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Sample records for internal dosimetry di

  1. Biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (CaDT) treated with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, Ana M.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana; Cabrejas, Raul C.

    2009-01-01

    The internal 131 I radiotherapy in patients with CaDT is used within the therapeutic scheme as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of therapy is to achieve a lethal dose in the tumor tissue without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues (doses greater than 2 Gy in bone marrow could lead to myelotoxicity). In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) for estimating doses to the whole body and bone marrow to administer a therapeutic personalized for each patient. The estimate biological dose is based in the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is referred to a dose-response curve. Objectives: 1) To estimate the absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I therapy in patients with CaDT, by applying three different cytogenetic tests: conventional cytogenetics, micronuclei (MN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2) Assess the correlation of the results obtained by DB and DI for personalization of treatment. Materials and methods: We evaluated 24 patients with CaDiT by applying the cytogenetic tests mentioned and internal dosimetry (methodology Mird-Olinda). Internal dosimetry: We administered a tracer dose 74 to 111 MBq. Measurements were made of activity in whole body and blood. By adjusting the scheme was estimated MIRD dose in bone marrow and the maximum therapeutic activity to manage and secure. Through software Olinda was determined absorbed dose to the whole body for each patient. We considered patient-specific data (physical frame size, weight, hematocrit) to adjust the methodology in each particular case. It is assumed that the tracer activity administered has a kinetic in the body similar to the 131 I to be administered in therapeutic amounts. Biology Dosimetry : We performed for each patient taking 2 sequential venous blood samples to estimate the dose due to therapeutic activity in review: the first shows, pre

  2. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  3. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  4. Internal Dosimetry. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindorf, C. [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    The Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) is a committee within the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The MIRD Committee was formed in 1965 with the mission to standardize internal dosimetry calculations, improve the published emission data for radionuclides and enhance the data on pharmacokinetics for radiopharmaceuticals [18.1]. A unified approach to internal dosimetry was published by the MIRD Committee in 1968, MIRD Pamphlet No. 1 [18.2], which was updated several times thereafter. Currently, the most well known version is the MIRD Primer from 1991 [18.3]. The latest publication on the formalism was published in 2009 in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4], which provides a notation meant to bridge the differences in the formalism used by the MIRD Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [18.5]. The formalism presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4] will be used here, although some references to the quantities and parameters used in the MIRD primer [18.3] will be made. All symbols, quantities and units are presented.

  5. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  7. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  8. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  9. Internal dosimetry, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the progress in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides (internal dosimetry) since World War II. Previous to that, only naturally occurring radionuclides were available and only a limited number of studies of biokinetics and dosimetry were done. The main radionuclides studied were 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 224 Ra but natural uranium was also studied mainly because of its toxic effect as a heavy metal, and not because it was radioactive. The effects of 226 Ra in bone, mainly from the radium dial painters, also formed the only bases for the radiotoxicity of radionuclides in bone for many years, and it is still, along with 224 Ra, the main source of information on the effects of alpha emitters in bone. The publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that have an impact on internal dosimetry are used as mileposts for this review. These series of publications, more than any other, represent a broad consensus of opinion within the radiation protection community at the time of their publication, and have formed the bases for radiation protection practice throughout the world. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; it is meant to be a personnel view of the evolution of internal dosimetry, and to present the author's opinion of what the future directions in internal dosimetry will be. 39 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Characterization of internal dosimetry practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Heid, K.R.; Mann, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Current practices in internal dosimetry at DOE facilities were evaluated with respect to consistency among DOE Contractors. All aspects of an internal dosimetry program were addressed. Items considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, record systems and ease of information retrieval; ease of integrating internal dose and external dose; modeling systems employed, including ability to modify models depending on excretion data, and verification of computer codes utilized; bioassay procedures, including quality control; and ability to relate air concentration data to individual workers and bioassay data. Feasibility of uranium analysis in solution by laser fluorescence excitation at uranium concentrations of one part per billion was demonstrated

  11. 11. International conference on solid radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems discussed during the international conference on solid radiation dosimetry which took place in June 1995 in Budapest are briefly considered. These are the basic physical processes, materials applied for dosimetry, special techniques, personnel monitoring, monitoring of environmental effects, large-dose dosimetry, clinic dosimetry, track detector used for dosimetry, dosimetry in archaeology and geology, equipment and technique for dosimetric measurements. The special attention was paid to superlinearity in the TLD-100 (LiF, Mg, Ti) response function when determining doses of gamma radiation, heavy charged particles, low-energy particle fluxes in particular. New theoretical models were considered

  12. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  13. The internal dosimetry code PLEIADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, T P; Phipps, A W; Smith, T J

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public, including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients divides naturally into two distinct parts-the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper describes in detail the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. A summary of the dosimetric treatment is included.

  14. The internal dosimetry code PLEIADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T. P.; Phipps, A. W.; Smith, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public, including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients divides naturally into two distinct parts - the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper describes in detail the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. A summary of the dosimetric treatment is included. (authors)

  15. Code for Internal Dosimetry (CINDY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1990-10-01

    The CINDY (Code for Internal Dosimetry) Software Package has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 30. The code assist in the interpretation of bioassay data, evaluates committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, provides output consistent with revised DOE orders, is easy to use, and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. CINDY is an interactive program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. Four types of analyses may be specified. 92 figs., 10 tabs

  16. The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1985-04-01

    This document describes the contents of the second version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85), distributed by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This library superseded IRDF-82. (author)

  17. Radiation Litigation and Internal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Litigation refers to those lawsuits filed by individuals who claim to have been injured by some past exposure to ionizing radiation. Law classifies these cases as personal injury or tort cases. However, they are a new breed of such cases and the law is presently struggling with whether these cases can be resolved using the traditional methods of legal analysis or whether new forms of analysis, such as probability of causation, need to be applied. There are no absolutely certain rules concerning how these particular lawsuits will be tried and analyzed. The United States presently is defending cases filed by approximately 7000 plaintiffs. The private nuclear industry is defending cases filed by over 2000 plaintiffs. While not all of these cases will actually be tried on their merits, at least some will and internal dosimetry will play a very important part in many of these trials

  18. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  19. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs

  20. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  1. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  2. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and 59 Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs

  3. Internal dosimetry by whole body counting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Over decades, whole body counting and bioassay - the two principal methods of internal dosimetry have been most widely used to assess, limit and control the intakes of radioactive materials and the consequent internal doses by the workers in nuclear industry. This paper deals with the whole body counting techniques. The problems inherent in the interpretation of monitoring data and likely future directions of development in the assessments of internal doses by direct methods are outlined. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  5. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program

  6. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.; MacLellan, J.A.; Long, M.P.

    1994-07-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project, as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy and its Hanford contractors. Project services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessment of potential intakes and internal dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. Specific chapters deal with the following subjects: practices of the project, including interpretation of applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for assessment, documentation, and reporting of doses; assessment of internal dose, including summary explanations of when and how assessments are performed; recording and reporting practices for internal dose; selection of workers for bioassay monitoring and establishment of type and frequency of bioassay measurements; capability and scheduling of bioassay monitoring services; recommended dosimetry response to potential internal exposure incidents; quality control and quality assurance provisions of the program.

  7. Updating the INDAC computer application of internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Perez-Tinao, B.; Marchena Gonzalez, P.; Sollet Sanudo, E.; Serrano Calvo, E.

    2013-01-01

    The initial objective of this project is to expand the application INDAC currently used in internal dosimetry services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom for estimating the effective doses of internal dosimetry of workers in direct action. or in-vivo dosimetry. (Author)

  8. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  9. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee

  10. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  11. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  12. Development of a definitive internal dosimetry code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Internal dosimetry may be divided into tow main problems: (1) the forward (scientific) problem of determining biokinetics models that describe how radionuclides are taken into the body, distributed in body tissues, and excreted, and (2) the inverse (mathematical) problem: given the measured amounts in excreta and assuming a biokinetic model, to determine the times and amounts of intakes into the body. The inverse problem of internal dosimetry is, in fact, a generic problem studied in other fields (e.g., image reconstruction, spectral deconvulution, and model parameter fitting). We have developed a code for plutonium internal dosimetry using the maximum entropy method, a method for solving underdetermined inverse problems with a positivity constraint. Within the framework of Bayesian statistics, we believe the definitive approach is to examine the Bayesian posterior probability describing the probability of an intake scenario (X i ) read ( ... ) as open-quotes the set of,close quotes where X i denotes the intake amount that occurs on the with day. For plutonium, for a worker with a long employment history, this is a very high dimensional probability space, since there may be on the order of 10,000 days when intakes may have occurred. Within this high dimensional space, we calculate the mean intake scenario as i > where denotes the expectation value over the posterior probability distribution. Similarly, we calculate uncertainties and other relevant quantities, such as X 2 , as expectation values over the posterior distribution. Thanks to a recent breakthrough in describing the mathematical structure of the intake process (a Poisson sum representation of intakes), we have developed the initial version of a Bayesian expectation-value algorithm for internal dosimetry reconstructions

  13. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  14. Dosimetry of internal emitters - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.; Nagaratnam, A.; Jain, S.C.; Gupta, M.M.; Mehta, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The dosimetry of internally administered radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures using MIRD formalisms and dosimetry in the case of intakes of radionuclides and ICRP methodology for the purpose of radiological protection are well established working practices. It should, however, be remembered that dose or dose coefficients calculated refer to a reference individual, defined in terms of a mathematical phantom established on the basis of certain biokinetic reference parameters. The reference individual represents a typical caucasian adult of West Europe or North American origin. Recently, some attempts have been made to define a Reference Asian and a Reference Indian individual and to assess the effects of anatomical differences and changes in the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals and other radionuclides in these different reference individuals on the estimation of dose and dose coefficients in relation to the intake of internal radionuclides. The assessment of doses to the embryo/fetus due to intake of radionuclides by pregnant women, local dose estimates, microdosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection aspects relating to Auger electron emitters represent other areas of active research in the area of dosimetry of internal emitters. The present review summarises these different aspects of work. (orig.) [de

  15. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosimetry program in accordance with expected Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) requirements for the selected radionuclides provided in this document, including uranium mill tailing mixtures. Additions and modifications to this document and procedures derived FR-om this document are expected in the future according to changes in standards and changes in programmatic mission

  16. Design of an internal dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of radiation dose is an essential element of radiation protection programs at nuclear facilities. To protect workers and demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, dosimetry programs must be established based on sound technical basis. Historically, external exposure was controlled by occupational dose limits. Internal exposure to radionuclides was limited by maximum permissible body burden and maximum permissible concentration. With the issuance of ICRP 26, ICRP 30, DOE Order 5480.11, DOE/EH-0256T, and the new 10 CFR 20, it has become a requirement that internal dose be assessed and the sum of internal and external doses be maintained below regulatory limits. Nuclear facilities are required to have internal dose evaluation programs adequate to demonstrate compliance with radiation protection standards (RPSs). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a DOE facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in an ancient salt bed 2,150 feet underground. Internal dose measurement is required to support waste handling activities. This paper describes the technical basis for the WIPP Internal Dosimetry Program. (author)

  17. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  18. Internal dosimetry of polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.

    2007-01-01

    On November 1, 2006, former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. He died three weeks later, becoming the first known victim of lethal polonium-210 induced acute radiation syndrome. Po-210 is an alpha emitter and is not a radiological hazard as long as it remains outside the body. If taken into the body, much of Po-210 is subsequently excreted, mostly through faeces and some through urine and other pathways. After uptake by the blood, Po-210 is widely distributed through soft body tissues including bone marrow. The internal dose from polonium in the body gives rise to an increase in lifetime cancer risk. Very high radiation doses can cause severe damage to body tissues and organs and in the extreme can be fatal. The hazard function model was used to estimate the lethal levels of intake of Po-210. In case of Litvinenko the destruction of bone marrow and resulting failure of the immune system was most probably the main cause of death, likely to be compounded by damage caused by higher doses to other organs, including kidneys and liver. It was estimated that the ingestion of several hundreds MBq or just about a microgram of Po-210 can be lethal. (author)

  19. Sandia National Laboratories Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (Rev 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goke, Sarah Hayes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories’ Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual is intended to provide extended technical discussion and justification of the internal dosimetry program at SNL. It serves to record the approach to evaluating internal doses from radiobioassay data, and where appropriate, from workplace monitoring data per the Department of Energy Internal Dosimetry Program Guide DOE G 441.1C. The discussion contained herein is directed primarily to current and future SNL internal dosimetrists. In an effort to conserve space in the TBM and avoid duplication, it contains numerous references providing an entry point into the internal dosimetry literature relevant to this program. The TBM is not intended to act as a policy or procedure statement, but will supplement the information normally found in procedures or policy documents. The internal dosimetry program outlined in this manual is intended to meet the requirements of Federal Rule 10CFR835 for monitoring the workplace and for assessing internal radiation doses to workers.

  20. Internal Dosimetry Intake Estimation using Bayesian Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Martz, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    New methods for the inverse problem of internal dosimetry are proposed based on evaluating expectations of the Bayesian posterior probability distribution of intake amounts, given bioassay measurements. These expectation integrals are normally of very high dimension and hence impractical to use. However, the expectations can be algebraically transformed into a sum of terms representing different numbers of intakes, with a Poisson distribution of the number of intakes. This sum often rapidly converges, when the average number of intakes for a population is small. A simplified algorithm using data unfolding is described (UF code). (author)

  1. The work programme of EURADOS on internal and external dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Gilvin, P; Harrison, R; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Tanner, R; Vargas, A; Woda, C

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been maintaining a network of institutions interested in the dosimetry of ionising radiation. As of 2017, this network includes more than 70 institutions (research centres, dosimetry services, university institutes, etc.), and the EURADOS database lists more than 500 scientists who contribute to the EURADOS mission, which is to promote research and technical development in dosimetry and its implementation into practice, and to contribute to harmonisation of dosimetry in Europe and its conformance with international practices. The EURADOS working programme is organised into eight working groups dealing with environmental, computational, internal, and retrospective dosimetry; dosimetry in medical imaging; dosimetry in radiotherapy; dosimetry in high-energy radiation fields; and harmonisation of individual monitoring. Results are published as freely available EURADOS reports and in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Moreover, EURADOS organises winter schools and training courses on various aspects relevant for radiation dosimetry, and formulates the strategic research needs in dosimetry important for Europe. This paper gives an overview on the most important EURADOS activities. More details can be found at www.eurados.org .

  2. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  3. Internal Dosimetry for Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal dosimetry which refers to dosage estimation from internal part of an individual body is an important and compulsory component in order to ensure the safety of the personnel involved in operational of a Nuclear Power Program. Radionuclides particle may deposit in the human being through several pathways and release wave and/or particle radiation to irradiate that person and give dose to body until it been excreted or completely decayed from the body. Type of radionuclides of concerning, monitoring program, equipment's and technique used to measure the concentration level of such radionuclides and dose calculation will be discussed in this article along with the role and capability of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (author)

  4. Course on internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This documentation was distributed to the participants in the Course of Internal Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine organised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina and held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 9-13, 2004. The course was intended for people from IAEA Member States in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and for professionals and workers in medicine, related with the radiation protection. Spanish and English were the languages of the course. The following subjects were covered: radioprotection of the patient in nuclear medicine; injuries by ionizing radiations; MIRD methodology; radiation dose assessment in nuclear medicine; small scale and microdosimetry; bone and marrow dose modelling; medical internal dose calculations; SPECT and image reconstruction; principles of the gamma camera; scattering and attenuation correction in SPECT; tomography in nuclear medicine

  5. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  6. Development of Probabilistic Internal Dosimetry Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Eun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai-Ki [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values (e.g. the 2.5{sup th}, 5{sup th}, median, 95{sup th}, and 97.5{sup th} percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various

  7. Development of Probabilistic Internal Dosimetry Computer Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Internal radiation dose assessment involves biokinetic models, the corresponding parameters, measured data, and many assumptions. Every component considered in the internal dose assessment has its own uncertainty, which is propagated in the intake activity and internal dose estimates. For research or scientific purposes, and for retrospective dose reconstruction for accident scenarios occurring in workplaces having a large quantity of unsealed radionuclides, such as nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities in which nuclear medicine is practiced, a quantitative uncertainty assessment of the internal dose is often required. However, no calculation tools or computer codes that incorporate all the relevant processes and their corresponding uncertainties, i.e., from the measured data to the committed dose, are available. Thus, the objective of the present study is to develop an integrated probabilistic internal-dose-assessment computer code. First, the uncertainty components in internal dosimetry are identified, and quantitative uncertainty data are collected. Then, an uncertainty database is established for each component. In order to propagate these uncertainties in an internal dose assessment, a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment system that employs the Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods. Based on the developed system, we developed a probabilistic internal-dose-assessment code by using MATLAB so as to estimate the dose distributions from the measured data with uncertainty. Using the developed code, we calculated the internal dose distribution and statistical values (e.g. the 2.5 th , 5 th , median, 95 th , and 97.5 th percentiles) for three sample scenarios. On the basis of the distributions, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the influence of each component on the resulting dose in order to identify the major component of the uncertainty in a bioassay. The results of this study can be applied to various situations. In cases

  8. Internal dosimetry - its evolution and new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, Luiz

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some discussions on the developments and trends of metabolic models and dosimetry and their associated parameters, which have been adopted by ICRP to evaluate intakes of radionuclides

  9. IMBA professional plus: internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; Marsh, J.W.; Davis, K.; Bailey, M.R.; Peach, A.; James, A.C.; Jarvis, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During 1997-1999, NRPB, in collaboration with British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and Westlakes Research Institute, produced IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the current ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations that implemented the 1996 Euratom Directive, and partly in recognition of the advantages of a unified approach to estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements. The IMBA modules have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine formal dose assessment by Approved Dosimetry Services throughout the UK. Over the past 5 years, NRPB has developed the IMBA modules further. In addition, several projects, sponsored by organizations both in the USA and in Canada, resulted in the development of customized user friendly interfaces (IMBA Expert TM 'editions'). These enable their users not only to use the standard ICRP models, but also to change many of the parameter values from their defaults, and also to apply sophisticated data handling techniques to internal dose calculations. These include fitting multiple data using the maximum likelihood method, multiple chronic and acute intakes, and multiple data types (urine, faeces, whole body etc.) simultaneously. These interfaces were improved further, as a result of user feedback, and a general off-the-shelf product, IMBA Professional, was developed and made available in January 2004. Following the success of IMBA Professional, a new and improved product IMBA Professional Plus is planned to be released in 2005. The new product is more powerful than its predecessor, six times faster, cheaper, and fully backward compatible with previous versions. It is envisaged that this package will continue to be developed as improved methods of analysis and biokinetic models become available. The aim of this paper is to describe the current capabilities

  10. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  11. GENMOD - A program for internal dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, D.W.; Johnson, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The computer code GENMOD was created to calculate the retention and excretion, and the integrated retention for selected radionuclides under a variety of exposure conditions. Since the creation of GENMOD new models have been developed and interfaced to GENMOD. This report describes the models now included in GENMOD, the dosimetry factors database, and gives a brief description of the GENMOD program

  12. Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.

    2009-09-24

    This manual is a guide to the services provided by the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (IDP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.( ) for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection and their Hanford Site contractors. The manual describes the roles of and relationships between the IDP and the radiation protection programs of the Hanford Site contractors. Recommendations and guidance are also provided for consideration in implementing bioassay monitoring and internal dosimetry elements of radiation protection programs.

  13. Integration of external and internal dosimetry in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, D.; Wernli, C.; Baechler, S.; Fischer, G.; Jossen, H.; Leupin, A.; Lortscher, Y.; Mini, R.; Otto, T.; Schuh, R.; Weidmann, U.

    2007-01-01

    Individual monitoring regulations in Switzerland are based on the ICRP60 recommendations. The annual limit of 20 mSv for the effective dose applies to the sum of external and internal radiation. External radiation is monitored monthly or quarterly with TLD, DIS or CR-39 dosemeters by 10 approved external dosimetry services and reported as H p (10) and H p (0.07). Internal monitoring is done in two steps. At the workplace, simple screening measurements are done frequently in order to recognise a possible incorporation. If a nuclide dependent activity threshold is exceeded then one of the seven approved dosimetry services for internal radiation does an incorporation measurement to assess the committed effective dose E 50 . The dosimetry services report all the measured or assessed dose values to the employer and to the National Dose Registry. The employer records the annually accumulated dose values into the individual dose certificate of the occupationally exposed person, both the external dose H p (10) and the internal dose E 50 as well as the total effective dose E = H p (10) + E 50 . Based on the national dose registry an annual report on the dosimetry in Switzerland is published which contains the statistics for the total effective dose, as well as separate statistics for external and internal exposure. (authors)

  14. 12''th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry Casa del Cordon. Conference Center (Caja de Burgos), July 5''th-10''th, 1998, Burgos Spain: Programme and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 12 International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry celebrate in Burgos (Spain) during July on 1998. 1.- Basic Physical Processes 2.- Materials characteristics 3.- Instrumentation 4.- Personal Dosimetry 5.- Clinical Dosimetry 6.- Environmental Dosimetry 7.- Dating retrospective dosimetry 8.- Miscellaneous

  15. 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IC3DDose 2016 - 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry Preface It was a great pleasure to welcome participants to IC3DDose 2016, the 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry, held from 7–10 November 2016 in Galveston, Texas. The series of conferences has evolved considerably during its history. At the first conference, DOSGEL’99, the discussion centered around gel dosimetry. Held in Lexington, Kentucky in 1999, it was timed to coincide with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Annual Meeting in Nashville, Tennessee. It was my honour to organize that first conference, and it was once again my honour to organize the 9th conference in the series now known as IC3DDose which was held in Galveston, Texas. As was the case with recent IC3DDose conferences, the topic has broadened considerably beyond gel dosimetry. Not only have newer 3D volumetric dosimeters appeared on the scene, but novel electronic dosimetry systems and software that generate quasi-3D dose information have also. These changes have tracked advances in radiation oncology as techniques such as IMRT, VMAT, and IGRT have become almost ubiquitous. At the same time, dynamic treatments including gating and tracking now enjoy widespread use. Novel treatment technologies have appeared with perhaps the most disruptive being combined MR imaging-treatment units such as the ViewRay MR-cobalt unit and the Elekta/Philips MR-Linac. The potential benefits offered by 3D dosimetry were explored, compared and evaluated during IC3DDose 2016. Novel and improved readout techniques, some of which take advantage of the contemporary treatment environment and new QA systems and procedures, as well as other aspects of clinical dosimetry were well represented in the program. Over the past several years, the importance of safety in radiation therapy has been highlighted. The benefits of 3D dosimetry in contributing to safe and accurate treatments cannot be overstated. The

  16. Applied internal dosimetry staff exposed to Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotta, Marisa V.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Dosimetric calculations are performed in order to estimate the quantity of a radionuclide that is incorporated by a worker. Urine determinations of activity and mass of uranium are made in the laboratory of Personal and Area Dosimetry. The paper presents reference values concerning the activity excreted in urine due to the incorporation of uranium compounds. The compounds analyzed are natural uranium and uranium enriched to 20 %, both soluble and insoluble. According to the limits allowed for the incorporation of uranium compounds of Type F and M, we verify that the times of monitoring and the detection limits of the equipment used to determine the activity are appropriate. On the other hand, the S-type compounds determination in urine is useful in cases of accidental incorporations (above the ALI) as a first and quick estimate; MDA (0.017 Bq / L) does not allow detection in routine monitoring; measurement in lungs, and faeces should be included. (author)

  17. Internal dosimetry for occupationally exposed personnel in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.T.; Alfaro, L.M.M.; Angeles, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry plays an important role in nuclear medicine dosimetry control of personnel occupationally exposed, and that in recent years there has been a large increase in the use of radionuclides both in medical diagnosis as radiotherapy. But currently, in Mexico and in many parts of the world, this internal dosimetry control is not performed. The Instituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Nucleares de Mexico (ININ) together with the Centro Oncologico de Toluca (ISEMMYM) have developed a simple and feasible methodology for monitoring of personnel working in these facilities. It was aimed to carry out the dosimetry of the personnel, due to the incorporation of I-131, using the spectrometric devices that the hospital has, a gamma camera. The first step in this methodology was to make a thyroid phantom to meet the specifications of the ninth ANSI. This phantom is compared under controlled conditions with RMC- II phantom used for system calibration of the ININ internal dosimetry (ACCUSCAN - Ll), and with another phantom developed in Brazil with ANSI specifications, in order to determine the variations in measurements due to the density of the material of each of the phantoms and adjust to the system ACCUSCAN, already certificate. Furthermore, necessary counts were performed with the gamma camera of the phantom developed at ININ, with a standard source of 133 Ba which simulates the energy of 131 I. With these data, were determined the counting efficiencies for a distance of 15 to 20 cm between the surface of the phantom and the the plate of the detectors. Another important aspect was to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD). In this paper we present the results obtained from the detectors calibration of the gamma camera of the hospital.

  18. Internal Dosimetry in therapy with 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Leonel; Vergara, Alex; García, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 90 Y has shown satisfactory results in the therapy of multiple oncological diseases. This radionuclide has been widely used in therapy of diseases such as NHL (Zevalin), TNE ( 90 Y-DOTATOC), liver cancer, etc. Its safe and effective use presupposes the availability of accurate dosimetry methods and reproducible.El objective of this work is to standardize and optimize images use procedures that allow for dosimetric estimates braking during therapy of malignant diseases 90 Y. Materials and Methods: To quantify the activity in absolute units from scans correction methods that consider the peculiarities of the bremsstrahlung of 90 Y were proposed. acquisition parameters such as the selection of the collimator and the definition of energy windows as well as methods of scatter correction, attenuation, interactions of radiation with the collimator (septal penetration and degradation of information with distance) were considered and sensitivity or calibration factor was estimated. They were evaluated and calibrated parameters for dosimetry at the level of organ and estimates of distributions 3D dose, using experimental measurements with SPECT Mediso Nucline ™ Spirit DH-V system and simulations were performed using the Monte Carlo method, using the SIMIND v5 software .0. Results: The optimum position-energy window width and collimator to be used is determined from the relationship between total photons and primary photons (T / P), calculated with SIMIND. The results were favorable to employ HEGP collimator and energy window between 90-170kev. the sensitivity of the system for the selected collimator (HEGP for 90 Y) was estimated. He was evaluated and determined the MTF order to correct dispersive plane images, the source-detector and interactions of radiation with the collimator distance, using filtering methods (Wiener filter), including empirical estimates of the SNR component. Similarly the procedure for the use of transmission maps obtained from

  19. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Wolf, W.

    1980-01-01

    The projected internal radiations dose to different human organs per millicurie of injected F-18-5-Fluorouracil is calculated from rat distribution studies and human urinary excretion data. The calculations assume a similar distribution of labelled drug in humans as in rats, inasmuch as preliminary human distribution studies appeared to validate the use of the rat model for human dosimetry calculations. (U.K.)

  20. Introduction [International Reactor Dosimetry File 2002 (IRDF-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti-Corcuera, R.; Zolnay, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The most recently tested version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File, IRDF-90 Version 2 (IRDF-90.2), was released in 1993. Most of the evaluations used in this file were prepared in the mid-1980s, and in the meantime a large amount of new experimental data has become available, along with two new national reactor dosimetry libraries (the Russian Reactor Dosimetry File (RRDF-98) and the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL/D-99)). The cross-sections and related uncertainties for several reactions in these libraries may be of better quality than the data in the older IRDF-90 file. These developments have resulted in different cross-section values being applied to the evaluation of experimental data, creating difficulties in comparing the results of reactor dosimetry calculations from the same types of nuclear facility. Therefore, there has been a strong demand from the reactor dosimetry community for an updated and standardized version of the IRDF. The IAEA has in the past supported similar efforts to improve the quality of data for reactor dosimetry applications. A major objective of the present data development project was to prepare and distribute a standardized, updated and tested reactor dosimetry cross-section library accompanied by uncertainty information (IRDF-2002) for use in service life assessments of nuclear power reactors. In order to achieve this objective, two technical meetings were organized. Both meetings were held at the IAEA in Vienna. The first meeting took place from 27 to 29 August 2002, the second from 1 to 3 October 2003. Recommendations were made concerning the following topics and the preparation of the library: reactions to be included, requirements for new evaluations or revisions, nuclear decay data, radiation damage data, testing of the data in benchmark fields and inclusion of computer codes. The participants emphasized that good quality nuclear data for reactor dosimetry are essential to improve assessments of the

  1. Internal radiation dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Byun, Byun Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been an important field in nuclear medicine. In radionuclide therapy, relevant evaluation of internally absorbed dose is essential for the achievement of efficient and sufficient treatment of incurable disease, and can be accomplished by means of accurate measurement of radioactivity in body and its changes with time. Recently, the advances of nuclear medicine imaging and multi modality imaging processing techniques can provide chance of more accurate and easier measurement of the measures commented above, in cooperation of conventional imaging based approaches. In this review, basic concept for internal dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging is summarized with several check points which should be considered in real practice

  2. Answer to request on the ININ internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    1999-05-01

    In this report it is presented the reply to CNSNS asking for information about the methodology for the evaluation of the occupational dose due to internal contamination. The characteristics of the installation, type and dimensions of the shield room, construction materials, type of detecting, calibration geometries, type of used phantom, intervals of energy of the calibration, type of routine measurements, detection limit for Cs-137 and Co-60, code to carry out the analysis of the spectra, evaluation of the measurement data, whole body system type armchair with anthropomorphic phantom, whole body system of vertical scanning, distribution and location diagram of the internal dosimetry laboratory there are among the treated aspects. (Author

  3. Organization of the internal dosimetry in the Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchena, P.; Soliet, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the beginning of the exploitation of the nuclear energy of Espanna, the nuclear facilities have had Services of Personal Dosimetry with the appropriate means to determine the dose. so much internal as external, of the personnel that mentioned facilities works. All the nuclear power stations use advanced systems of teams with object of detecting the radionuclides incorporation in the organism and calculation programs based on the recent recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the determination of the derived doses

  4. Internal dosimetry monitoring equipment: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Lynch, T.P.; Strom, D.J.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-09-01

    We have attempted to characterize the current and future status of in vivo and in vitro measurement programs coupled with the associated radioanalytical methods and workplace monitoring. Developments in these areas must be carefully integrated by internal dosimetrists, radiochemists and field health physicists. Their goal should be uniform improvement rather than to focus on one specific area (e.g., dose modeling) to the neglect of other areas where the measurement capabilities are substantially less sophisticated and, therefore, the potential source of error is greatest

  5. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic

  6. UK laboratory intercomparison on internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, J.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R.; Cockerill, R.; Jarvis, N.S.; Marsh, J.W.; Peace, M.S.; Roberts, G.; Scarlett, C.; Spencer, D.; Stewart, P

    2003-07-01

    A laboratory intercomparison for internal dose assessment from a variety of intake scenarios is described. This is the first UK intercomparison using the revised ICRP Human Respiratory Tract and biokinetic models. Four United Kingdom laboratories participated and six cases were assessed. Overall, the agreement in internal dose assessments between laboratories was considered satisfactory with 79% of the assessed committed effective doses, e(50), for cases within a band of {+-}40% of the median value. The range (highest/lowest) in e(50) estimated by the laboratories was smallest (1.2) for a case involving inhalation of {sup 137}Cs. The range was greatest (6.0) for a case involving a wound with, and possible inhalation of, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am; the variation between laboratories in assessment of intakes could not be considered to be satisfactory in this case. Judgements on the most appropriate data to use in estimating intakes, choice of parameter values for use with the ICRP models and allowing for the effects of treatment with DTPA were important sources of variability between laboratories. (author)

  7. Course of training in Specific internal dosimetry for the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Michelin, S.C.; Gomez P, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the experience obtained in a course organized in Argentina to qualify professionals in the radiopharmaceutical dosimetry using the methodology MIRD and the patient's images is presented. The motivation to carry out it was based on the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic purposes that makes necessary the knowledge of the distribution of the absorbed dose to be able to establish the dose-response relationship. The main objective was the study of the biokinetic model and those techniques available that starting from images can contribute information of specific parameters of the patient to calculate with more accuracy the doses in the tumor and in different organs. In the design of the program of this course it was considered to approach the different focuses for the calculation of specific dose of the patient and includes the following topics: the patient's radiological protection, new concepts in damages by radiations (bystander effect), methodology for the internal dosimetry by radiopharmaceuticals, dosimetric systems (MIRD/ICRP), revision of the physical phantoms, design of kinetic studies, compartmental models, calculation tools and the demonstration of the programs SAAM and OLINDA; calculation of activity starting from the patient's images (planar and SPECT). Principles of the gamma camera: the dispersed radiation, calculation of the activity with planar images, the attenuation, correction of the dispersed radiation, collimation problems. SPECT: the common method of reconstruction, basic principles, method of filtered over head projection and iterative methods (MLEM/OSEM), measurement of the attenuation maps, problems of the penetration in the collimator (I-131, I-123), effects of partial volume, incorporation of corrections in an iterative reconstruction. Dosimetry in bone marrow, discussion of study cases of new radiopharmaceuticals. Internal dosimetry in small scale for electrons and photons. Perspectives of the

  8. Internal emitter dosimetry: are patient-specific calculations necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The question of whether patient-specific calculations are needed in internal emitter dosimetry arises when radionuclides are used for therapy. In diagnostic procedures the absorbed dose delivered to normal tissue is far below hazardous levels. In internal emitter therapy, the need for patient-specific dosimetry may arise if a large variability in biodistribution, normal tissue toxicity or efficacy is anticipated. Patient-specificity may be accomplished at the level of pharmacokinetics, anatomy/tumor-geometry or both. At the first level, information regarding the biodistribution of a particular radiolabeled agent is obtained and used to determine the maximum activity that may be administered for treatment. The classical example of this is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. In radioiodine therapy, the therapy dose is preceded by a tracer dose of I-131-iodide which is used to measure patient kinetics by imaging and whole-body counting. Absorbed dose estimates obtained from these data are used to constrain the therapy dose to meet safety criteria established in a previously performed dose-response study. The most ambitious approach to patient-specific dosimetry, requires a three-dimensional set of images representing radionuclide distribution (SPECT or PET) and a corresponding set of registered images representing anatomy (CT or MRI). The spatial distribution of absorbed dose or dose-rate may then be obtained by convolution of a point-kernel with the radioactivity distribution or by Monte Carlo calculation. The spatial absorbed dose or dose-rate distribution may be represented as a set of images, as isodose contours, or as dose-volume histograms. The 3-D Monte Carlo approach is, in principle, the most patient-specific; it accounts for patient anatomy and tumor geometry as well as for the spatial distribution of radioactivity. It is also, however, the most logistically and technically demanding. Patients are required to undergo CT or MRI and at least one

  9. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  10. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  11. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives; Primo interconfronto italiano sulle metodiche di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna: risultati e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati delle valutazioni di Intake e di equivalente di dose nei centri MIDIA (coordinamento dei WBC operanti in Italia) per effettuare un interconfronto sui metodi di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna utilizzando casi di studio reperiti in ambiente europeo. Vengono indicate le prospettive per la valutazione della qualita' della stima di dose in dosimetria interna.

