materialized and that new order has not emerged. But with all the changes in the international landscape since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have ironically continued to hold a position of prominence as the currency of ultimate power. With the new threats and new strategic thinking, it is not surprising that the objectives embodied in the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), developed in the early seventies to control the further spread of nuclear weapons and to move towards nuclear disarmament, are under growing stress. Nearly 30 000 nuclear weapons continue to exist in the five nuclear weapon States (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). And of the three countries that remain outside the NPT, two - India and Pakistan - have in recent years demonstrated their nuclear weapons capability, while the third - Israel - is generally presumed to have them. Most recently North Korea, a party to the NPT, has decided to renounce the Treaty, and is suspected of working to acquire nuclear weapons. And in the aftermath of the events of September 2001, as I have already noted, the proliferation threat gained a new dimension: the prospect of

  19. KERUKUNAN INTERN UMAT BERAGAMA DI KOTA GERBANG SALAM (Melacak Peran Forum Komunikasi ORMAS Islam [FOKUS] Pamekasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Creating the harmony life in both intern and extern the members of religious community in pluralism is not an easy way. It needs process, as well as social, education, economic, politic especially ideology from each different member of religious. Therefore, it needs serious attention and skill from all sectors: government, public figure and society both individual and group. Forum Komunikasi ORMAS Islam (FOKUS Pamekasan as the coordinator of silat al-rahim of some ORMAS in Pamekasan commits to realize the harmony life among members of society. Through social activity done, FOKUS has given contribution in realizing the harmony life among members of religious.Copyright (c by NUANSADOI: 10.19105/nuansa.v12i2.776

  20. Metamorfosis Faksionalisme Internal Partai Golkar di Maluku Utara pada PILKADA 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the dynamics of internal faction of Golkar party when the North Maluku Governor election was held in 2007-2008. It can be observed during the process preelection to the post-election. This research uses the qualitative method The data are collected by conducting the documentation, observation, and interview. The result of this research shows, that the factionalisms occurred in the Golkar party in the election of North Maluku governor caused two factors, the pragmatism of supreme members of Golkar partyand the patron-client. The faction characteristic of Golkar party based on the faction fragmentation shows that there are two factions (bipolar, which are the faction supporting Thaib and the faction supporting Gafur

  1. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe 2+ ions are converted to Fe 3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements or optical techniques. Due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations (and references therein), alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested. In polymer gels, monomers such as acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide are usually dispersed in a gelatin or agarose matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a 3D polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties and results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. As well as MRI, other quantitative techniques for measuring dose distributions include X-ray computer tomography, vibrational spectroscopy and ultrasound. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been reported in the literature. For further information of gel dosimetry and specifically clinical applications the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry and references therein should be consulted

  2. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P. (eds.)

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  3. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs

  4. FOTOGRAFI PANGGUNG SOLO INTERNATIONAL ETHNIC MUSIC DI KORAN SOLOPOS DAN KOMPAS TEKNIK DAN ESTETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Prasetyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stage Photography is one of the branches of science photography, which is devoted to the documentation of art stage. The documenting function is similar to the function of general photography. The branch of state photography more focuses on portraying the scenes on the stage. It becomes something special for both amateur and professional photographers because it requires a high sensitivity, concentration, skills, proficiency and special carefulness. Stage photography is absolutely necessary in the modern mass media, either as a standalone news as well as illustrations to support the news writing. Stage photography with the reality of the value, will help in the mass media to provide more complete information for the audience of readers. The stage photography of Solo International Music Performed which was published in the mass media Solopos and Kompas is the result of the recording of the photographer who has a sense of sensitivity, concentration, skill, finesse and accuracy. The papers published in the mass media can not be detached from the values and aesthetics rules, considering the photos will be witnessed by thousands of the human eye. Keywords: Stage Photography, Technique and Aesthetics.

  5. DETERMINAN INTERNAL DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO PERUSAHAAN FARMASI TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze the effect of internal determinant of dividend payout ratio pharmaceutical company, annual data observation period 2008 until 2014. The type of this study was quantitative research. Population of the research was the entire pharmaceutical company consisting of 10 companies. The sampled criteria were pharmaceutical companies that consistently paid cash dividends. There were 6 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange with non-probability sampling technique namely purposive sampling. Data analysis used panel data regression fixed effect which had larger R square value. The results showed that current ratio, return on assets, debt to equity ratio, earnings growth, return on equity, earnings per share and market to book value simultaneously were having significant influence to the dividend payout ratio. Partially return on assets and market to book value had a positive significant effect on the dividend payout ratio, while current ratio, debt to equity ratio and return on equity had a significant negative effect. Earnings growth and earnings per share did not have significant influence on the dividend payout ratio. It was suggested to add external variables factors using more samples of companies.

  6. ANALISIS PENDEKATAN INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL KONSUMEN TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN PRODUK BATIK DI KAMPOENG BATIK LAWEYAN SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moechammad Nasir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research in first year aim to to analyse influence signifikan among cultural factor, social factor, personal factor, and psychological factor to buying decision of batik product at Kampoeng Batik Laweyan Surakarta. Research done at chosen region that is: at Kampoeng  Batik Laweyan Surakarta. internal issue in this research is what there are influence which signifikan among cultural factor, social factor, personal factor, and psychological factor to buying decision of batik product at Kampoeng Batik Laweyan Surakarta.  Independent variable of this research are culture factor (X1, social factor (X2, personality factor (X3, and psychological factor (X4. And for dependen variable that is buying decision of  batik product at Kampoeng Batik Laweyan Surakarta (Y. This research use primary and secundary data. Primary data obtained from technique of survey field by spreading quetioner at consumer buying batik at Kampoeng Laweyan Surakarta, while data sekunder obtained from various source publicized. Result of research indicate that the 1 variable of culture factor have the influence which signifikan to buying decision of product , social factor variable have the influence which signifikan to buying decision of product, variable of personality factor have the influence which signifikan to buying decision the product, and psychological factor variable have the influence which signifikan to decision buy the product 2 result of analysis test the F of variable of culture factor, social factor, personality factor, and  psychological factor  together have the influence which signifikan to buying decision of product 3 result of calculation to assess the R2 obtained  78,4% variation changing to decision product explained by variation changing of culture factor, social factor, personality factor, and  psychological factor. While the rest equal  21,6% explained by other factor which don’t observation.

  7. PENILAIAN MIKROSKOPIS BAKTERI TAHAN ASAM (BTA MENURUT SKALA INTERNATIONAL UNION ASSOCIATION LUNG TUBERCULOSIS DISEASE (IUALTD DI INSTALASI LABORATORIUM MIKROBIOLOGI RS PERSAHABATAN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryani Girsang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penemuan dan penilaian bakteri tahan asam (BTA secara mikroskopis, dilakukan menurut standar International Union Association Lung Tuberculosis Disease (IUALTD sesuai dengan kesepakatan WHO (K.Toman  1971, sebelumnya belum ada standar sebagai acuan untuk mengetahui ketepatan hasil pemeriksaan BTA di di laboratorium. Hasil penilaian ini merupakan laporan untuk mendapatkan gambaran dari pelatihan yang dilakukan di Instalasi Mikrobiologi Rumah Sakit Persahabatan pada September 2005. Tujuan pelatihan meningkatkan penemuan BTA dan keseragaman tata cara pemeriksaan dan pelaporan bakteri tbc oleh laboran. Peserta pelatihan sebanyak 16 orang dari berbagai rumah sakit di Jakarta dan Jawa Timur. Metode pelatihan teori dan praktek cara langsung. Setiap peserta melakukan pemeriksaan 10 slide, mulai dari smear examination hingga mikroskopis. Jumlah semua yang diperiksa 160 slide BTA. Hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis memperlihatkan karakteristik hasil oleh laboran dan assessor, dimana kesalahan pemeriksaan oleh laboran sebesar 15 (9,4% pengamatan hasil negatip, dengan error rate >5%. Hasil laboran dapat ditoleransi pada hasil sconty 7 (4,4% dan positip-1 sebesar 5 (-13% demikian juga hasil positip-3 kesalahan mikroskopis < 5% pada penilaian sebesar 4 (2,5%. kecuali pada positip-2 sebesar 9 (5,6%, untuk penilaian BTA positip-2 perlu secara intensif dilakukan pelatihan kepada laboran pemeriksa tbc, hal ini penting agar tidak terjadi kesalahan pemberian hasil pemeriksaan, sehingga false positip atau false negatip dapat dihindari untuk hasil yang dapat dipercaya.   Kata kunci: Mikroskopis, Bakteri Tahan Asam, Standar penilaian, Penyakit tbc

  8. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of γ and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control

  9. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  10. Sulla necessità di controllare l'attività creditizia internazionale delle banche. (The need to control international bank lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. KESSLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro si occupa del processo di credito bancario internazionale  con le implicazioni per la gestione della politica monetaria . L'autore sostiene che l'espansione del credito bancario straniero possa diventare un fattore monetario significativo . Vengono analizzati gli aspetti macro e micro delle dinamiche del processo di questa espansione e il rapporto con la bilancia dei pagamenti e del deficit  . Alcune considerazioni generali sono fatte per quanto riguarda la necessità di una cooperazione monetaria internazionale intensificata. The work deals with the process of international bank lending and with the policy implications for monetary management. The author argues that foreign bank credit expansion has (or is likely to become an important monetary factor. The macro and micro aspects of the dynamics of the process of this expansion and the relation to the US balance of payments deficit are analysed. Some general remarks are made with respect to the need for intensified international monetary cooperation.JEL: F34

  11. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  12. Retrospective dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.V.; Bakhanova, E.V.; Sholom, S.V.; Pasalskaya, L.F.; Bouville, A.; Krjuchkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    sets and, clearly, may lead to conclusion regarding the adequacy of the data set in general, not on individual basis. Another possibility to verify existing dose records is application of reliable retrospective dosimetric techniques, which may be used as a reference. Dosimetric screening of the study cohort requires a tool, which should meet two basic requirements: to be cheap and practical, and to be applicable to all subjects (desirably even post mortem). Till recent time such tool was missing and none of the known methods of retrospective dosimetry matched these criteria. Therefore in the novel method of Soft Expert Assessment Dosimetry (SEAD) was developed by the International Dosimetric Group operating under auspices of Ukraine-USA-France and CEC-Russia-Byelarus collaboration. This method is based on the analysis of information acquired from interviewing of liquidators and exploits regularities of dose distributions. The main advantage of this method is applicability to all subjects making it good for the screening of the cohort. Case-control study requires closer consideration of fewer subjects and in this regard high precision techniques (like EPR) make use. High cost of analyses is acceptable in this case. Practical implementation of this approach is illustrated by some on-going studies. Pros and contras of selected methods, as well as implementation considerations will be discussed as well. (author)

  13. Techniques for high dose dosimetry in industry, agriculture and medicine. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    In radiation processing, it is important that the irradiated products are reliable and safe. For processes that impact directly on public health, dosimetry provides a formal means of regulation. For other applications, measurements are indispensable for process control to improve quality and the measurements have to be standardized. Thus, dosimetry is an essential part of quality standards for radiation processes. In the developing world, establishment of such quality standards is only in the embryonic stage, and the IAEA should and does play a role in the development and implementation of these standards. The IAEA initiated a programme of high dose dosimetry in 1977 to accomplish dose standardization on an industrial scale, to promote dosimetry as a quality control measure in radiation processing, and to help develop new dosimetry techniques. Since dosimetry has such a key role in these processes, the IAEA organized this international symposium to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of up-to-date developments in this field. Since the International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing held in 1990 the field of dosimetry has deepened and broadened. There is a definite shift towards quality assurance, which calls for dependable dosimetry systems with well established traceability to national or international standards. Also, many new applications of radiation have been developed and for these new and innovative dosimetry methods are needed. This symposium has provided a forum for the discussion of many of these developments and consideration of the outstanding issues in these vital areas

  14. On-Board TL Dosimetry: Possibilities and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; PAzmandi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper shortly deals with application of TLDs for dosimetry of ISS, e.g. personal dosimetry, phantom measurements, mapping, monitoring and neutron dosimetry. The main characteristics of the on-board and ground evaluation are compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of the on-board evaluation are summarised. Finally the planned future improvements of the Pille system are discussed like development of an RS485 interface for alternative data transfer, introduction of smaller dosimeters (capsules), use of a more use-friendly display (80 characters), application of internal memory instead of memory card and improvement of the dosimeter evaluation (glow curve fit, background subtraction). (author)

  15. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo Cezar Sant'Anna da

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  16. Proposal of development of an advanced IORT system; Proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di avanguardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Unita tecnico scientifica Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate; Casali, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy), Dipartimento di fisica; Colavita, E. [Calabria Univ., Arcavacata (Italy). Diparimento di fisica; Lamanna, E. [Magna Graecia Univ., Germaneto (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina sperimentale e clinica