  12. Dosimetry Control: Technic and methods. Proceedings of the international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutsko, A.M.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Chudakov, V.A.; Konoplya, E.F.; Milyutin, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    There is a number of unsolved problems of both dosimetric and radiometric control, questions of the biological dosimetry, reconstruction of dozes of irradiation of the population at radiation incidents, which require coordination of efforts of scientists in various areas of a science. The submitted materials are grouped on five units: dosimetry engineering, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation impact, dosimetry of a medical irradiation, normative and measurement assurance of the dosimetric control, monitoring and reconstruction of dozes at radiation incidents

  13. International nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison: results of Czech participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    An international intercomparison scheme for criticality accident dosimetry systems took place at the SILENE reactor, Valduc, France in June 1993. The dosemeters were exposed both on phantoms and in free air to radiation from the reactor, both shielded by lead and bare. The results obtained during this event by Czech participants are presented and compared with the average values obtained by the complete group of participants and with the reference values. The systems used consisted mostly of Si-diodes and thermoluminescent detectors, some supporting measurements were performed with solid state nuclear track detectors and using the albedo principle. The agreement between the data sets is very good. 7 tabs., 13 refs

  14. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  15. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  16. Workshop on internal dosimetry in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gómez Parada, I.; Gossio, S.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Saavedra, A.D.; Segato, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. In the case of workers exposed in nuclear fuel facilities, the normal uranium excretion from the diet is an additional difficulty in the process of assessing internal exposure. The aim of this paper is to present the main topics discussion and the conclusions of the workshop, held in the frame of the missions of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear. All the personnel involved in the control of internal exposure in nuclear fuel cycle was invited to participate in the workshop to discuss about individual monitoring criteria and the available tools for assessing committed effective dose in the workers of their facilities. The lectures were presented jointly by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities Control and the Dosimetric and Radiobiological Assessment departments. It was hold at the Ezeiza Atomic Center from 23th to 24th November 2010 based on the Advanced Course on Internal Dosimetry organized on 2009 and focusing specific uranium compound internal dosimetry. A representative of each facility was invited to present the monitoring program implemented for controlling the internal exposure. It was an opportunity to discuss criteria and to share experiences on this field in the frame of the ICRP, HPA and ISO publications. The different monitoring program criteria could be analyzed and so contributing to the improvement of radiological protection. Finally, it was agreed to hold periodical meetings to assure the update on uranium measurement techniques and the handling of monitoring data for committed effective dose assessment. (authors) [es

  17. Mister Voxel: 3D internal dosimetry software for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Calculation of individual internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine is a complex, multi-stage process. Most often, calculations are biased on the MIRD methodology, which assumes uniform distribution of cumulated activity inside a set of mathematically described internal organs. The MIRD 'reference man' geometry is highly simplified and the dosimetry estimates generated by this method were originally only intended to predict the average dose expected in an exposed population. We have developed a software package for the Macintosh computer ('Mister Voxel') that uses a fast Fourier transform to calculate the 3D distribution of absorbed dose by convolving a 3D dose kernel with a 3D distribution of cumulated activity. This makes it possible to generate dose volume histograms and isodose contours for organs or tumours treated with radiopharmaceuticals, a task not possible using the MIRD technique. In addition to providing 3D convolution, Mister Voxel performs basic image processing functions (image math, filters, cut and paste) and provides a collection of painting tools and simple morphological operators to facilitate the delineation of regions of interest (ROIs) along anatomical boundaries. The package also includes an image registration module with tools for automated or manual registration of 3D data sets. The structure of the package allows ROIs drawn on CT or MRI data to be easily transferred to registered SPECT data. Dose kernels are implemented by plug-in code modules, allowing the user to extend the system's capabilities if required. File import and export capabilities are also extensible

  18. Latinamerican Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET). International Biological Dosimetry intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, A.; Taja, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the International Biological Dosimetry Intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008) - developed within the framework of the IAEA regional project - RLA/9/054 (Establishment of national capabilities for response to radiological and nuclear emergency) whose general objectives are: assess reproducibility inter-laboratory; identify problems and provide the necessary modifications for collaborative work in accidental situations requiring activation of mutual assistance mechanisms which will form the basis of the Organization of LBDNET. This exercise involves the laboratories of the region: Argentina (laboratory support), Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay and the laboratory of the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Espana (Joan Francesc Barquinero and staff). Finally, these countries will meet the next time for the drafting of a final report and later publication. (author)

  19. Speciation and internal dosimetry: from chemical species to dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.; Frelon, S.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation studies refer to the distribution of species in a particular sample or matrix. These studies are necessary to improve the description, understanding and prediction of trace element kinetics and toxicity. In case of internal contamination with radionuclides, speciation studies could help to improve both the biokinetic and dosimetric models for radionuclides. There are different methods to approach the speciation of radionuclide in a biological system, depending on the degree of accuracy needed and the level of uncertainties accepted. Among them, computer modelling and experimental determination are complementary approaches. This paper describes what is known about speciation of actinides in blood, GI-tract, liver and skeleton and of their consequences in terms of internal dosimetry. The conclusion is that such studies provide very valuable data and should be targeted in the future on some specific tissues and biomolecules. (authors)

  20. The contribution of chemical speciation to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.; Frelon, S.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.

    2003-01-01

    Speciation studies refer to the distribution of species in a particular sample or matrix. These studies are necessary to improve the description, understanding and prediction of trace element kinetics and toxicity. In the case of internal contamination with radionuclides, speciation studies could help to improve both the biokinetic and dosimetric models for radionuclides. There are different methods to approach the speciation of radionuclides in a biological system, depending on the degree of accuracy needed and the level of uncertainties accepted. Among them, computer modelling and experimental determination are complementary approaches. This paper describes what is known about speciation of actinides in blood, GI tract, liver and skeleton and of their consequences in terms of internal dosimetry. The conclusion is that such studies provide very valuable data and should be targeted in the future on some specific tissues and biomolecules. (author)

  1. Sixth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.-Stelson, A.T. [ed.] [comp.; Stabin, M.G.; Sparks, R.B. [eds.; Smith, F.B. [comp.

    1999-01-01

    This conference was held May 7--10 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Attention is focused on the following: quantitative analysis and treatment planning; cellular and small-scale dosimetry; dosimetric models; radiopharmaceutical kinetics and dosimetry; and animal models, extrapolation, and uncertainty.

  2. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  3. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Over the last few years the Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP on Internal Dosimetry (INDOS), in conjunction with the Task Group on Dose Calculations (DOCAL), has prepared a series of publications that have given dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by infants, children and adults. The most recent publications have been Publication 88 that gives doses to the embryo, fetus and newborn child from intakes of radionuclides by the mother and Publication 94 that will give doses to the newborn child from intakes of radionuclides in mothers' milk. These documents have completed the programme of work of Committee 2 on dose coefficients for members of the public. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry by Committee 2 is now concerned with occupational exposure. This is will take into account recent advice from ICRP, including the new 2005 Recommendations of ICRP which are expected to provide revised tissue weighting factors for the calculation of effective dose. In addition ICRP has issued Publication 89 on Basic Anatomical and Physiological Data for use in Radiological Protection and in addition will have published a new Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM). It will have implemented a human phantom for dose calculations based upon medical imaging data and updated radionuclide decay data; superseding Publication 38. In addition, the systemic models for a number of elements are being revised to take account of more recent data, and the lung clearance characteristics of a wide range of compounds relevant to occupational exposure are being reviewed. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. This series will cover both dosimetry and data for bioassay interpretation. The first report will cover radionuclides of the 31 elements covered in the series of

  4. Validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M. de las M.

    2014-10-01

    People working with radioactive materials, under certain circumstances (e.g. not using the proper protective equipment, an incident not covered, etc.) could be incorporated into the body. The radiation protection programs include direct measurement methods -in vivo- or indirect -in vitro- or both, to know that radioactive material is incorporated into the body. The monitoring measurements of internal contamination or (Radio-bioassay) are carried out with the purpose of determining the amount of radioactive material incorporated in the body; estimate the effective dose and committed dose; management administration of radiation protection; appropriate medical management; and to provide the data necessary for the legal requirements and the preservation of records. The measurement methods used in the monitoring of internal contamination must be validated by the combination of the following processes: calibration, using standards reference materials and/or simulators; execute systematic research, using control samples; and intercomparison between laboratories and performance tests. In this paper the validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo are presented following the information provided by the standard ANSI N13-30-1996 and ISO/TEC 17025-2005 as are the criteria of facilities, staff training, interpretation of measurements, performance criteria for monitoring of internal contamination in vivo, results reporting and records retention. Thereby we achieve standardized quantitative performance criteria of truthfulness, accuracy and detection limit and a consensus on statistical definitions to establish the validation plan of a monitoring laboratory of internal contamination in vivo. (Author)

  5. Internal dosimetry performing dose assessments via bioassay measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Department at the Y-12 Plant maintains a state-of-the-art bioassay program managed under the guidance and regulations of the Department of Energy. The two major bioassay techniques currently used at Y-12 are the in vitro (urinalysis) and in vivo (lung counting) programs. Fecal analysis (as part of the in vitro program) is another alternative; however, since both urine and fecal analysis provide essentially the same capabilities for detecting exposures to uranium, the urinalysis is the main choice primarily for aesthetic reasons. The bioassay frequency is based on meeting NCRP 87 objectives which are to monitor the accumulation of radioactive material in exposed individuals, and to ensure that significant depositions are detected

  6. Personnel dosimetry in internal radiation exposure by excretory radionuclide measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Korelina, N.F.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Repin, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The collaboration with the SAAS resulted in the development of a mathematical method to calculate radiation doses in human tissues attributed to inhaled radionuclides concerning their retention dynamics in the respiratory system and their uptake into the blood as well as the metabolic pathways in the organs. 'Sanep-stations' and radiation protection service elaborated nomograms for the determination of the commitment doses in the critical organs based on the radionuclide content of a 24-hours urinalysis without intermediate calculations. Recommendations for the use of the method and the nomograms for various radionuclides (solubility classes D and N with MAAD of 1 and 10 μm) are given in the methodological document: 'Indirect dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides in workers'. A calculation method for the annual dose of internal irradiation in tritium workers is also cited

  7. Dosimetry-based treatment planning for molecular radiotherapy: a summary of the 2017 report from the Internal Dosimetry Task Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Stokke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European directive on basic safety standards (Council directive 2013/59 Euratom mandates dosimetry-based treatment planning for radiopharmaceutical therapies. The directive comes into operation February 2018, and the aim of a report produced by the Internal Dosimetry Task Force of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine is to address this aspect of the directive. A summary of the report is presented. Results A brief review of five of the most common therapy procedures is included in the current text, focused on the potential to perform patient-specific dosimetry. In the full report, 11 different therapeutic procedures are included, allowing additional considerations of effectiveness, references to specific literature on quantitative imaging and dosimetry, and existing evidence for absorbed dose-effect correlations for each treatment. Individualized treatment planning with tracer diagnostics and verification of the absorbed doses delivered following therapy is found to be scientifically feasible for almost all procedures investigated, using quantitative imaging and/or external monitoring. Translation of this directive into clinical practice will have significant implications for resource requirements. Conclusions Molecular radiotherapy is undergoing a significant expansion, and the groundwork for dosimetry-based treatment planning is already in place. The mandated individualization is likely to improve the effectiveness of the treatments, although must be adequately resourced.

  8. Current internal-dosimetry practices at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Murphy, B.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1985-04-01

    The internal dosimetry practice at DOE facilities were characterized. The purpose was to determine the size of the facilities' internal dosimetry programs, the uniformity of the programs among the facilities, and the areas of greatest concern to health physicists in providing and reporting accurate estimates of internal radiation dose and in meeting proposed changes in internal dosimetry. The differences among the internal-dosimetry programs are related to the radioelements in use at each facility and, to some extent, the number of workers at each facility. The differences include different frequencies in the use of quality control samples, different minimum detection levels, different methods of recording radionuclides, different amounts of data recorded in the permanent record, and apparent differences in modeling the metabolism of radionuclides within the body. Recommendations for improving internal-dosimetry practices include studying the relationship between air-monitoring/survey readings and bioassay data, establishing uniform methods for recording bioassay results, developing more sensitive direct-bioassay procedures, establishing a mechanism for sharing information on internal-dosimetry procedures among DOE facilities, and developing mathematical models and interactive computer codes that can help quantify the uptake of radioactive materials and predict their distribution in the body. 19 refs., 8 tabs

  9. International cooperation within the IRCP using the example of internal dosimetry; Internationale Zusammenarbeit innerhalb der ICRP am Beispiel der internen Dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosske, Dietmar

    2017-10-01

    IRCP is working since decades in the field of internal dosimetry and defines limiting values for occupational exposed persons, individuals in the population and patients in the diagnostic nuclear medicine that are worldwide included in the national and international radiation protection regulations. The effort to be as realistic as possible is producing continuously more complex models. This fact is delaying the respective values and aggravates the application of the models. In order to facilitate the application other institutions like EURADOS (European radiation dosimetry group) generate appropriate guidelines. Cooperation is taking place between ISRP and the respective institutions.

  10. The work of committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years Committee 2 of ICRP has been responsible for preparing a series of publications giving dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by members of the public. The last report in this series covers doses to the offspring in mothers' milk and should be issued in 2005. The emphasis of work on internal dosimetry is now concerned with occupational exposure. It is intended to replace Publications 30 and 68 that give biokinetic data and dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and Publications 54 and 78 that give information for bioassay interpretation, with a single series of publications. The first report of the series is expected to cover radionuclides of the elements addressed in the publications on dose coefficients for members of the public. It will also take into account new recommendations from the Commission. Subsequent publications will cover additional elements. A supporting Guidance Document is also being developed that will give more comprehensive advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. The need for this document was identified following recent interlaboratory comparisons that have shown wide variations in the way monitoring data can be interpreted in different laboratories. (authors)

  11. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  12. International beta-dosimetry symposium. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Abstracts of the presentations at the symposium are contained in this volume. Problems associated with beta dosimetry, beta detectors and dosemeters, and current development programs are described. Each abstract has been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  14. Internal dosimetry estimates using voxelized reference phantoms for thyroid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents internal dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131 Iodine, 123 Iodine and 99m Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99m Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123 I and 99m Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99m Tc incorporation. (author)

  15. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  16. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  17. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-07-01

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  18. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Corporate Radiation Safety and Dangerous Goods Transport, Munich (Germany); Nosske, D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on

  19. What is New in Internal Dosimetry and Monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, K.; Nosske, D.

    2006-01-01

    This file is divided in two parts:the first one concerns the progress in internal dosimetry. This part gives an overview on new model developments by ICRP, the series of age dependent doses for members of the public was continued by biokinetic and dosimetric models for the embryo and foetus due to activity intake by the mother (ICRP,2001) and for the infant via consumption of mother's milk after activity intake by the mother (ICRP, 2004). In both publications dose coefficients for the embryo and foetus as well the infant were given for various intake scenarios by mother. The present model development work of ICRP is a revision of Publications 30, 54, 68, and 78 based on the new human Alimentary tract model (H.A.T.M.) of ICRP (ICRP, 2006), a revision of absorption parameters for the human respiratory tract model (ICRP, 1994a), new systemic models as well as new dosimetric parameters derived with new Voxel models for the reference male and female adult. The second part concerns the progress in workers monitoring for radionuclide intake. The initiatives to improve the situation are the guidelines published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (2004), giving guidance for the assessment of occupational exposures due to intakes of radionuclides, research project funded by the European Commission: the objective of O.M.I.N.E.X. was the improvement of monitoring programmes, taking into account the uncertainties of biokinetic models and data, the programme I.D.E.A. tried to improve measuring techniques and I.D.E.A.S derives rules for the evaluation of measured activity values in terms of exposure. Standardization projects by the International Standardization Organization I.S.O.: I.S.O. (2001) published a standard defining the requirements for bioassay laboratories, which will soon followed by a second part giving the rationale behind these rules., presently the final version (I.S.O. 2005) of a standard is circulating among the I.S.O. member states which guidance on the

  20. Harmonization of internal dosimetry procedures in Latin America - ARCAL/IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.; Dantas, B.M.; Juliao, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - Av. Salvador Allende S/N, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, RJ 22780-160 (Brazil); Cruz Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Rojo, A.; Serdero, N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Videla, R. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Puerta, J.A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, G. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.M. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Gonzales, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Montevideo (Uruguay); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediciones Ambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Under the auspices of the Regional Coordination Agreement for Latin America, representatives of the eight member states have participated in a project to improve radiological protection for workers exposed to unsealed sources of radiation. The design of the project was based on information obtained from a questionnaire circulated among the participants, from which the initial status of internal dosimetry services in each country was characterised. The objective of the project is to harmonize internal dosimetry procedures, with reference to International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations. After the implementation of new procedures and personnel training, four intercomparison exercises were carried out: measurement of iodine in thyroid phantoms, measurement of gamma emitters in urine samples, measurement of beta emitters in urine samples and internal dose assessments. This project has resulted in important improvements in internal dosimetry services in the region. (authors)

  1. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  2. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  3. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  4. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and

  5. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric...

  6. Biokinetics and internal dosimetry of inhaled metal tritide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng

    1998-12-01

    Metal tritides (MT), stable chemical compounds of tritium, are widely used in nuclear engineering facilities. MT particles can be released as aerosols. Inhaling MT particles is a potential occupational radiation hazard. Little information is available on their dissolution behavior, biokinetics, and dosimetry. The objectives of present dissertation are to estimate dissolution rates, to develop biokinetic models, to improve internal dosimetric considerations, and to classify MT materials. This study consisted of three phases: In vitro dissolution in a simulated lung fluid, In vivo rat experiments on retention and clearance, and biokinetic modeling and dosimetric evaluation. There was a supporting study on self- absorption of tritium beta in MT particles. MT materials used in this study were titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) tritides. Results shows considerable self-absorption of beta particles and their energy, even for respirable MT particles smaller than 5 μm. The self-absorption factors should be required for counting MT particle samples and for estimating absorbed dose to tissues. In vitro and in vivo dissolution data indicate that Ti and Zr tritides are poorly soluble materials. Ti tritide belongs to the W class or M type while Zr tritide can be classified as Y class or S type. Due to long retention time of the MT particles, tritium betas directly from the particles contribute over 90% of the absorbed dose to lung. The lung dose contributes most of the effective dose to the whole body. Dissolved tritium including tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) has less effect on the lung dose and effective dose. Results on the annual limit on intake (ALI) indicate that the current radiation protection guideline based on HTO is not adequate for inhalation exposure to MT particles and needs to be modified. The biokinetic models developed in this study have predictive powers to estimate the consequences of a human inhalation exposure to MT aerosols. The

  7. Results of the argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry 2014. Measurement of thyroid burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the capability to perform direct measurements of “1”3”1I thyroid burden and the expertise in the interpretation of these data for dose assessment. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. The exercise counted with the participation of six internal dosimetry services: nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE), CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE), Roffo Institute (UBA – CNEA) and ARN. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  8. Present and future activities of the IAEA on internal dosimetry: Lessons learned from international intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Mrabit, K.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts safety activities to support the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides; a comprehensive set of safety documents will soon be completed. In recent years, extensive improvements in measurement techniques, phantoms and computational tools have been made. Thus, it is important for laboratories involved in internal dosimetry to undergo performance testing procedures to demonstrate the correctness of the methods applied and also to determine the consistency of their results with those obtained by other laboratories. Several intercomparisons were organised, and they revealed significant differences among laboratories in their approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in their results. This paper presents the current and future IAEA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides in the IAEA Member States, as well as the lessons learned from several intercomparison exercises in the last 5 years. (author)

  9. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Pomroy, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author)

  10. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duport, P; Pomroy, C [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, D [Saskatchewan Human Resources, Labour and Employment, Regina (Canada)

    1990-12-31

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author).

  11. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-09-01

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  12. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  13. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  14. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  15. True dose from incorporated activities. Models for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Eschner, W.; Nosske, D.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of doses after incorporation of radionuclides cannot use direct measurements of the doses, as for example dosimetry in external radiation fields. The only observables are activities in the body or in excretions. Models are used to calculate the doses based on the measured activities. The incorporated activities and the resulting doses can vary by more than seven orders of magnitude between occupational and medical exposures. Nevertheless the models and calculations applied in both cases are similar. Since the models for the different applications have been developed independently by ICRP and MIRD different terminologies have been used. A unified terminology is being developed. (orig.)

  16. Progetto EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetria per terapie ultrasonore. Confronto tra metodi di misura - EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetry for ultrasound therapy. Intercomparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Durando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La mancanza di una definizione della dose ultrasonora rende di fatto impossibile la valutazione della più appropriata “quantità” energia ceduta ai tessuti dal fascio ultrasonoro emesso da un trasduttore durante una terapia. Il progetto di ricerca “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy”, finanziato dal programma di ricerca EURAMET EMRP, aveva tra i suoi principali obiettivi, oltre al confronto interlaboratorio che validasse le capacità metrologiche dei laboratori partecipanti, la ricerca della definizione di dose ultrasonora che consentisse la definizione di un piano terapeutico specifico per ogni paziente. ------ Standardized and traceable dose has not yet been developed for medical ultrasound applications. This means that the ‘amount’ of ultrasound required for a particular therapy cannot be calculated and that the ‘amount’ actually delivered quantified. The aim of EURAMET EMRP project “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy” project was developing the metrological infrastructure (definitions, validated measurement and modelling methods which underpins the specification of dose for therapeutic ultrasound applications allowing appropriate treatment planning and risk assessment.

  17. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  18. Summary report of the final technical meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Patrick J.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2003-10-01

    Presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Final Technical Meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002' are summarized in this report. The main aims of this meeting were to discuss scientific and technical matters related to reactor dosimetry and to assign responsibilities for the preparation of the final version of the IRDF- 2002 library and the associated TECDOC. Tasks were assigned and deadlines were agreed. Participants emphasized that accurate and complete nuclear data for reactor dosimetry are essential to improve the assessment accuracies for reactor pressure vessel service lifetimes in nuclear power plants, as well as for other neutron metrology applications such as boron neutron capture therapy, therapeutic use of medical isotopes, nuclear physics measurements, and reactor safety applications. (author)

  19. The Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry: Part 2, final analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Onori, S.; Bayankin, S. N.; Brik, A.; Bugay, A.; Chumak, V.; Ciesielski, B.; Hoshi, M.; Imata, H.; Ivannikov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Junczewska, M.; Miyazawa, C.; Penkowski, M.; Pivovarov, S.; Romanyukha, A.; Romanyukha, L.; Schauer, D.; Scherbina, O.; Schultka, K.; Sholom, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Thomas, J. A.; Tielewuhan, E.; Toyoda, S.; Trompier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Third International Intercomparison on EPR Tooth Dosimetry was to evaluate laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry <300 mGy. Final analysis of results included a correlation analysis between features of laboratory dose reconstruction protocols and dosimetry performance. Applicability of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry at low dose was shown at two applied dose levels of 79 and 176 mGy. Most (9 of 12) laboratories reported the dose to be within 50 mGy of the delivered dose of 79 mGy, and 10 of 12 laboratories reported the dose to be within 100 mGy of the delivered dose of 176 mGy. At the high-dose tested (704 mGy) agreement within 25% of the delivered dose was found in 10 laboratories. Features of EPR dose reconstruction protocols that affect dosimetry performance were found to be magnetic field modulation amplitude in EPR spectrum recording, EPR signal model in spectrum deconvolution and duration of latency period for tooth enamel samples after preparation. (authors)

  20. The work of Committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Following publication of new recommendations by ICRP, a series of publications on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) will give both dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and data for the interpretation of bioassay information. Account will be taken of revised tissue weighting factors given in the new recommendations and a number of additional developments. These include new human phantoms based upon medical imaging data for calculating doses to body tissues and the new Human Alimentary Tract Model. In addition, parameter values for the Human Respiratory Tract Model are being reviewed, radionuclide decay data are being updated and systemic models for a number of elements revised to take account of more recent data and to provide models that are appropriate for both dosimetry and for bioassay interpretation. The OIR series of publications will be accompanied by a supporting Guidance Document that will give advice on the interpretation of bioassay data. (author)

  1. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 2: Internal radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to internal radiations (including radon decay products). (author)

  2. Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, PNNL-MA-860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Bihl, Donald E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Hill, Robin L.

    2009-09-30

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (HIDP) provides internal dosimetry support services for operations at the Hanford Site. The HIDP is staffed and managed by the Radiation and Health Technology group, within the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Operations supported by the HIDP include research and development, the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities formerly used to produce and purify plutonium, and waste management activities. Radioelements of particular interest are plutonium, uranium, americium, tritium, and the fission and activation product radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co. This manual describes the technical basis for the design of the routine bioassay monitoring program and for assessment of internal dose. The purposes of the manual are as follows: • Provide assurance that the HIDP derives from a sound technical base. • Promote the consistency and continuity of routine program activities. • Provide a historical record. • Serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel. • Aid in identifying and planning for future needs.

  3. Accreditation and training on internal dosimetry in a laboratory network in Brazil: an increasing demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Acar, M E D; Cardoso, J C S; Julião, L M Q C; Lima, M F; Taddei, M H T; Arine, D R; Alonso, T; Ramos, M A P; Fajgelj, A

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, Brazilian Nuclear Programme has been reviewed and updated by government authorities in face of the demand for energy supply and its associated environmental constraints. The immediate impact of new national programmes and projects in nuclear field is the increase in the number of exposed personnel and the consequent need for reliable dosimetry services in the country. Several Technical Documents related to internal dosimetry have been released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and International Commission on Radiological Protection. However, standard bioassay procedures and methodologies for bioassay data interpretation are still under discussion and, in some cases, both in routine and emergency internal monitoring, procedures can vary from one laboratory to another and responses may differ markedly among Dosimetry Laboratories. Thus, it may be difficult to interpret and use bioassay data generated from different laboratories of a network. The main goal of this work is to implement a National Network of Laboratories aimed to provide reliable internal monitoring services in Brazil. The establishment of harmonised in vivo and in vitro radioanalytical techniques, dose assessment methods and the implementation of the ISO/IEC 17025 requirements will result in the recognition of technical competence of the network.

  4. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences

  5. The 10th international congress of IRPA. The development of models for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    that will be age-dependent and give a better definition of the anatomical regions needed for dosimetry. It will additionally evaluate information on the transport and absorption of materials in the various regions of the gastrointestinal tract and review information on the location of cells at risk. In the longer term there remains a need to develop a full revision of data used for monitoring the internal exposure for workers. With the progressive move to physiologically-based biokinetic models, the aim now is to develop models that are appropriate for both bioassay interpretation and for dosimetry calculations. Considerable thought is being given as to how the data will need to be presented, given the rapid changes in technology and the need for operational health physicists to be able to apply the more complex models that are now being developed. Other issues are presently being considered that are an important input to further model development. These include: the identification of target cells in the skeleton in relation to the calculation of doses from bone seeking radionuclides; the dosimetry of Auger emitters; the calculation of doses from inhaled radon; and the development of more realistic phantoms based on medical imaging data. (author)

  6. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert TM USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  7. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J

    2003-07-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert{sup TM} USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  8. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of

  9. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  10. Internal in vitro dosimetry for fish using hydroxyapatite-based EPR detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, D.V. [Urals Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shishkina, E.A.; Osipov, D.I.; Pryakhin, E.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Razumeev, R.A. [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    A number of aquatic ecosystems were exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the activities of the Mayak Production Association in the Southern Urals, former Soviet Union, in the 1950s. Currently, fishes inhabiting contaminated lakes are being actively studied. These investigations need dosimetric support. In the present paper the results of a pilot study for elaborating an EPR dosimeter which can be used for internal dosimetry in vitro are described. Biological hydroxyapatite is proposed here to be used as a detecting substance. More specifically, small hydroxyapatite grains are proposed for use as point detectors fixed in a solid matrix. After having been pelletized, the detectors were covered by Mylar and placed in the body of a fish to be stored in the fridge for several months. Application of the detectors for internal fish dosimetry demonstrated that the enamel sensitivity is sufficient for passive detection of ionizing radiation in fishes inhabiting contaminated lakes in the Southern Urals. (orig.)

  11. Update of computer applications associated to measuring equipment of the services of internal dosimetry of NPPS and Tecnatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, B.; Sollet, E.; Serrano, E.

    2014-01-01

    Within the continuous improvement processes that take place in all the activities taking place in the Spanish nuclear power plants, and as a result of implementation of ISO Standards for Internal Dosimetry, has undertaken a review, improvement and updating INDAC ALEDIN and applications associated with measuring equipment and DIYs Quicky kind Personal Internal Dosimetry Services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom This paper presents updates capacities both tools. (Author)

  12. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  14. Implementation of the International Code of Practice on Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology (TRS 457): Review of Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the IAEA published Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 457). This publication recommends procedures for calibration and dosimetric measurement for the attainment of standardized dosimetry. It also addresses requirements both in standards dosimetry laboratories, especially Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), and in clinical centres for radiology, as found in most hospitals. The implementation of TRS No. 457 decreases the uncertainty in the dosimetry of diagnostic radiology beams and provides Member States with a unified and consistent framework for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, which previously did not exist. A coordinated research project (CRP E2.10.06) was established in order to provide practical guidance to professionals at SSDLs and to clinical medical physicists on the implementation of TRS No. 457. This includes the calibration of radiological dosimetry instrumentation, the dissemination of calibration coefficients to clinical centres and the establishment of dosimetric measurement processes in clinical settings. The main goals of the CRP were to: Test the procedures recommended in TRS No. 457 for calibration of radiation detectors in different types of diagnostic beams and measuring instruments for varying diagnostic X ray modalities; Test the clinical dosimetry procedures, including the use of phantoms and patient dose surveys; Report on the practical implementation of TRS No. 457 at both SSDLs and hospital sites. Testing of TRS No. 457 was performed by a group of medical physicists from hospitals and SSDLs from various institutions worldwide

  15. A general model for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Carver, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    A model is described that combines the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Task Group on Lung Dynamics' Model, Eve's model for transport of material through the gastro-intestinal tract and a compartment model for the organs. Differential equations for this model are given, which include urinary and fecal excretion rates, and the method used to obtain solutions to these equations is described. (author)

  16. Direct internal dosimetry. A new way for routine incorporation monitoring of γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The INDOS detector system offers the following advantages with respect to routine incorporation monitoring: The measurement is performed automatically and there is no need for trained staff. The measuring time is short and thus a relative large number of persons may be monitored with a relative high measuring frequency. First estimates of the individual effective dose equivalent rate are available immediately after the measurement. 1) The direct determination of the dose equivalent in principle is more precise than the conventional procedures for internal dosimetry, because (i) the retention of radionuclides in the body may be measured explicitly and (ii) the dependence of the dose equivalent on the body proportions is corrected implicitly. 2) The measuring procedure is comparable to the external dosimetry with respect to accuracy and lower limit of detection. Thus, the results of internal and external dosimetry can be summed up in an easy and reasonable manner. 3) The detector system can be installed in any building; it also can be installed as a mobile unit in a car or a container for long distance transportation by aircraft or train. 4) Last but not least, the cost for monitoring with INDOS is much lower than for the conventional monitoring procedures using whole body counters. (author)

  17. PENGELOLAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYPT GRASADA INTERNATIONAL DI KABUPATEN PANGKEPPENGELOLAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYPT GRASADA INTERNATIONAL DI KABUPATEN PANGKEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaf Annur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the management of Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR PT Grasada International in Pangkep . CSR management is a corporate social responsibility to the community and environment in which it operates . The method used in this research is mixed method with observational data collection techniques ; survey and interview . The results showed the implementation of corporate social responsibility has been running well ; ranging from environmental development program ; namely repair and maintenance of roads for farmers ; repair bridges and cliffs smoothing used for the construction of houses around . The field of education is to give assistance to children whose school students in elementary and junior high schools in the form of stationery and uniforms social humanitarian and religious never implemented but is not performing well.     Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengelolaan Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR PT Grasada International di Kabupaten Pangkep.Pengelolaan CSR merupakan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan kepada masyarakat dan lingkungan dimana perusahaan itu beroperasi.Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitumixed method dengan teknik pengumpulan data observasi, survey serta wawancara.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pelaksanaan Corporate social responsibility ini sudah berjalan dengan baik, mulai dari program bina lingkungan yaitu perbaikan dan perawatan jalan untuk petani, perbaikan jembatan serta perataan tebing yang digunakan untuk pembangunan rumah sekitar.Bidang pendidikan yaitu memberikan bantuan kepada anak-anak siswa siswi yang sekolah di SD dan SMP berupa alat tulis dan baju seragam  sosial kemanusiaan dan keagamaan pernah dilaksanakan namun tidak terlaksana dengan baik.