    2005-07-15

    In the last years there has been an increasing interest on IORT (Intraoperative Radiation Therapy), also because of the development of dedicated accelerators. This technique represents a very effective oncological treatment consisting in delivering a single high dose on a tumour bed soon after surgery resection. In the following we present the proposal of development of a last generation IORT system based on the use of a linear accelerator with variable energy in the range 3-15 MeV, operating in C band (5712 MHz). Respect to the accelerator used in the commercial IORT systems operating at a typical frequency of 2998 MHz (S band) limited to a maximum energy of 12 MeV, the use of a higher RF frequency allows an increase of the maximum energy. This extends the use of the IORT technique to a wider field of tumors and an improvement of the system in terms of compactness and weight reduction. In addition the machine will be provided with a devoted absolute dosimetry system that will strongly simplify the procedures of dosimetric characterization. We intend to develop the system by a collaboration between ENEA, some Universities (Bologna, Catanzaro and Cosenza) and the national industry. [Italian] Negli ultimi anni si e sviluppato un sempre maggior interesse intorno alla Radioterapia IntraOperatoria (IORT), una particolare tecnica radioterapica che permette di irradiare la zona interessata da un tumore durante un intervento chirurgico utilizzando un fascio di elettroni prodotto da un acceleratore. La diffusione di questa metodica e stata favorita dalla presenza sul mercato di acceleratori installabili direttamente in sala operatoria. Come conseguenza di questa disponibilita sono emerse sia nuove esigenze legate alle particolari applicazioni cliniche, sia richieste di facilita di utilizzo e perfomances sempre piu sofisticate. Viene qui presentata una proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di ultima generazione basato sull'utilizzo di un acceleratore lineare con

  17. Nuclear Decay Data for the International Reactor Dosimetry Library for Fission and Fusion (IRDFF: Updated Evaluations of the Half-Lives and Gamma Ray Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechev Valery P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Updated evaluations of the half-lives and prominent gamma ray intensities have been presented for 20 radionuclides – dosimetry reaction residuals. The new values of these decay characteristics recommended for the IRDFF library were obtained using the approaches and methodology adopted by the working group of the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP cooperation. The experimental data published up to 2014 were taken into account in updated evaluations. The list of radionuclides includes 3H, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe, 57Co, 60Co, 57Ni, 64Cu, 88Y, 132Te, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 182Ta, 198Au.

  18. Quality audit service of the IAEA for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency includes assistance to Member States to establish nuclear technologies safely and effectively. In pursuit of this, a quality audit service for dosimetry relevant to radiation processing was initiated as a key element of the High-Dose Standardization Programme of the IAEA. The standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing provides a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and their unrestricted international trade. In recent times, the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory has placed concentrated effort towards establishing a quality assurance programme based on the ISO 9000 series documents. The need for reliable and accurate dosimetry for radiation processing is increasing in Member States and we can envisage a definite role for the SSDLs in such a programme. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  19. ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry application to Chernobyl case: individual retrospective dosimetry of the liquidators and wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, A.; Baryakchtar, V.G.; Baran, N.

    1996-01-01

    ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry technique was used for individual retrospective dosimetry of the servicemen who had worked in 1986-1987 at the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 18 investigated cases, the values varied from 0,10 (sensitivity limit) to 1,75 Gy. The same technique was used for individual dosimetry of wild animals boars, red deers, elks) hunted at contaminated 30-km area around the Chernobyl Power Plant. Measured values varied from 0,20 to 5,0 Gy/year and were compared with calculated for external and internal irradiation

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  1. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  2. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055; Intercomparacao nacional de medicao in vivo de Iodo-131 na tireoide - Projeto TC IAEA BRA 9055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, J.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramos, M.A.P.; Sa, M.S. [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.V.; Oliveira, C.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, F.F.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lacerda, I.V.B. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fajgelj, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  3. Metodologia di analisi del ciclo di vita di una cella a carbonati fusi

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giorgio, Ilaria

    2006-01-01

    In attuazione del protocollo di Kyoto, e sulla base delle decisione assunta successivamente dall'Unione Europea, l'Italia dovrà ridurre, entro il 2008-2012, le proprie emissioni di CO2 e degli altri gas serra nella misura del 6,5% rispetto ai valori del 1990 (555 milioni di tonnellate di CO2 equivalenti). Si è valutato che le emissioni dell’Italia hanno una traiettoria crescente che renderebbero oggettivamente difficile, con le sole risorse interne, il rispetto degli impegni di riduzione a...

  4. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  5. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  6. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the ''Holy Gray''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brans, B.; Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Tennvall, J.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose-response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. (orig.)

  7. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  8. Quantities and concepts used in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.; Carlsson, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is a pure physical science, as fostered by the elegant work of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), in defining the basic quantities and units of dosimetry. Nevertheless, questions concerning the interpretation and application of some quantities still remain. The present work focuses on some of these questions and in particular deals with the quantity fluence which is frequently misunderstood. Radiation dosimetry is closely related to radiation transport theory, and the usefulness of the vectorial quantities used extensively in transport theory is pointed out. It is proposed that vectorial quantities be included in the radiometry considerations of the ICRU. This would contribute to clarifying the basic concepts of dosimetry and promoting its establishment as a physical science. Equations are given for calculating the absorbed dose in various conditions of radiation equilibrium, along with discussions of the quantities needed for their evaluations. These equations are relevant to the important field of cavity theory. Refinements of existing cavity theories, in particular those for photon and electron irradiations, can benefit from a deeper understanding of these equations and the various conditions of equilibrium in which they are valid. (author)

  9. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  10. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  11. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  12. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Deadline...Deadline...Deadline...Deadline...Deadline...Deadline...   Individual dosimetry service We inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2002 are available from their usual dispatchers. Please have your films changed before the 15th of January. The color of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  13. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  14. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  15. Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetry control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY-AUGUST 2004 are available from their usual dispatchers. Please have your films changed before the 15 JULY 2004. The color of the dosimeter valid in July-August 2004 is PINK.

  16. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings

  17. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  18. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  19. Research on the experimental verification of dosimetry calculations. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    This research has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques for the evaluation of internal-dosimetry calculations. There have been three major objectives. The first was the development and refinement of dosimetric techniques necessary to obtain absorbed doses averaged over the entire volume of particular organs. Other major objectives have included the utilization of these dosimetry systems to measure absorbed doses in anthropomorphic phantoms, and the comparison of these experimental results to absorbed dose estimates obtained from Monte Carlo computer calculations. At the present time, only limited data are available for direct comparison. However, more data should be available soon and comparisons will be made before the end of the present contract period. This proposal outlines the current status of our research toward that end. In addition, it is proposed that this contract be renewed to continue investigations into other aspects of dosimetry, for example, dosimetry for the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  20. The physics of small megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2017-11-27

    The increased interest during recent years in the use of small megavoltage photon beams in advanced radiotherapy techniques has led to the development of dosimetry recommendations by different national and international organizations. Their requirement of data suitable for the different clinical options available, regarding treatment units and dosimetry equipment, has generated a considerable amount of research by the scientific community during the last decade. The multiple publications in the field have led not only to the availability of new invaluable data, but have also contributed substantially to an improved understanding of the physics of their dosimetry. This work provides an overview of the most important aspects that govern the physics of small megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  2. International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (4th). International Workshop on Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (1st)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-13

    Università degli Studi di Pavia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International...Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International Workshop on Detection, Classification...mail: gianni.pavan@unipv.it ORGANIZED BY: Università degli Studi di Pavia - Dipartimento di Biologia Animale CIBRA CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARE DI

  3. Revue of some dosimetry and dose assessment European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission several project dealing with dosimetry and dose assessment for internal and external exposure have been supported. A revue of the results of some of them is presented in this paper. The EURADOS network which involved 50 dosimetry institutes in EUROPE has coordinated the project DOSIMETRY NETWORK: the main results achieved within this action are the following: - The release on the World Wide Web of the EURADOS Database of Dosimetry Research Facilities; - The realisation of the report 'Harmonization of Individual Monitoring (IM) in Europe'; - The continuation of the intercomparisons programme of environmental radiation monitoring systems; - The realisation of the report Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The EVIDOS project aimed at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry with complex mixed neutron-photon radiation fields. This paper summarises the main findings from a practical point of view. Conclusions and recommendations will be given concerning characterisation of radiation fields, methods to derive radiation protection quantities and dosimeters results. The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in-vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. The primary goal was to categorize those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. The costs of monitoring for internal exposures in the workplace are usually significantly greater than the equivalent costs for external exposures. There is therefore a need to ensure that resources are employed with maximum effectiveness. The EC-funded OMINEX (Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposure) project has developed methods for optimising the design and implementation of

  4. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  5. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  6. Analisis Intensitas Pencahayaan Dan Reflektan Di Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kelelahan Mata Pada Tenaga Kerja Industri Bulu Mata Palsu Di PT. Sung Shim International Purbalingga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyandi Feriyandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : There are approximately 15,000 workers in several spurious eyelash industries in Purbalingga Regency. Since objects being observed are very fine and the tasks need high accuracy, good lighting is therefore highly required. Poor lighting can lead to visual and mental fatigue, stiffness around the eyes, eye damage and the increasing of work accidents. Sufficient intensity and good management of lighting will result a comfort environment in accordance  to achieve a safe  work environment. Method : This research was conducted as  observational study with a cross sectional approach  for 45 samples of workers. Sampling was carried out by using of systematic random sampling. Data of light intensity and reflectance were collected by measurement of light using Lux Meter and assessment of visual fatigue by using Retention Timer. Other data were collected by interviewing workers with age limitation up to 33 years old. Chi Square Test was used to analyze the data of light intensity and reflectance, work years, age, work period, distance of light to object, distance of eyes to object, relative humidity and temperature, and the correlation with the rise of visual fatigue. Result : Light intensity in the knitting section was between 301.5 – 576.7 lux with reflectance of 43.1%-89.6%. Thirty wokers (66.7% suffered from mild visual fatigue and fifteen wokers, suffered (33.3% from moderate visual fatigue. Light intensity had  an influence and significant relationship  to the occurring of visual fatigue among workers in the industry of spurious eyelash of  PT. Sung Shim International  (p < 0,05 with  Odd ratio = 10.246 (95% CI : 1.147 - 91.498.  Probability of light intensity factor to cause visual fatigue measured by a regression logistic model  was  82.9% . It was caused by  poor lighting (light intensities were measured  below 500 lux while 17.1%  was caused by  other factors. Conclusion : Most of the spurious eyelash

  7. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  8. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  9. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  10. Clinical dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Diagnostic and interventional procedures involving x-rays are the most significant contributor to total population dose form man made sources of ionizing radiation. Purpose and aim: X-ray imaging generally covers a diverse range of examination types, many of which are increasing in frequency and technical complexity. Materials and methods: The European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 EURATOM stress the importance of accurate dosimetry and require calibration of all measuring equipment related to application of ionizing radiation in medicine. Results: The paper gives and overview of current system of dosimetry of ionizing radiations that is relevant for metrology and clinical applications. It also reflects recently achieved international harmonization in the field promoted by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Discussion: Objectives of clinical dose measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology are multiple, as assessment of equipment performance, or assessment of risk emerging from use of ionizing radiation Conclusion: Therefore, from the clinical point of view, the requirements for dosimeters and procedures to assess dose to standard dosimetry phantoms and patients in clinical diverse modalities, as computed tomography are presented

  11. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  12. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  13. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bjaerngard, Bengt E; Kase, Kenneth R

    1987-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume II, attempts to fill the need for updated reference material on the field of radiation dosimetry. This book presents some broad topics in dosimetry and a variety of radiation dosimetry instrumentation and its application. The book opens with a chapter that extends and applies the concepts of microdosimetry to biological systems. This is followed by separate chapters on the state- of-the-art equipment and techniques used to determine neutron spectra; studies to determine recombination effects in ionization chambers exposed to high-intensity pulsed ra

  14. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  15. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  16. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  17. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  18. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  19. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  20. Comparison of Life-Stage-Dependent Internal Dosimetry for Bisphenol A, Ethinyl Estradiol, a Reference Estrogen, and Endogenous Estradiol to Test an Estrogenic Mode of Action in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Mona I.; Camacho, Luísa; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Sepehr, Estatira; Delclos, K. Barry; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) was administered by gavage (2.5–300,000 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day) to pregnant Sprague Dawley dams, newborn pups, and continuing into adulthood. Aglycone (i.e., unconjugated and active) and conjugated (i.e., inactive) BPA were evaluated by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES/MS/MS) in serum to better interpret toxicological endpoints measured in the study. Ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 0.5 and 5 μg/kg bw/day) and the endogenous hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone, were similarly evaluated. Mean BPA aglycone levels in vehicle and naïve control rat serum (0.02–0.5 ng/ml) indicated sample processing artifact, consistent with literature reports of a propensity for postexposure blood contamination by BPA. Direct measurements of BPA-glucuronide in vehicle and naïve control serum (2–10nM) indicated unintentional exposure and metabolism at levels similar to those produced by 2.5 μg/kg bw/day BPA (7–10nM), despite careful attention to potential BPA inputs (diet, drinking water, vehicle, cages, bedding, and dust) and rigorous dosing solution certification and delivery. The source of this exposure could not be identified, but interpretation of the toxicological effects, observed only at the highest BPA doses, was not compromised. Internal exposures to BPA and EE2 aglycones were highest in young rats. When maximal serum concentrations from the two highest BPA doses and both EE2 doses were compared with concurrent levels of endogenous E2, the ERα binding equivalents were similar to or above those of endogenous E2 in male and female rats of all ages tested. Such evaluations of estrogenic internal dosimetry and comprehensive evaluation of contamination impact should aid in extrapolating risks from human BPA exposures. PMID:24496641

  1. The Eleventh International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Workshop Report: Ponte di Legno, Italy, 6-7 May 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, A; Baruchel, A; Hunger, S

    2009-01-01

    An international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)working group was formed during the 27th annual meeting of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology in 1995. Since then, 10 workshops have been held to address many issues that help advance treatment outcome of childhood ALL...

  2. Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology for Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the radiation dose to children from diagnostic radiology examinations has recently been popularly expressed, particularly as related to computed tomography (CT) procedures. This involves the observation that children can receive doses far in excess of those delivered to adults, in part due to the digital nature of the image receptors that may give no warning to the operator of the dose to the patient. Concern for CT examinations should be extended to the broad range of paediatric diagnostic radiological procedures responsible for radiation doses in children, especially as factors, such as increased radiosensitivity and the longer life expectancy of children, increase the associated radiation risk. In all cases, owing to the added paediatric radiological examination factor of patient size and its associated impact on equipment selection, clinical examination protocol and dosimetric audit, the determination of paediatric dose requires a distinct approach from adult dosimetry associated with diagnostic radiological examinations. In response to this, there is a need to inform health professionals about standardized methodologies used to determine paediatric dose for all major modalities such as general radiography, fluoroscopy and CT. Methodologies for standardizing the conduct of dose audits and their use for the derivation and application of diagnostic reference levels for patient populations, that vary in size, are also required. In addition, a review is needed of the current knowledge on risks specific to non-adults from radiation, and also an analysis of the management of factors contributing to dose from paediatric radiological examinations. In 2007, the IAEA published a code of practice, Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice, as Technical Reports Series No. 457 (TRS 457). TRS 457 recommends procedures for dosimetric measurement and calibration for the attainment of standardized dosimetry, and addresses requirements

  3. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    del Dlgs 241 del 26/5/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000). Il decreto recepisce in legge le indicazioni della Direttiva Europea EURATOM 96/29 Basic standards for the protection of health of workers and the general public against dangers arising from ionizing radiation sul tema della radioprotezione dei lavoratori e della popolazione. Le novita' introdotte dal decreto sono varie, fra le altre, la indicazione delle grandezze operazionali per la dosimetria esterna personale e ambientale, rispettivamente H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d), definite dall'ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements) come grandezze di riferimento, richiede l'aggiornamento dei metodi di misura e di calibrazione dei dosimetri personali e degli strumenti di monitoraggio. Il presente rapporto tecnico raccoglie le relazioni presentate alla giornata di studio, dedicate alla definizione dell'equivalente di dose personale, dei coefficienti di conversione ottenuti tramite simulazioni di calcolo Monte Carlo pubblicati dalle commission ICRU e ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), discutere le nuove procedure di calibrazione e le conseguenze operative nel monitoraggio di routine del personale radioesposto. Infine, nel capitolo finale, sono brevemente elencate le risposte a tipiche Frequently asked questions (FAQ) sul tema della dosimetria personale operativa in termini di H{sub p}(d).

  4. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  5. PENGARUH EFEKTIFITAS FUNGSI AUDIT INTERNAL TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN BUMN DIMODERASI OLEH PENGARUH POLITIK ( Studi Empiris di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theobaldus M Bimantara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the relationship between internal audit practice and financial performance of BUMN with consideration to contextual effect of political condition as mediating variable between internal audit practice and financial performance of BUMN In Indonesia. The research model analyzed by using Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA. The results showed that no significant correlation in the effectiveness of the internal audit function on the financial performance BUMN in Indonesia. And then, there is no moderating effect of political context on the effectiveness of the internal audit function influence on the financial performance BUMN in Indonesia. However, the findings of this study used data that might be too little consequence the number of BUMN that is not enough. No evidence of the moderating effects in this study define that political context is not a moderating variable.

  6. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  7. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  8. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Shenoy, Apeksha; Shen, Jincheng; Howard, David; Schipper, Matthew J; Wilderman, Scott; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Chun, Se Young; Dewaraja, Yuni K

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (∼17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2-1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3-1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6-1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3-2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results for external calibrations exhibited

  9. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M.; Fadel, A.; Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C.

    2006-01-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  10. The Importance of Dosimetry Standardization in Radiobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Marc; DeWerd, Larry; Deye, James; Lindsay, Patricia; Murphy, Mark K; Mitch, Michael; Macchiarini, Francesca; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Stone, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dose is central to much of radiobiological research. Precision and accuracy of dose measurements and reporting of the measurement details should be sufficient to allow the work to be interpreted and repeated and to allow valid comparisons to be made, both in the same laboratory and by other laboratories. Despite this, a careful reading of published manuscripts suggests that measurement and reporting of radiation dosimetry and setup for radiobiology research is frequently inadequate, thus undermining the reliability and reproducibility of the findings. To address these problems and propose a course of action, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) brought together representatives of the radiobiology and radiation physics communities in a workshop in September, 2011. The workshop participants arrived at a number of specific recommendations as enumerated in this paper and they expressed the desirability of creating dosimetry standard operating procedures (SOPs) for cell culture and for small and large animal experiments. It was also felt that these SOPs would be most useful if they are made widely available through mechanism(s) such as the web, where they can provide guidance to both radiobiologists and radiation physicists, be cited in publications, and be updated as the field and needs evolve. Other broad areas covered were the need for continuing education through tutorials at national conferences, and for journals to establish standards for reporting dosimetry. This workshop did not address issues of dosimetry for studies involving radiation focused at the sub-cellular level, internally-administered radionuclides, biodosimetry based on biological markers of radiation exposure, or dose reconstruction for epidemiological studies.

  11. Relocation of Dosimetry Service

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, March 30. From Monday, April 2 onwards you will find us in building 55/1-001. Please note that during that day we might still have some problems with the internet connections and cannot fully guarantee normal service procedures. The service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move 8.30 - 12.00, afternoons closed Tel. 72155

  12. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  13. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  14. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period

  15. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  16. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  17. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  18. Dosimetry of industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of 137 Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  19. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  20. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in a museum in an urban area; Caratterizzazione del particolato aerosospeso all'interno di un museo situato in area urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In February 2001 the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of ENEA Institute for Radioprotection carried out a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in a museum, in the urban area of Bologna, in the frame of GIANO project of ENEA. The aerosol mass size distribution was measured and a high mass concentration of aerosol, 39.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, with an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 {mu}m was found. A comparison with the composition of the outdoor aerosol was made as well. In an urban area fine particles are generally generated by vehicles exhaust (particularly diesel-powered ones) and are constituted essentially of carbon black. Because of their surface adsorption properties these carbon black particles typically contain varying quantities of substances. Deposition of fine particles on the surfaces of works of art can lead to visual degradation and further damages due to chemical reactions with the adsorbed compounds. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione Giovanile (GIANO) dell'ENEA, il laboratorio di dosimetria interna dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA, che ha competenze nella caratterizzazione fisica dell'aerosol, ha effettuato una campagna preliminare di misura del particolato aerosospeso presente all'interno di un museo nell'area urbana della citta' di Bologna. I dati dei campionamenti hanno rilevato la presenza di un'alta concentrazione in massa, 44.7 {mu}/m{sup 3}, di particolato aerosospeso inferiore a 10.5 {mu}m, composta per circa il 90%, 39.5% {mu}/m{sup 3}, da particelle con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 0.5 {mu}m. La provenienza dalle emissioni dei motori a combustibili fossili, del particolato con queste dimensioni, ha consentito il confronto con i dati relativi alle misure di concentrazione di particolato aerosospeso effettuate presso un incrocio ad alta intensita' di traffico della citta'. Dalle

  1. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  2. Peran Capacity Building terhadap Peningkatan Intellectual Capital Auditor Internal PTKIN di Indonesia dengan Audit Quality sebagai Variabel Intervening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Budi Hartono

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the capacity development of PTKIN auditors in Indonesia towards Intellectual Capital by using Audit Quality as a intervening variable. Resource-based theory as the basis for IC development that affects the accountability of PTKIN. Stakeholder theory is used as the basis of PTKIN in managing Budget Implementation. The methodology uses testing on 28 PTKIN auditors with questioner and WarpPLS 5.0 as a measuring tool. From the sample test it is known that the correlation between capacity building (CB Audit Quality (AQ has 53% coefficient, capacity building (CB to Intellectual Capital (IC has 93% coefficient, Audit Quality (AQ significant to Intellectual Capital with coefficient -16 % And not significant, and the capacity building (CB of Intellectual Capital (IC with Audit Quality (AQ as the mediation variable has coefficient - 80% and has no effect on VAF 10%. There is no factor influencing Intellectual Capital with Audit Quality as mediation variable to capacity building (CB. Intellectual Capital (IC is strongly influenced by Audit Qualitys with appropriate educational back¬grounds. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur pengembangan kapasitas auditor PTKIN di Indonesia terhadap Intellectual Capital (IC dengan menggunakan Audit Quality (AQ  sebagai variabel intervening. Resource Based Theory (RBT digunakan sebagai dasar pengembangan IC yang akan memengaruhi akuntabilitas PTKIN. Teori stake¬holder digunakan sebagai dasar PTKIN dalam mengelola implementasi Anggaran. Metodologi penelitian ini menggunakan pengujian pada 28 auditor PTKIN dengan kuesioner dan WarpPLS 5.0 sebagai alat ukur. Dari pengujian sampel diketahui hubungan antara Capacity Building (CB Audit Quality (AQ memiliki koefisien 53%, Capacity Building (CB terhadap Intellectual Capital (IC memiliki koefisien 93%, Audit Quality (AQ signifikan terhadap Intellectual Capital (IC dengan koefisien -16% dan tidak signifikan, dan Capacity Building (CB

  3. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  4. Personnel radiation monitoring by thermoluminescence dosimetry (2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi-Cho-Cho, Daw; Hla-Hla-Win, Daw; Thin-Thin-Kraing

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry service was introduced in 1991. Personnel who exposed directly or indirectly to radiation is monitored by thermoluminescent dosimeter. TL materials used for thermoluminescent dosimeter are in the form of thin disc. Personnel whole-body and extremity doses are measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The Harshaw Model 4500 TLD reader and Vinten 654E TLD reader are used for TLD evaluation. At present about 600 radiation workers are provided with TLD for routine monitoring. It was found that most personnel had received within permissible dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). (author)

  5. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  6. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  7. PENERAPAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERN UNTUK MENGANTISIPASI PRAKTEK-PRAKTEK YANG TIDAK SEHAT DALAM TATA KELOLA KEUANGAN KOPERASI DI KABUPATEN GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. N. Wiratmaja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social function inherent in the cooperative as a business entities and weak internal control is the trigger high levels of fraud in the cooperatives. Fraud carried out by unscrupulous managers is the main cause of the high level of bankruptcies in the cooperative. As the concern over the condition academic community of Udayana University through community service agency LPM organizes a lecture to introduce internal control for cooperation in Gianyar Regency. Lecturing was carried out on Saturday 27 September 2009 in Tampaksiring involving 56 participants from 19 cooperations throughout the Gianyar Regency. The evaluation result showed that the response of participants was positive and hoped that similar activities can be conducted on an ongoing basis. The main topics proposed by participants to the sustainability of the program is, training on the preparation of financial statements, training of computerized transaction processing, entrepreneurship and taxation.