  18. Summary report of the technical meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Technical Meeting on 'International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002.' The purpose of this meeting was to discuss scientific and technical matters related to the subject and coordinate related tasks. Discussions were held and recommendations were given for the preparation of the files on topics related to: reactions to be included, need for new evaluations or revisions, decay data, radiation damage data, integral testing in benchmark fields, and computer codes to be included. Tasks were assigned and deadlines were set. The participants emphasized that accurate and complete knowledge of nuclear data for reactor dosimetry are essential for improving the accuracy of the reactor pressure vessel service life assessment of nuclear power plants as well as in other neutron metrology applications such as boron neutron capture therapy, therapeutic use of medical isotopes, nuclear physics measurements, and reactor safety applications. (author)

  19. Internal dosimetry data and methods of ICRP. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.R.; Bernard, S.R.; Dillman, L.T.; Watson, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology being used to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report of Committee 2, ICRP Publication 2 on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation, is described. The system of differential equations, which is used to calculate the cumulated activity in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, other body organs, and the transfer compartment of reference man, is presented. These equations describe the physical decay and metabolism of a radionuclide as governed by the lung and gastrointestinal tract models adopted by Committee 2 from models developed for the ICRP. The equations also take into account organ uptake and retention following intake into blood and the contribution of activity from radioactive daughter nuclides. Additionally, the scheme for estimating the dose from immersion in a radioactive cloud and the scheme for computing the nuclear decay data needed for all of the dose computations are presented. In computing the immersion dose, estimates for both the infinite and the finite cloud are considered

  20. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  1. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  2. Answer to request on the ININ internal dosimetry; Respuesta a encuesta sobre dosimetria interna del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-05-15

    In this report it is presented the reply to CNSNS asking for information about the methodology for the evaluation of the occupational dose due to internal contamination. The characteristics of the installation, type and dimensions of the shield room, construction materials, type of detecting, calibration geometries, type of used phantom, intervals of energy of the calibration, type of routine measurements, detection limit for Cs-137 and Co-60, code to carry out the analysis of the spectra, evaluation of the measurement data, whole body system type armchair with anthropomorphic phantom, whole body system of vertical scanning, distribution and location diagram of the internal dosimetry laboratory there are among the treated aspects. (Author.

  3. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  4. Monte Carlo and experimental internal radionuclide dosimetry in RANDO head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, Ruhollah; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Parach, Ali Asghar; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Momennezhad Mehdi; Davenport, David

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are widely employed in internal dosimetry to obtain better estimates of absorbed dose distributions from irradiation sources in medicine. Accurate 3D absorbed dosimetry would be useful for risk assessment of inducing deterministic and stochastic biological effects for both therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate the use of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package for 3D internal dosimetry using the head portion of the RANDO phantom. GATE package (version 6.1) was used to create a voxel model of a human head phantom from computed tomography (CT) images. Matrix dimensions consisted of 319 × 216 × 30 voxels (0.7871 × 0.7871 × 5 mm 3 ). Measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). One rod-shaped source with 94 MBq activity of 99m Tc was positioned in the brain tissue of the posterior part of the human head phantom in slice number 2. The results of the simulation were compared with measured mean absorbed dose per cumulative activity (S value). Absorbed dose was also calculated for each slice of the digital model of the head phantom and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each slice from the simulation data. The S-values calculated by GATE and TLD methods showed a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, r 2 ≥ 0.99, p < 0.05) with each other. The maximum relative percentage differences were ≤14 % for most cases. DVHs demonstrated dose decrease along the direction of movement toward the lower slices of the head phantom. Based on the results obtained from GATE Monte Carlopackage it can be deduced that a complete dosimetry simulation study, from imaging to absorbed dose map calculation, is possible to execute in a single framework.

  5. IDEAS international contamination database: a compilation of published internal contamination cases. A tool for the internal dosimetry community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data. The project was divided into 5 Work Packages for the major tasks. Work Package 1 entitled Collection of incorporation cases was devoted to the collection of data by means of bibliographic research (survey of the open literature), contacting and collecting data from specific organisations and using information from existing databases on incorporation cases. To ensure that the guidelines would be applicable to a wide range of practical situations, a database of cases of internal contamination including monitoring data suitable for dose assessment was compiled. The IDEAS Bibliography database and the IDEAS Internal Contamination database were prepared and some reference cases were selected for use in Work Package 3. The other Work packages of the IDEAS Project (WP-2 Preparation of evaluation software, WP-3 Evaluation of incorporation cases, WP-4 Development of the general guidelines and WP-5 Practical testing of general guidelines) have been described in detail elsewhere and can be found on the IDEAS website. A search for reference from the open literature, which contained information on cases of internal contamination from which intake and committed doses could be assessed, has been compiled into a database. The IDEAS Bibliography Database includes references to papers which might (but were not certain to) contain such information, or which included references to papers which contained such information. This database contains the usual bibliographical information: authors' name(s), year of publication, title of publication and the journal or report number. Up to now, a comprehensive Bibliography Database containing 563 references has been compiled. Not surprisingly more than half of the references are from Health Physics and Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journals.The next step was for the partners of the IDEAS project to obtain the references

  6. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  7. Safety, pharmacokinetic and dosimetry evaluation of the proposed thrombus imaging agent 99mTc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 Fab'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, David J.; Smart, Richard C.; Tsui, Wendy W.; Gerometta, Michael; Eisenberg, Paul R.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 (Thromboview, hereafter abbreviated to 99m Tc-DI-80B3 Fab') is a humanised, radiolabelled monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment with high affinity and specificity for the D-dimer domain of cross-linked fibrin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of four increasing doses of 99m Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (18-70 years; 16 male, 16 female) received a single intravenous injection of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg of 99m Tc-DI-80B3 Fab'. Safety outcomes (vital signs, electrocardiography, haematology, biochemistry, adverse events and development of human anti-human antibodies) were assessed up to 30 days post injection. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 48 h post injection. Gamma camera images were acquired at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post injection. Dosimetry was performed using standard MIRD methodology. No adverse events considered to be drug related were observed. Human anti-human antibody was not detectable in any subject during the follow-up period. 99m Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' had a rapid initial plasma clearance (t 1/2 α=1 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of the Fab' fragment was generally linear across the four dose cohorts. By 24 h, 30-35% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the urine. There was marked renal accumulation with time, but no specific uptake was identified within other normal tissues. The effective dose was 9 mSv/750 MBq. (orig.)

  8. Current trends on internal dosimetry for patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gisone, P.A.; Kunst, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The associated risk-benefit analyses in nuclear medicine implicitly performed by the clinician have been straightforward. Relatively low administered activity activities yield important diagnostic information, the benefit of which far outweigh any potential risk associated with the attendant normal tissue radiation doses. Such small risk to benefit ratios have been very forgiving of possible inaccuracies in dose estimates. With the ongoing development of new radiopharmaceutical and the increasing therapeutic application of internal radionuclides, radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine continues to evolve from population- and organ-average to patient-specific dose estimation. Patient-specific dosimetry refers to the estimation of radiation dose to tissues of a specific-patients based on their individual body and measured biokinetics rather than an average anthropomorphic model and hypothetic kinetic. The importance of dosimetry specific-patient considers to avoid the risk of an unsuitable treatment and/or with probability of damage to the patient. This is illustrated by the dosimetric approaches to radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. The most common prescription algorithm to fix the activity administered to a hyperthyroid patient does not consider individual parameters that are highly variable (thyroid uptake, biological half-life, thyroid mass). Its arbitrary approach doesn't permit individually optimized therapy and it may be inappropriate and even hazardous. (author)

  9. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed

  10. The need for international standardization in clinical beta dosimetry for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, U.; Boehm, J.; Kaulich, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Beta radiation has found increasing interest in radiotherapy. Besides the curative treatment of small and medium-sized intraocular tumors by means of ophthalmic beta radiation plaques, intravascular brachytherapy has proven to successfully overcome the severe problem of restenosis after interventional treatment of arterial stenosis in coronaries and peripheral vessels in many clinical trials with a large number of patients. Prior to initiating procedures applying beta radiation in radiotherapy, however, there is a common need to specify methods for the determination and specification of the absorbed dose to water or tissue and their spatial distributions. The IAEA-TECDOC-1274 Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy (2002) is a help for photon brachytherapy calibration. But, for beta seed and line sources, IAEA recommends well type ionization chambers as working standards which are far from measuring absorbed dose to water of the radiation clinically used. Although the application of such working standards seems to be more precise, large errors can occur when the medical physicist has to convert the calibration data to absorbed dose to water of the beta radiation emitted. The user must believe that the source is equally activated and that the manufacturer did not change the design and construction of the source encapsulation. With the DGMP Report 16 (2001) Guidelines for medical physical aspects of intravascular brachytherapy a very detailed code of practice is given, especially for the calibration and clinical dosimetry of intravascular beta radiation sources. As there is a global need for standardization in clinical dosimetry for intravascular brachytherapy utilizing beta radiation, the DIN-NAR, the German committee on standardization in radiology, task group dosimetry, has initiated an international adhoc working group for a new ISO work item proposal on the standardization of procedures in clinical dosimetry to guarantee reliable

  11. Update Dosimetry Service internal staff Tecnatom; Actualizacion del servicio de dosimetria personal interna de TECNATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.; Alonso, A.; Navarro, E.; Serrano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The beginning of decommissioning of nuclear facilities and other industrial national context conditions have been a very significant increase in the need for such services, which have been almost overwhelmed by the demand. To provide a solution to this situation, Tecnatom decided to run as a new internal dosimetry service indirect measures to complement its renowned capabilities of direct measures. To perform this task, Tecnatom has signed a collaboration agreement with the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of Geocisa, all with the objective of characterizing contamination by alpha emitters or beta different analytical techniques.

  12. WE-H-207A-07: Image-Based Versus Atlas-Based Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is known as the gold standard method for internal dosimetry. It requires radionuclide distribution from PET or SPECT and body structure from CT for accurate dose calculation. The manual or semi-automatic segmentation of organs from CT images is a major obstacle. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results based on patient’s own CT and a digital humanoid phantom as an atlas with pre-specified organs. Methods: SPECT-CT images of a 50 year old woman who underwent bone pain palliation with Samarium-153 EDTMP for osseous metastases from breast cancer were used. The anatomical date and attenuation map were extracted from SPECT/CT and three XCAT digital phantoms with different BMIs (i.e. matched (38.8) and unmatched (35.5 and 36.7) with patient’s BMI that was 38.3). Segmentation of patient’s organs in CT image was performed using itk-SNAP software. GATE MC Simulator was used for dose calculation. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and S-values were calculated for the segmented organs. Results: The differences between SAFs and S-values are high using different anatomical data and range from −13% to 39% for SAF values and −109% to 79% for S-values in different organs. In the spine, the clinically important target organ for Samarium Therapy, the differences in the S-values and SAF values are higher between XCAT phantom and CT when the phantom with identical BMI is employed (53.8% relative difference in S-value and 26.8% difference in SAF). However, the whole body dose values were the same between the calculations based on the CT and XCAT with different BMIs. Conclusion: The results indicated that atlas-based dosimetry using XCAT phantom even with matched BMI for patient leads to considerable errors as compared to image-based dosimetry that uses the patient’s own CT Patient-specific dosimetry using CT image is essential for accurate results.

  13. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  14. The 3rd international intercomparison on EPR tooth dosimetry: Part 1, general analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Debuyst, R.; Fattibene, P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the 3rd International Intercomparison on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Tooth Dosimetry was the evaluation of laboratories performing tooth enamel dosimetry below 300 mGy. Participants had to reconstruct the absorbed dose in tooth enamel from 11 molars, which were cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was irradiated in a 60 Co beam to doses in the ranges of 30-100 mGy (5 samples), 100-300 mGy (5 samples), and 300-900 mGy (1 sample). Fourteen international laboratories participated in this intercomparison programme. A first analysis of the results and an overview of the essential features of methods applied in different laboratories are presented. The relative standard deviation of results of all methods was better than 27% for applied doses in the range of 79-704 mGy. In the analysis of the unirradiated tooth halves 8% of the samples were identified as outliers with additional absorbed dose above background dose

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  16. Assessment of breathing rate of adult Korean for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, Y.W.; Kim, C.S.; Lee, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Breathing rate is one of the key factors in evaluating doses due to inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Since the reference values of breathing rate provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based on the physiology of Caucasian, they are not necessarily appropriate for internal dosimetry for Korean. In this study, we assessed breathing rate of Korean by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in second (FEV1) and the minute ventilation(MV). Measurements were made using SP-1 spirometry unit (Schiller AG. 1998) for 1474 adult Koreans whose heights and weights are in the range of one standard deviation from the mean values. The total liters of air breathed for working and resting were evaluated after the ICRP approach. We also considered smoking and ailment in the lungs. The resulting breathing rate appears to be 2.3x10 4 L/day which well agrees with the value given in ICRP 23

  17. Course on internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine; Curso de dosimetria interna en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This documentation was distributed to the participants in the Course of Internal Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine organised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina and held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 9-13, 2004. The course was intended for people from IAEA Member States in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and for professionals and workers in medicine, related with the radiation protection. Spanish and English were the languages of the course. The following subjects were covered: radioprotection of the patient in nuclear medicine; injuries by ionizing radiations; MIRD methodology; radiation dose assessment in nuclear medicine; small scale and microdosimetry; bone and marrow dose modelling; medical internal dose calculations; SPECT and image reconstruction; principles of the gamma camera; scattering and attenuation correction in SPECT; tomography in nuclear medicine.

  18. Patient-Specific Internal Dosimetry Protocol for 131 treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, Ana M.; Llina Fuentes, C.S.; Cabrejas, Mariana L.; Cabrejas, R.; Fadel, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The most effective treatment against Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC), in its most frequently types: papillar and follicular, is the administration of radioiodine. As a result of a multidisciplinary work, a dosimetrical protocol for radiological protection purpose has been developed that suggests the standards and formalisms for the determination of absorbed doses due to the administration of 131 I activity to DTC patients. This dosimetrical protocol takes into account individual data of each patient (age, gender, the presence or absence of metastases, physiology, physiopathology, biochemical parameters) and involves clinical aspects, the equipment that should be used and the dose assessment procedure of each treatment. Based on the Medical Internal radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme and considering the major critical organs for this therapy, the dosimetrical protocol states the 'how-to' of the following procedures, in adults and paediatric cases: 1) estimation of the red marrow dose (with/without bone metastases) to avoid mielotoxicity (200 cGy); 2) Estimation of the retention / dose rate / dose in lungs after 48 hours from the administration of radioiodine to avoid lung fibrosis; 3) Estimation of the testes dose in young male patients to avoid oligospermia; 4) Estimation of the maximum activity which can be safely administered without damaging the most critical organ for each patient; and 5) Acquisition of images and retention data from patients. This dosimetrical protocol also specifies the requirements and basic steps that should be followed, the essential information, the complementary studies and the basic equipment required to perform an appropriate internal dosimetry evaluation. To be fully implemented, the dosimetrical protocol needs the constitution of a multidisciplinary team including physicians, medical physicists and technicians. Clear instructions should be provided to the patient as his full collaboration is essential. Even though empirical

  19. Influence of bone metastases in the red marrow 131INa internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llina Fuentes, C.S.; Cabrejas, M.I.; Cabrejas, R.

    2008-01-01

    other regions and that bone metastasis can increase significantly (23% in this study) the red marrow absorbed dose. Therefore, it is actually important to consider bone metastases in internal dosimetry formalism for DTC patients. In addition, bone marrow absorbed dose calculated with the developed formalism is consistent with the results obtained with biological dosimetry (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Conventional Cytogenetic). (author)

  20. The 4th international comparison on EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, P., E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg D-85764 (Germany); Adolfsson, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Benevides, L.A. [Naval Dosimetry Center, Bethesda MD 20889-5600 (United States); Brai, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Callens, F. [Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chumak, V. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS, 04050 Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Regina Elena Institute, I-00144 Rome (Italy); Emerich, K. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland); Gustafsson, H. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hirai, Y. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732-0815 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Israelsson, A. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Kaminska, J. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Ke, Wu [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Lund, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Marrale, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the 4th International Comparison of in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, where the performance parameters of tooth enamel dosimetry methods were compared among sixteen laboratories from all over the world. The participating laboratories were asked to determine a calibration curve with a set of tooth enamel powder samples provided by the organizers. Nine molar teeth extracted following medical indication from German donors and collected between 1997 and 2007 were prepared and irradiated at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen. Five out of six samples were irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Gy air kerma; and one unirradiated sample was kept as control. The doses delivered to the individual samples were unknown to the participants, who were asked to measure each sample nine times, and to report the EPR signal response, the mass of aliquots measured, and the parameters of EPR signal acquisition and signal evaluation. Critical dose and detection limit were calculated by the organizers on the basis of the calibration-curve parameters obtained at every laboratory. For calibration curves obtained by measuring every calibration sample three times, the mean value of the detection limit was 205 mGy, ranging from 56 to 649 mGy. The participants were also invited to provide the signal response and the nominal dose of their current dose calibration curve (wherever available), the critical dose and detection limit of which were also calculated by the organizers.

  1. The international dosimetry exchange for BNCT. A basis for pooling and collectively analyzing clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.J.; Binns, P.J.; Harling, O.K.; Kiger, W.S. III; Seppaelae, T.; Savolainen, S.; Moss, R.; Marek, M.; Rezaei, A.

    2006-01-01

    An international collaboration was organized by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to undertake a dosimetry exchange for the eventual purpose of combining results from various clinical centers that employ different methods for measuring and prescribing absorbed dose in the mixed radiation fields used for neutron capture therapy. Treatment plans calculated at NCT centers in the Czech Republic, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden were normalized to corresponding measurements performed by the MIT dosimetry group in each beam. More than half of the normalizations for individual absorbed dose components (photon, fast neutron, thermal neutron and boron) determined by comparing MIT measurements to the dose specified in treatment plans from the different centers were statistically significant and ranged from 8 to 400%. Each facility had at least one dose component that would require normalization for the specified doses to be accurately compared. These normalizations establish a technical basis to begin collectively analyzing treatment plans between the European and US centers. Simple but pertinent treatment parameters such as the maximum dose to brain can now be properly compared, once the clinical data is available. This could held to more precisely and quickly determine various dose-response relationships as for example those related to adverse events. Future efforts to determine dose normalization at other centers performing human studies as well as more sophisticated analyses using combined data from several centers should be guided by clearly defined clinical objectives with active participation from clinical BNCT experts. (author)

  2. Results of the Argentinian intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2014. Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, in 2014 the National Intercomparison Exercise was organized and coordinated by the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of four internal dosimetry services from the nuclear power plants (NA-SA CNA and NA-SA CNE) and the CNEA Atomic Centres: Bariloche (CAB) and Ezeiza (CAE). This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this exercise. (authors) [es

  3. History of International Workshop on Mini-Micro- and Nano- Dosimetry (MMND) and Innovation Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Zaider, Marco; Yamada, Josh; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The biannual MMND (former MMD) - IPCT workshops was founded in collaboration between the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001 and has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced quality assurance (QA) dosimetry technology for radiation therapy and space science, as well as advanced technologies for clinical cancer treatment.

  4. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125 ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131 I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I were considered. (author)

  5. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  6. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  7. Age dependent physical and anatomical Indian data for application in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1996-01-01

    The data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic human characteristics of the Indian population in various age groups were obtained for application in internal dosimetry. Only the physical and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population in age groups 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 y and adult are considered here. A comparison of the adult Indian data with that of ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that with the exception of a few smaller organs, the body size as well as the organ weights of Indian subjects are, in general, smaller. With the exception of brain, a statistically significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the body weights and the corresponding organ weights of Indian subjects in different age groups. (author)

  8. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  9. Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.A.; Pereztol, O.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Alvarez, I.; Fraxedas, R.; Mesa, G.; Rodriguez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted on evaluating the Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc. In the dosimetry studies and biodistribution five healthy volunteers were included and in the pharmacokinetic studies five patients were included with less than 5% of probability of suffering illness of artery coronary

  10. Technical basis for the internal dosimetry program at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Barber, J.M.; Snapp, L.M.; Turner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of plant operations. almost all work with radioactive materials has involved isotopes associated with uranium, enriched or depleted in U 235 . While limited quantities of isotopes of elements other than uranium are present, workplace monitoring and precess knowledge have established that internal exposure from these other isotopes is insignificant in comparison with uranium. While the changing plant mission may necessitate the consideration of internal exposure from other isotopes at some point in time, only enriched and depleted uranium will be considered in this basis document. The portions of the internal dosimetry technical basis which may be unique to the Y-12 Plant is considered in this manual. This manual presents the technical basis of the routine in vivo and in vitro bioassay programs including choice of frequency, participant selection criteria, and action level guidelines. Protocols for special bioassay will be presented in the chapters which described the basis for intake, uptake, and dam assessment. A discussion of the factors which led to the need to develop a special biokinetic model for uranium at the Y-12 Plant, as well as a description of the model's basic parameters, are included in this document

  11. Statistical construction of a Japanese male liver phantom for internal radionuclide dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofrad, F. B.; Zoroofi, R. A.; Tehrani-Fard, A. A.; Akhlaghpoor, S.; Hori, M.; Chen, Y. W.; Sato, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A computational framework is presented, based on statistical shape modelling, for construction of race-specific organ models for internal radionuclide dosimetry and other nuclear-medicine applications. This approach was applied to the construction of a Japanese liver phantom, using the liver of the digital Zubal phantom as the template and 35 liver computed tomography (CT) scans of male Japanese individuals as a training set. The first step was the automated object-space registration (to align all the liver surfaces in one orientation), using a coherent-point-drift maximum-likelihood alignment algorithm, of each CT scan-derived manually contoured liver surface and the template Zubal liver phantom. Six landmark points, corresponding to the intersection of the contours of the maximum-area sagittal, transaxial and coronal liver sections were employed to perform the above task. To find correspondence points in livers (i.e. 2000 points for each liver), each liver surface was transformed into a mesh, was mapped for the parameter space of a sphere (parameterization), yielding spherical harmonics (SPHARMs) shape descriptors. The resulting spherical transforms were then registered by minimising the root-mean-square distance among the SPHARMs coefficients. A mean shape (i.e. liver) and its dispersion (i.e. covariance matrix) were next calculated and analysed by principal components. Leave-one-out-tests using 5-35 principal components (or modes) demonstrated the fidelity of the foregoing statistical analysis. Finally, a voxelisation algorithm and a point-based registration is utilised to convert the SPHARM surfaces into its corresponding voxelised and adjusted the Zubal phantom data, respectively. The proposed technique used to create the race-specific statistical phantom maintains anatomic realism and provides the statistical parameters for application to radionuclide dosimetry. (authors)

  12. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay - Further validation of international networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ruth C., E-mail: Ruth.Wilkins@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Romm, Horst; Oestreicher, Ursula [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Marro, Leonora [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yoshida, Mitsuaki A. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department Radiation Biology, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Suto, Y. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Prasanna, Pataje G.S. [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Radiation Research Program, 6130 Executive Blvd., MSC 7440, Bethesda, MD 20892-7440 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation doses received to personnel when physical dosimetry is not available or inadequate. The current preferred biodosimetry method is based on the measurement of radiation-specific dicentric chromosomes in exposed individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, this method is labor-, time- and expertise-demanding. Consequently, for mass casualty applications, strategies have been developed to increase its throughput. One such strategy is to develop validated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory networks, both national and international. In a previous study, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) was validated in our cytogenetic biodosimetry network involving five geographically dispersed laboratories. A complementary strategy to further enhance the throughput of the DCA among inter-laboratory networks is to use a triage DCA where dose assessments are made by truncating the labor-demanding and time-consuming metaphase spread analysis to 20 - 50 metaphase spreads instead of routine 500 - 1000 metaphase spread analysis. Our laboratory network also validated this triage DCA, however, these dose estimates were made using calibration curves generated in each laboratory from the blood samples irradiated in a single laboratory. In an emergency situation, dose estimates made using pre-existing calibration curves which may vary according to radiation type and dose rate and therefore influence the assessed dose. Here, we analyze the effect of using a pre-existing calibration curve on assessed dose among our network laboratories. The dose estimates were made by analyzing 1000 metaphase spreads as well as triage quality scoring and compared to actual physical doses applied to the samples for validation. The dose estimates in the laboratory partners were in good agreement with the applied physical doses and determined to be adequate for guidance in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.

  13. Development of the mathematical phantom of the brazilian man for internal dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury.

    1995-01-01

    This work covers the theory and construction of a Mathematical Phantom of the Brazilian, to be used in internal dosimetry. To obtain this it was necessary to develop antropometric data of mass and height for Brazilian man between 20 and 40 years old. Through Monte Carlo Method, and applying the Specific Absorbed Fraction (SAF) formalism, it was possible determine the fraction internal organs such as bones, skin and total body. The results obtained from SAF are primordial in nuclear medicine and great value in the calculation of the dose received by workers exposed and in accidental cases, to a rapid evaluation of the received by a simple person. Through SAF, the references obtained for the Brazilian man, can be noted when compared to the phantom calculated by Snyder, which proposed to represent the international reference man, showed by ICRP-23 publication, that the determined SAF of the whole body does not exceed 15% between the two phantoms, agreeing with the allowed international norms error margin permitted. The differences between the two models appear, when the numbers are presented for individual organs, where the emission origin are the lungs and taken as target, the red and yellow marrows, for an energy of 10 KeV. The result obtained is that these two marrows receive 64% more absorbed fractions in the Brazilian model than in the international model. These numbers are considered trustfully because the coefficient of variation does not exceed 7%, value that in under 50%, which makes the coefficient of variation not trustfully, this is considered out of the normal distribution. Facts like these and may others, showed in this work, determine the necessity to calculate a specific mathematical model for the Brazilian man. (author). 51 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs

  14. An international co-ordinated research programme on nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1977-01-01

    Where fissile materials are being processed in quantities exceeding the minimum critical amounts, a radiation risk to workers arises from the possibility of criticality excursions. Despite the fact that techniques for preventing the occurende of such accidental excursions have reached very high standards it is generally agreed that the availability of suitable nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) systems is very important. Following the recommendations of an Advisory Group meeting on NAD, the IAEA had established in 1969 an international coordinated research programme on NAD systems and elaborating standarized systems. A large number of research groups from 14 Member States throughout the world participated in this co-ordinated work. Since 1970 four international multilaboratory intercomparison experiments on NAD have been organized and the response of a variety of dosimeters examined in different neutron spectra under simulated accident conditions at Valduc (France), Oak Ridge (USA), Vinca (Yugoslavia) and Harwell (UK). The results achieved in these intercomparison studies show that NAD systems have been substantially improved and that several systems are available now in a number of laboratories throughout the world that perform within the criteria laid down by the initiating advisory group in 1969. A compendium of neutron leakage spectra has also been elaborated for facilitating the determination of dose from readings of detectors exposed to various neutron fields in criticality accidents

  15. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  16. The international protocol for the dosimetry of external radiotherapy beams based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2001-01-01

    An International Code of Practice (CoP, or dosimetry protocol) for external beam radiotherapy dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water has been published by the IAEA on behalf of IAEA, WHO, PAHO and ESTRO. The CoP provides a systematic and internationally unified approach for the determination of the absorbed dose to water in reference conditions with radiotherapy beams. The development of absorbed-dose-to-water standards for high-energy photons and electrons offers the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. Many laboratories already provide calibrations at the radiation quality of 60Co gamma-rays and some have extended calibrations to high-energy photon and electron beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage x-rays, as well as that of proton and ion beams can also be based on these standards. Thus, a coherent dosimetry system based on the same formalism is achieved for practically all radiotherapy beams. The practical use of the CoP as simple. The document is formed by a set of different CoPs for each radiation type, which include detailed procedures and worksheets. All CoPs are based on ND,w chamber calibrations at a reference beam quality Qo, together with radiation beam quality correction factors kQ preferably measured directly for the user's chamber in a standards laboratory. Calculated values of kQ are provided together with their uncertainty estimates. Beam quality specifiers are 60Co, TPR20,10 (high-energy photons), R50 (electrons), HVL and kV (x-rays) and Rres (protons and ions) [es

  17. Application of the new International Code of Practice for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology to conventional exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, A.; Cardenas Herrera, J.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Machado, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the recent years, a policy for updating and installation of the X-ray equipment, specialized as well as conventional, have been carrying out, in Cuba. Conventional equipment has reached almost the whole primary level. Considering this situation, the quality control programs and clinical dosimetry have become even more important. Regarding the last one, an International Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology had been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to been used as a guide and to standardize the methodologies used to evaluate the patient exposure in radiodiagnostic. Taken into consideration the above reasons, an assessment of the aforementioned code of practice was done in order to choose the most feasible methodology to implement in the country. The evaluation was performed considering the lack of dosimetric equipment and medical physicists in this practice, in the interests of increasing the measurements scope to a large number of services as well as to standardize the methodology on a national scale. The present work shows the results obtained from the application of the new code of practice to conventional radiology exams in some medical institutions. Out of 3 on patients measurements methodologies described in the code of practice, the one of measurement of the incident air kerma was chosen. This methodology allow to the physicist to focus on the diagnostic equipment tests and to delegate the collection of the patient and exposure parameters data to the technicians, which make the increased of the patient and diagnostic departments sample, possible. The measurements were carried out in 2 hospital of the capital. The exams involved in the assessments were thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine LAT. In every diagnostic service, 25 patients were chosen on each projection. The weight and height average of the patient sample were 68 kg and 167 cm respectively. In the assessment were considered only

  18. Summary Report of the 1. Research Coordination Meeting on Testing and Improving the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Simakov, S.P.

    2013-09-01

    In accordance with the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee in May 2012, the Nuclear Data Section of IAEA has initiated a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP number F41031) with the main goal to test, validate and improve the international dosimetry library for fission and fusion (IRDFF). The output of this CRP will be a reference dosimetry database of cross sections and decay data with corresponding documentation. It will serve to the needs of fission, fusion and accelerator applications. The first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was held 1 to 5 July 2013 in IAEA. At this meeting, the attendees discussed the objectives of the whole CRP, presented their contributions and elaborated on consolidated recommendations and actions for implementation over the next 1.5 year period. This Summary Report documents the individual contributions and joint decisions made during this meeting. (author)

  19. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  20. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  1. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'generalized radius', calculated as 3V/S, where V is the ellipsoid volume and S its surface. Radiation-specific parametric functions were obtained in order to calculate the absorbed fraction of a given radiation in a generic ellipsoidal volume. The dose from a generic radionuclide can be calculated through a process of summation and integration over the whole radionuclide emission spectrum, profitably implemented in an electronic spreadsheet. We compared the results of our analytical calculation approach with those obtained from the OLINDA/EXM computer software, finding a good agreement in a wide range of sphere radii, for the high-energy pure beta emitter 90Y, the commonly employed beta-gamma emitter 131I, and the pure alpha emitter 213Po. The generality of our approach makes it useful an easy to implement in clinical dosimetry calculations as well as in radiation safety estimations when doses from internal radionuclide uptake are to be taken into account.