  8. PENGARUH FREKUENSI AUDIT ATAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN HISTORIS TERHADAP KEANDALAN STRUKTUR PENGENDALIAN INTERN PADA PERUSAHAAN DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT YADNYANA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to reveal the effect of the auditing frequency tothe historical financial statement on the capability of internal control structure ofbusiness enterprises in Denpasar. This research is also carried out to gain theempirical evidence of the effect of auditing frequency to the historical financialstatement on the capability of internal control structure without paying attentionto other variables. A series of statistical tests have been done by using singleregression analysis, Product Moment Pearson correlation analysis, and FAnova.The result shows that the effect of auditing frequency to the historicalfinancial statement has a significant influence on the capability of internal controlstructure. Furthermore, a test to an independent variable (X is performed to findout whether an independent variable (X could explain the changing variation todependent variable (Y. This test results R2 = 0,508, which means that theindependent variable (X could explain the changing variation in the independentvariable (Y to the extent of 50,8%. The rest of it, which is 49,2% could beexplained by other factors excluded in this model.

  9. SU-F-J-100: Standardized Biodistribution Template for Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry Collection and Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, A [University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Poli, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Beykan, S; Lassman, M [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzberg, Wuerzberg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As the field of Nuclear Medicine moves forward with efforts to integrate radiation dosimetry into clinical practice we can identify the challenge posed by the lack of standardized dose calculation methods and protocols. All personalized internal dosimetry is derived by projecting biodistribution measurements into dosimetry calculations. In an effort to standardize organization of data and its reporting, we have developed, as a sequel to the EANM recommendation of “Good Dosimetry Reporting”, a freely available biodistribution template, which can be used to create a common point of reference for dosimetry data. It can be disseminated, interpreted, and used for method development widely across the field. Methods: A generalized biodistribution template was built in a comma delineated format (.csv) to be completed by users performing biodistribution measurements. The template is available for free download. The download site includes instructions and other usage details on the template. Results: This is a new resource developed for the community. It is our hope that users will consider integrating it into their dosimetry operations. Having biodistribution data available and easily accessible for all patients processed is a strategy for organizing large amounts of information. It may enable users to create their own databases that can be analyzed for multiple aspects of dosimetry operations. Furthermore, it enables population data to easily be reprocessed using different dosimetry methodologies. With respect to dosimetry-related research and publications, the biodistribution template can be included as supplementary material, and will allow others in the community to better compare calculations and results achieved. Conclusion: As dosimetry in nuclear medicine become more routinely applied in clinical applications, we, as a field, need to develop the infrastructure for handling large amounts of data. Our organ level biodistribution template can be used as a

  10. Efektivitas Peran Auditor Internal di UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta yang Ditunjukkan Oleh PP No. 60 Tahun 2008: “Sistem Pengendalian Intern Pemerintah (SPIP”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusar Sagara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Internal Auditor's role in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta Shown By Regulation No. 60 of 2008: "Government Internal Control System (SPIP". This study aims to determine the factors that can create conditions for a good university governance focus more factors that analyzed the role of internal auditors in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. This research was conducted with descriptive method, using research data sources such as government regulation, Regulation, Regulation of the Inspector General, the Statute of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta and Regulations Rector. Data collected later dideskriptifkan, analyzed logically, systematic, and consistent with the research paper more detailed and in-depth. Therefore in view of the explanatory data, this research study is referred to as the analytical descriptive. The main finding of this study is that the regulations governing the Internal Control Unit (SPI, especially concerning the role, functions, duties, powers and responsibilities and organizational support is adequate. The findings of the examiner's next is the terminology used by SPI at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta is right. Competence of personnel seen backdrop of education is appropriate. Limitations of this study is factor analyzed only on the role of auditors. The author suggests the existence of such advanced research is to expand the knowledge management factors.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i1.2336

  11. Three-dimensional personalized dosimetry for 188Re liver selective internal radiation therapy based on quantitative post-treatment SPECT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Grimes, J.; Bator, A.; Cwikla, J. B.; Celler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate patient-specific distributions of microspheres labeled with 188Re and resulting absorbed doses can be obtained from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies performed after 188Re selective internal radiation therapy when accurate correction methods are employed in image reconstruction. Our quantitative image reconstruction algorithm includes corrections for attenuation, resolution degradations and scatter as well as a window-based compensation for contamination. The procedure has been validated using four phantom experiments containing an 18 ml cylindrical source (82-93 MBq of 188Re activity) simulating a liver tumor. In addition, we applied our approach to post-therapy SPECT studies of ten patients with progressive primary or metastatic liver carcinomas. Our quantitative algorithm accurately (within 9%) recovered 188Re activity from four phantom experiments. In addition, for two patients that received three scans, deviations remained consistent between the measured and the reconstructed activities that were determined from studies with differing severity of the dead-time effect. The analysis of absorbed doses for patient studies allowed us to hypothesize that D90 (the minimum dose received by 90% of the tumor volume) may be a reliable metric relating therapy outcomes to the calculated doses. Among several considered metrics, only D90 showed statistically significant correlation with the overall survival.

  12. RCT: Module 2.04, Dosimetry, Course 8769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course will introduce the types of instruments used to measure external and internal radiation to people. Dosimetry is the quantitative assessment of radiation received by the human body. Several types of dosimeters are used worldwide. This information is valuable to all radiological control personnel because dosimeters are the only direct method to measure and document personnel radiation exposure and ensure regulatory compliance with applicable limits. This course will cover dosimetry terms, Department of Energy (DOE) limits, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) administrative guidelines, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), LANL dosimetry, and bioassay assessment methods. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  13. TRS 398 dosimetry protocol for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Smyth, V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, international codes of practice based on absorbed dose to water standards have been published for the clinical reference dosimetry of external beams. It has become widely accepted that dosimetry of radiotherapeutic beams should be based on these standards. These codes of practice are a major improvement over earlier ones that used air kerma calibration factors as they are based on a calibration directly in a phantom in terms of the quantity of interest. The previous codes begin with calibration in air in terms of air kerma, then use theoretical and generic conversion factors to obtain dose to water that do not take account of chamber-to-chamber variation. Other good reasons for implementing the new codes are that they are conceptually simpler, include improved physical data and improve the consistency for various ionisation chamber types as well as between different beam types. TRS-3982,3 is a new Code of Practice (CoP) for reference dosimetry of external radiotherapy beams based on absorbed dose to, water calibrations and was published by the IAEA in a joint effort with the WHO, PAHO and ESTRO. It is the first CoP of its kind comprehensively covering all external radiotherapy beams except neutrons. The Radiotherapy Interest Group (RJG) of the ACPSEM has recommended that radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand implement this CoP by the end of 2004. In this workshop, the general philosophy of the CoP will be outlined which will provide a framework for each of the individual subcodes. Although it represents just one of the potential implementations of the CoP, this workshop will deal only with dosimetry based on a cylindrical ionisation chamber with an absorbed dose calibration factor in 60Co from the standards laboratory. With the framework of the code in mind, it is straightforward to identify the basic steps that are required for measuring absorbed dose under reference conditions in a high-energy photon beam. The same is true

  14. Biological dosimetry in patients with differenced thyroid carcinoma treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Di Giogio, Marina; Fadel, A.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Cabrejas, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    The differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), constitutes the 90 % of the thyroid gland cancers. 80% of patients are cured after the initial therapy and 12% remained disease-free after successive treatments. The 24 patients included in this study represent a sample of the aforementioned 12% and 8%, with recurrence in the first decade post-treatment (local disease and/or recurrence at distance). The internal radiotherapy with 131 I in patients with DTC is used within the therapeutic schema as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of the therapy is to get a lethal dose in the tumor tissue, which depends on the therapeutic activity and the retention of 131 I, without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues. The most widespread way of administration is the empirical prescription which considers the clinical and laboratory parameters for its determination. In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal (DI) dosimetry for estimating absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow to manage a personalized therapeutic dose for each patient. The biological dose estimation is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is often referred to a dose-response curve in which lymphocytes are irradiated in vitro with 131 I, allowing to determine the dose in vivo of circulating lymphocytes patients [es

  15. Linking fate model in freshwater and PBPK model to assess human internal dosimetry of B(a)P associated with drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, Philippe; Tanaka, T; Johansson, E; Brochot, C

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an integrated modeling approach for predicting internal tissue concentrations of chemicals by coupling a multimedia environmental model and a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A case study was designed for a region situated on the Seine river watershed, downstream of the Paris megacity, and for benzo(a)pyrene emitted from industrial zones in the region. In this case study, these two models are linked only by water intake from riverine system for the multimedia model into human body for the PBPK model. The limited monitoring data sets of B(a)P concentrations in bottom sediment and in raw river water, obtained at the downstream of Paris, were used to re-construct long-term daily concentrations of B(a)P in river water. The re-construction of long-term series of B(a)P level played a key role for the intermediate model calibration (conducted in multimedia model) and thus for improving model input to PBPK model. In order to take into account the parametric uncertainty in the model inputs, some input parameters relevant for the multimedia model were given by probability density functions (PDFs); some generic PDFs were updated with site-specific measurements by a Bayesian approach. The results of this study showed that the multimedia model fits well with actual annual measurements in sediments over one decade. No accumulation of B(a)P in the organs was observed. In conclusion, this case study demonstrated the feasibility of a full-chain assessment combining multimedia environmental predictions and PBPK modeling, including uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  16. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-01-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97 R computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  17. In vivo biodistribution of 125IPIP and internal dosimetry of 123IPIP radioiodinated agents selective to the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, W K; Hamby, D M; Carey, J E; Eckerman, K F; McPherson, D W; Knapp, F F

    2000-04-01

    The development of new radioiodinated ligands for imaging the muscarinic acetylcholinergic complex (mAChR) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) requires the evaluation of human organ doses prior to approval for human use. Animal biodistribution and excretion data were obtained and evaluated for IPIP, a new mAChR agent. Preliminary biodistribution studies were performed on four different stereoisomers of IPIP. A biokinetic model of the Z-(S)-IPIP stereoisomer was constructed for the rat and used to estimate the internal absorbed dose in humans based on an extrapolation of the rat model. The thyroid is the critical organ for this radiopharmaceutical, with an absorbed dose estimate of 2.4 mGy/MBq for both males and females, when labeled with 123I. Even when blocked, the thyroid is still the critical organ, yet with a 90% dose reduction. The heart and brain receive the next highest doses in both males and females. Effective dose estimates for the use of pure 123I-PIP in humans are 0.16 mSv/MBq for males and 0.14 mSv/MBq for females. The biodistribution studies of the Z-(S)-IPIP stereoisomer showed the most promise as a successful agent for imaging muscarinic receptor sites in the heart and brain. IPIP also demonstrated potential as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for some colon carcinomas where muscarinic receptor sites are expressed in the tumor cells. These results provide preliminary data for use of IPIP in clinical studies on humans.

  18. Alanine dosimetry for clinical applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Therapy level alanine dosimetry at the UK Nationational Physical Laboratory, alanine as a precision validation tool for reference dosimetry, composition of alanine pellet dosimeters, the angular dependence of the alanine ESR spectrum, the CIAE alanine dosimeter for radiotherapy level, a correction for temporal evolution effects in alanine dosimetry, next-generation services foe e-traceability to ionization radiation national standards, establishing e-traceability to HIST high-dose measurement standards, alanine dosimetry of dose delivery from clinical accelerators, the e-scan alanine dosimeter reader, alanine dosimetry at ISS, verification of the integral delivered dose for IMRT treatment in the head and neck region with ESR/alanine dosimetry, alanine dosimetry in helical tomotherapy beams, ESR dosimetry research and development at the University of Palermo, lithium formate as a low-dose EPR radiation dosimeter, sensitivity enhancement of alanine/EPR dosimetry. (HSI)

  19. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  20. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Konsumen Dalam Memutuskan Untuk Menginap Di Green Hotel Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Loppies, Alfredo Karsten; Nugroho, Steven Adi; Jokom, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi konsumen dalam memutuskan untuk menginap di green hotel di Surabaya. Populasi adalah seluruh konsumen yang pernah menginap di hotel yang tergolong green hotel di Surabaya minimal sekali dalam kurun waktu 6 bulan terakhir dengan sampel penelitian berjumlah 168 responden. Teknik analisa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisa faktor untuk mereduksi sejumlah faktor internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi per...

  1. Advances in electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.

    1980-04-01

    Starting from the two most important interactions of electrons with matter, energy loss and scattering, a review is given of a number of effects which are important in electron dosimetry. For determining the absorbed dose in a phantom by means of ionization chambers, imformation is required on the electron spectrum at the location of the measurement, on the stopping powers of different materials and on disturbances such as the displacement of the effective point of measurements from the centre of the chamber. By means of figures and photographs of electron traces in bubble chambers, the origin of the formation of the absorbed dose maximum in a phantom is explained. It is shown, how by multiple scattering, the similarity of dose distributions in different media can be explained and how by Monte-Carlo calculations absorbed dose distributions in the surroundings of inhomogeneities (e.g. cavities) in a phantom can be determined. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioiodotherapy: dosimetry planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apyan, A.; Mileshin, O.; Klyopov, A.; Shishkanov, N.; Matusevich, E.; Roziev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatment of 142 case histories of 125 patients who had been treated with radioactive iodine at the Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medicine Sciences from 1983 to 1999 are given in the presentation. Among the patients, 35 cases of diffuse toxic goiter with signs of thyrotoxicosis of a mild degree, 25 cases of Diffuse toxic goiter with severe thyrotoxicosis, 6 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck, 30 cases of thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck and lung and 1 case of thyroid cancer with metastases to bones were diagnosed. This paper gives recommendations for individual dosimetry planning for radioiodine-therapy. (authors)

  3. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student's previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant's undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees.

  4. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  5. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  8. Dosimetry through the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar M, V.M.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Medina O, V.P.; Vergara M, F.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Salinas L, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the beginnings of the sixty years an urgent necessity is presented mainly in the developing countries, of improving in important form the accuracy in the dosimetry of external faces in therapy of radiations (radiotherapy centers), mainly in the calibration of c linical dosemeters . In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), and the World Health Organization, (WHO), they carried out a mutual agreement with regard to the establishment and operation of a net of Secondary Patron Laboratories of Dosimetry, (LSCD). The necessity to establish measure patterns in the field of the dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, is necessary, to have an accuracy but high in the dosimetry of the radiation beams in therapy which is highly dependent of the dose given to the tumor of those patient with cancer. Similar levels of accuracy are required in protection measures to the radiation with an acceptable smaller accuracy, however, when the personal dosemeters are used to determine the doses received by the individuals under work conditions, such mensurations in therapy of radiations and radiological protection will have traceability through a chain of comparisons to primary or national patterns. The traceability is necessary to assure the accuracy and acceptability of the dosimetric measures, as well as, the legal and economic implications. The traceability is also necessary in the dosimetry of high dose like in the sterilization of different products. The main function of the LSCD is to provide a service in metrology of ionizing radiations, maintaining the secondary or national patterns, which have a traceability to the International System of measures, which is based for if same in the comparison of patterns in the Primary Laboratories of Dosimetry (LPD) under the auspice of the International Office of Weights and Measure (BIPM). The secondary and national patterns in the LSCD constitute in Mexico, the national patterns of the magnitudes in the dosimetry of the

  9. PENGARUH VARIABEL INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL PERUSAHAAN TERHADAP RISIKO SISTEMATIS SAHAM PADA KONDISI PASAR YANG BERBEDA (STUDI PADA SAHAM-SAHAM ILQ 45 DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Setyowati Dwi Andayani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Fluktuasi harga saham di pasar modal sebagai cerminan ketidakpastian kondisi pasar secara langsung maupun tidak akan berpengaruh terhadap pertimbangan investor dalam mengambil keputusan investasi.  Investor yang rasional, pengambilan keputusan investasi didasarkan pada penilaian return maupun risiko yang terkandung dalam alternatif investasi.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kondisi internal dan eksternal perusahaan terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar yang berbeda. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder berupa data laporan keuangan harga saham.  Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh emiten yang masuk dalam perhitungan indeks LQ45 selama periode 1999 sampai 2003.  Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknk purposive sampling dan menghasilkan 15 emiten yang memenuhi syarat ditetapkan sebagai sampel. Dengan melakukan analisis regresi linier berganda terhadap variabel penelitian, diperoleh hasil bahwa secara simultan variabel-variabel internal dan eksternal perusahaan berpengaruh terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar bullish maupun bearish. Secara parsial, variabel TATO, DER, ROI, PER berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar bullish, dengan variabel TATO yang dominan mempengaruhi.  Sedangkan pada kondisi pasar bearish, variabel CR, TATO, DER, PER, PBV, dan AS berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap risiko sistematis saham, dengan variabel AS yang dominan mempengaruhi.   Kata kunci: risiko sistematis, pasar bullish, pasar bearish     ABSTRACT   Fluctuation of stock price in the capital market as an indicator of uncertainty market, it can influence any investment decision of investors. Any rational investors, their investment decisions  are based on return valuation and risk assessment in any investment alternatives.  This research aimed to analyze effects of internal and external variables on the systematic risk of stock at different condition

  10. Selected techniques in radioecology: Model development and comparison for internal dosimetry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feasibiltiy assessment of reflectance spectroscopy use as a tool in phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicole

    The first study in Part 1 examines the effects of lake tropic structure on the uptake of iodine-131 (131I) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and considers a simple computational model for the estimation of resulting radiation dose. Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of 131I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of 131I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems has been less studied. In this study we reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of 131I into two small lakes and compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on 131I accumulation in fish. The largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout may occur from 8 to 32 days post initial release. DCFs for trout for whole body as well as thyroid were computed using Monte Carlo modeling with an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure. Activity concentration data was used in conjunction with the calculated DCFs to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to the thyroids after 32 days. The estimated cumulative thyroid doses at 32 days post-release ranged from 6 mGy to 18 mGy per 1 Bq mL-1 of initial 131I in the water, depending upon fish size. The subsequent studies in Part 1 seek to develop and compare different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for O. mykiss for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake and from molybdenum-99 (99Mo) uptake. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and we develop and compare three models for O. mykiss: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion

  11. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D.; Qutob, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-01

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  12. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D. [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S. [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  13. Dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology - ICRU and IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Pernicka, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Main aims of patient dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology are to determine dosimetric quantities for establishment and use of guidance levels or diagnostic reference levels and for comparative risk assessment. In the latter case, the average doses to the organs and tissues at risk should be assessed. Only limited number of measurements serve to potential risk assessment of the examination and intervention. An additional objective of dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the assessment of equipment performance. Ionization chambers are the main devices used for dosimetric measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology but other devices with special properties are also used. Important examples are thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and semiconductor detectors. For most dosemeters used in x-ray medical imaging the desired quantity for calibration of dosemeters is the air kerma free-in-air. Calibrations should be made at appropriate radiation qualities, for which recommendations are available for conventional radiology. It is important that the calibrations are traceable to the international measurement system. The uncertainty of dose measurements in medical x-ray imaging, for comparative risk assessments as well as for quality assurance, should not exceed about 7 per cent in terms of the expanded uncertainty using a coverage factor of 2. The dosimetric approaches in general diagnostic radiology, mammography and computed tomography are slightly different, resulting in application specific dosimetric quantities. Consequently, different protocols for patient dosimetry are available for these different purposes. In general diagnostic radiology, various quantities and terminologies have been used for the specification of dose on the central beam axis at the point where the x-ray beam enters the patient (or a phantom representing the patient). These include the exposure at skin entrance (ESE), the input radiation exposure

  14. Personal dosimetry service in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compel, J.

    1998-01-01

    From first January 1996 in Slovak Republic (SR) was started a new independent national personal dosimetry service on external ionizing radiation provided by the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory in the Slovak Institute of Metrology in Bratislava. At first July 1998 was this laboratory delimited from Slovak Institute of Metrology to legal metrology services of SR. This dosimetry services is based fully on the Automated Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Card Reader System made in U.S.A. by Harshaw-Bicron NE, which was given to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of SR and Slovak Institute of Metrology in Bratislava on an International Technical co-operation project piloted and financed by International Atomic Energy Agency. In this time we have complete TLD Readers Harshaw 6600 and we calibrate and evaluate TLDs of three different type of all body personal dosimeters: (1) beta-gamma TLDs type 0110 with 2 element TL chip type 100 (LiF:Mg,Ti 3.2 x 3.2 x 0.38 mm) fixed in two teflon windows in a aluminium card in a plastic holder with 1000 mg/cm 2 Ptfe hemisphere thickens (o 10 mm) to measure the individual dose equivalent penetrating at a the depth 10 mm (Hp(10)) and individual dose equivalent superficial Hs(0.07) at recommended depth of 0.07 mm (type of this holder is 8814); (2) beta-gamma TLDs type 1111 in holders type 8805 with 4 elements of TL chips type 100 to measure both Hp(10) and Hs(0.07) plus lens of eye dose (Hle(3); (3) for measurement of doses in mixed neutron-beta-gamma fields we have more neutron beta gamma dosimeters type 7776 in holders type 8805 with 4 elements of TL chips: three TLD 700 and one TLD 600 LiF chip. The periods of the dosimeters evaluation are 3 months or 1 month for the basic (the all body) beta-gamma dosimeter with 2 element of TL-100 material and 1 month for all other type of dosimeters. Now we monitors about 6000 persons by all body TL dosimeters and about 720 persons by additive finger of wrist strap dosimeters. These are about 5000 measurements

  15. Laser diagnostic and plasma technological fundamentals of emission and fuel consumption reduction in DI internal combustion engines. Investigation of a plasma ignition system for DI spark ignition engines. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Untersuchung eines Plasmazuendsystems fuer DI-Ottomotoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepperhoff, G.; Geiger, J.; Wolters, P.; Boewing, R.; Neff, W.

    2000-07-01

    Misfire in stratified DI spark ignition engines may result from cyclic variations of the mixture near the spark plugs. More stable ignition is expected from an initiation of inflammation in a volume range which is significantly larger than the ignition spark of a transistor coil ignition system. the research project investigated the interdependence between electric power supply and the development and propagation of the plasma on a plasma spark plug in space and time. Goals of development are: Development of a system for test stand testing (no electromagnetic interference in the electronic system of the test stand; long-term stability and low variation of the ignition energy; low electrode wear); higher thermal efficiency than conventional transistor coil ignition systems; improved ignition of slow-reacting mixtures with ignition energies below 120 mJ; 'remote' inflammation across a gap of several mm inside the combustion space. [German] Bei geschichtet betriebenen DI-Ottomotoren koennen zyklische Schwankungen in der Gemischzusammensetzung in Zuendkerzennaehe zu Verbrennungsaussetzern fuehren. Durch die Initiierung der Entflammung in einem Volumenbereich, der im Vergleich zum Zuendfunken einer Transistorspulenzuendung (TSZ) deutlich groesser ist, wird eine stabilere Verbrennungseinleitung erwartet. In diesem Forschungsvorhaben liegt der Schwerpunkt auf der Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der elektrischen Leistungseinkopplung und der zeitlich-raeumlichen Entstehung und Ausbreitung des Plasmas an einer Plasmazuendkerze. Die wesentlichen Ziele sind: - Darstellung eines pruefstandtauglichen Systems fuer den Betrieb an DI-Ottomotoren (keine elektromagnetische Stoerung der Pruefstandelektronik; Langzeitstabilitaet der Zuendenergie bei kleiner Schwankungsbreite; niedriger Verschleiss der Elektroden) - hoeherer thermischer Wirkungsgrad als konventionelle Transistorspulenzuendungen - verbesserte Zuendung reaktionstraeger Gemische mit Zuendenergien <120 m

  16. Automated personal dosimetry monitoring system for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanyshev, E.; Chechyotkin, N.; Kondratev, A.; Plyshevskaya, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation safety of personnel at nuclear power plants (NPP) is a priority aim. Degree of radiation exposure of personnel is defined by many factors: NPP design, operation of equipment, organizational management of radiation hazardous works and, certainly, safety culture of every employee. Automated Personal Dosimetry Monitoring System (A.P.D.M.S.) is applied at all nuclear power plants nowadays in Russia to eliminate the possibility of occupational radiation exposure beyond regulated level under different modes of NPP operation. A.P.D.M.S. provides individual radiation dose registration. In the paper the efforts of Design Bureau 'Promengineering' in construction of software and hardware complex of A.P.D.M.S. (S.H.W. A.P.D.M.S.) for NPP with PWR are presented. The developed complex is intended to automatize activities of radiation safety department when caring out individual dosimetry control. The complex covers all main processes concerning individual monitoring of external and internal radiation exposure as well as dose recording, management, and planning. S.H.W. A.P.D.M.S. is a multi-purpose system which software was designed on the modular approach. This approach presumes modification and extension of software using new components (modules) without changes in other components. Such structure makes the system flexible and allows modifying it in case of implementation a new radiation safety requirements and extending the scope of dosimetry monitoring. That gives the possibility to include with time new kinds of dosimetry control for Russian NPP in compliance with IAEA recommendations, for instance, control of the equivalent dose rate to the skin and the equivalent dose rate to the lens of the eye S.H.W. A.P.D.M.S. provides dosimetry control as follows: Current monitoring of external radiation exposure: - Gamma radiation dose measurement using radio-photoluminescent personal dosimeters. - Neutron radiation dose measurement using thermoluminescent

  17. Light dosimetry in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Willem M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper starts with definitions of radiance, fluence (rate) and other quantities that are important with regard to in vivo light dosimetry. The light distribution in mammalian tissues can be estimated from model calculations using measured optical properties or from direct measurements of fluence rate using a suitable detector. A historical introduction is therefore followed by a brief discussion of tissue optical properties and of calculations using diffusion theory, the -approximation or Monte Carlo simulations. In particular the form of the scattering function is considered in relation to the fluence rate close to the tissue boundary, where light is incident. Non-invasive measurements of optical properties yield the absorption coefficient and , where is the scattering coefficient and g is the mean cosine of the scattering angle. An important question is whether this combination is sufficient, or whether g itself must be known. It appears that for strongly forward scattering, as in mammalian tissues, rather detailed knowledge of the scattering function is needed to reliably calculate the fluence rate close to the surface. Deeper in the tissue is sufficient. The construction, calibration and use of fibre-optic probes for measurements of fluence rate in tissues or optical phantoms is discussed. At present, minimally invasive absolute fluence (rate) measurements seem to be possible with an accuracy of 10 - 20%. Examples are given of in vivo measurements in animal experiments and in humans during clinical treatments. Measurements in mammalian tissues, plant leaves and marine sediments are compared and similarities and differences pointed out. Most in vivo light fluence rate measurements have been concerned with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of the same normal tissue may differ between patients. Tumours of the same histological type may even show different optical properties in a single patient. Treatment-induced changes of optical properties may

  18. Quality control and quality assurance philosophy introduced in national personnel dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Zelenka, Z.; Kvasnicka, O.