  2. Development of derived investigation levels for use in internal dosimetry at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to determine if the routine intemal dosimetry program at the West Valley Demonstration Project is capable of meeting the performance objective of 1 mSv annual effective dose equivalent due to internal contamination. With the use of the computer code REMedy the annual effective dose equivalent is calculated. Some of the radionuclides of concern result in an annual effective dose equivalent that exceeds the performance objective. Although the results exceed the performance objective, in all but two cases they do not exceed the US DOE regulatory limits. In these instances the Th-232 and Am-241 were determined to exceed the committed dose equivalent limit to their limiting tissue. In order to document the potential missed dose for regulatory compliance, Sr-90 is used as an indicator for Th-232. For Am-241 an investigation as to whether or not the minimum detectable amount can be lowered is performed. The derived investigation levels as a result of this project are 4.9E3 Bq/lung count for Co-60, 2.2E4 Bq/lung count for Cs-137, 1.9 Bq/1 for Sr-90 and for radionuclides other than Sr-90 any value greater than or equal to three standard deviations above their net count is considered to require further investigation

  3. Performance of a coumarin-based liquid dosimeter for phantom evaluations of internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Ae [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: miaepark@bwh.Harvard.edu; Moore, Stephen C. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Limpa-Amara, Naengnoi [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kang Zhuang [Department of Physics, University of Massachusettes at Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Dana Faber-Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA 01225 (United States): Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2006-12-20

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) requires accurate absorbed dose estimation in individual patients. It has been shown that a coumarin-based liquid dosimeter is useful for various phantom geometries of relevance to patient-specific internal dosimetry. The purpose of this study was to refine the performance limits of the coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CCA) dosimeter using the high-energy {beta}-emitter, Y-90, by measuring the dosimeter's dependence on dose rate, by finding the maximum dose limit, and by comparing measured dose values to those from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Non-fluorescent CCA is converted to highly fluorescent 7-hydroxyl-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-OH-CCA) upon irradiation. We measured the Y-90-induced fluorescence from 7-OH-CCA under different conditions. Fluorescence was measured using activity concentrations from 1.1 to 181 MBq/cc, providing initial dose rates from 0.7 to 117 cGy/min. To determine the maximum dose limit, fluorescence was measured for different elapsed times from 4 to 150 h, using a fixed activity concentration, 3.7 MBq/cc. A Cs-137 irradiator was used for calibration, to convert fluorescence measurements to absorbed dose. We calculated absorbed dose using the DOSXYZnrc MC program. We modeled the geometry of cuvettes realistically, including plastic walls, surrounding air, and Y-90 in liquid. S-values of Y-90 in water were calculated using 1-mm cubic voxels. A linear dependence of fluorescence on dose rate was observed up to 80 cGy/min, and the dependence on total dose was linear up to {approx}20 Gy The average difference between calculated and measured dose values over 9 samples was 3.6{+-}2%. For our geometry, the dose based on voxel S-values was within 1% of that calculated using MC simulation of the phantom. We refined the performance limits of a CCA-based dosimeter for phantom studies of TRT using Y-90, and confirmed a close agreement between measured and calculated dose values. CCA dosimetry is a promising technique

  4. Design and Fabrication of Kidney Phantoms for Internal Radiation Dosimetry Using 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Schlögl, Susanne; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the validation of multimodal quantitative imaging and absorbed dose measurements is impeded by the lack of suitable, commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms of variable sizes and shapes. To demonstrate the potential of 3-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for quantitative SPECT/CT imaging, a set of kidney dosimetry phantoms and their spherical counterparts was designed and manufactured with a fused-deposition-modeling 3D printer. Nuclide-dependent SPECT/CT calibration factors were determined to assess the accuracy of quantitative imaging for internal renal dosimetry. A set of 4 single-compartment kidney phantoms with filling volumes between 8 and 123 mL was designed on the basis of the outer kidney dimensions provided by MIRD pamphlet 19. After the phantoms had been printed, SPECT/CT acquisitions of 3 radionuclides ( 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I) were obtained and calibration constants determined for each radionuclide-volume combination. A set of additionally manufactured spheres matching the kidney volumes was also examined to assess the influence of phantom shape and size on the calibration constants. A set of refillable, waterproof, and chemically stable kidneys and spheres was successfully manufactured. Average calibration factors for 99m Tc, 177 Lu, and 131 I were obtained in a large source measured in air. For the largest phantom (122.9 mL), the volumes of interest had to be enlarged by 1.2 mm for 99m Tc, 2.5 mm for 177 Lu, and 4.9 mm for 131 I in all directions to obtain calibration factors comparable to the reference. Although partial-volume effects were observed for decreasing phantom volumes (percentage difference of up to 9.8% for the smallest volume [8.6 mL]), the difference between corresponding sphere-kidney pairs was small (3D printing is a promising prototyping technique for geometry-specific calibration of SPECT/CT systems. Although the underlying radionuclide and the related collimator have a major influence on the calibration

  5. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  6. Example Plant Model for an International Benchmark Study on DI and C PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Park, Jinkyun; Jang, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this context the risk quantification due to these digitalized safety systems became more important. Although there are many challenges to address about this issue, many countries agreed with the necessity of research on reliability quantification of DI and C system. Based on the agreement of several countries, one of internal research association is planning a benchmark study on this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each participating member develop its own probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model of digital I and C systems. Although the DI and C systems are being applied to NPPs, of which modeling method to quantify its reliability still ambiguous. Therefore, an internal research association is planning a benchmark study to address this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each member develop their own PSA model for DI and C systems

  7. Determinan Efektivitas Audit Internal di Inspektorat Provinsi Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This effectiveness of internal audit conducted by the Local Government Inspectorate of East Java Province. The purpose of the research conducted is to obtain empirical evidence on the factors that affect the effectiveness of internal audits conducted by the Local Government Inspectorate. The data used in this study comes from questionnaires obtained from 159 respondents. This study, the dependent variable used is the effectiveness of internal audit, while the independent variables used are professional expertise, quality of audit work, career and promotion, support from leadership, and scope of internal audit work. Based on the results of the research note that the quality of audit work, support from the leadership and the scope of internal audit work has a significant influence on the effectiveness of internal audit, while professional and career skills and promotion have no effect on the effectiveness of internal audit in the Local Government Inspectorate of East Java Province.

  8. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  9. Computational dosimetry and risk assessment of radioinduced cancer: studies in mammary glands radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno Melo

    2017-01-01

    The use of Ionizing radiation (IR) in medicine has increased considerably. The benefits generated by diagnostic and therapy techniques with IR are proven. Nevertheless, the risks arising from these uses should not be underestimated. Justification, a basic radiation protection, states that the benefits from exposures must outweigh detriment. The cancer induction is one of the detriment components. Thus, the study of the benefit/detriment ratio should take into account cancer incidence and mortality estimations resulting from a given diagnosis or therapy radiological technique. The risk of cancer induction depends on the absorbed doses in the irradiated organs and tissues. Thus, IR dosimetry is essential to evaluate the benefit/detriment ratio. The present work aims to perform computational dosimetric evaluations and estimations of cancer induction risk after ionizing radiation exposure. The investigated situations cover nuclear medicine, radiological contamination and radiotherapy fields. Computational dosimetry, with MCNPx Monte Carlo Code, was used as a tool to calculate the absorbed dose in the interest organs of the voxelized human models. The simulations were also used to obtain calibration factors and optimization of in vivo monitoring systems for internal contamination dosimetry. A breast radiotherapy (RT) standard protocol was simulated using the MCNPx code. The calculation of the radiation-induced cancer risk was adapted from the BEIR VII methodology for the Brazilian population. The absorbed doses used in the risk calculations were obtained through computational simulations of different exposure scenarios. During this work, two new computational phantoms, DM B RA and VW, were generated from tomographic images. Additional twelve voxelized phantoms, including the reference phantoms, RCP A M and RCP A F, and the child, baby, and fetus models were adapted to run on MCNP. Internal Dosimetry Protocols (IDP) for radiopharmaceuticals and for internal contamination

  10. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  11. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  12. Course of training in Specific internal dosimetry for the patient; Curso de capacitacion en dosimetria interna especifica para el paciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, A.M.; Michelin, S.C. [Dosimetria Interna, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 CP (429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez P, I.M. [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Av. del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: arojo@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this work the experience obtained in a course organized in Argentina to qualify professionals in the radiopharmaceutical dosimetry using the methodology MIRD and the patient's images is presented. The motivation to carry out it was based on the continuous development of new radiopharmaceuticals with therapeutic purposes that makes necessary the knowledge of the distribution of the absorbed dose to be able to establish the dose-response relationship. The main objective was the study of the biokinetic model and those techniques available that starting from images can contribute information of specific parameters of the patient to calculate with more accuracy the doses in the tumor and in different organs. In the design of the program of this course it was considered to approach the different focuses for the calculation of specific dose of the patient and includes the following topics: the patient's radiological protection, new concepts in damages by radiations (bystander effect), methodology for the internal dosimetry by radiopharmaceuticals, dosimetric systems (MIRD/ICRP), revision of the physical phantoms, design of kinetic studies, compartmental models, calculation tools and the demonstration of the programs SAAM and OLINDA; calculation of activity starting from the patient's images (planar and SPECT). Principles of the gamma camera: the dispersed radiation, calculation of the activity with planar images, the attenuation, correction of the dispersed radiation, collimation problems. SPECT: the common method of reconstruction, basic principles, method of filtered over head projection and iterative methods (MLEM/OSEM), measurement of the attenuation maps, problems of the penetration in the collimator (I-131, I-123), effects of partial volume, incorporation of corrections in an iterative reconstruction. Dosimetry in bone marrow, discussion of study cases of new radiopharmaceuticals. Internal dosimetry in small scale for electrons and photons

  13. IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENJAMINAN MUTU INTERNAL SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MUTU PENDIDIKAN DI UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sulaiman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan implementasi Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal (SPMI sebagai upaya meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di Universitas Gadjah Mada. Studi ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Penelitian dilakukan di Universitas Gadjah Mada, dengan subjek Kantor Jaminan Mutu (KJM UGM. Teknik pengumpulan data: observasi langsung, penelusuran dokumen dan arsip, serta wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 Kebijakan dan konsep SPMI berupa dokumen akademik dan dokumen mutu disusun oleh KJM UGM; (2 KJM UGM sebagai koordinator dalam merencanakan dan melaksanakan SPMI di seluruh universitas; (3 Implementasi SPMI dilaksanakan dengan penyusunan rancangan berupa Siklus SPMI; (4 Kendala yang dihadapi: komitmen pimpinan, jumlah tenaga auditor, kegiatan SPMI menjadi rutinitas; (5 Langkah yang ditempuh: menyediakan tenaga expert penjaminan mutu, pelatihan auditor, membangun semangat penjaminan mutu; (6 Evaluasi Implementasi SPMI dilaksanakan setiap tahun; (7 Pemanfaatan hasil implementasi SPMI: membangun budaya mutu, akreditasi dan sertifikasi nasional dan internasional; dan (8 Pengembangan implementasi SPMI mengacu pada manajemen mutu ISO dan standar BAN PT.

  14. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  15. Development of a hybrid multi-scale phantom for Monte-Carlo based internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcatili, S.; Villoing, D.; Bardies, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: in recent years several phantoms were developed for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry in clinical and preclinical settings. Voxel-based models (Zubal, Max/Fax, ICRP110) were developed to reach a level of realism that could not be achieved by mathematical models. In turn, 'hybrid' models (XCAT, MOBY/ROBY, Mash/Fash) allow a further degree of versatility by offering the possibility to finely tune each model according to various parameters. However, even 'hybrid' models require the generation of a voxel version for Monte-Carlo modeling of radiation transport. Since absorbed dose simulation time is strictly related to geometry spatial sampling, a compromise should be made between phantom realism and simulation speed. This trade-off leads on one side in an overestimation of the size of small radiosensitive structures such as the skin or hollow organs' walls, and on the other hand to unnecessarily detailed voxellization of large, homogeneous structures. The Aim of this work is to develop a hybrid multi-resolution phantom model for Geant4 and Gate, to better characterize energy deposition in small structures while preserving reasonable computation times. Materials and Methods: we have developed a pipeline for the conversion of preexisting phantoms into a multi-scale Geant4 model. Meshes of each organ are created from raw binary images of a phantom and then voxellized to the smallest spatial sampling required by the user. The user can then decide to re-sample the internal part of each organ, while leaving a layer of smallest voxels at the edge of the organ. In this way, the realistic shape of the organ is maintained while reducing the voxel number in the inner part. For hollow organs, the wall is always modeled using the smallest voxel sampling. This approach allows choosing different voxel resolutions for each organ according to a specific application. Results: preliminary results show that it is possible to

  16. Internal radiation dosimetry, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the 99mTc labeled ior egf/r3 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.A.; Perera, A.; Ramos, M.; Hernandez, A.; Iznaga, N.; Solano, M.E.; Alvarez, I.; Rodriguez, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the internal radiation dosimetry, human pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the 99m Tc-labeled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) ior egf/r3, used for diagnosis of epithelial tumors. Five patients were included in this study. Multiple blood and urine samples were collected and sequential anterior and posterior whole-body scintigraphies up to 24 hr post-injection were acquired from all patients. The internal radiation dosimetry was estimated using the methods developed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) committee. Raw data were computed from operations between scintigraphic images and regions of interest (ROI). The residence times of the activity on the source organs were computed to assess the absorbed dose by 24 target organs. The dosimetric results showed that liver, gallbladder and spleen received the higher absorbed dose. The computed mean values were 0.69 mGy/MBq, 0.19mGy/MBq and 0.37 mGy/MBq, respectively. The mean value of effective dose was 1,2E-01 mSv/MBq and the effective equivalent dose was 9,2E-02 mSv/MBq. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution results showed that this compound has a biexponential plasmatic and blood clearance with a rapid biodistribution phase and a slower elimination phase. This compound was excreted by the urinary and hepatobiliary systems. Liver was the principal target organ of this product showing a great retention of the MAb. These dosimetric results have allowed to use the ior egf/r3 kit in a safe and controlled way. (author)

  17. Internal Dosimetry Of I-131 For Radiation Workers Based On Analysis Of The Human Urine And Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Hung Thai; Le Van Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of I-131 for radiation workers based on analysis of the human urine, measuring radioactivity by the liquid scintillation system, and dose calculation by the specialized code has been firstly studied at the Nuclear Research Institute. Urine samples from the subjects internally contaminated with I-131 through respiratory ways were collected, chemically processed, measured beta radioactivities of I-131 by the liquid scintillation system of ALOKA-LSC-6100, and then thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body were calculated by using the specialized code of LUDEP 2.0. Based on chemically separation procedure for I-131 in urine samples and the low background HPGe gamma spectrometer of Canberra for measuring radioactivity, efficiency for chemical separation was determined to be (86.1 ± 5.0)%. The experimental results for 9 subjects with urine samples to be collected during 4 operating courses of Dalat nuclear reactor with production of I-131 (from June to September, 2010) were shown that thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body for each course of I-131 production were in ranges of from 0.11 to 13.00 mSv and from 0.01 to 0.71 mSv, respectively. Therefore, totally average doses per year for thyroid and whole-body were less than the correlative levels of permissible doses. Besides, the liquid scintillation method was also compared experimentally with the gamma spectrometry (measuring directly urine samples by the gamma spectrometer to be carried out at the Institute before) was shown that errors on dosimetric results between them were less than 12%. This was proved the dosimetry has had a confidence, and it could be applied for internal dosimetry for radiation workers contacting with unsealed sources of I-131 in radiation installations as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic patients in health ones. (author)

  18. Summary remarks and recommended reactions for an international data file for dosimetry applications for LWR, FBR, and MFR reactor research, development and testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Fabry, A.; Dierckx, R.; Farinelli, U.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the use of an internationally accepted data file for dosimetry applications for light water reactor (LWR), fast breeder reactor (FBR), and magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) research, development, and testing programs continues to exist for the Nuclear Industry. The work of this IAEA meeting, therefore, will be another important step in achieving consensus agreement on an internationally recommended file and its purpose, content, structure, selected reactions, and associated uncertainy files. Summary remarks and a listing of recommended reactions for consideration in the formulation of an ''International Data File for Dosimetry Applications'' are presented in subsequent sections of this report

  19. Whole body MR-PET: a new internal dosimetry method for radiation transport calculation from biokinetic model data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Ana; Alves, Francisco; Patrício, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the safe usage of new radiopharmaceuticals in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), it is necessary to quantify the doses delivered to the organs and tissues within the patients’ bodies. A framework that allows estimating the dose delivered by PET has been established by the MIRD Committee [1, 2] and ICRP []. Although this covers the most important terms and concepts in Internal Radiation Dosimetry (IRD), it does not provide a detailed guide to assist in the development of a full dosimetric study. We discuss the development, implementation, assessment and validation of an accurate method for IRD studies of PET radiotracers.

  20. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  1. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  2. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  3. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  4. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo: Report di un viaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando la redazione di GeoMedia ha ricevuto l’invito da parte della rete di Impresa GIS Italiana GeoNetCom di partecipare come “osservatore” ad un interessante mercato estero (l’Albania e di verificare come 5 aziende italiane (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I&S Informatica e Servizi Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Sistemi Territoriali srl Pisa e Tecnopiani srl Roma-Chieti e due new entry della rete (MARSec spa Benevento e ISE-Net Torino stanno lavorando insieme per l’internazionalizzazione, l’offerta era troppo ghiotta per rinunciarci, anche perchè per il sottoscritto era l’occasione di rientrare in contatto con Tirana dopo ben 16 anni. 5th International Fair Konfindustria Albania & Kosovo GeoMedia  has  received  an  invitation  from  GeoNetCom, an Italian  network  of  Enterprise  GIS,  to  participate  as  "observ-ers" to a foreign market attractive (Albania and to see how five Italian Companies (GisItalia srl Milano-Trento, I & S Infor-mation Technology and Services Trento, Geoslab srl Avellino, Regional Systems srl Rome-Pisa and Infopiani Chieti with two new entries in the network (MARSEC ISE-net spa Benevento and Turin, are working together to bring their activity at the international level in a Country quickly growing as Albania.

  5. Molecular characterization of the di-leucine-based internalization motif of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1996-01-01

    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinases. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation of Ser-126 and the presence of the di-leucine sequence Leu-131 and Leu-132 in CD3 gamma are required f...... are important. 2) Recognition of phosphorylated CD3 gamma by molecules involved in receptor internalization. In this process Ser(P)-126, Asp-127, Leu-131, and Leu-132 are important....

  6. Safety, pharmacokinetic and dosimetry evaluation of the proposed thrombus imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 Fab'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, David J. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Smart, Richard C. [St George Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Tsui, Wendy W. [St George Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of New South Wales, School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Gerometta, Michael [AGEN Biomedical Limited, Research and Development, Brisbane (Australia); Eisenberg, Paul R. [Eli Lilly Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Health, Centre for PET, Melbourne (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 (Thromboview, hereafter abbreviated to {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab') is a humanised, radiolabelled monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment with high affinity and specificity for the D-dimer domain of cross-linked fibrin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of four increasing doses of {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (18-70 years; 16 male, 16 female) received a single intravenous injection of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg of {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab'. Safety outcomes (vital signs, electrocardiography, haematology, biochemistry, adverse events and development of human anti-human antibodies) were assessed up to 30 days post injection. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 48 h post injection. Gamma camera images were acquired at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post injection. Dosimetry was performed using standard MIRD methodology. No adverse events considered to be drug related were observed. Human anti-human antibody was not detectable in any subject during the follow-up period. {sup 99m}Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' had a rapid initial plasma clearance (t{sub 1/2}{alpha}=1 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of the Fab' fragment was generally linear across the four dose cohorts. By 24 h, 30-35% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the urine. There was marked renal accumulation with time, but no specific uptake was identified within other normal tissues. The effective dose was 9 mSv/750 MBq. (orig.)

  7. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry; Curso anual de reentrenamiento para el POE del laboratorio de dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-09-15

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  8. Development of an international code of practice for dosimetry in X-ray diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Carlsson, G.A.; Dance, D.R.; DeWerd, L.A.; Kramer, H.-M.; Ng, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    Medical x-ray examinations contribute greatly to the population dose from man-made radiation sources. There is a need to control this dose and therefore to optimise the design and use of x-ray imaging systems. A key stage in this process is the standardisation of the procedures for dose measurement in the clinic. The Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section of the IAEA has a number of activities to further advance the standards for x-ray diagnostics. One of these activities is the coordination of a working group to develop a code of practice, which will facilitate the IAEA calibration activities, TLD intercomparisons and audits, educational activities, and technical assistance to Member States. The code of practice will aid in the standardisation of various dosimetric techniques in x-ray diagnostic radiology. The CoP working group has had an initial meeting to review the current status of dosimetry for conventional radiology, fluoroscopy, mammography, computed tomography and dental radiology. The CoP will include the establishment of standards and calibrations at the SSDLs, phantom and patient measurements and procedures for dosimetry in the clinic. (author)

  9. International dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Boris Kidric Institute at Vinca (Yugoslavia) (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Furet, J.; Baillet, J.; Donvez, G.; Duchene, J.; Gras, R.; Mercier, R.; Chenouard, J.; Lecomte, J.

    1961-01-01

    On the occasion of the international dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Yugoslavian Atomic Energy Centre at Vinca, the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique had agreed to prepare the measurement and security equipment and see to the manipulation of the heavy water, and in addition was responsible for the operation and the starting up of the pile during the experiment. The measurement and security apparatus, developed at Saclay and installed on the pile for low and high pressure runs, is listed, together with the safety equipment added near the control room. The various operations and manipulations carried out on the pile are described: filling with heavy water, starting up, determination of the critical level, testing the efficiency of the rods, operating the pile during the experiments. By operating to a carefully planned schedule, the experiments were, finished before the date fixed by the International Atomic Agency. (authors) [fr

  10. INDOSE V2.1.1, Internal Dosimetry Code Using Biokinetics Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Ido

    2002-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: InDose is an internal dosimetry code developed to enable dose estimations using the new biokinetic models (presented in ICRP-56 to ICRP71) as well as the old ones. The code is written in FORTRAN90 and uses the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model and the ICRP-30 gastrointestinal tract model as well as the new and old biokinetic models. The code has been written in such a way that the user is able to change any of the parameters of any one of the models without recompiling the code. All the parameters are given in well annotated parameters files that the user may change and the code reads during invocation. As default, these files contains the values listed in ICRP publications. The full InDose code is planed to have three parts: 1) the main part includes the uptake and systemic models and is used to calculate the activities in the body tissues and excretion as a function of time for a given intake. 2) An optimization module for automatic estimation of the intake for a specific exposure case. 3) A module to calculate the dose due to the estimated intake. Currently, the code is able to perform only its main task (part 1) while the other two have to be done externally using other tools. In the future we would like to add these modules in order to provide a complete solution for the people in the laboratory. The code has been tested extensively to verify the accuracy of its results. The verification procedure was divided into three parts: 1) verification of the implementation of each model, 2) verification of the integrity of the whole code, and 3) usability test. The first two parts consisted of comparing results obtained with InDose to published results for the same cases. For example ICRP-78 monitoring data. The last part consisted of participating in the 3. EIE-IDA and assessing some of the scenarios provided in this exercise. These tests where presented in a few publications. It has been found that there is very good agreement

  11. Intrinsic sensitivity calculation for a large number of LiF(Mg, Cu, P) detectors; Determinazione della sensibilita` intrinseca di un numero elevato di dosimetri personali di LiF (Mg, Cu, P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argazzi, E; Baldassarre, G; De Maio, U; Fantuzzi, E; Monteventi, F; Uleri, G [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    At the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) Personal Dosimetry Service it was decided to substitute the X and gamma dosimetry system based on BeO detectors in use since 10 years ago, with new dosimeters based on the new thermoluminescence material LiF(Mg,Cu,P). This report describes the procedures through which intrinsic sensitivity of a couple of TL detectors, which constitutes a card dosemeter, is determined. The intrinsic sensitivity archive allows to calculate the value of dose applying a specific correction factor for the systematic sensitivity, difference among the 60000 detectors used at the Service, therefore reducing the final uncertainty. The characterization of 60000 TL detectors has been possible only relying on a specific procedure and an information system. The irradiation and reading procedure allowed to take into account all the various uncertainty sources on TL readings and to carry out only one reading for almost all detectors. It could get through this aim using a reference group of dosimeters, characterized with an accuracy of 3%, to check each uncertainty parameter. Data acquisition and intrinsic sensitivity calculation have been carried out through an interactive procedure based on a personal computer connected with the reading instrument.

  12. The evidence base for the use of internal dosimetry in the clinical practice of molecular radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Lidia [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Rome (Italy); Konijnenberg, Mark [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chiesa, Carlo [Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Bardies, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM / Universite Paul Sabatier, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Du, Yong [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, Sutton, London (United Kingdom); Gleisner, Katarina Sjoegreen [Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Lassmann, Michael [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Flux, Glenn [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Joint Department of Physics, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Molecular radiotherapy (MRT) has demonstrated unique therapeutic advantages in the treatment of an increasing number of cancers. As with other treatment modalities, there is related toxicity to a number of organs at risk. Despite the large number of clinical trials over the past several decades, considerable uncertainties still remain regarding the optimization of this therapeutic approach and one of the vital issues to be answered is whether an absorbed radiation dose-response exists that could be used to guide personalized treatment. There are only limited and sporadic data investigating MRT dosimetry. The determination of dose-effect relationships for MRT has yet to be the explicit aim of a clinical trial. The aim of this article was to collate and discuss the available evidence for an absorbed radiation dose-effect relationships in MRT through a review of published data. Based on a PubMed search, 92 papers were found. Out of 79 studies investigating dosimetry, an absorbed dose-effect correlation was found in 48. The application of radiobiological modelling to clinical data is of increasing importance and the limited published data on absorbed dose-effect relationships based on these models are also reviewed. Based on National Cancer Institute guideline definition, the studies had a moderate or low rate of clinical relevance due to the limited number of studies investigating overall survival and absorbed dose. Nevertheless, the evidence strongly implies a correlation between the absorbed doses delivered and the response and toxicity, indicating that dosimetry-based personalized treatments would improve outcome and increase survival. (orig.)

  13. Calibration of a whole body counter and 'In Vivo' measurements for internal dosimetry evaluation in Chile, two years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinones O, Osvaldo; Sanhueza M, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    In Chile the internal Dosimetry evaluation have been doing for more than 20 years ago by 'in vitro' measurements, however the 'in vivo' measurements just have available for 2 years due to the installation, calibration and completion of a Whole Body Counter. The Whole Body Counter of the CCHEN, corresponds to the shielded room type (4.2 x 3.3 x 2.0 m), is located in the second subterranean of the North Wing of the building of Laboratories of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Santiago City, (3 meters under the ground). It is composed by 12 cm thickness walls of concrete, then successive layers of 2 mm of thickness with: lead, cadmium and copper, 1 cm of acrylic and finally 2 mm of wood. The measurement system is composed by: 2 detectors of NaI (Tl) of 8 x 3 inches (BICRON) that operate to 800 volts (+) and allow the detection of gamma emitters of high energy (>100 keV). It has the possibility of measurement fixes (thyroid) and route (whole body) using for it a pneumatic system that allows the displacement of the detectors on a central axis. It has two positions of location of the detectors, one of 90 degrees with respect to the central axis when the system is in rest or entrance retirement of patient and one of 45 degrees approximately when the measurement is made. For the calibration, two simulators were used: Thyroid simulator from the IRD (Brazil), and Whole Body, BOMAB simulator ( 133 Ba, 137 Cs and 60 Co) from the IAEA. 10 measurements of 300 seconds each one per geometry and different detector-patient distances were done: 20.0; 25.0; 30.0; 37.7 and 101.1 cm (considering high level incorporations). For the analysis of spectrum, software 'Genie 2000' and for the calculation of dose, program 'AIDE' obtained through ARCAL RLA/9/049 'Harmonization of Procedures of Internal Dosimetry', were used. To date, 300 measurements have been made and the results were used for the evaluation of the internal Dosimetry of the Professional Exposed Workers (PEW), but also to improve

  14. Experience of the new service of dosimetry internal by Bio elimination of Tecnatom; Experiencia del nuevo servicio de dosimetria interna por bioeliminacion de Tecnatom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, T.; Navas Menchen, C.; Campos Mendia, J.

    2012-07-01

    Internal dosimetry is of particular relevance for occupationally exposed workers in the field of nuclear decommissioning and radioactive facilities. The tasks to be performed at these facilities involve an increase in the risk of incorporation of radioactive material into the body, the radioactive waste generated diverse in nature and involve work that may lead to a greater dispersion of radioactive material.

  15. Internal exposure to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats. Pt. 1. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy; Kaprin, Andrey; Galkin, Vsevolod; Ivanov, Sergey; Kolyzhenkov, Timofey; Petukhov, Aleksey; Yaskova, Elena; Belukha, Irina; Khailov, Artem; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Akhmedova, Umukusum; Bogacheva, Viktoria [Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC) named after A.F. Tsyb - National Medical Research Radiological Center of the Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Dyussupov, Altay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Uzbekov, Darkhan; Saimova, Aisulu; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Kairkhanova, Yankar [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Otani, Keiko; Endo, Satoru; Satoh, Kenichi; Kawano, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Sakaguchi, Aya; Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyoda, Shin [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Skakov, Mazhin; Vurim, Alexandr; Gnyrya, Vyacheslav; Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Kasym [Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-15

    There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al, {sup 31}Si, {sup 32}P, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 42}K, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 134}Cs. The radionuclide {sup 56}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to {sup 56}Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured {sup 56}Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of

  16. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity.

  17. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. Results With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. PMID:25741101

  18. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  19. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, Viriato, E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  20. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  1. French experience in the field of internal dosimetry assessment at a nuclear workplace. Methods and results on industrial uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rannou, A.; Pihet, P.; Dewez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of the new ICRP recommendations and the diversity of industrial exposure materials make it necessary to modify our approach of assessing internal dosimetry. This paper describes a methodology developed to asses different parameters such as activity concentration and particle size distribution at the workplace; physico-chemical characteristics of industrial dust handled; and in vitro and in vivo solubility in order to determine the absorption rate blood. The determination of such specific parameters will lead to dose calculation in terms of committed effective Dose Per Unit of Intake (DPUI). Results obtained for an industrial uranium dioxide, UO 2 , at a French nuclear facility are presented. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements): Its contribution to dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Zoetelief, J.; Menzel, H. G.; Paretzke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements was created to develop a coherent system of quantities and units, universally accepted in all fields where ionizing radiation is used. Although the accuracy of dose or kerma may be low for most radiological applications, the quantity which is measured must be clearly specified. Radiological dosimetry instruments are generally calibrated free-in-air in terms of air kerma. However, to estimate the probability of harm at low dose, the mean absorbed dose for organs is used. In contrast, at high doses, the likelihood of harm is related to the absorbed dose at the site receiving the highest dose. Therefore, to assess the risk of deterministic and stochastic effects, a detailed knowledge of absorbed dose distribution, organ doses, patient age and gender is required. For interventional radiology, where the avoidance of deterministic effects becomes important, dose conversion coefficients are generally not yet developed. (authors)

  3. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  4. Participation of IRD/CNEN-Br in International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at Silene reactor, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da

    1996-01-01

    IRD has participated in an International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE reactor, France on June 1993. The dosemeters were irradiated on phantoms and free in air, in bare and lead shield reactor pulses, simulating different irradiation fields that can be found in criticality accidents. Comparing with the reference measurements, the calculated mean neutron kerma found by IRD was only 2% greater for lead shield and 14% greater for bare reactor. For gamma absorbed dose, the differences were, respectively + 22% and -9% for the dosemeters free in air and -19% and -9% for dosemeters on phantoms. IRD results are closer to the real values than the mean values measured by the participants. IRD results show a good performance if its simple criticality accident system. (author)

  5. The ENEA criticality accident dosimetry system: a contribution to the 2002 international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F

    2004-01-01

    The present paper summarises the activity carried out at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute for updating the methodologies employed for the evaluation of the neutron and photon dose to the exposed workers in case of a criticality accident, in the framework of the 'International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems' (Silène reactor, IRSN-CEA-Valduc June 2002). The evaluation of the neutron spectra and the neutron dosimetric quantities relies on activation detectors and on unfolding algorithms. Thermoluminescent detectors are employed for the gamma dose measurement. The work is aimed at accurately characterising the measurement system and, at the same time, testing the algorithms. Useful spectral information were included, based on Monte Carlo simulations, to take into account the potential accident scenarios of practical interest. All along this exercise intercomparison a particular attention was devoted to the 'traceability' of all the experimental and computational parameters and therefore, aimed at an easy treatment by the user.