    2008-01-01

    There in National Personnel Dosimetry Service (NPDS) the implementation of the control system to guarantee the credibility of the measured personal dose equivalents results was given on the basis of the international recommendations published by the European Commission and the IAEA and in particular of the decree of the SUJB No. 132/2008 Coll. The quality control and the quality assurance are carried out in all three personal dosimetry services introduced in NPDS: in the film badge, thermoluminescent (TL) and neutron dosimetry. (authors)

  19. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    , fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state......This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  20. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1988--1990 the magnetic resonance dosimetry project was completed, as were the 250 MeV proton shielding measurements. The first cellular experiment using human cells in vitro at the 1 GeV electron storage ring was also accomplished. More detail may be found in DOE Report number-sign DOE/EV/60417-002 and the open literature cited in the individual progress subsections. We report Kinetic Energy Released in Matter (KERMA), factor measurements in several elements of critical importance to neutron radiation therapy and radiation protection for space habitation and exploration for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The results of this effort provide the only direct measurements of the oxygen and magnesium kerma factors above 20 MeV neutron energy, and the only measurements of the iron kerma factor above 15 MeV. They provide data of immediate relevance to neutron radiotherapy and impose strict criteria for normalizing and testing nuclear models used to calculate kerma factors at higher neutron energies

  1. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  2. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs

  5. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a common form of cancer treatment. Recent advances in radiotherapy such as intensity modulated radiation therapy indicate that treatment outcomes may be improved. The principle limitation of these more advanced techniques of radiation therapy is the ability to quantify the absorbed radiation dose to the tumour which is related to the 3- dimensional geometry of the tumour. The main advances in 3-dimensional radiation dosimetry are the development of radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters. The use of radiation sensitive gels for radiation dosimetry in cancer therapy was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown in 1984 that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. Due to diffusion-related limitations in the use of Fricke gels, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested in 1992. Since then, both magnetic resonance and optical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate polymer gel dosimeters to produce three-dimensional radiation dose distributions. More recently the uses of x-ray computer tomography and vibrational spectroscopy have also been demonstrated as valuable techniques in the evaluation of these dosimetry gels. Although not yet used routinely clinically, applications of these radiologically soft-tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been shown to have great potential in the evaluation of complex radiation dose distributions. A review of 3-dimensional radiotherapy gel dosimetry is presented

  6. MENIMBANG KONVENSI INTERNASIONAL NO. 11806 UNTUK PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA BUDAYA DI INDONESIA Considering International Convention No. 11806 for Cultural Resource Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiyanto Sarjiyanto

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Tulisan ini didasarkan pada rasa keprihatinan akan berlangsungnya berbagai kasus hilangnya benda cagar budaya baik yang ada di situs maupun yang tersimpan di museum yang ada di Indonesia. Banyak pihak yang meyakini bahwa benda-benda warisan leluhur tersebut banyak berpindah tangan ke wilayah luar Indonesia baik di Asia maupun Eropa. Undang-undang tentang perlindungan cagar budaya yang ada sepertinya tidak mampu mencegah atau menangani bahkan mengembalikan benda-benda yang sudah dibawa ke luar negeri, yang berujung pada penyalahan atas minimnya anggaran, peralatan, sumber daya manusia dan sebagainya. Oleh karena itu, perlu dikaji aspek perundangan lain seperti konvensi internasional, yang mungkin dapat diadopsi pasal-pasalnya untuk memperkuat perundangan yang ada di Indonesia. Perlu juga diperhatikan perundangan lain yang terkait termasuk mendorong masuknya pasal tentang pelanggaran BCB dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana yang pernah diwacanakan untuk diamandemen. Penjabaran secara lebih detail dari pasal yang ada dalam Undang-Undang Tentang Cagar Budaya melalui peraturan di tingkat bawahnya menyesuaikan dengan situasi terkini juga perlu diselesaikan segera.   Kata Kunci: konvensi internasional, cagar budaya, produk perundang-undangan, situasi nasional dan internasional

  7. Software for dosimetry hypothyroid patients treated with I131 pick up and using probe gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Felstrom, D.; Luis simon, J.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Derecho Torres, P.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this communication the process recently implemented in our hospital for pre and post treatment of patients treated with I-131 in benign diseases of the thyroid gland internal dosimetry is described. We have developed a proprietary software that facilitates the process of dosimetry. Through scans Planar or pictures Spect be determines the mass of the gland thyroid. In function of the mass, is calculated by Monte Carlo the media power absorbed by disintegration of the I-131 in said gland endocrine. (Author)

  8. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri;Dosimetria interna de radiofarmacos derivados de polipeptideos antitumorais isolados dos venenos de: Crotalus durissus terrificus e Scorpaena plumieri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-07-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, {sup 125}I-Crtx and {sup 125}I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of {sup 131}I-Crtx {sup l31}I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of {sup 131}I-Crtx and {sup 131}I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of {sup 131}I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the

  9. Clinical application of in vivo dosimetry for external telecobalt machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In external beam radiotherapy quality assurance is carried out on the individual components of treatment chain. The patient simulating device, planning system and treatment machine are tested regularly according to set protocols developed by national and international organizations. Even thought these individual systems are not tested for errors which can be made in the transfer between the systems. The best quality assurance for the treatment planning chain. In vivo dosimetry is used as a quality assurance tool for verifying dosimetry as either the entrance or exit surface of the patient undergoing external beam radiotherapy. It is a proven reliable method of checking overall treatment accuracy, allowing verification of dosimetry and dose calculation as well as patient treatment setup. Accurate in vivo dosimetry is carried out if diodes and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). the main detector types in use for in vivo dosimetry, are carefully calibrated and the factors influencing their sensitivity are taken into account. The aim of this study was to verify the response of TLDs type (LiF: Mg, Cu, p) use in radiotherapy, to establish calibration procedure for TLDs and to evaluate entrance dose obtained by the treatment planning system with measured dose using thermoluminescence detectors. Calibration of TLDs was done using Cobalt-60 teletherapy machine, linearity and calibration factors were determined. Measurements were performed in random phantom for breast irradiation (for the breast irradiation ( For the breast irradiation technique considered, wedge field was used). All TLDs were processed and analyzed at RICK. In vivo dosimetry represents a technique that has been widely employed to evaluate the dose to the patient mainly in radiotherapy. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are considered the gold stander for in vivo dosimetry and do not require cables for measurements which makes them ideal for mail based studies and have no dose rate or temperature dependence

  10. For information: Individual dosimetry service

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The service has noticed that there are dosimeter holders who have changed their activities and thus have no longer need of dosimeter as a permanent basis in their work (persons who go rarely to the controlled areas). The reduction of persons in the regular distribution list of dosimeters will lighten the work of the service (distribution, evaluation and consolidation of doses) as well as the work of the distributors, needless to say the economical input this would have for CERN. For the persons who only need a dosimeter temporarily we would like to remind that there is a quick and simple procedure to have one immediately from the Individual Dosimetry Service. Please contact the service (dosimetry.service@cern.ch) if you do not need a dosimeter regularly. Thank you for your cooperation. http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  11. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  12. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  13. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the ''Holy Gray''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brans, B. [University Hospital Maastricht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bodei, L. [Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Giammarile, F. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Linden, O.; Tennvall, J. [Lund University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Lund (Sweden); Luster, M. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oyen, W.J.G. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose-response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. (orig.)

  14. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  15. Computational dosimetry and risk assessment of radioinduced cancer: studies in mammary glands radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination; Dosimetria computacional e estimativa de risco de câncer radioinduzido: estudos em radioterapia de mama, radiofármacos e contaminação interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno Melo

    2017-07-01

    The use of Ionizing radiation (IR) in medicine has increased considerably. The benefits generated by diagnostic and therapy techniques with IR are proven. Nevertheless, the risks arising from these uses should not be underestimated. Justification, a basic radiation protection, states that the benefits from exposures must outweigh detriment. The cancer induction is one of the detriment components. Thus, the study of the benefit/detriment ratio should take into account cancer incidence and mortality estimations resulting from a given diagnosis or therapy radiological technique. The risk of cancer induction depends on the absorbed doses in the irradiated organs and tissues. Thus, IR dosimetry is essential to evaluate the benefit/detriment ratio. The present work aims to perform computational dosimetric evaluations and estimations of cancer induction risk after ionizing radiation exposure. The investigated situations cover nuclear medicine, radiological contamination and radiotherapy fields. Computational dosimetry, with MCNPx Monte Carlo Code, was used as a tool to calculate the absorbed dose in the interest organs of the voxelized human models. The simulations were also used to obtain calibration factors and optimization of in vivo monitoring systems for internal contamination dosimetry. A breast radiotherapy (RT) standard protocol was simulated using the MCNPx code. The calculation of the radiation-induced cancer risk was adapted from the BEIR VII methodology for the Brazilian population. The absorbed doses used in the risk calculations were obtained through computational simulations of different exposure scenarios. During this work, two new computational phantoms, DM{sub B}RA and VW, were generated from tomographic images. Additional twelve voxelized phantoms, including the reference phantoms, RCP{sub A}M and RCP{sub A}F, and the child, baby, and fetus models were adapted to run on MCNP. Internal Dosimetry Protocols (IDP) for radiopharmaceuticals and for internal

  16. Methods and computer readable medium for improved radiotherapy dosimetry planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Frandsen, Michael W.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Nigg, David W.

    2005-11-15

    Methods and computer readable media are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume irradiated during radiation therapy with a radiation source concentrated internally within a patient or incident from an external beam. The dosimetry plan is available in near "real-time" because of the novel geometric model construction of the treatment volume which in turn allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks therethrough. The particles are exemplary representations of alpha, beta or gamma emissions emanating from an internal radiation source during various radiotherapies, such as brachytherapy or targeted radionuclide therapy, or they are exemplary representations of high-energy photons, electrons, protons or other ionizing particles incident on the treatment volume from an external source. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image of a treatment volume irradiated during radiotherapy having a plurality of pixels of information is obtained.

  17. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    as well as MV x-rays. It has piloted an audit of brachytherapy source specification and dosimetry. It is developing audits of brachytherapy treatment planning, cross-centre in vivo dosimetry, MLC dosimetry and stereotactic radiotherapy, as well as beginning to consider requirements and methods for IMRT audit. It has also worked in co-operation with the physics group in Ireland to establish an audit system there. The results from the audits in the group have improved with time. Since 1996, all single field parameters have been observed within the pre-set tolerances for megavoltage x-rays and electrons. Typical results for planned multi-field 'treatment sites' show mean ratios of measured/stated doses between 0.98 and 1.00, sd between 1 and 3% and the percentage of measurements in 'target volumes' within the pre-set tolerance of 5% to be 96-100%. The group is linked to other audit systems nationally via the NPL intercomparisons and internationally via Edinburgh's participation as a reference or development centre for a number of other audit systems, including IAEA, EQUAL, EC network. The network has provided an effective, flexible and cost-effective audit system for the UK. (author)

  18. Lezioni di fisica teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero

    Richiami di meccanica analitica ; richiami di termodinamica ; richiami di elettromagnetismo ; appunti sulla teoria della relatività ; la non validità delle teorie classiche nel mondo microscopico ; la meccanica atomica di Bohr e Sommerfeld ; I fondamenti della meccanica quantistica ; applicazioni nell'equazione di Schroedinger ; meccanica quantistica dei sistemi l'atomo di idrogeno ; particella in un campo elettrico e magnetico ; il calcolo delle perturbazioni nella teoria quantistica ; teoria dell'emissione e dell'assorbimento della luce ; sistemi di particelle identiche ; il legame chimico omopolare nella molecola di idrogeno ; la teoria di Dirac.

  19. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar. ARUN PANDYA*, S G VAIJAPURKAR and P K BHATNAGAR. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur 342 011, India. MS received 12 July 1999; revised 15 February 2000. Abstract. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their.

  20. Thermoluminescence dosimetry environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, characteristics and performances of an environmental monitoring system with thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. Most of the work deals with the main physical parameters necessary for measurements of ambiental dose. At the end of this report some of level doses in the environment around the site of the ENEA Center of Energy Research Salluggia (Italy) are illustrated

  1. Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of ...

  2. Manual of food irradiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following items are discussed: Fundamentals of dosimetry; description of irradiators; dose distribution in the product and commissioning the process; plant operation and process control; detailed instructions on using various dose-meter systems; references; glossary of some basic terms and concepts

  3. Film dosimetry: a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model for electromagnetic radiation dosimetry using photosensitive emulsions is presented. A Kodak odontological radiographic film was used for that purpose. Some properties such as energy dependence, reproductiveness and the characteristic curve were studied. A linear and energy-independent dosimeter for beams above 50 KeV was obtained by adding 1 mm lead filters. 4 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  4. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  5. IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service and high precision measurements for radiotherapy level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Bera, P.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency, together with the World Health Organization, has performed postal TLD audits to verify calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries. The TLD programme also monitors activities of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The programme has checked approximately 4000 clinical beams in over 1100 hospitals, and in many instances significant errors have been detected in the beam calibration. Subsequent follow-up actions help to resolve the discrepancies, thus preventing further mistreatment of patients. The audits for SSDLs check the implementation of the dosimetry protocol in order to assure proper dissemination of dosimetry standards to the end-users. The TLD audit results for SSDLs show good consistency in the basic dosimetry worldwide. New TLD procedures and equipment have recently been introduced by the IAEA that include a modified TLD calibration methodology and computerised tools for automation of dose calculation from TLD readings. (author)

  6. Implications of ISO 9000 for personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Landauer, Inc. has gained approval to provide personnel dosimetry services in several countries. Each experiene reflects the different concerns adopted by national approval agencies. None have adopted ISO 9000 registration as evidence of a suitable quality system of management. Instead, each organization has prepared its own set of requirements with no provisions for recognizing the results of performance tests or audits conducted by other approval organizations. As ISO 9000 has become a communication symbol for commercial organizations dealing with each other, it has not been similarly viewed by radiation regulation bodies. A key reason arises from a tradition to regulate bodies. A key reason arises from a tradition to regulate, not promote, international trade, not encourage innovation, nor foster economic competition. A second reason is the inability to separate the technical requirements from quality assurance. ISO 9000 may become useful once the national technical organizations learn to trust those of other countries

  7. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  8. Fondamenti di fisica dei plasmi

    CERN Document Server

    Golant, V E; Sacharov, I E

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione ; collisioni del plasma ; equazioni cinetiche per particelle cariche ; plasmi in equilibrio termodinamico ; funzione di distribuzione di particelle cariche in un campo elettrico ; equazioni dei momenti della funzione di distribuzione ; processi di trasporto nel plasma in assenza di campi magnetici ; moto di particelle cariche nel plasma in presenza di campi magnetici ; processi di trasporto in campo magnetico ; confinamento del plasma mediante campi magnetici.

  9. Proceedings of the 5. symposium on neutron dosimetry. Beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantitites, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  10. Study of dosimetry errors in the framework of a concerted international study about the risk of cancer in nuclear industry workers. Study of the errors made on dose estimations of 100 to 3000 keV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry Chef, I.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are uncontested factors of cancer risk and the radioprotection standards are defined on the basis of epidemiological studies of persons exposed to high doses of radiations (atomic bombs and therapeutic medical exposures). An epidemiological study of cancer risk has been carried out on nuclear industry workers from 17 countries in order to check these standards and to directly evaluate the risk linked with long duration exposures to low doses. The techniques used to measure the workers' doses have changed with time and these evolutions have been different in the different countries considered. The study of dosimetry errors aims at estimating the compatibility of the doses with respect to the periods of time and to the countries, and at quantifying the errors that could have disturbed the dose measurements during the first years and their consideration in the risk estimation. A compilation of the information available about dosimetry in the participating countries has been performed and the main sources of errors have been identified. Experiments have been carried out to test the response of the dosimeters used and to evaluate the conditions of exposure inside the companies. The biases and uncertainties have been estimated per company and per period of time and the most important correspond to the oldest measurements performed. This study contributes also to improve the knowledge of the working conditions and of the preciseness of dose estimations. (J.S.)

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  12. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  13. MISTI Shielding and Dosimetry Experiment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable on-orbit dosimetry is necessary for understanding effects of space radiation environments on spacecraft microelectronics performance and comparison of...

  14. Dosimetry using MRI: can it really be that difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Simon J.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in gel dosimetry from the very first studies back in the 1980s. Almost all the imaging problems that we still encounter were known about at that time and many were described in the proceedings of the very first International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL ‘99). The quality of MRI scanners has improved enormously in the intervening two decades, so why are there still issues? This review will draw on the wealth of previously presented material from the literature to attempt to answer this question. The reference list provides a “starter pack” that should be viewed as a “jumping off point” for further investigations by the reader, rather than an exhaustive summary of what is a large domain of work.

  15. Dosimetry of a gammabeam 650 60Co irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, J.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1980-01-01

    Fricke and glass dosimetries allowed the determination of some basic irradiation of the γ source Gamma-beam 650, 29,080 Ci of 60 Co on April 1st., 1974 made by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, in operation at CENA - Piracicaba, Sa o Paulo, Brazil. The number of radioactive capsules in each of the 12 exposure tubes, the uniformity of the activity related to each tube and the mean position of the set of capsules during exposition were determined. The exposure rate at the central point of the internal cavity relatively to the diameter formed by 12 active tubes, were experimentally determined by Fricke dosimetry. The results agreed with those indicated in the operation manual of the irradiator source. (Author) [pt

  16. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Richard

    2011-05-01

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  17. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  18. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  19. First national intercomparison of personal dosimetry for dosimetry service providers in paec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.; Ahmed, S.S.

    2006-12-01

    Health Physics Division, PINSTECH, has conducted an intercomparison exercise for PAEC organizations which are responsible for providing personal dosimetry services for the assessment of occupational doses of radiation workers. The exercise was on voluntary basis and it was designed to harmonize the procedure of individual dose monitoring techniques in terms of new ICRP operational quantities of personal dose equivalent Hp (10) for photons. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 protection level sources were used for irradiation. The dosimeters were exposed to radiation in the range of 0.46 to 24.20 mSv. Irradiations were performed in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at HPD, PINSTECH according to IAEA/WHO standards. The performance of the participating laboratories was judged by trumpet curve that provides the acceptable limits on overall accuracy for occupational dose monitoring at 95% confidence level according to international standards. The response of measured dose/standard true dose (Hm/Ht lies in the range of 0.66 to 1.11 for 60CO and 0.84 to 1.17 for 137CS. This report describes the procedure and results of the intercomparison exercise. (author)

  20. Diamond dosimetry: Outcomes of the CANDIDO and CONRAD INFN projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucciolini, M.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Casati, M.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G.; De Angelis, C.; Lovik, I.; Onori, S.; Raffaele, L.; Sciortino, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the main results of the study, carried out in the framework of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) projects, namely CANDIDO and CONRAD, on natural and synthetic diamond-based dosimeters for clinical radiotherapy. Characteristics of diamond such as radiation hardness, high sensitivity, tissue equivalence, etc., make this material interesting for dosimetry applications. For some years, natural diamonds have been commercially available for on-line radiotherapy dosimetry. Nevertheless, recent developments in the 'Chemical Vapour Deposition' (CVD) technique have addressed the attention on synthetic samples that potentially could be grown at low cost and with features suitable for dosimetric use. Several samples, differently grown and with different electrical contacts, have been compared by measuring their current response during irradiation with high-energy photon, electron and proton beams. Properties of dosimetric interest such as linearity, pre-irradiation dose, dose rate dependence, stability and rise time have been investigated. The results obtained so far within the INFN collaboration demonstrate the suitability of natural diamond detectors for many radiotherapy applications and the great potential of CVD diamond-based devices even though, at present, the commercial natural diamond dosimeters have a better behaviour with respect to the synthetic samples. Further efforts have to be made mainly to improve the dynamic of response and performance stability

  1. Tecniche di indagine in materia di mafia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Falcone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Si ripubblica qui il testo della Relazione che Giovanni Falcone e Giuliano Turone, uno giudice palermitano, l’altro giudice milanese, entrambi impegnati contro la criminalità mafiosa, tennero in un convegno a Castel Gandolfo nel giugno del 1982, tra l’assassinio di Pio La Torre e quello di Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa. Si tratta di una relazione storica, che ha orientato più generazione di studiosi, soprattutto per la distinzione proposta sui tre livelli dei delitti di mafia.

  2. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-05-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the US, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses

  3. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses. (author)

  4. Esercizi di analisi infinitesimale

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrana, Francesco

    1948-01-01

    Esercizi di ricapitolazione ; integrali delle funzioni di una variabile ; derivate e differenziali delle funzioni di più variabili ; integrali dipendenti da un parametro ; integrali curvilinei ; integrali doppi ; integrali multipli ; applicazioni geometriche varie ; equazioni differenziali ; alcuni esercizi sulle serie di Fourier ; cenni sul calcolo delle variazioni ; alcune funzioni analitiche.

  5. Triangolo di pensieri

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain; Schützenberger, Marcel Paul

    2001-01-01

    Le grandi scoperte scientifiche del XX secolo, come la relatività generale, la meccanica quantistica o il teorema di Godel, modificano profondamente la nostra percezione della realtà. Questo libro intende offrire a un pubblico largo, ma colto, la possibilità di superare il divario crescente fra le sottigliezze di queste modificazioni, apprezzate dai soli specialisti, e l'immagine spesso deformata che ne danno i media o le opere di divulgazione. Il libro cerca di dare delle risposte attraverso uno scambio di idee fra tre studiosi, ciascuno dei quali rappresenta un vertice del 'triangolo di pensieri'.

  6. Lezioni di Cosmologia Teorica

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Il libro è basato sulle lezioni attualmente tenute dall'autore presso l’Università di Bari, ed è progettato in modo da rappresentare un testo di riferimento il più possibile moderno, completo e autosufficiente per i corsi semestrale di Cosmologia, Astrofisica o Fisica Astroparticellare che compaiono nel piano di studi della Laurea Magistrale in Fisica e in Astronomia. Contiene gli elementi di base della cosmologia relativistica, del modello cosmologico standard e del suo completamento inflazionario. E' organizzato per servire da traccia ad un corso di cosmologia di stampo teorico, ma cerca di non perdere mai di vista il confronto con i principali risultati osservativi: molta attenzione viene infatti dedicata alla fenomenologia dei fondi cosmici, e in particolare alla  radiazione gravitazionale fossile perché la sua rivelazione, diretta o indiretta, potrebbe dare indicazioni  cruciali sulla scelta del corretto modello per l'Universo primordiale. Non mancano infine alcuni accenni ad argomenti di inter...