  6. Integral test of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File with Li{sub 2}O assembly and DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi, E-mail: sato.satoshi92@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kwon, Saerom; Ohta, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan); Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    In order to validate a new library of dosimetry cross section data, International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File release 1.0 (IRDFF 1.0), not only for DT neutrons but also for neutrons with energy of less than 14 MeV, we perform an integral test with a Li{sub 2}O rectangular assembly of 60.7 cm in thickness and a DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS. We place a lot of activation foils at depths of 10.1 cm and 30.4 cm for measurements of dosimetry reaction rates in small space along the central axis in the assembly, measure decay gamma-rays from the activation foils with high-purity Ge detectors after the DT neutron irradiation by the foil activation technique, and deduce a variety of dosimetry reaction rates. We calculate the reaction rates by using a Monte Carlo code MCNP5-1.40 and the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1 with the IRDFF-v.1.05 as the response functions for the dosimetry reactions. The calculation results generally show good agreements with the measured ones, and it can be confirmed that most of the data in IRDFF-v.1.05 are valid for the neutron field in the Li{sub 2}O assembly with the DT neutrons.

  7. Dinamika Kerukunan Intern Umat Islam Dalam Relasi Etnisitas Dan Agama Di Kalteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAgama Islam dianut oleh sebagian besar penduduk Kalimantan Tengah yang terdiri dari berbagai etnis seperti Dayak, Banjar, Jawa, Madura, dan lainnya. Penelitian ini mengkaji dinamika hubungan intern umat Islam dalam konteks relasi etnisitas dan agama di Kalimantan Tengah. Permasalahannya adalah bagaimana dinamika hubungan inten umat Islam, faktor pendukung kerukunan, dan strategi adaptasi membangun harmoni di Kalimanta Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan kualitatif dimana pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara, observasi, Focus Group Discussion (FGD, dan telaah dokumen. Hubungan intern umat Islam di Kalimantan Tengah diwarnai dengan tanggapan terhadap konflik etnistahun 2001 antara Etnis Dayak dan Madura. Faktor yang mendukung kerukunan yang tercapai saat ini antara lain adanya daya tawar budaya, simbiosisme ekonomi, peran tokoh masyarakat, dan peran pemerintah. Adapun strategi adaptasi yang dilakukan untuk memelihara harmoni dilakukan secara kultural dengan revitalisasidan akulturasi budaya dan nilai-nilai lokal, serta secara struktural dengan politik uniformitas baik yang dilakukan oleh pranata Adat Dayak maupun pemerintah Kalimantan Tengah.Kata kunci: Kerukunan, Budaya Dominan, Politik Uniformitas, Strategi Adaptasi AbstractIslam is professed by the majority of people in Central Kalimantan who consists of various ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Banjar, Javanese, Madurese, and others. This study discusses about the dynamics of internal relationship among Muslim in the context of the relationship of ethnicity and religion in Central Kalimantan. The problems are how the dynamics of the internal relationship amongst Muslims in CentralKalimantan and what factors are supporting to the reconciliation and adaptation strategies to build harmony amongst them. This research was carried out with the qualitative approach in which data were collected through interviews, observation, Focus Group

  8. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  9. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  10. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  12. Pengaruh Pemasaran Internal dan Kualitas Layanan Internal Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Internal (Studi Pada Industri Kepariwisataan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    Jumadi Jumadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the implication of internal marketing and internal service quality effectivity towards internal customer satisfaction in Tourism Industry in Yogyakarta Special Territory. This internal marketing studyinvolves variables of motivation and reward system, effective communication, effective employee's selection, effective recruitment, effective development, effective support system, and healthy work environment. While the internal quality service aspects ...

  13. Results of the regional intercomparison on internal dosimetry – 2013: Interpretation of monitoring data for effective dose assessment due to internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Puerta, N.; Gossio, S.; Gómez Parada, I.

    2015-01-01

    Internal dosimetry intercomparisons are essential for the verification of the models applied and the results consistency. To that aim, the 1. Regional Intercomparison Exercise was organized in 2005 in the frame of the RLA 9/049. The results of this exercise led to the 2. Regional Intercomparison Exercise in 2013, which was organized in the frame of the RLA 9/066 and coordinated by Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) of Argentina. Four simulated cases covering intakes of “1”3”1I, “1”3”7Cs and Tritium were proposed. The exercise counted with the participation of 19 centres from 13 countries. This report shows a complete analysis of the participant’s results in this 2nd. exercise, useful to test their skills and acquired knowledge, particularly in applying the IDEAS guidelines. It is important to highlight the improvement in the general performance of the participants. (authors) [es

  14. Internal dosimetry through GATE simulations of preclinical radiotherapy using a melanin-targeting ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, Y; Donnarieix, D; Maigne, L; Degoul, F; Auzeloux, P; Bonnet, M; Cachin, F; Chezal, J M; Labarre, P; Moins, N; Papon, J; Rbah-Vidal, L; Vidal, A; Miot-Noirault, E

    2014-01-01

    The GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the Geant4 toolkit is under constant improvement for dosimetric calculations. In this study, we explore its use for the dosimetry of the preclinical targeted radiotherapy of melanoma using a new specific melanin-targeting radiotracer labeled with iodine 131. Calculated absorbed fractions and S values for spheres and murine models (digital and CT-scan-based mouse phantoms) are compared between GATE and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes considering monoenergetic electrons and the detailed energy spectrum of iodine 131. The behavior of Geant4 standard and low energy models is also tested. Following the different authors’ guidelines concerning the parameterization of electron physics models, this study demonstrates an agreement of 1.2% and 1.5% with EGSnrc, respectively, for the calculation of S values for small spheres and mouse phantoms. S values calculated with GATE are then used to compute the dose distribution in organs of interest using the activity distribution in mouse phantoms. This study gives the dosimetric data required for the translation of the new treatment to the clinic. (paper)

  15. BUDAYA TRI HITA KARANA SEBAGAI PEMODERASI PENGARUH KOMPLEKSITAS TUGAS TERHADAP KINERJA INTERNAL AUDITOR (Studi Pada Kantor Inspektorat di Provinsi Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Pradana Adiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh kompleksitas tugas terhadap kinerja internal auditor  dengan budaya Tri Hita Karana sebagai  variabel moderating  di Kantor Inspektorat di Provinsi Bali. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh auditor di 6 (enam Kantor Inspektorat di Bali (Klungkung, Karangasem, Gianyar, Bangli, Buleleng dan Badung. Teknik sampling yang digunakan purposive sampling dengan kriteria tertentu, yaitu kerja internal auditor minimal 1 tahun. Desain penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survei dengan menyebarkan kuesioner. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda dan moderated regression analysis. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh kompleksitas tugas terhadap kinerja internal auditor dan moderasi tri hita karana pada kompleksitas tugas berpengaruh terhadap kinerja internal auditor pada Kantor Inspektorat di Provinsi Bali This study aimed to examine the effect of task complexity on the performance of the internal auditor with Tri Hita Karana culture as a moderating variable in the Office of the Inspectorate in Bali Province. The study population was all auditors in 6 (six Office Inspectorate in Bali (Klungkung, Karangasem, Gianyar, Bangli, Buleleng and Badung. The sampling technique used purposive sampling to certain criteria, namely the internal auditor's work a minimum of 1 year. The research design used in this study is a survey method by distributing questionnaires. Analysis of data using multiple linear regression and moderated regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that there are significant task complexity on the performance of the internal auditors and the moderation of Tri Hita Karana on the complexity of the task affect the performance of the internal auditor in the Office of the Inspectorate in Bali Province

  16. PENENTU JUMLAH INTERNAL CONTROL COMPLIANCE COMMENT DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KUALITAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshia Christian

    2015-11-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah dan pengaruhnya terhadap kualitas laporan keuangan di Indonesia. Penelitian mengembangkan suatu model statistik untuk melaporkan komentar dalam sistem pengendalian internal dan kepatuhan (ICCC yang dikeluarkan oleh Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK-RI berdasarkan audit pemerintah daerah di Indonesia dan menggunakan 454 sampel pemerintah daerah tahun 2011. Penelitian ini menggunakan data softcopy laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah yang diperoleh dari BPK dan media publikasi lainnya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis regresi berganda untuk menguji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah dan binary logistic regression untuk menguji pengaruh antara jumlah ICCC dengan kualitas laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah satu tahun setelahnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa opini wajar tanpa pengecualian, peringkat kinerja pemerintah daerah, dan latarbelakang pendidikan auditor berpengaruh terhadap jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah sementara ukuran pemerintah daerah, kapabilitas APIP dan sertifikasi profesi auditor tidak memiliki pengaruh. Penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa jumlah ICCC yang diterima pemerintah daerah berpengaruh negatif terhadap kualitas laporan keuangan pemerintah daerah satu tahun setelahnya. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pemerintah daerah belum mampu melaksanakan rekomendasi auditor dengan baik.

  17. Il sistema monetario internazionale negli anni settanta: regime dei tassi di cambio e creazione di liquidità. (Liquidity creation and risk in the international monetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L' articolo esamina il funzionamento del sistema finanziario attuale, segnalando la sua funzione più importante , vale a dire l'offerta di liquidità e il suo impatto sulla vasta gamma di variabili finanziarie internazionali. Liquidità e rischio sono concetti strettamente correlati. Come Keynes e Hicks hanno insegnato , una definizione significativa di liquidità non può essere data senza fare riferimento al rischio. L'autore fornisce alcune considerazioni per aiutare a far luce sulle azioni politiche che potrebbero essere necessarie per mitigare i problemi e le difficoltà connesse con l'attuale impostazione monetaria internazionale .The article looks at how the present financial system works, signalling out its most crucial function, namely the provision of liquidity and its impact on the broad spectrum of international financial variables. Liquidity and risk are closely interrelated concepts. As Keynes and Hicks taught, a meaningful definition of liquidity cannot be given without reference to risk itself. The author provides some considerations to help shed light on the policy actions that may be required to mitigate the problems and difficulties associated with the current international monetary setting. JEL: G15, F30, E42

  18. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  19. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu

    2010-04-07

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  20. Personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry for the planning and evaluation of internal radiotherapy treatments: development and application to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitguillaume, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Medical techniques in full expansion arousing high therapeutic expectations, targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) consist of administering a radiopharmaceutical to selectively treat tumors. Nowadays, the activity injected to the patient is generally standardized. However, in order to establish robust dose-effect relationships and to optimize treatments while sparing healthy tissues at best, a personalized dosimetry must be performed, just like actual clinical practice in external beam radiotherapy. In that context, this PhD main objective was to develop, using the OEDIPE software, a methodology for personalized dosimetry based on direct Monte Carlo calculations. The developed method enables to calculate the tridimensional distribution of absorbed doses depending on the patient anatomy, defined from CT or MRI data, and on the patient-specific activity biodistribution, defined from SPECT or PET data. Radiobiological aspects, such as differences in radiosensitivities and repair time constants between tumoral and healthy tissues, have also been integrated through the linear-quadratic model. This methodology has been applied to the selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) which consists in the injection of 90 Y-microspheres to selectively treat unresectable hepatic cancers. Distributions of absorbed doses and biologically effective doses (BED) along with the equivalent uniform biologically effective doses (EUD) to hepatic lesions have been calculated from 99m Tc-MAA activity distributions obtained during the evaluation step for 18 patients treated at Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou. Those results have been compared to classical methods used in clinics and the interest of accurate and personalized dosimetry for treatment planning has been investigated. On the one hand, the possibility to increase the activity in a personalized way has been highlighted with the calculation of the maximal activity that could be injected to the patient while meeting tolerance criteria

  1. Pengaruh Pemasaran Internal dan Kualitas Layanan Internal Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Internal (Studi Pada Industri Kepariwisataan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi Jumadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the implication of internal marketing and internal service quality effectivity towards internal customer satisfaction in Tourism Industry in Yogyakarta Special Territory. This internal marketing studyinvolves variables of motivation and reward system, effective communication, effective employee's selection, effective recruitment, effective development, effective support system, and healthy work environment. While the internal quality service aspects that will be examined in this study are: tangible, emphaty, responsiveness, reliability and assurance, and then their influences on internal customer satisfaction would be analyzed.The sample size is 210 respondents,which is determined using purposive sampling method. The main instrument for data collection in this study is through questionnaire. The analysis tool used to examine the hypothesis of the study is Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS Version 20.0 Software. The result of the study shows that: Internal marketing and internal quality service significantly influence internal customers satisfation. However, the internal quality service influence the internal customers satisfaction more significantly. Therefore the managers in tourism industry should improve the internal marketing more than the internal quality service.

  2. Study of nuclear medicine practices in Portugal from an internal dosimetry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.; Teles, P.; Neves, M.; Santos, A. I.; Cardoso, G.; Barreto, A.; Alves, F.; Guerreiro, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Santos, J. A. M.; Capelo, C.; Parafita, R.; Martins, B.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine practices involve the handling of a wide range of pharmaceuticals labelled with different radionuclides, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This work intends to evaluate the potential risks of internal contamination of nuclear medicine staff in several Portuguese nuclear medicine services and to conclude about the requirement of a routine internal monitoring. A methodology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), providing a set of criteria to determine the need, or not, for an internal monitoring programme, was applied. The evaluation of the risk of internal contaminations in a given set of working conditions is based on the type and amount of radionuclides being handled, as well as the safety conditions with which they are manipulated. The application of the IAEA criteria showed that 73.1 % of all the workers included in this study should be integrated in a routine monitoring programme for internal contaminations; more specifically, 100 % of workers performing radioimmunoassay techniques should be monitored. This study suggests that a routine monitoring programme for internal exposures should be implemented in Portugal for most nuclear medicine workers. (authors)

  3. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  4. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A.; Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling 18 F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by 40 K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  5. Internal dosimetry from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, R.B.P.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1988-01-01

    The internal dose from IPEN workers involved in the medical radioisotopes products is related. In the workers population, six groups were classified: development and research, routine production, quality control, package, radioprotection supervision and maintenance. The internal doses were calculated according to the methodology described by the ICRP-30, using resuls from a whole-body counter. The results described were obtained from 970 whole-body radioactivity measurements during the last three years (1985 a 1987). (author) [pt

  6. SU-E-T-507: Internal Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Using GATE and XCAT Phantom: A Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Monte Carlo simulations are routinely used for internal dosimetry studies. These studies are conducted with humanoid phantoms such as the XCAT phantom. In this abstract we present the absorbed doses for various pairs of source and target organs using three common radiotracers in nuclear medicine. Methods The GATE software package is used for the Monte Carlo simulations. A typical female XCAT phantom is used as the input. Three radiotracers 153Sm, 131I and 99mTc are studied. The Specific Absorbed Fraction (SAF) for gamma rays (99mTc, 153Sm and 131I) and Specific Fraction (SF) for beta particles (153Sm and 131I) are calculated for all 100 pairs of source target organs including brain, liver, lung, pancreas, kidney, adrenal, spleen, rib bone, bladder and ovaries. Results The source organs themselves gain the highest absorbed dose as compared to other organs. The dose is found to be inversely proportional to distance from the source organ. In SAF results of 153Sm, when the source organ is lung, the rib bone, gain 0.0730 (Kg-1) that is more than lung itself. Conclusion The absorbed dose for various organs was studied in terms of SAF and SF. Such studies hold importance for future therapeutic procedures and optimization of induced radiotracer.

  7. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurny, F.; Yukihara, E. G.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory of Microbiology at SCK.CEN, in collaboration with different universities, participates in several ESA programmes with bacterial experiments that are carried out in the International Space Station (ISS). The main objective of these programmes is to study the effects of space flight conditions such as microgravity and cosmic radiation on the general behaviour of model bacteria. To measure the radiation doses received by the bacteria, different detectors accompanied the microbiological experiments. The results obtained during two space flight missions are discussed. This dosimetry experiment was a collaboration between different institutes so that the doses could be estimated by different techniques. For measurement of the high linear energy transfer (LET) doses (>10 keV μm -1 ), two types of etched track detectors were used. The low LET part of the spectrum was measured by three types of thermoluminescent detectors ( 7 LiF:Mg,Ti; 7 LiF:Mg,Cu,P; Al 2 O 3 :C) and by the optically stimulated luminescence technique using Al 2 O 3 :C detectors. (authors)

  9. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  10. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States); Lee, Choonsik, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    -averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented internal dosimetry software.

  11. Method validation to measure Strontium-90 in urine sample for internal dosimetry assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Maghrabi, M.; Alhamwi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occupational individuals exposed at some scientific centers in Syrian Arab Republic to potentially significant intake by ingestion or inhalation during process of producing radiopharmaceutical compounds. The received radioactive intake differs in relation to the amount of radionuclides released during the preparation processes, to the work conditions and to the applying ways of the radiation protection procedures. TLD (Thermoluminescence Dosimeter) is usually used for external radiation monitoring for workers in radioisotope centers. During the external monitoring programme, it was noticed that some workers were exposed to high external dose resultant from radiation accident in their laboratory when preparing Y-90 from Sr-90. For internal dose assessment, chemical method to measure the amount of Sr-90 in urine samples was validated and explained in details in this study. Urine bioassays were carried out and the activities of 90 Sr were determined using liquid scintillation counter. Then, the validated method was used for internal occupational monitoring purposes through the design of internal monitoring programme. The programme was established for four workers who are dealing, twice per month, with an amount of about 20 mCi in each time. At the beginning, theoretical study was done to assess maximum risks for workers. Calculated internal doses showed that it is necessary to apply internal routine monitoring programme for those workers. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the V. international symposium 'Actual problems of dosimetry'; Materialy V mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus); Shevchuk, V E [Komitet po problemam posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl' skoj AEhS pri Sovete Ministrov Respubliki Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-10-01

    The main topics of the workshop were: monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects as well as normative, metrological and technical aspects of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring.

  13. Absorbed dose determination in external beam radiotherapy. An international code of practice for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1987 an International Code of Practice entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS-277)), recommending procedures to obtain the absorbed dose in water from measurements made with an ionization chamber in external beam radiotherapy. A second edition of TRS-277 was published in 1997 updating the dosimetry of photon beams, mainly kilovoltage X rays. Another International Code of Practice for radiotherapy dosimetry entitled 'The Use of Plane-Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381 (TRS-381)) was published in 1997 to further update TRS-277 and complement it with respect to the area of parallel-plate ionization chambers. Both codes have proven extremely valuable for users involved in the dosimetry of the radiation beams used in radiotherapy. In TRS-277 the calibration of the ionization chambers was based on primary standards of air kerma; this procedure was also used in TRS-381, but the new trend of calibrating ionization chambers directly in a water phantom in terms of absorbed dose to water was introduced. The development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water for high energy photon and electron beams, and improvements in radiation dosimetry concepts, offer the possibility of reducing the uncertainty in the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams. The dosimetry of kilovoltage X rays, as well as that of proton and heavy ion beams, interest in which has grown considerably in recent years, can also be based on these standards. Thus a coherent dosimetry system based on standards of absorbed dose to water is possible for practically all radiotherapy beams. Many Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (PSDLs) already provide calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water at the radiation quality of 60 Co gamma rays. Some laboratories have extended calibrations to high energy photon and

  14. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  15. Proceedings of the Department of Energy workshop on radiobioassay and internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Individual papers from this workshop are processed separately for the Energy Data Bases. Topics include the application of radiobioassay to the problems of determining radiation exposure from internal sources, discussions of the effects of current and future regulations on the role of the health physicist, and the design and use of phantoms

  16. The programme of work on committee 2 of ICRP on internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Committee 2 of ICRP has the responsibility for establishing secondary standards based on the Commission's recommended dose limits. The Committee has an extensive programme of work related to internally incorporated radionuclides which was reviewed at its September, 1997 meeting in Oxford, England. It is summarized below. (author)

  17. Summary report of consultants' meeting to review the requirements to improve and extend the IRDF library (International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Nichols, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Presentations, recommendations and conclusions of a Consultants' Meeting to 'Review the Requirements to Improve and Extend the IRDF library (International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002))' are summarized is this report. The main aims of this meeting were to discuss scientific and technical matters related to reactor dosimetry and to consider the needs for improvements to the existing data in IRDF-2002 and possible extensions to other higher neutron energy applications. Specific tasks were assigned and deadlines agreed. The requirements for fusion studies are particularly challenging (up to 60 MeV) and should include adequate covariance data - the provision of these neutron cross sections will require additional effort and assessment prior to initiating any work programme, and specific participants agreed to undertake preliminary exercises. (author)

  18. Arrangement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization concerning the establishment and operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), recognizing that they have been co-operating in the operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (the Network), established pursuant to a Working Arrangement, dated 5 April 1976; and desiring to continue this co-operation in accordance with Article V of the relationship agreement concluded by IAEA and WHO in 1959; hereby enter a new arrangement to guide their work in operating the Network and providing assistance, when needed, to individual Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The purpose of this Arrangement is to set forth responsibilities of IAEA and WHO in the operation and support of the Network and to establish criteria for SSDLs

  19. Radiation dosimetry with plane-parallel ionization chambers: An international (IAEA) code of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1996-01-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA Code of Practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has expanded our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber dosimeter, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different national organizations have published, or are in the process of publishing, recommendations on detailed procedures for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspices of the IAEA, first to assess the status and validity of IAEA TRS-277, and second to develop an international Code of Practice for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron and photon beams. The purpose of this work is to describe the forthcoming Code of Practice. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Radiation dosimetry with plane-parallel ionization chambers: An international (IAEA) code of practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreo, P [Lunds Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Radiophysics Dept.; Almond, P R [J.G. Brown Cancer Center, Univ. of Lousville, Lousville, KY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mattsson, O [Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Nahum, A E [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom). Joint Dept. of Physics; Roos, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA Code of Practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has expanded our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber dosimeter, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different national organizations have published, or are in the process of publishing, recommendations on detailed procedures for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspices of the IAEA, first to assess the status and validity of IAEA TRS-277, and second to develop an international Code of Practice for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron and photon beams. The purpose of this work is to describe the forthcoming Code of Practice. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Development of a mathematic phantom for a child with 10 years age for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of this research are:1) develop the mathematic phantom project of a child with 10 years age and 2) use this phanton as calculation base of specific absorbed fractions in internal organs and in skeleton due to the radionuclides more used in nuclear medicine. The forescasting of specific absorbed fractions obtainment by the use of this phantom are compared with a more simple model, and the differences are also discussed. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. Modernization of Cross Section Library for VVER-1000 Type Reactors Internals and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloschenko Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad-group library BGL1000_B7 for neutron and gamma transport calculations in VVER-1000 internals, RPV and shielding was carried out on a base of fine-group library v7-200n47g from SCALE-6 system. The comparison of the library BGL1000_B7 with the library v7-200n47g and the library BGL1000 (the latter is using for VVER-1000 calculations is demonstrated on several calculation and experimental tests.

  3. Intercalibration of radiological measurements for surveillance purposes of the internal dosimetry laboratory coordinated by the IAEA; Intercalibracion de mediciones radiologicas para fines de vigilancia del laboratorio de dosimetria interna coordinada por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-07-15

    The ININ of Mexico participated in this intercomparison organized by the IAEA in 2000. The objective of this activity is that the dosimetry laboratories that participate can validate the programs of internal dosimetry, with the purpose of improving its capacity in the evaluation of the internal dose and have access to a mechanism to evaluate its dosimetry system under real conditions. The specific objectives of this intercomparison were: 1. To evaluate the participant's capacity to manage the measurements of individual monitoring in terms of the activity in the phantom. 2. To provide the access to the unique calibration resources that otherwise would not be available. 3. To compare the operation of several detection systems, the geometry, phantoms, calibration methods and methods for the evaluation of activity of the radionuclide used by each institution. 4. To provide the independent verification of the direct measurement methods of the dosimetry service. (Author)

  4. Internal dosimetry for [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cesar, Thais B., E-mail: tcesar@fcfar.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCF/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao; Vinagre, Carmen G.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InCor/HCFMUSP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto do Coracao

    2011-07-01

    This study proposes a biokinetic model for use in the assessment of the internal dose received by human subjects administered orally with [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol. The proposed model includes three systemic pools representing the short-term (T1/2 = 1 d), intermediate-term (T1/2 = 16 d) and long-term (T1/2 = 78 d) physiological exchanges and two excretion pathways: urine and feces. This model used the ANACOMP software to estimate radiometric doses with MIRD techniques (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). To validate the model, the profile curve of excretion prediction by the model in the range of seven days was compared with those curves described in literature. No statistical difference was detected (P = 0.416). The estimated effective dose coefficient calculated for the reference man described on ICRP publication 23 was 3.39x10{sup -10} SvBq{sup -1}. The organs that received the highest equivalent dose were the lower large intestine (2.459x10{sup -9} GyBq{sup -1}), upper large intestine (9.023x10{sup -10} GyBq{sup -1}) and small intestine (3.717x10{sup -10} GyBq{sup -1}). (author)

  5. Internal dosimetry for [4-14C]-cholesterol in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Cesar, Thais B.; Vinagre, Carmen G.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a biokinetic model for use in the assessment of the internal dose received by human subjects administered orally with [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. The proposed model includes three systemic pools representing the short-term (T1/2 = 1 d), intermediate-term (T1/2 = 16 d) and long-term (T1/2 = 78 d) physiological exchanges and two excretion pathways: urine and feces. This model used the ANACOMP software to estimate radiometric doses with MIRD techniques (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). To validate the model, the profile curve of excretion prediction by the model in the range of seven days was compared with those curves described in literature. No statistical difference was detected (P = 0.416). The estimated effective dose coefficient calculated for the reference man described on ICRP publication 23 was 3.39x10 -10 SvBq -1 . The organs that received the highest equivalent dose were the lower large intestine (2.459x10 -9 GyBq -1 ), upper large intestine (9.023x10 -10 GyBq -1 ) and small intestine (3.717x10 -10 GyBq -1 ). (author)

  6. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. E-mail: esposito@frascati.enea.it; Bertalot, L.; Maruccia, G.; Petrizzi, L.; Bignan, G.; Blandin, C.; Chauffriat, S.; Lebrun, A.; Recroix, H.; Trapp, J.P.; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-11-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties. The analysis has been carried out using the LSL-M2 code, which optimizes the neutron spectrum by means of a least-squares technique taking into account the variance and covariance files. In the second part of the activity, the possibility of extending to IFMIF the use of existing on-line in-core neutron/gamma monitors (to be located at several positions inside the IFMIF test cell for beam control, safety and diagnostic purposes) has been studied. A feasibility analysis of the modifications required to adapt sub-miniature fission chambers (recently developed by CEA-Cadarache) to the high flux test module of the test cell has been carried out. The verification of this application pertinence and a gross definition of the in-core detector characteristics are described. The option of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) is also discussed.

  7. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part I, parameter uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential in internal dose assessments and radiation risk analysis for the public, occupational workers, and patients exposed to radionuclides. In this paper, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part of the study published here, the uncertainty sources of the model parameters for zirconium (Zr), developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were identified and analyzed. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the biokinetic experimental measurement performed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU) for developing a new biokinetic model of Zr was analyzed according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. The confidence interval and distribution of model parameters of the ICRP and HMGU Zr biokinetic models were evaluated. As a result of computer biokinetic modelings, the mean, standard uncertainty, and confidence interval of model prediction calculated based on the model parameter uncertainty were presented and compared to the plasma clearance and urinary excretion measured after intravenous administration. It was shown that for the most important compartment, the plasma, the uncertainty evaluated for the HMGU model was much smaller than that for the ICRP model; that phenomenon was observed for other organs and tissues as well. The uncertainty of the integral of the radioactivity of Zr up to 50 y calculated by the HMGU model after ingestion by adult members of the public was shown to be smaller by a factor of two than that of the ICRP model. It was also shown that the distribution type of the model parameter strongly influences the model prediction, and the correlation of the model input parameters affects the model prediction to a

  8. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the 131 I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the 131 INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons

  9. Radiation Dosimetry of the Pressure Vessel Internals of the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Norman E.; Reciniello, Richard N.; Hu, Jih-Perng; Rorer, David C.

    2003-06-01

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the Transition Plate, and the Control Rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex™ polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal "peanut" ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rates, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive MicroShield code were used to model the gamma-ray transport and dose buildup.

  10. RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF THE PRESSURE VESSEL INTERNALS OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLDEN, N.E.; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.P.; RORER, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed for the reactor pressure vessel and vessel internal structures which included the upper and lower thermal shields, the transition plate, and the control rod blades. The measurements were made using Red Perspex(trademark) polymethyl methacrylate high-level film dosimeters, a Radcal ''peanut'' ion chamber, and Eberline's high-range ion chamber. To compare with measured gamma-ray dose rate, the Monte Carlo MCNP code and geometric progressive Microshield code were used to model the gamma transport and dose buildup

  11. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  12. Mathematical development of a 10 years old child phantom for use in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, S.F.; Poston, J.W.; Watanabe, S.

    1989-08-01

    The main objectives of this work are: 1) to develop a project of a mathematical phantom representing as far as possible a child of 10 years old and 2)to use this phantom as a base for the specific absorbed fractions (SAF) calculations in the internal organs and skeleton due to the radioisotopes most used in nuclear medicine. This phantom was similar in shape to the Fisher and Snyder one, but several changes were introduced to make the phantom more realistic. Those changes included the addition of a neck region, puting the arms outside the trunk region, changes in the trunk, head and genitalia regions shapes. Several modifications were also done in the skeleton. For instance, the head bones, rib cage, pelvis, vertebral column, scapula, clavicles and the arms and legs bones were made very close to the real anatomic shapes. Some internal organs as the brain, lungs, liver, small and large intestines were also changed as a consenquence of the above modifications. In all those cases, the changes were made not only in the shapes but also in the organs and bones position in such a way to be more representative of the 10 years old anatomic age. Estimates of the SAF obtained by the use of this phantom, resulted, as expected, significantly different from those obtained by the use of a simpler model. In other words, the ratio between the SAF in the organs of the phantom developed in this project and the SAF in the organs of the phantom similar to the adult (obtained by reducing each region of the adult phantom by the use of appropriate factor) vary from 0.37 to 5. Those differences and their meaning are also discussed. (author) [pt

  13. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  14. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  15. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  16. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  17. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of 131I in aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B.

    2014-08-01

    131 I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of 131 I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of 131 I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of 131 I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, 131 I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m 3 . This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m 3 . Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, 131 I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10 -5 mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of 131 I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the

  18. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of {sup 131}I in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes C, L.; Lucena, E. A.; Da Silva S, C.; Almeida D, A. L.; Oliveira S, W.; Souza S, M.; Maranhao D, B., E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    {sup 131}I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of {sup 131}I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of {sup 131}I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of {sup 131}I are handled. Samples were collected over one hour using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, {sup 131}I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4 Bq /m{sup 3}. This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (Dac) of 8.4 kBq/m{sup 3}. Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during one hour, {sup 131}I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6 Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13 x 10{sup -5} mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific

  19. DRDC Ottawa Participation in the SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise. June 10-21, 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prud'homme-Lalonde, L

    2002-01-01

    .... The SILENE International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise at Valduc, France in June 2002 coincided with DRDC Ottawa work designed to refine its proposed criticality dosimetry system...

  20. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S., E-mail: claro@usp.br, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C{ne} programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  1. Internal dosimetry contamination: update of revision of the dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.; Rojo, A.M.; Sanguineti, R.

    1995-01-01

    ICRP publication 60 introduces new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has also issued, in publications 57, 67 y 69, new biokinetic models for selected radionuclides since the issue of publication 30. In publication 66 the new human respiratory tract model for radiological protection is described. The aim of the present paper is to compare values of dose coefficients for workers calculated using the new tissue weighting factors, biokinetic models and lung model with those given in publication 30.The software package LUPED 1.1 was used to calculate dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion. When possible, some changes in the biokinetic models were made trying to incorporate new parameters. The following radionuclides were analysed: 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99m Tc, 131 I, 137 Cs, 239 Pu y 241 Am. Most of the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new assumptions are within a factor of three of those calculated using the ICRP 30 lung and biokinetic models. Generally, the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new respiratory tract model and assuming a 5μm AMAD are lower than those calculated using the ICRP 30 model and parameters. The inhalation dose coefficients are generally within 10-90 % of the corresponding Publication 61 values, the difference tending to increase for relative insoluble compounds. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  2. A computational code for resolution of general compartment models applied to internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Thiago R.; Todo, Alberto S.

    2011-01-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bio analysis and the knowledge of the incorporation time. The biokinetics models can be represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. There are available four different techniques for the resolution of system of differential equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods. The software was developed in C≠ programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved by SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system is in accordance with the values published by ICRP. (author)

  3. THE CHALLENGE OF CIEMAT INTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE FOR ACCREDITATION ACCORDING TO ISO/IEC 17025 STANDARD, FOR IN VIVO AND IN VITRO MONITORING AND DOSE ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL EXPOSURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M A; Martin, R; Hernandez, C; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Sierra, I

    2016-09-01

    The accreditation of an Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) according to ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a challenge. The aim of this process is to guarantee the technical competence for the monitoring of radionuclides incorporated in the body and for the evaluation of the associated committed effective dose E(50). This publication describes the main accreditation issues addressed by CIEMAT IDS regarding all the procedures involving good practice in internal dosimetry, focussing in the difficulties to ensure the traceability in the whole process, the appropriate calculation of detection limit of measurement techniques, the validation of methods (monitoring and dose assessments), the description of all the uncertainty sources and the interpretation of monitoring data to evaluate the intake and the committed effective dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Summary Report of Consultants' Meeting on Improvements and Extensions to IRDF (International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, M.A.; Greenwood, L.R.