  7. Dosimetry Methods for Human Exposure to Non-Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljak, D.; Sarolic, A.; Doric, V.; Peratta, C.; Peratta, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with human exposure to electromagnetic fields from extremely low frequencies (ELF) to GSM frequencies. The problem requires (1) the assessment of external field generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) source at a given frequency (incident field dosimetry) and then (2) the assessment of corresponding fields induced inside the human body (internal field dosimetry). Several methods used in theoretical and experimental dosimetry are discussed within this work. Theoretical dosimetry models at low frequencies are based on quasistatic approaches, while analyses at higher frequencies use the full-wave models. Experimental techniques involve near and far field measurement. Human exposure to power lines, transformer substations, power line communication (PLC) systems, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antennas and GSM base station antenna systems is analyzed. The results o are compared to the exposure limits proposed by relevant safety guidelines. Theoretical incident dosimetry used in this paper is based on the set of Pocklington integro-differential equations for the calculation of the current distribution and subsequently radiated field from power lines. Experimental incident dosimetry techniques involve measurement techniques of fields radiated by RFID antennas and GSM base station antennas. First example set of numerical results is related to the internal dosimetry of realistic well-grounded body model exposed to vertical component of the electric field E = 10 kV/m generated by high voltage power line. The results obtained via the HNA model exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for public exposure (2 mA/m 2 ) in knee (8.6 mA/m 2 ) and neck (9.8 mA/m 2 ) and for occupational exposure (10 mA/m 2 ) in ankle (32 mA/m 2 ). In the case of a conceptual model of a realistic human body inside a transformer substation room touching a control panel at the potential φ0 = 400 V and with two scenarios for dry-air between worker's hand and panel, the values

  8. Testa di Pinocchio

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Testa di Pinocchio è il progetto proposto da Liliana Moro in occasione della mostra itinerante Playgrounds and Toys, organizzata dall’associazione con sede a Ginevra Art for the World e curata da Adelina von Fürstenberg, con l’intento di sensibilizzare il pubblico sul gioco come diritto fondamentale, spesso negato, di ogni bambino. In particolare la rassegna invitava artisti, architetti e designer di tutto il mondo a proporre progetti di parchi giochi e giocattoli destinati a bambini costrett...

  9. Sintesi stereoselettiva di piridilammine

    OpenAIRE

    Chelucci, Giorgio Adolfo; Baldino, Salvatore; Pinna, Gérard Aimé; Soccolini, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Ammino piridine chirali hanno dimostrato la loro validità come leganti per la formazione di complessi metallici utilizzati nella catalisi asimmetrica. Tra i possibili approcci alla sintesi di questi composti noi abbiamo investigato la riduzione diastereoselettiva di N-sostituite (p-totil e tert-butil) piridil chetimmine con una serie di agenti riducenti (NaBH4, L-Selectride, DIBAL, 9-BBN) in diverse condizioni di reazione.

  10. Obbligo di sicurezza del prestatore di lavoro ed effettività della tutela antinfortunistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio affronta il tema della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori quale diritto fondamentale. Dopo l'analisi del panoram­a normativo internazionale e comunitario, l'A. si sofferma sulla posi­zione di garanzia assegnata al prestatore di lavoro subordinato nell'ordinamento interno, con particolare attenzione ai diritti di for­mazione e di informazione intimamente connessi al correlati­vo obbli­go di sicurezza del prestatore di lavoro. Le conclusioni cui giunge una parte della giurisprudenza in merito all'irrilevanza del concorso di colpa del lavoratore sono condivise dall'A., la quale però puntualizza come l'esercizio del potere disciplinare diventi la chiave di volta del sistema per garantire l'effettività della sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro.The essay addresses safety and health of workers as funda­mental social rigths. The foreword analyses of international and EU regulatory scene, the A. focuses on the worker's guarantee posi­tion in the internal law, especially on training and in­formation rights, which are connected with the worker's safety duty strictly. The A. agree with lot of cases law ac­cording to negligence of employee no matter on it. However, the paper points out that exercise of disciplinary power be­comes the key to ensure the safety effectiveness in the workplace.

  11. Thermoluminescence and Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, v. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive review and guide to the fields of thermoluminescence and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Three up-to-date volumes contain useful tables, illustrations, formulas and references to aid researchers in radiation and nuclear science, dosimetry and solid state physics. Volume III focuses on clinical and archeological-geological applications of TLD. Detailed technical information on TL instrumentation is also included.

  12. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  13. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  14. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  15. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  16. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  17. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  18. Relative and absolute dosimetry of proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Delacroix, S.; Bridier, A.; Daures, J.; Dolo, J.M.; Nauraye, C.; Ferrand, R.; Cosgrave, V.; Habrand, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Different codes of practice are in use or under preparation by several groups and national or international societies, concerning the dosimetry of proton beams. In spite of a large number of experiences and the increasing interest on this field, there are still large incertitudes on some of the basic conversion and correction factors to get dose values from different measuring methods. In practice, dose uniformity between centers is searched and encouraged by intercomparisons using standard procedures. We present the characteristics and the results on proton dosimetry intercomparisons using calorimeters, Faraday cups and ion chambers, as well as on the use of other detectors like diodes, radiographic films and TLD. New detectors like diamond, scintillators, radiochromic films, alanine, gels, ... can give new solutions to particular problems, provided their response is not affected at the end of the proton range (higher LET region), and their resolution, range, linearity, cost, ... are well adapted to practical situations. Some examples of special challenges are non interfering measurements during treatments for quality control, in vivo measurements, small beams for stereotactic irradiations, scanned beams and correlations between dosimetry, microdosimetry and radiobiology

  19. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  1. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131; Dosimetria biologica de pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides tratados con Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP). Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fadel, A. [Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Carlos Durand Av. Diaz Velez 5044. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C. [Hospital de Clfnicas Jose de San Martin Av. Cordoba 2351 (CP1120). Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mvallerg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  2. Shared Dosimetry Error in Epidemiological Dose-Response Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope β is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of β) is biased for β≠0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. Use of these methods for several studies, including the Mayak Worker Cohort and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.

  3. Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Stram

    Full Text Available Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope β is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of β is biased for β≠0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.

  4. Shared Dosimetry Error in Epidemiological Dose-Response Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope β is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of β) is biased for β≠0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed. PMID:25799311

  5. Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of 'possible' dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope β is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of β) is biased for β≠0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed

  6. Relocation of the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service is moving from Building 24 to Building 55 and will therefore be closed on Friday, 30 March. From Monday, 2 April onwards you will find us in Building 55/1-001. Please note that we cannot exclude problems with Internet connections on that day and are therefore unable to guarantee normal service. The Service's opening hours and telephone number will not change as a result of the move: Open from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. Tel. 7 2155

  7. Gamma dosimetry of high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, T.; Galvan G, A.; Canizal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma dosimetry of high doses is problematic in almost all the classic dosemeters either based on the thermoluminescence, electric, chemical properties, etc., because they are saturated to very high dose and they are no longer useful. This work carries out an investigation in the interval of high doses. The solid system of heptahydrate ferrous sulfate, can be used as solid dosemeter of routine for high doses of radiation. The proposed method is simple, cheap and it doesn't require sophisticated spectrophotometers or spectrometers but expensive and not common in some laboratories

  8. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...... dosimeters have been developed in this department, and the properties of these and commercially available dosimeters have been measured and found to be comparable. Calorimeters, which are in use for routine measurements, are being investigated with reference to their application as standardizing instruments......, and new calorimeters are being developed....

  9. The RERF dosimetry measurements database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Preston, Dale L.; Grant, Eric J.; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Takashi; Lowder, Wayne M.

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation maintains a database containing detailed information on every known measurement of environmental materials in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for gamma-ray thermoluminescence or neutron activation produced by incident radiation from the atomic bomb detonations. The intent was to create a single information resource that would consistently document, as completely as possible in each case, a standard array of data for every known measurement. This database provides a uniquely comprehensive and carefully designed reference for the dosimetry reassessment. (J.P.N.)

  10. Review on individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, M.

    1983-01-01

    Up to now, nuclear energy workers in relation to neutron radiations were few. Fast development of nuclear energy lead us to study, for future, individual dosimetry techniques which are autonomous, more accurate and cheaper. The future dosemeter will be a couple: fast neutron dosemeter and slow neutron dosemeter. The different current studies concerning this ''composite'' dosemeter are described. In 1984-1985, operation of a ''non-homogeneous, composite'' dosemeter is foreseen; later on, an ''homogeneous composite'' dosemeter that is to say a dosemeter which needs same basis techniques [fr

  11. Dosimetry for electron beam application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron beam dosimetry, on one hand development of film dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand development of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film dosimeters have been developed in this department, and the properties of these and commercially available dosimeters have been measured and found to be comparable. Calorimeters which are in use for routine measurements, are being investigated with reference to their application as standardizing instruments, and new calorimeters are being developed. (author)

  12. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, Keith

    2002-01-01

    One of the most difficult areas in which to provide radiation protection advice is in the area of the exposure of the fetus. Both staff and patients may be exposed to ionizing radiation. Dosimetry approaches for both cases are different and the advice to the exposed individual varies. Irrespective of whether the irradiation of the fetus is unintended, the fetal dose must be calculated. This requires detailed knowledge of the radiographic technique used. The method of estimation will be described in detail as well as estimation of fetal risks

  13. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given

  14. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  15. Reviewing three dimensional dosimetry: basics and utilization as presented over 17 Years of DosGel and IC3Ddose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2017-05-01

    For seventeen years a community of basic and clinical scientists and researchers has been meeting bi-annually to promote the clinical advance of techniques to measure radiation dose in three dimensions. The interest in this dosimetry was motivated by its promise as an effective methodology for 3D measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. Each of the International Conferences on 3D Radiation Dosimetry resulted in the publication of informative proceedings [1-8], the majority openly available on the internet. The proceedings included papers that: i) reviewed the basic science of the radiation sensitive materials used to accumulate the dose information, ii) introduced the science and engineering of the imaging systems required to read the information out, iii) described the work flows and systems required for efficient dosimetry, iv) reported the protocols required for reproducible dosimetry, and v) showed examples of clinical use illustrating advantage and limitations of the dosimetry. This paper is intended to use the framework provided by these proceedings to review the current 3D chemical dosimeters available and to discuss the requirements for their use. The paper describes how 3D dosimetry can complement other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. It closes with some personal reflections of how the motivation for, and practice of, 3D dosimetry have changed (or not) over the years.

  16. Reviewing three dimensional dosimetry: basics and utilization as presented over 17 Years of DosGel and IC3Ddose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, L J

    2017-01-01

    For seventeen years a community of basic and clinical scientists and researchers has been meeting bi-annually to promote the clinical advance of techniques to measure radiation dose in three dimensions. The interest in this dosimetry was motivated by its promise as an effective methodology for 3D measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. Each of the International Conferences on 3D Radiation Dosimetry resulted in the publication of informative proceedings [1-8], the majority openly available on the internet. The proceedings included papers that: i) reviewed the basic science of the radiation sensitive materials used to accumulate the dose information, ii) introduced the science and engineering of the imaging systems required to read the information out, iii) described the work flows and systems required for efficient dosimetry, iv) reported the protocols required for reproducible dosimetry, and v) showed examples of clinical use illustrating advantage and limitations of the dosimetry. This paper is intended to use the framework provided by these proceedings to review the current 3D chemical dosimeters available and to discuss the requirements for their use. The paper describes how 3D dosimetry can complement other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. It closes with some personal reflections of how the motivation for, and practice of, 3D dosimetry have changed (or not) over the years. (paper)

  17. Activities at the NEA for Dosimetry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, H.; Kodeli, I.

    2009-08-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that assists its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific and technological use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The main role of the NEA is the collection, validation and distribution of basic nuclear data, computer codes covering the areas of nuclear research and engineering, and experimental data. The activities linked to dosimetry applications are described in this paper, such as those of the Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) established at the NEA to promote the exchange of nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations and validation. Collection, validation, and distribution of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries will be presented and, in particular, the Joint Evaluated Fusion and Fission (JEFF) library project. For the verification of activation and transport nuclear data, as well as computational methods, several integral experimental databases are collected and distributed by the Data Bank, for example the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD), the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiments (IRPhE). Another important activity at the NEA is the collection of experimental differential nuclear reaction data for the EXFOR database. A recent WPEC project emphasizes the need for a coherent format that could be used for computer code calculations and improved validation of experimental data. JANIS is a graphical visualization tool that has been found to be useful for checking the content of EXFOR.

  18. Participation of the regional reference center for dosimetry of Argentina in the personnel dosimetry intercomparison for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.; Lindner, C.; Montano, R.G.; Saravi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A Regional Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison was organized in the Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CRRD), in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), with the participation of 9 countries of Latin America. For dosimeter irradiations, X-ray, 60 Co γ-ray and 137 Cs γ-ray beams were used during the intercomparison. The air kerma rate was measured with the Secondary Standard NE 2560 and NE 2561 ionisation chamber. In compliance with ISO 4037 guideline, the wide spectrum series W60, W110 and W200 for the X-ray irradiations were chosen, determining their quality by the HVL method. Prior to the intercomparison, these beams were checked by the Physikalish Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) using thermoluminescence dosimeters 'pill box', which were irradiated in air and in ICRU phantom. As result of this check, only one 'X ray beam got a deviation of 7%, while the rest of them were less than 3%. Periodic checks of the beams by a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory such as PTB give reliability to the irradiations performed by this CRRD. (author) [es

  19. Elementi di teoria delle funzioni e di analisi funzionale

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmogorov, Andrej N

    1980-01-01

    Elementi di teoria degli insiemi ; spazi metrici e topologici ; spazi lineari topologici e normati ; funzionali e operatori lineari ; misura, funzioni misurabili, integra