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of this Consultants' Meeting was to discuss the appropriate manner for implementing improvements and extensions to the current IRDF-2002 reactor dosimetry library. It was important to assess the applications requiring a dosimetry library, to discuss if a library that would meet the requirements of these varied applications could be produced and, if so, to define an approach for producing such an updated version. This report summarises the presentations and discussions undertaken in order to achieve these goals, followed by the recommendations and conclusions resulting from the meeting. (author)

  5. International dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Boris Kidric Institute at Vinca (Yugoslavia) (1961); Experience internationale de dosimetrie sur la pile de puissance nulle de l'Institut Boris Kidric de Vinca (Yougoslavie) (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J; Furet, J; Baillet, J; Donvez, G; Duchene, J; Gras, R; Mercier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Section Autonome d' Electronique des Reacteurs, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Chenouard, J; Lecomte, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. de Physico - Chimie, Service des Isotopes Stables, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of the international dosimetry experiment on the zero power pile of the Yugoslavian Atomic Energy Centre at Vinca, the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique had agreed to prepare the measurement and security equipment and see to the manipulation of the heavy water, and in addition was responsible for the operation and the starting up of the pile during the experiment. The measurement and security apparatus, developed at Saclay and installed on the pile for low and high pressure runs, is listed, together with the safety equipment added near the control room. The various operations and manipulations carried out on the pile are described: filling with heavy water, starting up, determination of the critical level, testing the efficiency of the rods, operating the pile during the experiments. By operating to a carefully planned schedule, the experiments were, finished before the date fixed by the International Atomic Agency. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre de l'experience internationale de dosimetrie sur la pile de puissance nulle du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires Yougoslave de Vinca, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique avait accepte de preparer l'equipement de controle et de securite, de pourvoir a la manipulation de l'eau lourde de la pile et avait la responsabilite de son fonctionnement et de sa mise en marche pendant l'experience. On enumere ici l'appareillage de controle et de securite installe sur la pile pour les marches a basse et haute puissances, appareillage mis au point a Saclay, ainsi que les protections ajoutees a proximite de la salle de controle. On decrit les differentes manipulations et operations effectuees sur la pile: remplissage d'eau lourde, demarrage, recherche du niveau critique, verification de l'efficacite des barres, conduite de la pile pendant les experiences. Grace a un planning tres serre qui a pu etre tenu, les experiences ont pu etre terminees avant la date prevue par l'Agence Atomique Internationale. (auteurs)

  6. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. The dosimetry programme of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities of the IAEA's Dosimetry Laboratory which provides calibration and comparison services for secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) of Member States. In addition, a joint IAEA/WHO postal dosimetry service has been established for radiotherapy centers. The International Measurement System and the calibration ''chain'' from measurement standard instruments of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM) through the primary and secondary standards to the dosimeters of the users are presented as well

  8. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  9. Characterization of the materials used in the construction of a physical phantom for calibration of {sup 18}F-FDG internal dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Katia D.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Silva, Teógenes A. da, E-mail: katiadvitall@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Laboratory (LDI) of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, is responsible for the routine monitoring of Occupationally Exposed Individuals (OEIs) to {sup 18}F-FDG and other radiopharmaceuticals produced at CDTN. The monitoring system is usually calibrated using a physical head simulator, since {sup 18}F is usually incorporated into the brain at the time of contamination. However, the geometry of the brain is not adequately represented by the latex pocket, which does not fill the entire volume of the volume skull. In this study, the characterization of the materials regarding the composition, density and attenuation coefficient of the materials used in the production of the new physical head simulator was carried out. An equivalent tissue material containing 97% water, 2.5% agar, 0.5% urea and 8 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG was produced, the interior of the skull was filled with the material. After solidification, experimental measurements were performed on the NaI(Tl) 3 {sup x}3{sup s}cintillation detector, the density of the simulant material was determined by the flotation method and the attenuation coefficient of the XCOM database software provided by NIST. It was concluded that the PVC skull has acceptable characteristics to simulate a human skull in {sup 18}F-FDG internal dosimetry. The agar gel was shown to be a stable material capable of modeling different geometries and simulating the incorporation of {sup 18}F-FDG into the brain. (author)

  10. Characterization of the materials used in the construction of a physical phantom for calibration of 18F-FDG internal dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Katia D.; Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Silva, Teógenes A. da

    2017-01-01

    The Internal Dosimetry Laboratory (LDI) of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, is responsible for the routine monitoring of Occupationally Exposed Individuals (OEIs) to 18 F-FDG and other radiopharmaceuticals produced at CDTN. The monitoring system is usually calibrated using a physical head simulator, since 18 F is usually incorporated into the brain at the time of contamination. However, the geometry of the brain is not adequately represented by the latex pocket, which does not fill the entire volume of the volume skull. In this study, the characterization of the materials regarding the composition, density and attenuation coefficient of the materials used in the production of the new physical head simulator was carried out. An equivalent tissue material containing 97% water, 2.5% agar, 0.5% urea and 8 MBq of 18 F-FDG was produced, the interior of the skull was filled with the material. After solidification, experimental measurements were performed on the NaI(Tl) 3 x 3 s cintillation detector, the density of the simulant material was determined by the flotation method and the attenuation coefficient of the XCOM database software provided by NIST. It was concluded that the PVC skull has acceptable characteristics to simulate a human skull in 18 F-FDG internal dosimetry. The agar gel was shown to be a stable material capable of modeling different geometries and simulating the incorporation of 18 F-FDG into the brain. (author)

  11. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-01-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of 131 I-Crtx l31 I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of 131 I-Crtx and 131 I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of 131 I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I-Crtx was 0.01 mGy/370

  12. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik; Bouville, Andre; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana

    2011-01-01

    source region for selected target organs—small intestine wall, lungs, pancreas and breast—as well as illustrate differences in energy deposition across the energy range (12 photon energies from 0.01 to 4 MeV). Differences were found in the SAFs between phantoms in a similar manner as the differences observed in S values but with larger differences at lower photon energies. To investigate the differences observed in the S and SAF values, the chord length distributions (CLDs) were computed for the selected source–target pairs and compared across the phantoms. As demonstrated by the CLDs, we found that the differences between phantoms in those factors used in internal dosimetry were governed to a significant degree by inter-organ distances which are a function of organ shape as well as organ location.

  13. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Bouville, Andre; Simon, Steven L.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Melo, Dunstana; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-11-01

    source region for selected target organs—small intestine wall, lungs, pancreas and breast—as well as illustrate differences in energy deposition across the energy range (12 photon energies from 0.01 to 4 MeV). Differences were found in the SAFs between phantoms in a similar manner as the differences observed in S values but with larger differences at lower photon energies. To investigate the differences observed in the S and SAF values, the chord length distributions (CLDs) were computed for the selected source-target pairs and compared across the phantoms. As demonstrated by the CLDs, we found that the differences between phantoms in those factors used in internal dosimetry were governed to a significant degree by inter-organ distances which are a function of organ shape as well as organ location.

  14. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  15. The use of plane parallel ionization chambers in high energy electron and photon beams. An international code of practice for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA code of practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has explained our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different countries have published, or are in the process of publishing, dosimetry recommendations which include specific procedures for the use of plan parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspieces of the IAEA, first to review the status and the actual validity of the code of practice and second to develop an international code of practice of the use of plane parallel ionization chambers in high energy electron and photon beams used in radiotherapy. This document fulfills the second taste. 153 refs, 21 figs, 18 tabs

  16. Clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1973-01-01

    The main point of this paper on clinical dosimetry which is to be understood here as application of physical dosimetry on accelerators in medical practice, is based on dosimetric methodics. Following an explanation of the dose parameters and description of the dose distribution important for clinical practice as well as geometric irradiation parameters, the significance of a series of physical parameters such as accelerator energy, surface energy of average stopping power etc. is dealt with in detail. Following a section on field homogenization with bremsstrahlung and electron radiation, details on dosimetry in clinical practice are given. Finally, a few problems of dosemeter or monitor calibration on accelerators are described. The explanations are supplemented by a series of diagrams and tables. (ORU/LH) [de

  17. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta

    2015-09-30

    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  18. The challenge of Ciemat internal dosimetry service for accreditation according to ISO/IEC 17025 standard, for in vivo and in vitro monitoring and dose assessment of internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Martin, R.; Hernandez, C.; Navarro, J.F.; Navarro, T.; Perez, B.; Sierra, I.

    2016-01-01

    The accreditation of an Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) according to ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a challenge. The aim of this process is to guarantee the technical competence for the monitoring of radionuclides incorporated in the body and for the evaluation of the associated committed effective dose E(50). This publication describes the main accreditation issues addressed by CIEMAT IDS regarding all the procedures involving good practice in internal dosimetry, focussing in the difficulties to ensure the traceability in the whole process, the appropriate calculation of detection limit of measurement techniques, the validation of methods (monitoring and dose assessments), the description of all the uncertainty sources and the interpretation of monitoring data to evaluate the intake and the committed effective dose. CIEMAT Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) has developed and implemented a quality system based on ISO/IEC 17025 to ensure compliance with the general requirements of this reference standard. The development of documentary support according to this quality system permitted to standardise the systematic activities performed within the whole body counter and in vitro bioassay laboratories as well as the procedures carried out by qualified staff in charge of internal dose assessment. There was no previous experience in the accreditation of other internal dosimetry services in Spain. Then, requirements from the national regulatory body (Nuclear Safety Council, CSN) and national accreditation entity (ENAC) have been considered. The main concerns were to guarantee the traceability in the whole process and to avoid possible charge of interpretation or subjectivity in the methodology of dose assessment due to intakes of radionuclides when calculating from monitoring data. All the related international standards dealing with internal dosimetry were taken into account: ISO 28218 'Performance criteria for radiobioassay', ISO 27048 'Dose Assessment for the

  19. Validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo; Criterios para la validacion de un laboratorio de dosimetria interna in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. de las M., E-mail: mercedes.alfaro@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    People working with radioactive materials, under certain circumstances (e.g. not using the proper protective equipment, an incident not covered, etc.) could be incorporated into the body. The radiation protection programs include direct measurement methods -in vivo- or indirect -in vitro- or both, to know that radioactive material is incorporated into the body. The monitoring measurements of internal contamination or (Radio-bioassay) are carried out with the purpose of determining the amount of radioactive material incorporated in the body; estimate the effective dose and committed dose; management administration of radiation protection; appropriate medical management; and to provide the data necessary for the legal requirements and the preservation of records. The measurement methods used in the monitoring of internal contamination must be validated by the combination of the following processes: calibration, using standards reference materials and/or simulators; execute systematic research, using control samples; and intercomparison between laboratories and performance tests. In this paper the validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo are presented following the information provided by the standard ANSI N13-30-1996 and ISO/TEC 17025-2005 as are the criteria of facilities, staff training, interpretation of measurements, performance criteria for monitoring of internal contamination in vivo, results reporting and records retention. Thereby we achieve standardized quantitative performance criteria of truthfulness, accuracy and detection limit and a consensus on statistical definitions to establish the validation plan of a monitoring laboratory of internal contamination in vivo. (Author)

  20. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  1. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  2. Computational modeling of the mathematical phantoms of the Brazilian woman to internal dosimetry calculations and for comparison of the absorbed fractions with specific reference women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of this work is the study of the concept of mathematical dummy - also called phantoms - used in internal dosimetry and radiation protection, from the perspective of computer simulations. In this work he developed the mathematical phantom of the Brazilian woman, to be used as the basis of calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (AEDs) in the body's organs and skeleton by virtue of goals with regarding the diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The phantom now developed is similar, in form, to Snyder phantom making it more realistic for the anthropomorphic conditions of Brazilian women. For so we used the Monte Carlo method of formalism, through computer modeling. As a contribution to the objectives of this study, it was developed and implemented the computer system cFAE - consultation Fraction Specific Absorbed, which makes it versatile for the user's query researcher

  3. Quality system applied to the development and operation of the environmental and internal dosimetry laboratory of the National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossi, Mirta H.; Picardi, Haydee M.; Rona, Nicolas F.; Gonzalez, Maria I.; Cohen, Isaac M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the quality plan , applied to the project of construction, commissioning and operation of the Laboratory of Internal and Environmental Dosimetry of Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, are described. The basic objectives are: to carry out the determination of plutonium, natural and enriched uranium in biological samples, involving the operation of five plants connected with the fuel cycles, and radionuclides in environmental samples; to achieve enough sensitivity in the methods, so as to detect trends which could require the application of corrective measures or, alternatively, the practices standardisation that contribute to an operation improvement; to adequate the laboratory, under full operation conditions, for inclusion in a dose evaluation and environmental monitoring integrated system. (author). 1 ref

  4. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2001-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environment conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues in a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile. In

  5. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Div. Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2000-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CEE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environmental conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues i a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati al settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile

  6. Development of internal dosimetry protocols using the code MCNPx and voxelized phantoms of Reference of ICRP 110; Desenvolvimento de protocolos de dosimetria interna empregando o codigo MCNPx e fantomas voxelizados de referencia da ICRP 110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M.; Fonseca, T.C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de esenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Trindade, B.M.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to perform internal dosimetry calculations for {sup 18}F-FDG employing the MCNPx code and ICRP 110 voxelized reference phantoms (RCP{sub A}F and RCP{sub A}M). The methodologies developed and validated here represent protocols of internal dosimetry holding a better anthropomorphic and anthropometric representation of the human model in which heterogeneous distributions of the emissions can be adopted, useful in the study of new radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination cases. The reference phantoms were implemented to run on MCNPx. Biodistribution data of {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical provided in ICRP 128 were used in the simulations. The organs average absorbed doses and the effective doses were calculated for each model. The values obtained were compared with two reference works available in the literature for validation purposes. The means of the difference of our values and Zankl et al., 2012 reference values were -0.3% for RCP{sub A}M and -0.4% for RCP{sub A}F. Considering Hadid et al., 2013 reference values, the means of the deviation were -2.9% and -2.2% for RCP{sub A}M and RCP{sub A}F respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p <0.01) between the reference values and the values calculated by the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group. Considering the {sup 18}F-FDG validation study performed in this work, the internal dosimetry protocols developed by our group have produced suitable dosimetry data. (author)

  7. Aplikasi Penilaian Kinerja Dosen pada Proses Belajar Mengajar Berbasis Web: Studi Kasus di Badan Penjamin Mutu Internal Institut Teknologi Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harison Son

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The lecturer has the main duty of Tridharma of Higher Education, namely education, research and community service. Currently, the assessment of lecturers using questionnaires by students at the Padang Institute of Technology is still ineffective and the data is less valid. With this application, the internal quality assurance agency of Padang Technology Institute will not be bothered to calculate student questionnaire data as much as 2500 people. The results of this application provide a detailed value to the lecturer, in which a lecturer has a low score and in which part a lecturer excels based on the question items. This value will be calculated by the application of each student who has filled the questionnaire. The application will provide information on the value of the whole lecturer and can be the basis to make improvements to the weakness of the lecturer in detail and accurately. This application is designed using PHP programming language and MySql database. Lecturer performance appraisal results can be obtained directly, to determine the highest to lowest score and can also see the results of the overall lecturer's score accessed on the account of each lecturer on the campus information system. Dosen mempunyai tugas pokok tridharma Perguruan Tinggi, yaitu pendidikan, penelitian dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat. Saat ini, penilaian dosen menggunakan kuesioner oleh mahasiswa di Institut Teknologi Padang masih tidak efektif dan datanya kurang valid. Dengan adanya Aplikasi ini badan penjamin mutu internal Institut Teknologi Padang tidak akan direpotkan untuk mengalkulasi data angket mahasiswa sebanyak 2500 orang. Hasil dari aplikasi ini memberikan nilai secara detail kepada dosen, di bagian mana seorang dosen yang mempunyai nilai rendah dan di bagian mana seorang dosen unggul berdasarkan item pertanyaan. Nilai ini akan di kalkulasi oleh aplikasi setiap mahasiswa yang telah mengisi kuesioner dan akan memberikan informasi nilai secara

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  9. Hematological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluery-Herard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues [fr

  10. PENGARUH PERSEPSI DUKUNGAN ORGANISASI EKSTERNAL DAN INTERNAL MELALUI KOMITMEN KARYAWAN TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.X Susanto Soekiman

    2007-01-01

    perusahaan, dan pengaruh persepsi dukungan organisasi internal terhadap keberhasilan perusahaan. Dalam penelitian ini, jumlah sampel penelitiannya adalah 156 nasabah dari 39 bank di wilayah provinsi Jawa Timur. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modeling (SEM dengan bantuan program AMOS 4.0. Hasil penelitiannya menunjukkan bahwa persepsi dukungan organisasi eksternal berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap persepsi dukungan organisasi internal, persepsi dukungan organisasi eksternal berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap komitmen karyawan, persepsi dukungan organisasi internal berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap komitmen karyawan, komitmen karyawan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap keberhasilan perusahaan, persepsi dukungan organisasi eksternal tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keberhasilan perusahaan, dan persepsi dukungan organisasi internal tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keberhasilan perusahaan. Kata kunci: persepsi dukungan organisasi eksternal, persepsi dukungan organisasi internal, komitmen karyawan, keberhasilan perusahaan.

  11. Analisa Pengaruh Komunikasi Internal, Intrinsic Rewards Dan Recognition Terhadap Employee Engagement Di Surabaya Suite Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Lorensia, Ines Margaretha; Ngo, Diana Kartika; Widjaja, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa pengaruh komunikasi internal, intrinsic rewards, dan recognition terhadap employee engagementdi SurabayaSuiteHotel. Employee engagement penting untuk meningkatkan kinerja karyawan demi keberhasilan organisasi. Komunikasi internal adalah proses pertukaran informasi dalam internal organisasi. Intrinsic rewards adalah kepuasan pribadi dari pekerjaan itu sendiri. Dan recognition adalah pengakuan yang diberikan atas kinerja karyawan. Teknik analisa yang d...

  12. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective: The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method: A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results: The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion: There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal

  13. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, H; Hashemi, B; Mahdavi, S R; Hejazi, P

    2015-03-01

    Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.

  14. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  15. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  16. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Protocol for adaptation of internal dosimetry techniques for planning of individualized doses of 131I in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of radiation doses is emphasized in diseases with good prognosis, as differentiated thyroid carcinomas, especially in pediatric patients, since the radiation risk is conversely proportional to age. Aiming to establish individual treatment planning, it has been studied four dosimetry methodologies (external dose monitoring, image quantification, urine and blood bioassay) for four 13.3 ± 1.5-year-old female patients, who received 107 ± 15 MBq (2,9 ± 0,4 mCi) for tracer dose and 5.5 ± 0.3 GBq (149 ± 8 mCi) for thyroid ablation. Effective half-lives, residence times and cumulated activities were estimated in organs and tissues with iodine uptake, through planar images quantification by conjugate-view and attenuation correction, in order to compare biokinetic behavior in tracer dose and ablative dose phases. For external monitoring, two patients had similar whole-body effective half-lives in both phases. For this methodology, despite the uncertainties associated to measurements, equipment used and procedures performed were adequate. For urine bioassay, there were not similarities among the patients whole-body effective half-lives. Through blood bioassay, it was observed that 0.2 % of the administered activity for ablative dose remained in the blood until 76 hours after administration. The external monitoring allowed estimating effective doses in patients mothers by conversion of the environmental equivalent dose. In the ablative dose phase, the effective doses resulted in 1.3 ± 0.3 mSv in the hospital and 0.3 ± 0.1 mSv in patients houses. (author)

  18. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  19. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.

    2008-01-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  20. Model Pengendalian Internal Berbasis Sarbanes-Oxley Act dan Keandalan Pelaporan Keuangan (Studi Internal Audit Pada Perusahaan Publik di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Djaddang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on internal control application based on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The research objective is to examine the impact of Sarbanes-Oxley Act implementation and the financial reporting reliability toward audit quality and audit opinion. The research is conducted on public companies implementing Sarbanes- Oxley Act in Indonesia. The internal audit section in the companies are used as respondents. Based on questionnaires distributed, there were 35 samples of public companies used in this research. This study employs WarpPLS to handle the SEM model in testing the hypotheses and multigroup analysis to conduct the sensitivity analysis. The research’s results showed that application of Sarbanes-Oxley Act based internal control and financial reporting reliability are positively affect the audit opinions and directly influence the audit quality. However, the independent auditor's opinion is not a moderating variables between other variables. The research results are expected to be used as considerations by the companies in implementation of Sarbanes-Oxley Act based internal control.

  1. Update of computer applications associated to measuring equipment of the services of internal dosimetry of NPPS and Tecnatom; Actualizacion de las aplicaciones informaticas asociadas a los equipos de medida de los Servicios de Dosimetria Interna de las CCNN y de Tecnatom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Sollet, E.; Serrano, E.

    2014-07-01

    Within the continuous improvement processes that take place in all the activities taking place in the Spanish nuclear power plants, and as a result of implementation of ISO Standards for Internal Dosimetry, has undertaken a review, improvement and updating INDAC ALEDIN and applications associated with measuring equipment and DIYs Quicky kind Personal Internal Dosimetry Services of the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom This paper presents updates capacities both tools. (Author)

  2. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  3. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  4. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  5. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  6. Research and innovation in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this article some relevant lines of research in radiation dosimetry are presented. In some of them innovative approaches have been recently proposed in recent years. In others innovation is still to come as it is necessary in view of the insufficiency of the actual methods and techniques. mention is made to Thermoluminescence Dosimetry an to the improvement produced by new computational methods for the analysis of the usually complex TL signals. A solid state dosimetric technique recently proposed, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL, is briefly presented. This technique promises advantages over TLD for personal and environmental dosimetry. The necessity of improving the measurement characteristics of neutron personal dosemeters is commented, making reference to some very recent developments. The situation of the dosimetry in connection with radiobiology research is overviewed, commenting the controversy on the adequacy and utility of the quality absorbed dose for these activities. Finally the special problematic of internal dosimetry is discussed. (Author) 25 refs

  7. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Advances in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry, the accurate determination of the absorbed dose within an irradiated body or a piece of material, is a prerequisite for all applications of ionizing radiation. This has been known since the very first radiation applications in medicine and biology, and increasing efforts are being made by radiation researchers to develop more reliable, effective and safe instruments, and to further improve dosimetric accuracy for all types of radiation used. Development of new techniques and instrumentation was particularly fast in the field of both medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Thus, in Paris in October the IAEA held the latest symposium in its continuing series on dosimetry in medicine and biology. The last one was held in Vienna in 1975. High-quality dosimetry is obviously of great importance for human health, whether the objectives lie in the prevention and control of risks associated with the nuclear industry, in medical uses of radioactive substances or X-ray beams for diagnostic purposes, or in the application of photon, electron or neutron beams in radiotherapy. The symposium dealt with the following subjects: General aspects of dosimetry; Special physical and biomedical aspects; Determination of absorbed dose; Standardization and calibration of dosimetric systems; and Development of dosimetric systems. The forty or so papers presented and the discussions that followed them brought out a certain number of dominant themes, among which three deserve particular mention. - The recent generalization of the International System of Units having prompted a fundamental reassessment of the dosimetric quantities to be considered in calibrating measuring instruments, various proposals were advanced by the representatives of national metrology laboratories to replace the quantity 'exposure' (SI unit = coulomb/kg) by 'Kerma' or 'absorbed dose' (unit joule/kg, the special name of which is 'gray'), this latter being closer to the practical

  9. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  11. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  12. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  13. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  14. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  15. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  16. PENGARUH TATA RUANG DAN KOMUNIKASI INTERN TERHADAP EFEKTIVITAS KERJA GURU DI SMK NEGERI 9 SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Rustiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office layout is a method to formulate spatial, tools, layout, and their physical environment that aims to provide a means for teachers and internal communications are an important means to unify the direction and the views and thoughts among teachers and between teachers with the Head of School, so create cohesion in the work. This research aims: 1 to determine whether there is any spatial effect on the effectiveness of teachers 'work; 2 to determine whether there is an internal communication influence the effectiveness of teachers' work; 3 to know how big influence of spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of working collectively same. The population that became the subject of this study was the teacher of SMK Negeri 9 Semarang all 44 people who made the research sample because this study represents a population study. In this study, the independent variables are spatial and internal communications, while the dependent variable is the employment effectiveness of teachers. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire technique, documentation and observation. Data analysis technique used is descriptive analysis percentages, multiple regression analysis, simultaneous test, partial test, coefficient of determination and classical assumption. Based on the results of regression analysis obtained F value of 13.357 with a probability of 0.000 <0.05, which means that there is significant influence between spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of teacher working SMK Negeri 9 Semarang. The amount of influence between spatial planning and internal communication on the effectiveness of teacher working SMK Negeri 9 for 39.5% of Semarang. Based on this research, the authors suggest that: in drafting desk should be more loose and in placing the furniture and other equipment should be to take advantage of the space available, so the staff room and classrooms and teachers more impressed with a neat

  17. Peranan Lingkungan Eksternal Internal Terhadap Kinerja Industri Kecil Batik di Kabupaten Bangkalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Chrismardani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of every kind of industry always related to external-internal environment. Based on that subject, this research aimed to analyze the influences of external environment factors (buyers, suppliers, techology and government and internal environment factors (marketing, finance and production to the performance of small business of batik in Bangkalan. The population of this research was the small business’s manager or owner in Kecamatan Tanjung Buli Kabupaten Bangkalan. The sample was 42 batik’s manager or owner, taken in 3 villages. The result of this research was : buyers, suppliers, technology, marketing and production had the significant influences to the small business’s performance; and marketing had the biggest influence to the small businesss’s performance.

  18. Prediksi Jumlah Tamu Menginap di Hotel Karlita International, Tegal, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is forecasting comparative analysis of number of guess room occupancy at Karlita International Hotel, Tegal, Central Java using 11 forecasting methods: linear regression, moving average, weighted moving average, exponential smoothing, exponential smoothing with trend, naïve method, trend analysis, additive decomposition – CMA, additive decomposition – average all, multiplicative decomposition – CMA, multiplicative decomposition – average All. Article used 17 data from January 2012 to Mei 2013, and results after using those 11 methods were the smallest MAD is 101.69 and the smallest MSE is 15,163.95. From additive decomposition – average all method, data showed guess room occupancy forecast at Karlita International Hotel for June 2013 is 960 guess.

  19. PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN CINEMATHERAPY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERILAKU PROSOSIAL PADA SISWA KELAS VIII DI BOSOWA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeruddin Niva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are: (i to know the prosocial behavioral level of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar before and after giving cinematography approach, and (ii to know whether or not the approach is able to enhance the prosocial behavior of the students in Bosowa International School Makassar. The research is a quantitative research using experimental method. The research design used is quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group design. The data collection technique applied is scale and FGD (Focus Group Discussion. The findings shows that (i the prosocial behavioral level of the students was low in pretest while after giving treatment there were significant increase to the prosocial behavior in the experimental group, and (ii the cinematography approach was able to increase the prosocial behavior of the Grade VIII students in Bosowa Internatinal School Makassar. 

  20. Peran International Organization for Migration (Iom) Dalam Mengatasi Perdagangan Manusia Di Indonesia Tahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    ", Afrizal; Arif, Ghani Wal

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the role of international organization for migration in antisipated human trafficking in Indonesia in 2010-2014. The growth of human trafficking case in Indonesia has incerase a significant, nowdays Indonesia as a state from and to a human trafficking. So the government of Indonesia have to do action to antisipation a case of human trafficking..The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects data from books, enc...

  1. Aspek Internal dan Eksternal Kualitas Produksi Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang: Studi Kualitatif di Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

    2018-03-01

    Internal and External Aspects Related to Quality of Refill Water Station Production: Qualitative Study in Bandung City The quality of water production in drinking water refill station (DWRS has recently been decreasing. Maintaining the quality of DWRS is not only the responsibility of the owners because the government should also playe an active role as the external supervisor. However, few information is available on the obstacles in monitoring the quality of DWRS. This study aimed to explore the internal and external aspects related to quality of drinking water production in DWRS. It was a qualitative study using phenomenology approach with constructivism paradigm. Data were collected through observation, indepth interviews, and document study. Data were analyzed using theme analysis. The place of study was Bandung City Health Office, Trade Service Unit, Primary Health Centers, and some DWRSs with inadequate water quality during May-August 2017. The result showed that internal aspects that related to drinking water quality were human resources, proper processing, appropiate equipments, and hygienic environment.  Inadequate human resource can cause unstandardized process production. External aspects included government supervision, sanctions, and law enforcement as well as collaboration between owner and local government. In conducting DWRS supervisory activities, the government has obstacles such as lack of human resources, lack of funding allocation, and multiple workloads. In addition, the absence of strict sanctions and the lack of cross-sectoral cooperation also contribute to the quality of refill drinking water, making it inadequate. New innovation should be developed to increase the quality of DWRS, particularly development of integrated supervison system which iincludes not only the local government but also the commmunity and consumers. Key words: Drinking water refill station, external aspect, internal aspect

  2. Kepentingan Pemerintah Indonesia Bekerjasama dengan Transparency International dalam Upaya Meminimalisir Tingkat Korupsi di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Miftahul; Fachri, Yuli

    2017-01-01

    According to the Corruption Perception Index 2015 published by Transparency International that ranks countries from less corrupt (1) to most corrupt (168) , Indonesia is on 88th out of 168th countries and with the socre 36 out of 100, 36 (definitely corrupt) and 100 (clean) . It indicates that corruption is still an issue happening mostly in public sector and other areas. Even though Indonesia has spreaded no effort to combat against corruption through enforcing law enforcement conducted by t...

  3. Assessment of necessary regularity of internal irradiation monitoring on the basis of direct and indirect methods of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykhin, V.M.; Ivanova, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that when assessing the necessary periodicity of internal irradiation monitoring, it is required to take account of the nature (rhythm) of radionuclide intake to the organism during the monitoring period, the effective period of radionuclide biological half-life, its activity in the organism, sensitivity of the technique applied and the labour-consumig character of the monitoring method [ru

  4. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology; Dosimetria de emisores internos: principios y perspectivas de la metodologia MIRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  5. Estimations of internal dosimetry: practical calculations of incorporated activity; Estimaciones de dosimetria interna: calculos practicos de actividad incorporada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes C, A. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) carries out periodically measurements of corporal activity to Occupationally Exposed Personnel (POE) to determine that the received doses are in according to that settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Security. In this work the results of the incorporated activity estimates starting from the results of the measurements that were carried out in the one CNSNS laboratory are presented, with which it should be determine lastly the internal dose. Its were used different methodologies to estimate the incorporated activity: estimate with isolated data, estimate with global data and method of the best estimate, demonstrating this last to be the more appropriate to determine the internal dose. (Author)

  6. ANALISIS FAKTOR INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL YANG TERKAIT DENGAN MODEL PELAYANAN PRIMA DI APOTEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies, especially from the aspect of drug information for chronic and degenerative disease in the year of 2003, gave a patient-oriented model focused on drug information services including communication, drug counseling and consulting as well as drug effect monitoring on patient. An explorative qualitative study was carried out to identify internal and external factors associated wtth prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies so as measuring the gap amongst the pharmaceutical services model developed, the guidelines of pharmaceutical services in pharmacies, the existing practices in pharmaceutical services at this moment, pharmacists' professionalism and pharmaceutical faculty curiculum in an attempt to bridge the gap. The study carried out in 2004 on pharmacists, pharmacist assistants and the owners of 40 pharmacies in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Makassar. Data were collected using interviews, Focus Group Discussion, Checklist and observation, covering the opinion of Directorate General of Pharmaceutical Services, District and Provincial Health Offices, Central and Regional Indonesian Pharmacist Association, Pharmaceutical Company Association, pharmaceutical faculty, NGO and practitioners. Internal and external factors that influence pharmaceutical services in pharmacies were analyzed using SWOT method to solve problems in the implementation of prime pharmaceutical in pharmacies model. Results of the study showed that the tendency to perform prime pharmaceutical services in pharmacies is great enough, especially in conjunction with conducive regulation and an opportunity to promote the quality of human resources in pharmacies. Key words: prime pharmaceutical services, pharmacies, SWOT analysis

  7. URGENSI PENILAIAN LINGKUNGAN INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL DALAM PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM DI LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Eferi

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to explain the urgency of the internal and external environment assessment in the application of TQM. From the authors conclude that the study can be distinguished on the Environment organization's internal environment which comprises three supporting elements: first, the structure, with regard to communication, authority and work flows. The structure is often also called the chain of command, and depicted graphically using organization charts; secondly, culture, a pattern of beliefs, expectations, and values that prevail among members of the organization; and third, the resource, include the individual's expertise, capabilities, and managerial talents of every member of the organization. While the external environment is the conditions that are outside the organization, which also directly influences the survival of organizations. As in assessing both the environment, can be done by using the characteristics that exist in TQM, namely: a focus on the customer; b obsession with quality; c a scientific approach; d long-term commitment; e team work; f improvement of the system on an ongoing basis; g education and training; h freedom of hand; i unity of purpose; and j the involvement and empowerment of employees.

  8. Accuracy Requirements in Medical Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2011-01-01

    The need for adopting unambiguous terminology on 'accuracy in medical radiation dosimetry' which is consistent with international recommendations for metrology is emphasized. Uncertainties attainable, or the need for improving their estimates, are analysed for the fields of radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine dosimetry. This review centres on uncertainties related to the first step of the dosimetry chain in the three fields, which in all cases involves the use of a detector calibrated by a standards laboratory to determine absorbed dose, air kerma or activity under reference conditions in a clinical environment. (author)

  9. Dosimetry techniques applied to thermoluminescent age estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.

    1986-12-01

    The reliability and the ease of the field application of the measuring techniques of natural radioactivity dosimetry are studied. The natural radioactivity in minerals in composed of the internal dose deposited by alpha and beta radiations issued from the sample itself and the external dose deposited by gamma and cosmic radiations issued from the surroundings of the sample. Two technics for external dosimetry are examined in details. TL Dosimetry and field gamma dosimetry. Calibration and experimental conditions are presented. A new integrated dosimetric method for internal and external dose measure is proposed: the TL dosimeter is placed in the soil in exactly the same conditions as the sample ones, during a time long enough for the total dose evaluation [fr

  10. International peace and security. Rome, 5 July 2003. Di Vittorio Foundation Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Until the end of the Cold War, a bipolar world maintained international security through a combined system of alliances, spheres of influence, global and regional multilateral institutions - including the United Nations - and ultimately a balance of power through nuclear deterrence. With the disintegration of the Soviet empire, however, a uni-polar world has emerged that has dramatically changed the landscape of international security, with the disappearance of the Cold War rivalries and many of the associated old alliances and spheres of influence. But while in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War many preached the advent of a new world order - and expressed hope of a new paradigm of security that would be rooted in the UN system of collective security - these hopes have not materialized and that new order has not emerged. But with all the changes in the international landscape since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have ironically continued to hold a position of prominence as the currency of ultimate power. With the new threats and new strategic thinking, it is not surprising that the objectives embodied in the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), developed in the early seventies to control the further spread of nuclear weapons and to move towards nuclear disarmament, are under growing stress. Nearly 30 000 nuclear weapons continue to exist in the five nuclear weapon States (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). And of the three countries that remain outside the NPT, two - India and Pakistan - have in recent years demonstrated their nuclear weapons capability, while the third - Israel - is generally presumed to have them. Most recently North Korea, a party to the NPT, has decided to renounce the Treaty, and is suspected of working to acquire nuclear weapons. And in the aftermath of the events of September 2001, as I have already noted, the proliferation threat gained a new dimension: the prospect of

  11. Metamorfosis Faksionalisme Internal Partai Golkar di Maluku Utara pada PILKADA 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the dynamics of internal faction of Golkar party when the North Maluku Governor election was held in 2007-2008. It can be observed during the process preelection to the post-election. This research uses the qualitative method The data are collected by conducting the documentation, observation, and interview. The result of this research shows, that the factionalisms occurred in the Golkar party in the election of North Maluku governor caused two factors, the pragmatism of supreme members of Golkar partyand the patron-client. The faction characteristic of Golkar party based on the faction fragmentation shows that there are two factions (bipolar, which are the faction supporting Thaib and the faction supporting Gafur

  12. Dosimetry of a gamma beam - 650 60Co irradiator. 3. Mapping of the isodose curves in the internal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, J.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1981-01-01

    The Gammabeam-650 60 Co irradiator, containing 29,080 curies (April 1 sup(st), 1974), made by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and in operation at CENA - Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, basically has a block of lead for storage and shielding of the radioactive capsules and 12 vertical pneumatic tubes to maintain them in exposure position. These tubes form a cylindrical internal cavity with varying diameter between 10 and 84 cm. The isodose curves were determined for the geometries of 3, 6 and 12 actives tubes and 42 and 84 cm of diameter using the Fricke's chemical dosimeter. (Author) [pt

  13. Validation and calculation of uncertainties of the method of determination of creatinine in urine in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used Lo conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by specLrophoLomeLry creatinine in urine sarnples of exposed workers at risk of internal counterirritant, and the sludgy of ah sources uncertainty that influence in the proceas. This technique is used Lo carry ouL Lhe normahizaLion of Lhe amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimeLric purposes, as well as a criterion for accepLance ox rejecLion of urine specimens received by the laboraLory.

  14. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  16. Tenth DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to promote the international exchange of information on neutron dosimetry. The development of an accurate real-time dosemeter is an immediate need which must be met. Assessment of the neutron dose equivalent at low doses with a reasonable degree of accuracy must be accomplished to provide validity to exposure records. These and other aspects of personal neutron dosimetry are discussed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  17. FOTOGRAFI PANGGUNG SOLO INTERNATIONAL ETHNIC MUSIC DI KORAN SOLOPOS DAN KOMPAS TEKNIK DAN ESTETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Prasetyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stage Photography is one of the branches of science photography, which is devoted to the documentation of art stage. The documenting function is similar to the function of general photography. The branch of state photography more focuses on portraying the scenes on the stage. It becomes something special for both amateur and professional photographers because it requires a high sensitivity, concentration, skills, proficiency and special carefulness. Stage photography is absolutely necessary in the modern mass media, either as a standalone news as well as illustrations to support the news writing. Stage photography with the reality of the value, will help in the mass media to provide more complete information for the audience of readers. The stage photography of Solo International Music Performed which was published in the mass media Solopos and Kompas is the result of the recording of the photographer who has a sense of sensitivity, concentration, skill, finesse and accuracy. The papers published in the mass media can not be detached from the values and aesthetics rules, considering the photos will be witnessed by thousands of the human eye. Keywords: Stage Photography, Technique and Aesthetics.

  18. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  19. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  20. An IAEA Survey of Dosimetry Audit Networks for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    A Survey: In 2010, the IAEA undertook a task to investigate and review the coverage and operations of national and international dosimetry audit programmes for radiotherapy. The aim was to organize the global database describing the activities of dosimetry audit networks in radiotherapy. A dosimetry audit questionnaire has been designed at an IAEA consultants' meeting held in 2010 for organizations conducting various levels of dosimetry audits for radiotherapy. Using this questionnaire, a survey was conducted for the first time in 2010 and repeated in 2011. Request for information on different aspects of the dosimetry audit was included, such as the audit framework and resources, its coverage and scope, the dosimetry system used and the modes of audit operation, i.e. remotely and through on-site visits. The IAEA questionnaire was sent to over 80 organizations, members of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and other organizations known for having operated dosimetry audits for radiotherapy in their countries or internationally. Survey results and discussion: In response to the IAEA survey, 53 organizations in 45 countries confirmed that they operate dosimetry audit services for radiotherapy. Mostly, audits are conducted nationally, however there are five organizations offering audits abroad, with two of them operating in various parts of the world and three of them at the regional level, auditing radiotherapy centres in neighbouring countries. The distribution of dosimetry audit services in the world is given. (author)

  1. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  2. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  3. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  4. Non-conventional personal dosimetry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Established dosimetry has achieved a high standard in personnel monitoring. This applies particularly to photon dosimetry. Nevertheless, even in photon dosimetry, improvements and changes are being made. The reason may be technological progress, or the introduction of new tasks on the basis of the recommendations of international bodies (e.g. the new ICRU measurement unit) of national legislation. Since we are restricting ourselves here to technical trends the author would like to draw attention to various activities of current interest, e.g. the computation of receptor-related conversion coefficients from personal dose to organ or body doses, taking into account the conditions of exposure with respect to differential energy and angular distribution of the radiation field. Realistic data on exposure geometry are taken from work place analyses. Furthermore, the data banks of central personal dosimetry services are subject to statistical evaluation and radiation protection trend analysis. Technological progress and developments are considered from the point of view of personal dosimetry, partial body or extremity dosimetry and accidental dosimetry

  5. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  6. Dosimetry system 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    In May 1983, the authors proposed a dosimetry system for use by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) that would incorporate the new findings and calculations of the joint United States - Japan working groups on the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system evolved from extensive discussions with RERF personnel, numerous meetings of the scientists from Japan and the United States involved in the dosimetry reassessment research, and requirements expressed by epidemiologists and radiobiologists on the various review panels. The dosimetry system proposed was based on considerations of the dosimetry requirements for the normal work of RERF and for future research in radiobiology, the computerized input data on A-bomb survivors available in the RERF data base, the level of detail, precision, and accuracy of various components of the dosimetric estimates, and the computer resources available at RERF in Hiroshima. These discussions and our own experience indicated that, in light of the expansion of computer and radiation technologies and the desire for more detail in the dosimetry, an entirely new approach to the dosimetry system was appropriate. This resulted in a complete replacement of the T65D system as distinguished from a simpler approach involving a renormalization of T65D parameters to reflect the new dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system for RERF and the plan for implementation was accepted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on A-bomb Dosimetry chaired by Dr. R.F. Christy. The dosimetry system plan was also presented to the binational A-bomb dosimetry review groups for critical comment and was discussed at joint US-Japan workshop. A prototype dosimetry system incorporating preliminary dosimetry estimates and applicable to only a limited set of A-bomb survivors was installed on the RERF computer system in the fall of 1984. This system was successfully operated at RERF and provided an initial look at the impact of

  7. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  8. Status of neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, M.F.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The status of current international efforts to develop standardized sets of evaluated energy-dependent (differential) neutron cross sections for reactor dosimetry is reviewed. The status and availability of differential data are considered, some recent results of the data testing of the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file using 252 Cf and 235 U benchmark reference neutron fields are presented, and a brief review is given of the current efforts to characterize and identify dosimetry benchmark radiation fields

  9. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  10. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  11. Accreditation of the Personal Dosimetry internal Service Tecnatom by the National Entity (ENAC); Acreditacion del Servicio de Dosimetria Personal Interna de Tecnatom por la Entidad Nacional de Acreditacion (ENAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.

    2014-07-01

    The service of personal Dosimetry internal Tecnatom has made the process of adapting its methodology and quality assurance, requirements technical and management will be required to obtain accreditation from the National Accreditation Entity according to ISO / IEC 170251 standard {sup G}eneral Requirements competence of testing and calibration laboratories. To carry out this process, the laboratory has defined quality criteria set out in their test procedures, based on ISO Standards 27048: 2011; ISO 20553: 2005 and ISO 28218: 2010. This paper describes what has been the methodology used to implement the requirements of different ISO test methods of SDPI Tecnatom. (Author)

  12. Evaluating the Application of Tissue-Specific Dose Kernels Instead of Water Dose Kernels in Internal Dosimetry : A Monte Carlo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghadam, Maryam Khazaee; Asl, Alireza Kamali; Geramifar, Parham; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the application of tissue-specific dose kernels instead of water dose kernels to improve the accuracy of patient-specific dosimetry by taking tissue heterogeneities into consideration. Materials and Methods: Tissue-specific dose point kernels (DPKs) and

  13. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-03-15

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States.

  14. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  15. Personal dosimetry service of VF, a.s. company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasek, P.

    2009-01-01

    The VF, a.s. Company will extend its services in the area of personal dosimetry at the end of 2008, which is fully in compliance with the requirements of the Atomic Act, section 9 paragraph (1) letter r) and Decree on Radiation Protection, section 59 paragraph (1) letter a). Optically stimulated luminescence was selected in VF .a.s. as the most advantageous and the most advanced technology for the integral personal dosimetry. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been using in dosimetry for more than ten years. Although it is relatively new technology , its indisputable advantages predetermine that technology has significantly benefited in personal dosimetry services within a short time all over the advanced world. The VF, a.s. personal dosimetry service is based on the licensed products of LANDAUER, the US company, which is the world leader in OSL dosimetry. Crystalline Al 2 O 3 :C was selected as the detection material. All equipment of personal dosimetry service is installed in the VF Centre of Technology in Cerna Hora. The personal dosimetry service is incorporated in the International LANDAUER Dosimetry Service Network, and in the European Union, it is directly linked to the LANDAUER European Headquarters with its office in Paris. As a part of the OSL technology licence, the VF personal dosimetry service was included in the inter-laboratory comparison programme of the LANDAUER syndicate. (author)

  16. Personal dosimetry service of VF, a.s. company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasek, P.

    2008-01-01

    The VF, a.s. Company will extend its services in the area of personal dosimetry at the end of 2008, which is fully in compliance with the requirements of the Atomic Act, section 9 paragraph (1) letter r) and Decree on Radiation Protection, section 59 paragraph (1) letter a). Optically stimulated luminescence was selected in VF .a.s. as the most advantageous and the most advanced technology for the integral personal dosimetry . Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been using in dosimetry for more than ten years. Although it is relatively new technology , its indisputable advantages predetermine that technology has significantly benefited in personal dosimetry services within a short time all over the advanced world. The VF, a.s. personal dosimetry service is based on the licensed products of LANDAUER, the US company, which is the world leader in OSL dosimetry. Crystalline Al 2 O 3 :C was selected as the detection material. All equipment of personal dosimetry service is installed in the VF Centre of Technology in Cerna Hora. The personal dosimetry service is incorporated in the International LANDAUER Dosimetry Service Network, and in the European Union, it is directly linked to the LANDAUER European Headquarters with its office in Paris. As a part of the OSL technology licence, the VF personal dosimetry service was included in the inter-laboratory comparison programme of the LANDAUER syndicate. (author)

  17. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Domokos, M.; Polyak, A.; Thuroczy, J.; Janoki, G.

    2009-01-01

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  18. Dosimetry optimization at COGEMA-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the la Hague site strives to apply international recommendations together with national regulations concerning radiation protection, and especially the respect of limitation and optimization principles. The application of these principles is based on the implementation of a passive dosimetry and an active dosimetry. The monthly passive dosimetry is monitored by means of a photographic dosimetry film, completed with lithium fluorine thermoluminescent film badges. This personal dosimetry common to X, β, γ and neutron radiations is carried out in close relationship between the Radiation Protection Department, the Occupational Medical Department and the staff running the Plant. The application or ALARA's principle as well as that of radiation protection optimization implies to implement a complementary active dosimetry enabling to gain in real time, the personal dosimetry of each intervening person, either they be COGEMA's workers or external companies'. This active dosimetry provides with following information: This preventive dosimetry is based on the knowledge of doses integration in real time and is fitted with alarm thresholds according to the total amount of doses and dose rates. Thresholds on the dose rate are also set relatively to the radiological environment. This knowledge of doses and dose rates allows a stricter management of the works, while analyzing them according to the nature of the work, to the location and to the skills of the intervening people. This dosimetry allows to analyze and optimize doses integration according to the works nature for the whole intervening staff. The la Hague Site has developed an active personal dosimetry system, common to every intervening person, COGEMA or external companies. The DOSICARD was thus elaborated, shaped as an electronic dosimeter fitted with an alarm and a smart card. The access to controlled areas is conditioned to information given by the DOSICARD concerning medical aptitudes and

  19. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  20. Role of dosimetry in radiation processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor

    2001-01-01

    Today, radiation processing is a growing technology offering potential technological advantages as well as enhanced safety and economy. It is expanding on two fronts: the variety of applications is exploding as well as the sources of radiation. And with that comes the necessary advances in dosimetry. However, the success of the technology still depends on the assertion that the irradiated products are reliable and safe, whether they are health care products or cables and wires. And this is best assured through quality assurance programmes. The key element in QA in radiation processing is a well-characterised, reliable dosimetry that is traceable to the international measurement system. Traceability is the foundation for international acceptance of the irradiated products; and with international trade of irradiated products on the rise, it becomes absolutely critical. It is thus vital that the industry recognises this pivotal position of good dosimetry and the role a national standards laboratory plays in that connection. (author)

  1. Proposal of development of an advanced IORT system; Proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di avanguardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Unita tecnico scientifica Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate; Casali, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy), Dipartimento di fisica; Colavita, E. [Calabria Univ., Arcavacata (Italy). Diparimento di fisica; Lamanna, E. [Magna Graecia Univ., Germaneto (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina sperimentale e clinica

    2005-07-15

    In the last years there has been an increasing interest on IORT (Intraoperative Radiation Therapy), also because of the development of dedicated accelerators. This technique represents a very effective oncological treatment consisting in delivering a single high dose on a tumour bed soon after surgery resection. In the following we present the proposal of development of a last generation IORT system based on the use of a linear accelerator with variable energy in the range 3-15 MeV, operating in C band (5712 MHz). Respect to the accelerator used in the commercial IORT systems operating at a typical frequency of 2998 MHz (S band) limited to a maximum energy of 12 MeV, the use of a higher RF frequency allows an increase of the maximum energy. This extends the use of the IORT technique to a wider field of tumors and an improvement of the system in terms of compactness and weight reduction. In addition the machine will be provided with a devoted absolute dosimetry system that will strongly simplify the procedures of dosimetric characterization. We intend to develop the system by a collaboration between ENEA, some Universities (Bologna, Catanzaro and Cosenza) and the national industry. [Italian] Negli ultimi anni si e sviluppato un sempre maggior interesse intorno alla Radioterapia IntraOperatoria (IORT), una particolare tecnica radioterapica che permette di irradiare la zona interessata da un tumore durante un intervento chirurgico utilizzando un fascio di elettroni prodotto da un acceleratore. La diffusione di questa metodica e stata favorita dalla presenza sul mercato di acceleratori installabili direttamente in sala operatoria. Come conseguenza di questa disponibilita sono emerse sia nuove esigenze legate alle particolari applicazioni cliniche, sia richieste di facilita di utilizzo e perfomances sempre piu sofisticate. Viene qui presentata una proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di ultima generazione basato sull'utilizzo di un acceleratore lineare con

  2. Proposal of development of an advanced IORT system; Proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di avanguardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronsivalle, C [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Unita tecnico scientifica Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate; Casali, F [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy), Dipartimento di fisica; Colavita, E [Calabria Univ., Arcavacata (Italy). Diparimento di fisica; Lamanna, E [Magna Graecia Univ., Germaneto (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina sperimentale e clinica

    2005-07-15

    In the last years there has been an increasing interest on IORT (Intraoperative Radiation Therapy), also because of the development of dedicated accelerators. This technique represents a very effective oncological treatment consisting in delivering a single high dose on a tumour bed soon after surgery resection. In the following we present the proposal of development of a last generation IORT system based on the use of a linear accelerator with variable energy in the range 3-15 MeV, operating in C band (5712 MHz). Respect to the accelerator used in the commercial IORT systems operating at a typical frequency of 2998 MHz (S band) limited to a maximum energy of 12 MeV, the use of a higher RF frequency allows an increase of the maximum energy. This extends the use of the IORT technique to a wider field of tumors and an improvement of the system in terms of compactness and weight reduction. In addition the machine will be provided with a devoted absolute dosimetry system that will strongly simplify the procedures of dosimetric characterization. We intend to develop the system by a collaboration between ENEA, some Universities (Bologna, Catanzaro and Cosenza) and the national industry. [Italian] Negli ultimi anni si e sviluppato un sempre maggior interesse intorno alla Radioterapia IntraOperatoria (IORT), una particolare tecnica radioterapica che permette di irradiare la zona interessata da un tumore durante un intervento chirurgico utilizzando un fascio di elettroni prodotto da un acceleratore. La diffusione di questa metodica e stata favorita dalla presenza sul mercato di acceleratori installabili direttamente in sala operatoria. Come conseguenza di questa disponibilita sono emerse sia nuove esigenze legate alle particolari applicazioni cliniche, sia richieste di facilita di utilizzo e perfomances sempre piu sofisticate. Viene qui presentata una proposta di sviluppo di un sistema IORT di ultima generazione basato sull'utilizzo di un acceleratore lineare con energia

  3. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessner, W

    2003-07-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  4. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  5. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  6. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  7. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  8. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  10. Neutron personal dosimetry: state-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurný, František

    2005-03-01

    State-of-art of the personal neutron dosimetry is presented, analysed and discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the problems of this type of the dosimetry of external exposure for radiation fields at nuclear power plants. A review of general problems of neutron dosimetry is given and the active individual dosimetry methods available and/or in the stage of development are briefly reviewed. Main attention is devoted to the analysis of the methods available for passive individual neutron dosimetry. The characteristics of these dosemeters were studied and are compared: their energy response functions, detection thresholds and the highest detection limits, the linearity of response, the influence of environmental factors, etc. Particular attention is devoted to their behavior in reactor neutron fields. It is concluded that the choice of the neutron personal dosemeter depends largely on the conditions in which the instrument should be used (neutron spectrum, the level of exposure and the exposure rate, etc.). The results obtained with some of these dosemeters during international intercomparisons are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the personal neutron dosimeter developed and routinely used by National Personal Dosimetry Service Ltd. in the Czech Republic. (author)

  11. Individual dosimetry of workers and patients: implementation and perspectives; La dosimetrie individuelle des travailleurs et de patients: mise en oeuvre et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Aubert, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Scaff, P.; Casanova, Ph.; Van Bladel, L.; Queinnec, F.; Valendru, N.; Jehanno, J.; Grude, E.; Berard, Ph.; Desbree, A.; Kafrouni, H.; Paquet, F.; Vanhavere, F.; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, Ch.; Magne, S.; Donadille, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Barrere, J.L.; Ferragut, A.; Metivier, H.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E

    2008-07-01

    These days organised by the section of the technical protection of the S.F.R.P. review the different techniques of dosimetry used in France and Europe, and present the future orientations.The different interventions are as follow: Individual exposures of the workers: historic assessment and perspectives; medical exposure: where are the doses; legal obligations in individual dosimetry: which are the objective and the need on the subject; the dosimetry follow-up of workers by the S.I.S.E.R.I. system: assessment and perspectives; impact of the norm ISO 20553 on the follow-up of internal exposure; the implementation of the patient dose measurement in Belgium; techniques of passive dosimetry used in Europe; Supervision radiation protection at EDF: long term and short term approach; Comparison active and passive dosimetry at Melox; methodology for the choice of new neutron dosemeters; the working group M.E.D.O.R.: guide of internal dosimetry for the use of practitioners; O.E.D.I.P.E.: tool of modeling for the personalized internal dosimetry; the use of the Monte-Carlo method for the planning of the cancer treatment by radiotherapy becomes a reality; the works of the committee 2 of the ICRP; passive dosimetry versus operational dosimetry: situation in Europe; Implementation of the in vivo dosimetry in a radiotherapy department: experience of the Gustave Roussy institute; experience feedback on the in vivo measures in radiotherapy, based on the use of O.S.L. pellets; multi points O.S.L. instrumentation for the radiation dose monitoring in radiotherapy; dosimetry for extremities for medical applications: principle results of the European contract C.O.N.R.A.D.; references and perspectives in dosimetry; what perspectives for numerical dosimetry, an example: Sievert; system of dose management: how to answer to needs; the last technical evolutions in terms of electronic dosimetry in nuclear power plant; the fourth generation type reactors: what dosimetry. (N.C.)

  12. Analisis Sistem Pengendalian Intern Dalam Kaitannya Dengan Keamananharta Perusahaan Pada CV. Kencana Jaya Di Bandar Lampung (Study Kasus Pada CV. Kencana Jaya Di Bandar Lampung)

    OpenAIRE

    Habiburrahman,; Ningrum, Ayu Widia; Riswan,

    2012-01-01

    Success or failure of the companys management is generally characterized by the ability of management to control the operational activities of the company, so that its implementation in accordance with a predetermined plan.With a good system of internal control, it is expected that the implementation of the operational activities of the company in accordance with existing plans and actions to minimize the harm to the company, so that the goal can be achieved by well planned. The problem with ...

  13. Pengaruh Struktur Kepemilikan Saham Leverage Faktor Intern Dan Faktor Ekstern Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan (Studi empirik pada perusahaan manufaktur dan non manufaktur di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of ownership structure%2C leverage%2C external factor%2C internal factor on the value of the firms in Jakarta Stock Exchange. It is argued that unlike the agency problem advanced stock market%2C the agency problem in the Jakarta Stock Exchange is the divergence of interest between the minority holders and majority holders. This is because the Jakarta Stock Exchange is characterized%2C among other things%2C by the domination of large shareholders. It is hypotheses that :(1 there are the impact ownership structure %2C external factor%2C internal factor%2C on leverage%2C (2 there are the impact of ownership structure %2C external factor%2C internal factor%2C leverage on value of the firm . This study is to examine Agency Theory%2C Jensen and Meckling (1976%2C Pecking Order Theory%2C Myers (1984%2C Trade Off Model and Signaling Theory (1979. Population in this study are public company listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange during 2000 – 2004. As much as 134 firms listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange were taken as a sample using a purposive sampling method.The data were then analyzed by the structural equation modeling ( SEM analysis%2C using the AMOS Program version 4.01.The results of this study show that (1 there are the impact of ownership structure %2C external factor%2C internal factor on leverage%2C(2there are the impact of ownership structure%2C external factor%2C internal factor%2C leverage%2C on valueof the firm . The result of the study is not support the Agency Theory%2C Jensen and Meckling (1976%2C but the result of the study is support Pecking Order Theory%2C Myers (1984%2C Trade off model and Signaling Theory%2C Battacharya (1979. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Tujuan utama dari studi ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh struktur kepemilikan%2C leverage%2C faktor ekstern%2C dan faktor intern terhadap nilai perusahaan di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Tidak seperti pada permasalahan keagenan di pasar

  14. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs

  15. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P. (eds.)

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  16. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  17. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  18. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  19. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  20. International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (4th). International Workshop on Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (1st)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-13

    Università degli Studi di Pavia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International...Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International Workshop on Detection, Classification...mail: gianni.pavan@unipv.it ORGANIZED BY: Università degli Studi di Pavia - Dipartimento di Biologia Animale CIBRA CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARE DI

  1. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe 2+ ions are converted to Fe 3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements or optical techniques. Due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations (and references therein), alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested. In polymer gels, monomers such as acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide are usually dispersed in a gelatin or agarose matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a 3D polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties and results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. As well as MRI, other quantitative techniques for measuring dose distributions include X-ray computer tomography, vibrational spectroscopy and ultrasound. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been reported in the literature. For further information of gel dosimetry and specifically clinical applications the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry and references therein should be consulted

  2. Why is a high accuracy needed in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Dose and exposure intercomparisons on a national or international basis have become an important component of quality assurance in the practice of good radiotherapy. A high degree of accuracy of γ and x radiation dosimetry is essential in our international society, where medical information is so readily exchanged and used. The value of accurate dosimetry lies mainly in the avoidance of complications in normal tissue and an optimal degree of tumor control

  3. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  4. Recent research into thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1979-04-01

    The trend of basic research in thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), the results, and developing fields in which it can be applied are reported. This trend is outlined from the viewpoint fields of application, a new trend in TLD readers, the conditions of development of new photogenic substances, and research in the radiation characteristics of photogenic substances (radiosensitivity to particle rays and ultraviolet rays, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence at irradiation, and ..gamma.. ray energy dependence). Utilization of TLD in the medical field for measurement of environmental radiation and as a monitor for workers exposed to radiation is discussed. An international comparison of dose was necessary in order to prove its universal validity.

  5. European questionnaire on the use of computer programmes in radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Grosswendt, B.; Siebert, B.R.L. [Braunschweig (Germany); Tanner, R. [NRPB, Dosimetry Development Group, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Terrisol, M. [CPAT, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1999-07-01

    Because of a potential reduction of necessary experimental efforts, the combination of measurements and supplementing calculations, also in the field of radiation dosimetry, may allow time and money to be saved if computational methods are used which are well suited to reproduce experimental data in a satisfactory quality. The dramatic increase in computing power in recent years now permits the use of computational tools for dosimetry also in routine applications. Many institutions dealing with radiation protection, however, have small groups which, in addition to their routine work, often cannot afford to specialise in the field of computational dosimetry. This means that not only experts but increasingly also casual users employ complicated computational tools such as general-purpose transport codes. This massive use of computer programmes in radiation protection and dosimetry applications motivated the Concerted Action Investigation and Quality Assurance of Numerical Methods in Radiation Protection Dosimetry of the 4. framework programme of the European Commission to prepare, distribute and evaluate a questionnaire on the use of such codes. A significant number of scientists from nearly all the countries of the European Community (and some countries outside Europe) contributed to the questionnaire, that allowed to obtain a satisfactory overview of the state of the art in this field. The results obtained from the questionnaire and summarised in the present Report are felt to be indicative of the situation of using sophisticated computer codes within the European Community although the group of participating scientist may not be a representative sample in a strict statistical sense. [Italian] A causa della progressiva diminuzione dell'impegno sperimentale, la combinazione di misure e valutazioni numeriche supplementari puo' consentire, anche nel campo della dosimetria delle radiazioni, risparmi di tempo e risorse purche' sia garantito l

  6. Trends in light water reactor dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Serpan, C.Z.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Grundl, J.A.; Debrue, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dosimetry programs and techniques play an essential role in the continued assurance of the safety and reliability of components of light water reactors. Primary concern focuses on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels and methods by which the integrity of a pressure vessel can be predicted and monitored throughout its service life. Research in these areas requires a closely coordinated program which integrates the elements of the calculational and material sciences, the development of advanced dosimetric techniques and the use of benchmarks and validation of these methods. The paper reviews the status of the various international efforts in the dosimetry area

  7. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  8. 5th symposium on neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurny, F

    1985-03-01

    The symposium was held in Neuherberg near Munich on September 17-20, 1984 and was attended by 200 specialists from 20 coutries. The participants discussed the following areas of neutron dosimetry: basic concept and analysis of irradiation, basic data, proportional counters in radiation protection, detector response and spectrometry, enviromental monitoring, radiobiology and biophysical models, analysis of neutron fields, thermoluminescent detectors, personnel monitoring, calibration, measurement in the environment of /sup 252/Cf sources, analysis of fields and detector response, standardization dosimetry, ionization chambers, planning of therapeutical irradiation study of depth dose distribution, facilities for neutron therapy and international comparison. (E.S.).

  9. 5th symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1985-01-01

    The symposium was held in Neuherberg near Munich on September 17-20, 1984 and was attended by 200 specialists from 20 coutries. The participants discussed the following areas of neutron dosimetry: basic concept and analysis of irradiation, basic data, proportional counters in radiation protection, detector response and spectrometry, enviromental monitoring, radiobiology and biophysical models, analysis of neutron fields, thermoluminescent detectors, personnel monitoring, calibration, measurement in the environment of 252 Cf sources, analysis of fields and detector response, standardization dosimetry, ionization chambers, planning of therapeutical irradiation study of depth dose distribution, facilities for neutron therapy and international comparison. (E.S.)

  10. Analisis Intensitas Pencahayaan Dan Reflektan Di Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kelelahan Mata Pada Tenaga Kerja Industri Bulu Mata Palsu Di PT. Sung Shim International Purbalingga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyandi Feriyandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : There are approximately 15,000 workers in several spurious eyelash industries in Purbalingga Regency. Since objects being observed are very fine and the tasks need high accuracy, good lighting is therefore highly required. Poor lighting can lead to visual and mental fatigue, stiffness around the eyes, eye damage and the increasing of work accidents. Sufficient intensity and good management of lighting will result a comfort environment in accordance  to achieve a safe  work environment. Method : This research was conducted as  observational study with a cross sectional approach  for 45 samples of workers. Sampling was carried out by using of systematic random sampling. Data of light intensity and reflectance were collected by measurement of light using Lux Meter and assessment of visual fatigue by using Retention Timer. Other data were collected by interviewing workers with age limitation up to 33 years old. Chi Square Test was used to analyze the data of light intensity and reflectance, work years, age, work period, distance of light to object, distance of eyes to object, relative humidity and temperature, and the correlation with the rise of visual fatigue. Result : Light intensity in the knitting section was between 301.5 – 576.7 lux with reflectance of 43.1%-89.6%. Thirty wokers (66.7% suffered from mild visual fatigue and fifteen wokers, suffered (33.3% from moderate visual fatigue. Light intensity had  an influence and significant relationship  to the occurring of visual fatigue among workers in the industry of spurious eyelash of  PT. Sung Shim International  (p < 0,05 with  Odd ratio = 10.246 (95% CI : 1.147 - 91.498.  Probability of light intensity factor to cause visual fatigue measured by a regression logistic model  was  82.9% . It was caused by  poor lighting (light intensities were measured  below 500 lux while 17.1%  was caused by  other factors. Conclusion : Most of the spurious eyelash

  11. Practical applications of the new ICRP recommendation to external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1992-01-01

    Focussing on external dosimetry for occupational exposure the consequences of the new quantities equivalent dose (radiation weighting factor), effective dose (tissue weighting factor) and the ICRU operational quantities for individual and area dosimetry are discussed. Despite some arguments against the new quantities they should be introduced as rapidly as possible to keep international uniformity in radiation protection monitoring. It is shown that they provide a conservative estimate of the effective dose for photons and neutrons. In photon dosimetry only minor changes of the conversion factors relating operational quantities to effective dose is observed. In neutron dosimetry the conversion factors change by a factor of up to 2. It is pointed out that there is a urgent need to calculate standardized conversion factors for field quantities -operational quantities- organ and effective dose in a joint effort of ICRP and ICRU. This includes standardization of calibration methods for individual dosimetry using suitable phantoms instead of the sphere. (author)

  12. Role of secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sohaila; Ali, Noriah Mohd.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation dosimetry program is an important element of operational radiation protection. Dosimetry data enable workers and radiation protection professionals to evaluate and control work practices to eliminate unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of the data produced however depends on its quality and traceability. The emphasis of the global dosimetry program is focused through the IAEA/WHO network of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), which aims for the determination of SI quantities through proper traceable calibration of radiation protection equipment. The responsibility of SSDL-NUCLEAR MALAYSIA to guarantee a reliable dosimetry service, which is traceable to international standards, is elucidated. It acts as the basis for harmonized occupational radiation monitoring in Malaysia.

  13. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  14. A study of internal dosimetry of Am-241 and Sr-90 by dismantling of a nuclear installation; Eine Fallstudie zur internen Dosimetrie von Am-241 und Sr-90 bei Rueckbau einer kerntechnischen Anlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, M.; Hill, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    During dismantling operation in former nuclear facility routine incorporation monitoring had been part of the safety measures. For an occupational radiation worker positive measurements results for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were obtained after the end of the working period. Follow up monitoring had been performed assessing urine and faeces samples for {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr as well as in-vivo measurements for {sup 137}Cs. Ingestion could be proven as incorporation path. The internal dose assessment according to GMBl 2007{sup [1]} finally yielded internal dose at 13 μSv.

  15. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  16. "Operations & innovation management. Alcuni casi di successo"

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gallmann; V. Veronesi; S. Zamboni

    2007-01-01

    La Unit Produzione e Tecnologia della SDA Bocconi svolge dal 1998 il progetto International Best Factory Award. Il successo dell’iniziativa ha indotto a estendere il campo di indagine al processo di innovazione: nel 2006 sono state lanciate due nuove iniziative di benchmarking, il Best Innovation Award e il Best Service Award.

  17. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Nuclear Decay Data for the International Reactor Dosimetry Library for Fission and Fusion (IRDFF: Updated Evaluations of the Half-Lives and Gamma Ray Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechev Valery P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Updated evaluations of the half-lives and prominent gamma ray intensities have been presented for 20 radionuclides – dosimetry reaction residuals. The new values of these decay characteristics recommended for the IRDFF library were obtained using the approaches and methodology adopted by the working group of the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP cooperation. The experimental data published up to 2014 were taken into account in updated evaluations. The list of radionuclides includes 3H, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe, 57Co, 60Co, 57Ni, 64Cu, 88Y, 132Te, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 182Ta, 198Au.

  19. JENDL Dosimetry File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Iwasaki, Shin; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Tsuneo.

    1992-03-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d, n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form. (author) 76 refs

  20. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  1. JENDL Dosimetry File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujior; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1992-03-15

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form.

  2. Retrospective dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.V.; Bakhanova, E.V.; Sholom, S.V.; Pasalskaya, L.F.; Bouville, A.; Krjuchkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    sets and, clearly, may lead to conclusion regarding the adequacy of the data set in general, not on individual basis. Another possibility to verify existing dose records is application of reliable retrospective dosimetric techniques, which may be used as a reference. Dosimetric screening of the study cohort requires a tool, which should meet two basic requirements: to be cheap and practical, and to be applicable to all subjects (desirably even post mortem). Till recent time such tool was missing and none of the known methods of retrospective dosimetry matched these criteria. Therefore in the novel method of Soft Expert Assessment Dosimetry (SEAD) was developed by the International Dosimetric Group operating under auspices of Ukraine-USA-France and CEC-Russia-Byelarus collaboration. This method is based on the analysis of information acquired from interviewing of liquidators and exploits regularities of dose distributions. The main advantage of this method is applicability to all subjects making it good for the screening of the cohort. Case-control study requires closer consideration of fewer subjects and in this regard high precision techniques (like EPR) make use. High cost of analyses is acceptable in this case. Practical implementation of this approach is illustrated by some on-going studies. Pros and contras of selected methods, as well as implementation considerations will be discussed as well. (author)

  3. Pengaruh Sistem Informasi Akuntansi terhadap Keefektifan Pengendalian Internal pada Bank-Bank umum yang terdaftar di BEI

    OpenAIRE

    Nurafni

    2013-01-01

    “THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM ON EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL CONTROL IN COMMERCIAL BANKS LISTED IN BEI” The purpose of the present study is to identify the impact of accounting information systems of the effectiveness of internal controls on commercial banks listed on the Stock Exchange through the analysis of management oversight and internal controls. To collect data, used for distributing questionnaires to banking staff who work on a sample of banks in this study. Out of 39...

  4. The Eleventh International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Workshop Report: Ponte di Legno, Italy, 6-7 May 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, A; Baruchel, A; Hunger, S

    2009-01-01

    An international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)working group was formed during the 27th annual meeting of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology in 1995. Since then, 10 workshops have been held to address many issues that help advance treatment outcome of childhood ALL but ...

  5. Techniques for high dose dosimetry in industry, agriculture and medicine. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In radiation processing, it is important that the irradiated products are reliable and safe. For processes that impact directly on public health, dosimetry provides a formal means of regulation. For other applications, measurements are indispensable for process control to improve quality and the measurements have to be standardized. Thus, dosimetry is an essential part of quality standards for radiation processes. In the developing world, establishment of such quality standards is only in the embryonic stage, and the IAEA should and does play a role in the development and implementation of these standards. The IAEA initiated a programme of high dose dosimetry in 1977 to accomplish dose standardization on an industrial scale, to promote dosimetry as a quality control measure in radiation processing, and to help develop new dosimetry techniques. Since dosimetry has such a key role in these processes, the IAEA organized this international symposium to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of up-to-date developments in this field. Since the International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing held in 1990 the field of dosimetry has deepened and broadened. There is a definite shift towards quality assurance, which calls for dependable dosimetry systems with well established traceability to national or international standards. Also, many new applications of radiation have been developed and for these new and innovative dosimetry methods are needed. This symposium has provided a forum for the discussion of many of these developments and consideration of the outstanding issues in these vital areas Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Techniques for high dose dosimetry in industry, agriculture and medicine. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    In radiation processing, it is important that the irradiated products are reliable and safe. For processes that impact directly on public health, dosimetry provides a formal means of regulation. For other applications, measurements are indispensable for process control to improve quality and the measurements have to be standardized. Thus, dosimetry is an essential part of quality standards for radiation processes. In the developing world, establishment of such quality standards is only in the embryonic stage, and the IAEA should and does play a role in the development and implementation of these standards. The IAEA initiated a programme of high dose dosimetry in 1977 to accomplish dose standardization on an industrial scale, to promote dosimetry as a quality control measure in radiation processing, and to help develop new dosimetry techniques. Since dosimetry has such a key role in these processes, the IAEA organized this international symposium to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of up-to-date developments in this field. Since the International Symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing held in 1990 the field of dosimetry has deepened and broadened. There is a definite shift towards quality assurance, which calls for dependable dosimetry systems with well established traceability to national or international standards. Also, many new applications of radiation have been developed and for these new and innovative dosimetry methods are needed. This symposium has provided a forum for the discussion of many of these developments and consideration of the outstanding issues in these vital areas

  7. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055; Intercomparacao nacional de medicao in vivo de Iodo-131 na tireoide - Projeto TC IAEA BRA 9055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, J.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramos, M.A.P.; Sa, M.S. [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.V.; Oliveira, C.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, F.F.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lacerda, I.V.B. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fajgelj, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  8. Implementation of high-dose chemical dosimetry for industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo Cezar Sant'Anna da

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of methodology for high dose measurements using chemical dosimeters in liquid phase, traceable to the international metrology system, and make available in the country, the standard of high-dose to industrial irradiation facilities and research irradiators, trough the quality program with comparative measurements and direct use of the standard dosimeters in routine. The use of these low cost dosimetry systems in industrial irradiation facilities, assists to the certification requirements and it can reduce the costs with dosimetry for approximately 20% of the total dosimetry costs, using these systems in routine measurements and validation process, largely substituting the imported PMMA dosimeters, among others. (author)

  9. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    del Dlgs 241 del 26/5/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000). Il decreto recepisce in legge le indicazioni della Direttiva Europea EURATOM 96/29 Basic standards for the protection of health of workers and the general public against dangers arising from ionizing radiation sul tema della radioprotezione dei lavoratori e della popolazione. Le novita' introdotte dal decreto sono varie, fra le altre, la indicazione delle grandezze operazionali per la dosimetria esterna personale e ambientale, rispettivamente H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d), definite dall'ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements) come grandezze di riferimento, richiede l'aggiornamento dei metodi di misura e di calibrazione dei dosimetri personali e degli strumenti di monitoraggio. Il presente rapporto tecnico raccoglie le relazioni presentate alla giornata di studio, dedicate alla definizione dell'equivalente di dose personale, dei coefficienti di conversione ottenuti tramite simulazioni di calcolo Monte Carlo pubblicati dalle commission ICRU e ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), discutere le nuove procedure di calibrazione e le conseguenze operative nel monitoraggio di routine del personale radioesposto. Infine, nel capitolo finale, sono brevemente elencate le risposte a tipiche Frequently asked questions (FAQ) sul tema della dosimetria personale operativa in termini di H{sub p}(d).

  10. Quality audit service of the IAEA for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency includes assistance to Member States to establish nuclear technologies safely and effectively. In pursuit of this, a quality audit service for dosimetry relevant to radiation processing was initiated as a key element of the High-Dose Standardization Programme of the IAEA. The standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing provides a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and their unrestricted international trade. In recent times, the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory has placed concentrated effort towards establishing a quality assurance programme based on the ISO 9000 series documents. The need for reliable and accurate dosimetry for radiation processing is increasing in Member States and we can envisage a definite role for the SSDLs in such a programme. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  11. ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry application to Chernobyl case: individual retrospective dosimetry of the liquidators and wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, A.; Baryakchtar, V.G.; Baran, N.

    1996-01-01

    ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry technique was used for individual retrospective dosimetry of the servicemen who had worked in 1986-1987 at the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 18 investigated cases, the values varied from 0,10 (sensitivity limit) to 1,75 Gy. The same technique was used for individual dosimetry of wild animals boars, red deers, elks) hunted at contaminated 30-km area around the Chernobyl Power Plant. Measured values varied from 0,20 to 5,0 Gy/year and were compared with calculated for external and internal irradiation

  12. PENGARUH EFEKTIFITAS FUNGSI AUDIT INTERNAL TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN BUMN DIMODERASI OLEH PENGARUH POLITIK ( Studi Empiris di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theobaldus M Bimantara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the relationship between internal audit practice and financial performance of BUMN with consideration to contextual effect of political condition as mediating variable between internal audit practice and financial performance of BUMN In Indonesia. The research model analyzed by using Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA. The results showed that no significant correlation in the effectiveness of the internal audit function on the financial performance BUMN in Indonesia. And then, there is no moderating effect of political context on the effectiveness of the internal audit function influence on the financial performance BUMN in Indonesia. However, the findings of this study used data that might be too little consequence the number of BUMN that is not enough. No evidence of the moderating effects in this study define that political context is not a moderating variable.

  13. Characterization and evaluation studies on some JAERI dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Sunaga, H.; Tachibana, H.; Takizawa, H.; Tanaka, R.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization and evaluation studies were carried out on some JAERI dosimetry systems, mainly alanine-ESR, in terms of the influence on the dose response of parameters such as orientation at ESR analysis, and the temperature during irradiation and analysis. Feasibility study for application of these dosimetry systems to electrons with energies lower than 4 MeV and bremsstrahlung (X rays) was also performed parallel to their reliability check through international dose intercomparison. (author)

  14. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  15. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  16. Lezioni di analisi matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Sbrana, Francesco

    1951-01-01

    Calcolo integrale delle funzioni di una variabile ; serie di funzioni di una variabile reale o complessa ; proprietà notevoli delle curve piane e sghembe ; ancora sulla intregazione delle funzioni di una variabile ; derivate e differenziali delle funzioni di più variabili ; integrali curvilinei, e di campo ; equazioni differenziali ordinarie ; cenni sulle equazioni alle derivate parziali ; cenni sulle serie di funzioni ortogonali.

  17. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  18. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  19. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  20. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Konsumen Dalam Memutuskan Untuk Menginap Di Green Hotel Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Loppies, Alfredo Karsten; Nugroho, Steven Adi; Jokom, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi konsumen dalam memutuskan untuk menginap di green hotel di Surabaya. Populasi adalah seluruh konsumen yang pernah menginap di hotel yang tergolong green hotel di Surabaya minimal sekali dalam kurun waktu 6 bulan terakhir dengan sampel penelitian berjumlah 168 responden. Teknik analisa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisa faktor untuk mereduksi sejumlah faktor internal dan eksternal yang mempengaruhi per...

  1. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in a museum in an urban area; Caratterizzazione del particolato aerosospeso all'interno di un museo situato in area urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In February 2001 the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of ENEA Institute for Radioprotection carried out a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in a museum, in the urban area of Bologna, in the frame of GIANO project of ENEA. The aerosol mass size distribution was measured and a high mass concentration of aerosol, 39.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, with an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 {mu}m was found. A comparison with the composition of the outdoor aerosol was made as well. In an urban area fine particles are generally generated by vehicles exhaust (particularly diesel-powered ones) and are constituted essentially of carbon black. Because of their surface adsorption properties these carbon black particles typically contain varying quantities of substances. Deposition of fine particles on the surfaces of works of art can lead to visual degradation and further damages due to chemical reactions with the adsorbed compounds. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione Giovanile (GIANO) dell'ENEA, il laboratorio di dosimetria interna dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA, che ha competenze nella caratterizzazione fisica dell'aerosol, ha effettuato una campagna preliminare di misura del particolato aerosospeso presente all'interno di un museo nell'area urbana della citta' di Bologna. I dati dei campionamenti hanno rilevato la presenza di un'alta concentrazione in massa, 44.7 {mu}/m{sup 3}, di particolato aerosospeso inferiore a 10.5 {mu}m, composta per circa il 90%, 39.5% {mu}/m{sup 3}, da particelle con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 0.5 {mu}m. La provenienza dalle emissioni dei motori a combustibili fossili, del particolato con queste dimensioni, ha consentito il confronto con i dati relativi alle misure di concentrazione di particolato aerosospeso effettuate presso un incrocio ad alta intensita' di traffico della citta'. Dalle

  2. PENERAPAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERN UNTUK MENGANTISIPASI PRAKTEK-PRAKTEK YANG TIDAK SEHAT DALAM TATA KELOLA KEUANGAN KOPERASI DI KABUPATEN GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. N. Wiratmaja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social function inherent in the cooperative as a business entities and weak internal control is the trigger high levels of fraud in the cooperatives. Fraud carried out by unscrupulous managers is the main cause of the high level of bankruptcies in the cooperative. As the concern over the condition academic community of Udayana University through community service agency LPM organizes a lecture to introduce internal control for cooperation in Gianyar Regency. Lecturing was carried out on Saturday 27 September 2009 in Tampaksiring involving 56 participants from 19 cooperations throughout the Gianyar Regency. The evaluation result showed that the response of participants was positive and hoped that similar activities can be conducted on an ongoing basis. The main topics proposed by participants to the sustainability of the program is, training on the preparation of financial statements, training of computerized transaction processing, entrepreneurship and taxation.

  3. PENGARUH FREKUENSI AUDIT ATAS LAPORAN KEUANGAN HISTORIS TERHADAP KEANDALAN STRUKTUR PENGENDALIAN INTERN PADA PERUSAHAAN DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT YADNYANA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to reveal the effect of the auditing frequency tothe historical financial statement on the capability of internal control structure ofbusiness enterprises in Denpasar. This research is also carried out to gain theempirical evidence of the effect of auditing frequency to the historical financialstatement on the capability of internal control structure without paying attentionto other variables. A series of statistical tests have been done by using singleregression analysis, Product Moment Pearson correlation analysis, and FAnova.The result shows that the effect of auditing frequency to the historicalfinancial statement has a significant influence on the capability of internal controlstructure. Furthermore, a test to an independent variable (X is performed to findout whether an independent variable (X could explain the changing variation todependent variable (Y. This test results R2 = 0,508, which means that theindependent variable (X could explain the changing variation in the independentvariable (Y to the extent of 50,8%. The rest of it, which is 49,2% could beexplained by other factors excluded in this model.

  4. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings

  5. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  6. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  7. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  8. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  9. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  10. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  11. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  12. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  13. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  14. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  15. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  16. The physics of small megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2018-02-01

    The increased interest during recent years in the use of small megavoltage photon beams in advanced radiotherapy techniques has led to the development of dosimetry recommendations by different national and international organizations. Their requirement of data suitable for the different clinical options available, regarding treatment units and dosimetry equipment, has generated a considerable amount of research by the scientific community during the last decade. The multiple publications in the field have led not only to the availability of new invaluable data, but have also contributed substantially to an improved understanding of the physics of their dosimetry. This work provides an overview of the most important aspects that govern the physics of small megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Need of Reactor Dosimetry Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Krassimira

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear safety requirements and philosophy have changed by the development of new nuclear systems and this imposes special research and development activity. Reactor dosimetry which is applied for determination of neutron field parameters and neutron flux responses in different regions of the reactor system plays an important role in determining of radiation exposure on reactor system elements as reactor vessel, internals, shielding; dose determination for material damage study; for conditioning of irradiation; dose determination for medicine and industry application; induced activity determination for decommissioning purposes. The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. (author)

  18. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with 90Y-DOTATOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G.; Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G.; Stabin, M.G.; Orsi, F.O.; Jermann, E.; Robertson, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with 90 Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 μg), labelled with 150-185 MBq of 111 In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ μmol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for 111 In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9±0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%±11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2±1.8 h in spleen, 1.7±1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4±1.9 h in liver, 1.5±0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4±5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for 90 Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6±6.3 (spleen), 3.3±2.2 (kidneys), 0.7±0.6 (liver), 2.2±0.3 (bladder), 0.03±0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of 90 Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation doses to the spleen and kidneys. Tumour doses were high

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G. [Department of Health Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti, 435, I-20141-Milan (Italy); Stabin, M.G. [Nuclear Energy Department, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Orsi, F.O. [Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Jermann, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, University of Basel (Switzerland); Robertson, C. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 {mu}g), labelled with 150-185 MBq of {sup 111}In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ {mu}mol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for {sup 111}In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9{+-}0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%{+-}11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2{+-}1.8 h in spleen, 1.7{+-}1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4{+-}1.9 h in liver, 1.5{+-}0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4{+-}5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6{+-}6.3 (spleen), 3.3{+-}2.2 (kidneys), 0.7{+-}0.6 (liver), 2.2{+-}0.3 (bladder), 0.03{+-}0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with [sup 111]In-DOTA-Tyr[sup 3]-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G. (Department of Health Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)); Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti, 435, I-20141-Milan (Italy)); Stabin, M.G. (Nuclear Energy Department, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)); Orsi, F.O. (Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)); Jermann, E. (Nuclear Medicine Department, University of Basel (Switzerland)); Robertson, C. (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy))

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe[sup 1]-Tyr[sup 3]-octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 [mu]g), labelled with 150-185 MBq of [sup 111]In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ [mu]mol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for [sup 111]In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9[+-]0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%[+-]11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2[+-]1.8 h in spleen, 1.7[+-]1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4[+-]1.9 h in liver, 1.5[+-]0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4[+-]5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6[+-]6.3 (spleen), 3.3[+-]2.2 (kidneys), 0.7[+-]0.6 (liver), 2.2[+-]0.3 (bladder), 0.03[+-]0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation

  1. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  2. Copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone - ({sup 64}Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl - internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Josianne L.; Silva, Paulo R.O.; Santos, Raquel G.; Ferreira, Andrea V., E-mail: jlr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. Due to the excellent properties of {sup 64}Cu, the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (({sup 64}Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl) was developed for tumor detection by positron emission tomography. The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN. At the present work, ({sup 64}Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for ({sup 64}Cu)(H2Ac4oT)Cl. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 64}Cu in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  3. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  4. Revue of some dosimetry and dose assessment European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the 5. Framework Programme of the European Commission several project dealing with dosimetry and dose assessment for internal and external exposure have been supported. A revue of the results of some of them is presented in this paper. The EURADOS network which involved 50 dosimetry institutes in EUROPE has coordinated the project DOSIMETRY NETWORK: the main results achieved within this action are the following: - The release on the World Wide Web of the EURADOS Database of Dosimetry Research Facilities; - The realisation of the report 'Harmonization of Individual Monitoring (IM) in Europe'; - The continuation of the intercomparisons programme of environmental radiation monitoring systems; - The realisation of the report Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The EVIDOS project aimed at evaluating state of the art dosimetry techniques in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry with complex mixed neutron-photon radiation fields. This paper summarises the main findings from a practical point of view. Conclusions and recommendations will be given concerning characterisation of radiation fields, methods to derive radiation protection quantities and dosimeters results. The IDEA project aimed to improve the assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of advanced in-vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. The primary goal was to categorize those new developments regarding their potential and eligibility for the routine monitoring community. The costs of monitoring for internal exposures in the workplace are usually significantly greater than the equivalent costs for external exposures. There is therefore a need to ensure that resources are employed with maximum effectiveness. The EC-funded OMINEX (Optimisation of Monitoring for Internal Exposure) project has developed methods for optimising the design and implementation of

  5. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  6. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  7. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-03-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  8. PENGARUH VARIABEL INTERNAL DAN EKSTERNAL PERUSAHAAN TERHADAP RISIKO SISTEMATIS SAHAM PADA KONDISI PASAR YANG BERBEDA (STUDI PADA SAHAM-SAHAM ILQ 45 DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Setyowati Dwi Andayani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Fluktuasi harga saham di pasar modal sebagai cerminan ketidakpastian kondisi pasar secara langsung maupun tidak akan berpengaruh terhadap pertimbangan investor dalam mengambil keputusan investasi.  Investor yang rasional, pengambilan keputusan investasi didasarkan pada penilaian return maupun risiko yang terkandung dalam alternatif investasi.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kondisi internal dan eksternal perusahaan terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar yang berbeda. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder berupa data laporan keuangan harga saham.  Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh emiten yang masuk dalam perhitungan indeks LQ45 selama periode 1999 sampai 2003.  Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknk purposive sampling dan menghasilkan 15 emiten yang memenuhi syarat ditetapkan sebagai sampel. Dengan melakukan analisis regresi linier berganda terhadap variabel penelitian, diperoleh hasil bahwa secara simultan variabel-variabel internal dan eksternal perusahaan berpengaruh terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar bullish maupun bearish. Secara parsial, variabel TATO, DER, ROI, PER berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap risiko sistematis saham pada kondisi pasar bullish, dengan variabel TATO yang dominan mempengaruhi.  Sedangkan pada kondisi pasar bearish, variabel CR, TATO, DER, PER, PBV, dan AS berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap risiko sistematis saham, dengan variabel AS yang dominan mempengaruhi.   Kata kunci: risiko sistematis, pasar bullish, pasar bearish     ABSTRACT   Fluctuation of stock price in the capital market as an indicator of uncertainty market, it can influence any investment decision of investors. Any rational investors, their investment decisions  are based on return valuation and risk assessment in any investment alternatives.  This research aimed to analyze effects of internal and external variables on the systematic risk of stock at different condition

  9. Dosimetry applications in GATE Monte Carlo toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis

    2017-09-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community. In RT applications, during treatment planning, it is essential to accurately assess the deposited energy and the absorbed dose per tissue/organ of interest, as well as the local statistical uncertainty. Several types of realistic dosimetric applications are described including: molecular imaging, radio-immunotherapy, radiotherapy and brachytherapy. GATE has been efficiently used in several applications, such as Dose Point Kernels, S-values, Brachytherapy parameters, and has been compared against various MC codes which are considered as standard tools for decades. Furthermore, the presented studies show reliable modeling of particle beams when comparing experimental with simulated data. Examples of different dosimetric protocols are reported for individualized dosimetry and simulations combining imaging and therapy dose monitoring, with the use of modern computational phantoms. Personalization of medical protocols can be achieved by combining GATE MC simulations with anthropomorphic computational models and clinical anatomical data. This is a review study, covering several dosimetric applications of GATE, and the different tools used for modeling realistic clinical acquisitions with accurate dose assessment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical dosimetry in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.; Jovanovska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Diagnostic and interventional procedures involving x-rays are the most significant contributor to total population dose form man made sources of ionizing radiation. Purpose and aim: X-ray imaging generally covers a diverse range of examination types, many of which are increasing in frequency and technical complexity. Materials and methods: The European Directives 96/29 and 97/43 EURATOM stress the importance of accurate dosimetry and require calibration of all measuring equipment related to application of ionizing radiation in medicine. Results: The paper gives and overview of current system of dosimetry of ionizing radiations that is relevant for metrology and clinical applications. It also reflects recently achieved international harmonization in the field promoted by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Discussion: Objectives of clinical dose measurements in diagnostic and interventional radiology are multiple, as assessment of equipment performance, or assessment of risk emerging from use of ionizing radiation Conclusion: Therefore, from the clinical point of view, the requirements for dosimeters and procedures to assess dose to standard dosimetry phantoms and patients in clinical diverse modalities, as computed tomography are presented

  11. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  12. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  13. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  14. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  15. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  16. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  18. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  19. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  20. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  1. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  2. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  4. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  5. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  6. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  7. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  8. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a three-equation three-unknown dual-energy quantitative CT (DEQCT) technique for determining region specific variations in bone spongiosa composition for improved red marrow dose estimation in radionuclide therapy. Methods: The DEQCT method was applied to 80/140 kVp images of patient-simulating lumbar sectional body phantoms of three sizes (small, medium, and large). External calibration rods of bone, red marrow, and fat-simulating materials were placed beneath the body phantoms. Similar internal calibration inserts were placed at vertebral locations within the body phantoms. Six test inserts of known volume fractions of bone, fat, and red marrow were also scanned. External-to-internal calibration correction factors were derived. The effects of body phantom size, radiation dose, spongiosa region segmentation granularity [single (∼17 × 17 mm) region of interest (ROI), 2 × 2, and 3 × 3 segmentation of that single ROI], and calibration method on the accuracy of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow (cellularity) and trabecular bone were evaluated. Results: For standard low dose DEQCT x-ray technique factors and the internal calibration method, the RMS errors of the estimated volume fractions of red marrow of the test inserts were 1.2–1.3 times greater in the medium body than in the small body phantom and 1.3–1.5 times greater in the large body than in the small body phantom. RMS errors of the calculated volume fractions of red marrow within 2 × 2 segmented subregions of the ROIs were 1.6–1.9 times greater than for no segmentation, and RMS errors for 3 × 3 segmented subregions were 2.3–2.7 times greater than those for no segmentation. Increasing the dose by a factor of 2 reduced the RMS errors of all constituent volume fractions by an average factor of 1.40 ± 0.29 for all segmentation schemes and body phantom sizes; increasing the dose by a factor of 4 reduced those RMS errors by an average factor of 1.71 ± 0.25. Results

  9. Proceedings of the recent developments in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Palani Selvan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst 'Dosimetry' in its original sense deals with methods for a quantitative determination of energy deposited in a given medium by directly or indirectly ionizing radiations, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. Dosimetry is used extensively for radiation protection and is routinely applied to ensure radiological safety of occupational radiation workers. Internal dosimetry due to the ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials relies on a variety of physiological or imaging techniques. External dosimetry, due to irradiation from an external source is based on measurements with a dosimeter, or inferred from other radiological protection instruments. Radiation dosimetry is one of the important research areas of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). This research work is centered on the facilities such as nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants, high energy accelerators (research/industry/medical), radiation standards, food processing, radiation technology development, etc. In each of these facilities, radiation field environment is different and the associated dosimetry concepts are different. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  11. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  12. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  13. Dosimetry in life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-06-15

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  14. MENIMBANG KONVENSI INTERNASIONAL NO. 11806 UNTUK PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA BUDAYA DI INDONESIA Considering International Convention No. 11806 for Cultural Resource Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiyanto Sarjiyanto

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Tulisan ini didasarkan pada rasa keprihatinan akan berlangsungnya berbagai kasus hilangnya benda cagar budaya baik yang ada di situs maupun yang tersimpan di museum yang ada di Indonesia. Banyak pihak yang meyakini bahwa benda-benda warisan leluhur tersebut banyak berpindah tangan ke wilayah luar Indonesia baik di Asia maupun Eropa. Undang-undang tentang perlindungan cagar budaya yang ada sepertinya tidak mampu mencegah atau menangani bahkan mengembalikan benda-benda yang sudah dibawa ke luar negeri, yang berujung pada penyalahan atas minimnya anggaran, peralatan, sumber daya manusia dan sebagainya. Oleh karena itu, perlu dikaji aspek perundangan lain seperti konvensi internasional, yang mungkin dapat diadopsi pasal-pasalnya untuk memperkuat perundangan yang ada di Indonesia. Perlu juga diperhatikan perundangan lain yang terkait termasuk mendorong masuknya pasal tentang pelanggaran BCB dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana yang pernah diwacanakan untuk diamandemen. Penjabaran secara lebih detail dari pasal yang ada dalam Undang-Undang Tentang Cagar Budaya melalui peraturan di tingkat bawahnya menyesuaikan dengan situasi terkini juga perlu diselesaikan segera.   Kata Kunci: konvensi internasional, cagar budaya, produk perundang-undangan, situasi nasional dan internasional

  15. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M.; Fadel, A.; Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C.

    2006-01-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  16. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  17. 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Jesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Danilova, I.O.; Wallstroem, E.; Alpsten, M.; Thornberg, C.; Mattsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Six western districts of the Bryansk region, Russia, were heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Annually, between 1991 and 1994, inhabitants of four settlements were studied. Whole-body 134+137 Cs contents were measured in about 500 inhabitants. No correlation between Cs whole-body content and Cs soil contamination was found; Cs accumulation in a body depends greatly on natural factors such as type of soil, on social factors such as food habits including consumption of forest products, and on countermeasures to reduce internal exposure. During 1991-1994 average whole-body content of 134+137 Cs in adult inhabitants was about 3-60 kBq, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.1-2.4 mSv.y -1 . Cs whole-body content increases equally for girls and boys up to adult age. Cs content in adults does not depend significantly on age and is usually 1.2-2 times higher in men than in women. The average annual internal effective dose varies with age significantly less than 134+137 Cs whole-body content. In children (0-5 years) the mean absorbed dose is usually 1.2-1.5 times less than in adults. (author)

  18. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  19. Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology for Paediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Concern about the radiation dose to children from diagnostic radiology examinations has recently been popularly expressed, particularly as related to computed tomography (CT) procedures. This involves the observation that children can receive doses far in excess of those delivered to adults, in part due to the digital nature of the image receptors that may give no warning to the operator of the dose to the patient. Concern for CT examinations should be extended to the broad range of paediatric diagnostic radiological procedures responsible for radiation doses in children, especially as factors, such as increased radiosensitivity and the longer life expectancy of children, increase the associated radiation risk. In all cases, owing to the added paediatric radiological examination factor of patient size and its associated impact on equipment selection, clinical examination protocol and dosimetric audit, the determination of paediatric dose requires a distinct approach from adult dosimetry associated with diagnostic radiological examinations. In response to this, there is a need to inform health professionals about standardized methodologies used to determine paediatric dose for all major modalities such as general radiography, fluoroscopy and CT. Methodologies for standardizing the conduct of dose audits and their use for the derivation and application of diagnostic reference levels for patient populations, that vary in size, are also required. In addition, a review is needed of the current knowledge on risks specific to non-adults from radiation, and also an analysis of the management of factors contributing to dose from paediatric radiological examinations. In 2007, the IAEA published a code of practice, Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice, as Technical Reports Series No. 457 (TRS 457). TRS 457 recommends procedures for dosimetric measurement and calibration for the attainment of standardized dosimetry, and addresses requirements

  20. Status of computed tomography dosimetry for wide cone beam scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    International standardization in dosimetry is essential for the successful exploitation of radiation technology. To provide such standardization in diagnostic radiology, the IAEA published Code of Practice entitled Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 457; 2007), which recommends procedures for calibration and dosimetric measurement both in standards dosimetry laboratories, especially Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), and in clinical centres for radiology, as found in most hospitals. These standards address the main dosimetric methodologies needed in clinical diagnostic radiology, with the calibration of associated dosimetric equipment, including the measurement methodologies for computed tomography (CT). For some time now there has been a growing awareness that radiation dose originating from medical diagnostic procedures in radiology, is contributing an increasing proportion to the total population dose, with a large component coming from CT examinations. This is accompanied by rapid developments in CT technology, including the use of increasingly wide X ray scanning beams, which are presenting problems in dosimetry that currently cannot